July 9, 2008 Update 

 

Species records are currently in the process of being updated.

 

 

TOWNSHIP 14 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 

 

Cowboys line up for the early morning trials of the Slack Competition at the Tucson Rodeo.

William T. Kendall February 21, 2006

 

 

“To know the desert involves an acquaintance with all its aspects, and all its physical features,

as well as all of the animals and plants that have learned how to find in it a congenial place to live. The

most significant lesson that the desert dweller can learn from a familiarity with its plant and animal life is to

 regard himself not as an exile from some better place, but as a man at home in an environment to which his life can be adjusted without physical or intellectual loss.” Forest Shreve, The Cactus and

Its Home (Found in Discovering the Desert, by William G. McGinnies)

 

 

 

MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 

 

Janice E. Bowers, notes titled “Plants listed by J.J. Thornber from Zones I and II of the Desert Laboratory Domain”, June 21, 1989. J.E Bowers and R.M. Turner “A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill”, 1985 *16*

 

E. Lendell Cockrum, 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. This Inclusion is based on the general distribution maps and statements. *118 (distribution note, map - Figure Number and Page Number)*

 

Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator of the University of Arizona Herbarium *PDJ*

 

Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum *MBJ (observation date, if shown)*  

 

William T. Kendall *WTK (observation date, if shown)*

 

Kathryn Maus, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona, “Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River" 12 October 2001 *56* and 9 September 2002 Update *57*

 

Philip C. Rosen, “Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve”, 15 October 2001 *78*

 

J.J. Thornber, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station, 1909, Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain *89*

 

Arizona Daily Star *ADS (date of article)*

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*

 

Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85 (date of search for information on species)*

 

 

 

SPECIES DISTRIBUTION LISTINGS

 

 

Species Distribution Listings are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. Species Distribution Listings are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered works in progress. The source(s) used for the inclusion of the species in a listing is highlighted in green *00* in the footnotes. Due to the lack of first hand knowledge, in the listing of animals, unless otherwise noted in the footnotes, species may be included based on general distribution maps and/or statements and not on an actual sight record. I recommend that we consider a species as being “confirmed” to a township or general listing area only after we have at least three recorded sightings, cited in the footnotes, with no more than one of those records being based on general distribution mapping for the species. Note that the Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85* may have several collections recorded for a species within any given township or listing area, and that the date shown in parentheses is a date of the search of their records and not a date of recorded sighting.  Note also that many of the individual species collection records found in SEINet include additional associated species.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by division, class, family and genus within their kingdoms. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat, the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed and footnotes. An attempt is being made to identify the range in mature (flowering/fruiting) heights reported for the plants. The habitat description is provided in order to help you visualize the types of natural habitats the species is found in and ones in which it might be planted back into in a landscape or restoration project. The range in elevation has been rounded off to the nearest 100 feet up, for the higher elevation or down, for the lower elevation. Species reported from within 0 to 100 feet as their lower elevation limit have been recorded as occurring “from sea level”. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, may be noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native plants are recommended for use in landscape and restoration projects. Many native species require little, if any, irrigation once established. Ideally restoration should include those plants that were native to the property prior to clearing. In order to determine what plants were native to the property you might try to locate photographs of the property prior to clearing or look for natural areas and remnant populations and plants adjacent to where the restoration is to take place. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density.

 

The use of native plants in landscape and restoration projects encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty and unique identity and heritage.

 

These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Questions, concerns, corrections and comments, including the reporting of unrecorded species and information relating to historical distributions, may be sent to the following address: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 86091, Tucson, Arizona 85754-6091, or E-mail to:KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. These listings are not meant to take the place of on-site surveys for species. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings. Attempts are made to keep the information contained in the Species Distribution Listings as accurate as possible, but Kendall Environmental Surveys disclaims any implied warranty or representation about its accuracy, completeness, or appropriateness for any particular purposes. Users of the information found in the listings assume full responsibility for their use of the information and understand that Kendall Environmental Surveys is not responsible or liable for any claim, loss, or damage resulting from its use.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling these plants and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Footnotes for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may be shown in red (*00*). Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Introduction

 

Township Notes

 

Conservation Related Organizations and Nurseries

 

Listing of Plants

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

Class Filicopsida: The Ferns

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Coniferophyta: The Conifers

                                                                Class Pinopsida: The Conifers

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

Class Gnetopsida: The Gnetops

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Eukaryotic Algae, One-celled Animals and Slime Molds

 

Kingdom Protista: The Eukaryotic Algae, One-celled Animals and Slime Molds

Division Chlorophyta: The Green Algae

Division Xanthophyta: The Yellow-green Algae

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

                                                Subphylum Chelicerata: The Spiders and Their Allies

Class Arachnida: The Harvestmen, Mites, Pseudoscorpions, Scorpions,

Spiders and Ticks

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

                                Class Insecta: The Insects

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Amphibia: The Amphibians

Class Aves: The Birds

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

Class Osteichthyes: The Bony Fishes

Class Reptilia: The Reptiles

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP NOTES

 

 

LOCATION: This township is located in east-central Pima County in south-central Arizona. Portions of the City of Tucson and the City of South Tucson are located in this township. This township is bounded on the north by the alignment for Grant Road and Ironwood Hills Drive, on the south by the alignment for Irvington Road, on the east by the alignment of 1st Avenue and on the west by the alignment for Camino de Oeste. Parks with large natural areas include Greasewood Park, Sentinal Peak Park, portions of the Santa Cruz River Park and Tucson Mountain County Park.

 

Historic Neighborhoods: Historic Neighborhoods include “A” Mountain, Armory Park, Barrio Anita, Barrio Blue Moon, Barrio Hollywood, Barrio Santa Rosa, Barrio Viejo, Dunbar Spring, El Presidio, Jollyville, Kroger Lane, Menlo Park, Sin Nombre, Sovaco and West University.

 

Historic Ranching Activities: Named historic ranches include the Davidson Ranch. Additional activities include the Tucson Rodeo “La Fiesta de los Vaqueros” (The Celebration of the Cowboys) and the Tucson Rodeo Parade.

 

Historic Mining Activities: A tungsten processing mill was operated in this township during World War II *ADS (083006 A1)*

 

LANDMARKS: The foothills of the Tucson Mountains are located in the southwest half of the west half of the township. Named peaks include Sentinel Peak (A Mountain), Tumamoc Hill (Flat Top Mountain), Twin Hills, and Cat Mountain (eastern portion). Named passes include Robles Pass. Named springs include the Santa Cruz Springs (at the base of Sentineal Peak). Named washes and rivers include Arroyo Chico, Julian Wash, Santa Cruz River and the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River.

 

ELEVATION: Elevations range from approximately 2,300 feet at Grant Road and the Santa Cruz River to approximately 3,852 feet at Cat Mountain (1).

 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

SOILS: Soils have been described as being Thermic (hot) Arid and Semiarid Soils (soils with mean annual temperatures of 59 degrees to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees to 22 degrees Centigrade) and 10 to 16 inches (25 to 41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Pinaleno-Nickel-Palos Verdes Association (deep, arid, gravelly soils on deeply dissected uplands), Rillino-Latene-Cave Association (deep to very shallow, calcareous soils on uplands) and the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire -Cellar Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills) (3).

 

BIOTIC COMMUNITY: This township is located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Map Printed from TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township and Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS TOWNSHIP THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs (over 7 feet in height)

 

Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii - 50’ to 100’)

Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea - 5’ to 60’)

Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina - 2’ to 56’)

Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis laevigata var. reticulata - 20’ to 53’)

Arizona Black Walnut (Juglans major - 30’ to 50’)

Western Black Willow (Salix gooddingii - 20’ to 50’)

Western Soapberry (Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii - 7’ to 50’)

Velvet Ash (Fraxinus velutina - 30’ to 40’)

Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida - 40” to 40’)

Desert Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis - 7’ to 36’)

Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota - 10’ to 33’)

Screwbean Mesquite (Prosopis pubescens - 7’ to 33’)

Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens - 5’ to 33’)

Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis - 10’ to 30’)

Soaptree Yucca (Yucca elata - 4’ to 30’)

Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla - 6’ to 26’)

Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii - 40” to 25’)

Desert Olive (Forestiera shrevei - 40” to 25’)

Desert Hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana - 3’ to 20’)

Common Cottonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis - 3’ to 20’)

Rosary Babybonnets (Coursetia glandulosa - 3’ to 20’)

Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta - 2’ to 18’)

Longleaf Joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca - 20” to 16½’)

Staghorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia versicolor - to 15’)

Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida - 3’ to 15’)

Seep Willow (Baccharis salicifolia - 32” to 15’)

Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi - 8” to 15’)

Kearney Snakewood (Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana - 40” to 13’)

Burrobrush (Hymenoclea monogyra - 3’ to 13’)

Southern Cattail (Typha domingensis - 3’ to 13’)

Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens - 3’ to 13’)

Hoary Indian Mallow (Abutilon incanum - 8” to 13’)

Pencil Cholla (Cylindropuntia arbuscula - 3’ to 12’)

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis - 2’ to 12’)

Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata - 20” to 12’)

Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni - 2’ to 11’)

Desert Broom (Baccharis sarothroides - 3’ to 10’)

Anderson Lycium (Lycium andersonii - 3’ to 10’)

Wright Lycium (Lycium andersonii var. wrightii - 3’ to 10’)

Torrey Lycium (Lycium torreyi - 3’ to 10’)

Arrowweed (Pluchea sericea - 3’ to 10’)

Fremont Lycium (Lycium fremontii - 2’ to 10’)

Arizona Desert-thorn (Lycium exsertum - 20” to 10’)

Cane Cholla (Cylindropuntia spinosior - 16” to 10’)

Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. mammillata -2’ to 9’)

Desert Honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi - 3’ to 8’)

Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens var. canescens - 3’ to 8’)

Narrow-leaf Saltbush (Atriplex canescens var. linearis - 3’ to 8’)

Berlandier Lycium (Lycium berlandieri - 3’ to 8’)

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Canyon Grape (Vitis arizonica)

Drummond Clematis (Clematis drummondii - 10’ to 40’)

Fringed Twinevine (Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. cynanchoides - 8’ to 40’)

Fingerleaf Gourd (Cucurbita digitata - 3’ to 40’)

Hartweg Twinevine (Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum - 20” to 40’)

Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Schott Yellowhood (Nissolia schottii)

Slender Janusia (Janusia gracilis - 18” to 10’)

Little Snapdragon Vine (Maurandella antirrhiniflora - 7’ to 8’)

Slimlobe Globeberry (Ibervillea tenuisecta - to several yards)

Redstar (Ipomoea coccinea - 3’ to 7’)

Tumamoc Globeberry (Tumamoca macdougalii - to 5’)

Watson Indian Root (Aristolochia watsoni)

 

 

Shrubs (2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Major Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major - 32” to 7’)

Canyon Ragweed (Ambrosia ambrosioides - 1’ to 7’)

California Brickellbush (Brickellia californica var. californica - 1’ to 7’)

Limberbush (Jatropha cardiophylla - 1’ to 7’)

Desert Rosemallow (Hibiscus coulteri - 3” to 7’)

Major Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia phaeacantha - 1’ to 7’)

Wright Beebrush (Aloysia wrightii - 3’ to 6½’)

Desert Saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa - 1’ to 6½ ’)

Allthorn (Koeberlinia spinosa var. spinosa - 3’ to 6’)

Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii - 20” to 6’)

White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa - 18” to 6’)

Desert Christmas Cactus (Cylindropuntia leptocaulis - 1’ to 6’)

Prairie Acacia (Acacia angustissima var. suffructescens - 2’ to 5’)

White Rantany (Krameria grayi - 1’ to 5’)

American Threefold (Trixis californica - 10” to 5’)

Fairyduster (Calliandra eriophylla - 4” to 5’)

Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea - 1’ to 4’)

Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia - 12” to 40”)

Range Ratany (Krameria erecta - 8” to 40”)

White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa - 7” to 40”)

Arizona Cockroach Plant (Haplophyton crooksii - 7” to 40”)

Burroweed (Isocoma tenuisecta - 6” to 40”)

Arizona Wrightwort (Carlowrightia arizonica - 4” to 40”)

 

 

Grasses

 

Common Reed (Phragmites australis - 40” to 20’)

Wright Sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii - 36” to 100”)

Spidergrass (Aristida ternipes var. ternipes - 16” to 64”)

California Brome (Bromus carinatus - 16” to 64”)

Cane Bluestem (Bothriochloa barbinodis - 24” to 60”)

Sourgrass (Digitaria insularis - 24” to 60”)

False Rhodes Grass (Trichloris crinita - 24” to 60”)

Spike Dropseed (Sporobolus contractus - 16” to 60”)

Alkali Sacaton (Sporobolus airoides - 14” to 60”)

Arizona Brome (Bromus arizonicus - 8” to 60”)

Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus - 8” to 60”)

Red Sprangletop (Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata - 4” to 60”)

Whiplash Pappusgrass (Pappophorum vaginatum - 16” to 52”)

Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula - 3” to 52”)

Beardless Wildrye (Leymus triticoides - 16” to 50”)

Spidergrass (Aristida ternipes var. gentilis - 16” to 48”)

California Brome (Bromus carinatus - 16” to 48”)

Arizona Cottontop (Digitaria californica - 12” to 48”)

Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta - 12” to 48”)

Sand Dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus - 12” to 48”)

Mesa Dropseed (Sporobolus flexuosus - 12” to 48”)

Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri - 10” to 44”)

Mucronate Sprangletop (Leptochloa panicea subsp. mucronata - 4” to 44”)

Cotta Grass (Cottea pappophoroides - 12” to 40”)

Poverty Threeawn (Aristida divaricata - 7” to 40”)

Blue Threeawn (Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi - 6” to 40”)

Parish Threeawn (Aristida purpurea var. parishii - 4” to 40”)

Knotgrass (Paspalum distichum - 2” to 40”)

Tobasa (Pleuraphis mutica - 12” to 36”)

Vine Mesquite Grass (Panicum obtusum - 8” to 32”)

Rothrock Grama (Bouteloua rothrockii - 10” to 30”)

Slender Grama (Bouteloua repens - 4” to 26”)

Fendler Threeawn (Aristida purpurea var. longiseta - 6” to 24”)

Desert Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata - 4” to 24”)

Slim Tridens (Tridens muticus var. muticus - 8” to 20”)

Squirreltail (Elymus elymoides subsp. elymoides - 6” to 20”)

Spike Pappusgrass (Enneapogon desvauxii - 4” to 20”)

False Prairie Oat (Trisetum interruptum - 4” to 20”)

Sixweeks Fescue (Vulpia octoflora var. hirtella - 3” to 20”)

Sixweeks Fescue (Vulpia octoflora var. octoflora - 3” to 20”)

Bigelow Bluegrass (Poa bigelovii - 2” to 20”)

Sixweeks Grama (Bouteloua barbata - ½” to 18”)

Curly Mesquite (Hilaria belangeri var. belangeri - 4” to 14”)

Curly Mesquite (Hilaria belangeri var. longifolia - 4” to 14”)

Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella - ½” to 6”)

 

 

Shrubs (under 2’), Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Hoary Indian Mallow (Abutilon incanum - 8” to 13’)

Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus - 1’ to 8’)

Shrubby Indian Mallow (Abutilon abutiloides - 16” to 6’)

Coulter Globemallow (Sphaeralcea coulteri - 6” to 5’)

Emory Globemallow (Sphaeralcea emoryi - 1’ to 5’)

Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii - 12” to 52”)

Fragrant Flatsedge (Cyperus odoratus - 2” to 52”)

Crested Pricklypoppy (Argemone polyanthemos - 3’ to 4’)

Parry Penstemon (Penstemon parryi - 2’ to 4’)

Bluestem Pricklepoppy (Argemone pleiacantha subsp. pleiacantha - 20” to 4’)

Parish Larkspur (Delphinium parishii var. parishii - 1’ to 4’)

Bladdermallow (Herissantia crispa - 8” to 4’)

Prairie Sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris - 6” to 4’)

Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra - 6” to 4’)

Yellow Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus - 2” to 44”)

Apricot Mallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. ambigua - 20” to 40”)

Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus - 10” to 40”)

Longflowered Tubetongue (Siphonoglossa longiflora - 8” to 40”)

Purplestem Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua - 4” to 40”)

Arizona Wrightwort (Carlowrightia arizonica - 2” to 40”)

Bluestem Pricklepoppy (Argemone pleiacantha subsp. pleiacantha - to 36”)

Prairie Flax (Linum lewisii var. lewisii - to 36”)

Texas Desertrue (Thamnosma texana - 12” to 36”?)

Covena (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum - 16” to 30”)

Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata - 6” to 30”)

Tall Mountain Larkspur (Delphinium scaposum - 6” to 30”)

Whitestem Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi - 4” to 30”)

Caliche Globemallow (Sphaeralcea laxa - 12” to 28”)

Parry False Prairie-clover (Marina parryi - to over 24”)

Flaxflowered Ipomopsis (Ipomopsis longiflora subsp. longiflora - to 24”)

Mariola (Parthenium incanum - to 24”)

Violet Ruellia (Ruellia nudiflora var. nudiflora - to 24”)

Dakota Mock Vervain (Glandularia bipinnatifida var. ciliata - 12” to 24”)

Goodding Mock Vervain (Glandularia gooddingii - 12” to 24”)

Desert Senna (Senna covesii - 12” to 24”)

Hoary Tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. incana - 6” to 24”)

Desert Chicory (Rafinesquia neomexicana - 6” to 24”)

Desert Mariposa Lily (Calochortus kennedyi - 4” to 24”)

Abert Buckwheat (Eriogonum abertianum - 4” to 24”)

Mexican Gold Poppy (Eschscholzia californica subsp. mexicana - 4” to 24”)

Chia (Salvia columbariae var. columbariae - 4” to 24”)

Golden Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta - 4” to 24”)

Mojave Lupine (Lupinus sparsiflorus - 8” to 20”)

Desert Windflower (Anemone tuberosa var. tuberosa - 4” to 20”)

Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa - 4” to 20”)

Bundle Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fasciculatus - 4” to 18”)

Tansyleaf Tansyaster (Machaeranthera tanacetifolia - 4” to 18”)

Spiny Cliffbrake (Pellaea truncata - 3” to 16½”)

Hairyseed Bahia (Bahia absinthifolia - to 16”)

Covena (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum - 10” to 16”)

Lacy Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida - 6” to 16”)

Common Owl’s Clover (Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta - 4” to 16”)

Beaded Lip Fern (Cheilanthes wootonii - 3” to 15 ½”)

Orange Flame Flower (Phemeranthus aurantiacus - 6” to 14”)

Star Cloakfern (Notholaena standleyi - 2” to 13”)

Yellow Spiny Daisy (Machaeranthera gracilis - to 12”)

Mesa Tansyaster (Machaeranthera tagetina)

White Tackstem (Calycoseris wrightii - 10” to 12”)

Arizona Poppy (Kallstroemia grandiflora - 8” to 12”)

Tufted Evening-primrose (Oenothera caespitosa - 8” to 12”)

Sand Bells (Nama hispidum - 7” to 12”)

Desert Unicorn-plant (Proboscidea althaeifolia - 7 to 12”)

Desert Evening Primroase (Camissonia chamaenerioides 6” to 12”)

Cochise Scaly Cloakfern (Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis - 3” to 12”)

Prairie Zinnia (Zinnia grandiflora - 3” to 12”)

Mohave Desertstar (Monoptilon bellioides - 1” to 12”)

Desert Holly (Acourtia nana - 4” to 10”)

Wright’s Lipfern (Cheilanthes wrightii - 1½” to 10”)

California Caltrop (Kallstroemia californica - to 8” / 36” in length)

Woolly Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens - 4” to 8”)

Arizona Blanketflower (Gaillardia arizonica - 4” to 8”)

Largeflower Onion (Allium macropetalum - 3” to 8”)

California Goldfields (Lasthenia californica subsp. californica - 3” to 8”)

Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii - 2” to 8”)

Miniature Woollystar (Eriastrum diffusum - 1½” to 8”)

Mexican Fireplant (Euphorbia heterophylla)

Pringle’s Lipfern (Cheilanthes pringlei - 1½” to 7”)

Scarlet Lupine (Lupinus concinnus subsp. concinnus - to 6”)

Arizona Foldwing (Dicliptera resupinata)

Spreading Fanpetals (Sida abutifolia)

Yellow Desert Evening-primrose (Oenothera primiveris subsp. primiveris - to 4”)

Texas Stork’s Bill (Erodium texanum - to 2”)

 

 

 

 

CONSERVATION RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND NURSERIES

 

 

 

Arizona Department of Agriculture

http://www.azda.gov/

 

The Arizona Department of Agriculture enforces the sections of the Arizona Revised Statutes commonly referred to as the “Arizona Native Plant Law”. The Native Plant Law requires, in part, that anyone who is clearing land notify the State of Arizona in advance of the clearing. Some land owners involved in the clearing of land allow for nurseries and people who are interested in salvaging plants to do so prior to the clearing. The Arizona Department of Agriculture posts these notifications in their county offices. You may also contact the Arizona Department of Agriculture and, for a fee, be put on a mailing list of people receiving copies of the Notices of Intent to Clear Land.

 

Contact Information: Arizona Department of Agriculture, 1688 West Adams Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85007; 602-542-4373.

 

 

 

Arizona Native Plant Society

http://aznps.org/

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

 

LISTING OF SOURCES FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND SEEDS

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society maintains a listing of Native Plant and Seed Sources at: http://www.aznps.org/sources.html

 

 

Contact Information: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

 

Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.

 

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact Information: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759; 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact Information: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713; 520-791-9309.

 

 

 

Native Seeds/SEARCH

http://www.nativeseeds.org

 

The Native Seeds/SEARCH is a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to preserve the crop seeds that connect the Native American cultures to their lands. The mission of the Native Seeds/SEARCH is to conserve, distribute and document the adapted and diverse varieties of agricultural seeds, their wild relatives and the role these seeds play in the cultures of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico.

 

Contact Information: Native Seeds/SEARCH, 526 North Fourth Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85705; 520-622-5561, toll free at 866-622-5561, FAX 520-622-5561; e-mail:  info@nativeseeds.org

 

 

 

Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact Information: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo del Norte, Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415; Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234; e-mail:  russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson

 

The goal of Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson is to provide experienced care for injured and orphaned wild birds and mammals so that they can be released back into the wild. For assistance with an injured bird or mammal, please call 520-743-0217, briefly explain the situation, being sure to repeat your name and phone number before ending the call.

 

Contact Information: Lewis and Janet Miller, 3690 Hills of Gold, Tucson, Arizona 85745; 520-743-0217.

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

 

 

 

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

 

 

 

CLASS FILICOPSIDA: The FERNS

 

 

Family Pteridaceae: The Maidenhair Fern Family

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. cochisensis (5): Cochise Scaly Cloakfern

SYNONYMY: Notholaena cochisensis L.N. Goodding, Notholaena sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) C.A. Weatherby. COMMON NAMES: Cloak Fern, Cochise’s Cloak Fern, Cochise Scaly Cloakfern, Helechillo (Hispanic), Jimmyfern, Narrow Cloakfern, Scaly Star Fern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 12 inches in length) (6), the fronds are olive green or green above and reddish-brown beneath with brown to reddish-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; on boulders; flats; draws; along streams; in bouldery steam beds; along and in washes; banks, and riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy and rocky soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,100 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph of species - Notholaena cochisensis), 46 (Notholaena sinuata (Lag.) Kaulf. var. cochisensis (Goodding) Weatherby), 51 (color photograph - Notholaena cochisensis), 63 (122007), 77, 80 (Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Apparently only the variety cochisensis is poisonous. The nature of the poison is unknown but it is excreted in the milk and is not destroyed by drying of the plant. Sheep are most susceptible, especially pregnant ewes, but goats and cattle may be poisoned. ... The danger is greatest from the middle of November through February when other forage is dry and the evergreen fern remains succulent and relatively palatable. ... Losses may be prevented by deferring infested ranges during the danger period or by feeding supplements.” See text for additional information.), 85 (122207), 89 (recorded as Notholaena sinuata (Sw.) Kaulf.), 122

 

Cheilanthes myriophylla (see footnote under Cheilanthes wootonii)

 

Cheilanthes pringlei G.E. Davenport: Pringle’s Lipfern

SYNONYMY: Cheilanthes sonorensis L.N. Goodding. COMMON NAMES: Pringle Lip Fern, Pringle Lipfern, Pringle’s Lip Fern, Pringle’s Lipfern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 7 inches in length), the fronds are bright green on both sides with red-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; crevices on cliffs; canyons, canyon walls; bases of cliffs; crevices in boulders and rocks; knolls; rocky ledges; under rock ledges; rocky slopes; around rocks; bases of rocks; shaded rocky areas; along rivers, and along washes often growing in shaded areas in bouldery, rocky and shallow soils, occurring from 300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant may be confused with Cheilanthes wrightii; however, C. pringlei has scales on the pinnae. *5, 6, 8, 46, 51 (color photograph), 63 (041808), 77, 85 (041808), 122*

 

Cheilanthes sonorensis (see Cheilanthes pringlei)

 

Cheilanthes standleyi (see Notholaena standleyi) 

 

Cheilanthes wootonii W.R. Maxon: Beaded Lipfern

COMMON NAMES: Beaded Lip Fern, Beaded Lipfern, Lip Fern, Wooton Lace Fern, Wooton Lipfern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 15½ inches in length), the fronds are yellow-green (when young) or dark green (with age) with pale brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; cliff faces; rocky canyons; along rocky canyon walls; bedrock and rocky canyon bottoms; gorges; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; rock walls; hills; rocky hillsides; bajadas; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-loamy slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; bases of boulders and rocks; draws; gulches; along bedrock and rocky ravines; seeps; along streams; bouldery stream beds; along and in creeks; along and in rocky washes; along drainage ways; rocky banks of streams; rock shelves; in and around stock tanks, and riparian areas often growing in shaded and sheltered areas on rotting logs and in bouldery, rocky and gravelly soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,300 to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51 (color photograph), 58, 63 (041808), 77, 85 (041808), 122, 89 (recorded as Cheilanthes myriophylla Desv.)*

 

Cheilanthes wrightii W.J. Hooker: Wright’s Lipfern

COMMON NAMES: Wright Lipfern, Wright’s Lip Fern, Wright’s Lipfern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 10 inches in length), the fronds are green with brown to dark brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rock cliffs; canyons; rocky canyon walls; canyon bottoms; chasms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; bouldery and rocky hillsides; along bouldery and rocky slopes; boulder and rock outcrops; rocky shelves; amongst rocks; on boulders; bases of boulders and rocks; bedrock arroyos; draws; rocky ravines; along streams; in rocky washes; drainage ways, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky and gravelly soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 900 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51 (color photograph), 58, 63 (041908), 77, 85 (041908), 89 (recorded as Cheilanthes wrightii Hook.), 122*

 

Notholaena cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis) 

 

Notholaena hookeri (see footnote 89 under Notholaena standleyi)

 

Notholaena sinuata (see footnote 89 under Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)

 

Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)

 

Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)  

 

Notholaena standleyi W.R. Maxon: Star Cloak Fern

SYNONYMY: Cheilanthes standleyi W.R. Maxon. COMMON NAMES: Cloak-fern, Standley Cloak Fern, Standley’s Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2 to 13 inches in length with the star-shaped laminae being 1 to 4 inches in width), the fronds are a shiny dark green above (with a cream-white, gold, yellow or yellow-green waxy-looking glandular exudate below) with brown or reddish-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; summits of mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; bouldery canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; buttes; rock ledges; foothills; hills; rocky hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; shaded pockets; along arroyos; gulches; creek beds; in sandy washes; drainage ways; on banks, and riparian areas in bouldery and rocky soils, occurring from 900 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, commonly found growing in clumps. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 51 (color photograph), 58, 63 (122207), 85 (041908), 89 (recorded as Notholaena hookeri D.C. Eaton)*

 

Pellaea longimucronata (see Pellaea truncata) 

 

Pellaea truncata L.N. Goodding: Spiny Cliffbrake

SYNONYMY: Pellaea longimucronata auct. non W.J. Hooker [misapplied]. COMMON NAMES: Cliff Brake; Cliff-brake Fern, Spiny Cliff-brake Spiny Cliffbrake. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 16½ inches in length), the fronds are blue-green or gray-green with chestnut-brown, reddish or red-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; crevices in cliffs; crags; rocky canyons; along canyon walls; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; ridgelines; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; bases of boulders and rocks; rocky arroyos; draws; gulches; ravines; seeps; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; along and in sandy washes; drainage ways; by pools; bog-like areas; sandy banks; sandy benches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-gravelly loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, and rocky clay soils sometimes growing in shaded or sheltered areas, occurring from 600 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Pellaea longimucronata Hook.), 51 (color photograph), 63 (051607), 77, 85 (041908), 89 (recorded as Pellaea wrightiana Hook.)*

 

Pellaea wrightiana (see footnote under Pellaea truncata)

 

 

 

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

 

 

 

Division Coniferophyta: The Conifers

 

 

 

CLASS PINOPSIDA: The CONIFERS

 

 

Family Cupressaceae: The Cypress Family

 

Cupressus sempervirens C. Linnaeus (5): Italian Cypress

COMMON NAMES: Common Cypress, Italian Cypress, Mediterranean Cypress. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (60 to 80 feet with a foliage diameter of 5 to 10 feet (6). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from pastures; moist ditches, and disturbed areas, occurring from1,200 to 2,500 feet in the elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC. *5, 6, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 63 (042008), 85 (042008)*

 

 

 

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

 

 

 

CLASS GNETOPSIDA: The GNETOPS

 

 

Family Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson (5): Longleaf Joint-fir

COMMON NAMES: Brigham Young Tea, Canatilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Desert Jointfir, Itama Real, Kanutio (Yaqui), Long-leafed Joint-fir, Long-leaved Joint Fir, Long-leaved Jointfir, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Longleaf Jointfir, Longleaf Mormon Tea, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla (Hispanic), Popotillo (Hispanic), Tepopote (Hispanic), Teposote (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 16½ feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in width, one plant was described as being 3 feet in height and 5 feet in width) (6), the color of the stems has been described as being blue-green, green or yellow-green, the tiny flowers are pale yellow with male and female flowers occurring on separate plants, the production of strobili (female and male cones) generally takes place between early February and late May (additional record: one for mid-January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; clayey ridges; foothills; hills; hilltops; rocky hillsides; knolls; rocky and gravelly slopes; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; gravelly lava hills; sand hills; sand dunes; ridges of sand dunes; alluvial plains and terraces; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; rocky roadsides; sandy arroyos; river beds; along and in sandy and sandy-silty washes; in drainages; sandy banks of rivers and washes; inter-dune swales; gravelly terraces; flood plains, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils; clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental with the plants living to be 50 years in age. This plant is valuable in binding soils. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (042008), 77, 85 (042108), 89, 91*

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Family Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave americana C. Linnaeus (5): American Century Plant

COMMON NAMES: Agave, American Agave, American Aloe, American Century Plant, Centuryplant, Galime (Hispanic), L´gok (Tepehuán), Maguey, Maguey Amarillo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (40 inches to 6½ feet in height and 6½ to 13 feet in diameter with a flowering stem 5 to 40 feet in height) (6), the leaves are gray, gray-green, grayish-blue-green, bright green or green-blue, the flowers are greenish-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early June and early August (additional records: one for mid-February and one for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky hills; rocky slopes; flats, and along and in washes in rocky soils, occurring from 1,500 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC. The flowers are visited by hummingbirds. *5, 6, 16, 17, 18, 26 (color photograph), 30, 63 (042108), 85 (042108), 97 (Sap: avoid contact with skin or eyes.)*

 

Agave americana C. Linnaeus subsp. americana var. expansa (G.A. von Jacobi) H.S. Gentry: American Century Plant

SYNONYMY: Agave americana C. Linnaeus var. expansa (G.A. von Jacobi) H.S. Gentry, Agave expansa G.A. von Jacobi. COMMON NAMES: Agave, American Agave, American Aloe, American Century Plant, Galime (Hispanic), L´gok (Tepehuán), Maguey, Maguey Amarillo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 6 feet in height and to 10 to 13 feet in diameter with a flowering stem 15 to 40 feet in height), the color of the leaves is bluish gray-green, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between June and August. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes; flats, and along washes in rocky soils, occurring from 2,400 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC. The flowers are visited by hummingbirds. *5, 6, 17 (Agave expansa Jacobi), 18, 26 (color photograph -sp.), 30 (sp.), 63 (042108), 77 (Agave americana L. var. expansa (Jacobi) Gentry), 85, (042108), 97 (Agave americana sap: avoid contact with skin or eyes.)*

 

Agave americana var. expansa (see Agave americana subsp. americana var. expansa)  

 

Agave expansa (see Agave americana subsp. americana var. expansa)

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann: Soaptree Yucca

SYNONYMY: Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata [superfluous autonym], Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. utahensis (S.A. McKelvey) J.L. Reveal, Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. verdiensis (S.A. McKelvey) J.L. Reveal, Yucca utahensis S.A. McKelvey, Yucca verdiensis S.A. McKelvey. COMMON NAMES: Amole (a common name for the roots), Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Palmilla, Palmella, Soap-tree Yucca, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Soap-weed Yucca, Soapweed, Spanish Bayonet, Utah Yucca, Verde Yucca. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (4 to 30 feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in diameter with a flowering stalk reaching to 8 feet in height), the leaves are green with dried leaves adhering to the stem, the flowers are cream, cream-white or whitish, flowering generally takes place between early May and early August (additional records: two for late February and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; mesas; canyons; rocky foothills; low hills; rocky hillsides; bajadas; rocky slopes; sand dunes; prairies; sandy plains; gravelly flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; along arroyos; along creeks; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; in drainage ways; inter-dune swales; edges of rivers; benches; alluvial terraces, and disturbed areas in rocky, shaley, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly-silty loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 900 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the growth rate of wild growing plants is about 1 inch each year with many of the older plants reaching 200 to 300 years of age. The chopped stems of the plant serve as emergency food for cattle during periods of drought. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28, 45 (color photograph), 46 (Yucca elata Engelm., Yucca utahensis McKelvey, Yucca verdiensis McKelvey), 48, 52, 53, 58, 63 (042108), 77, 85 (042108), 89*

 

Yucca elata var. elata (see Yucca elata) 

 

Yucca elata var. utahensis (see Yucca elata) 

 

Yucca elata var. verdiensis (see Yucca elata) 

 

Yucca utahensis (see Yucca elata)  

 

Yucca verdiensis (see Yucca elata) 

 

 

Family Cyperaceae: The Sedge Family

 

Bolboschoenus maritimus (see Schoenoplectus maritimus)

 

Cyperus alternifolius (see Cyperus involucratus)  

 

Cyperus aristatus (see Cyperus squarrosus)  

 

Cyperus esculentus C. Linnaeus: Yellow Nutsedge

COMMON NAMES: Bebollin, Cebollin (Hispanic), Chufa, Chufa Flatsedge, Coquillo (Hispanic), Coquillo Amarillo (Hispanic), Northern Nut Grass, Sai´ (Hispanic), Yellow Nut Grass, Yellow Nutgrass, Yellow Nut Sedge, Yellow Nutsedge, Zacate (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height), the leaves are yellow-green, the color of the spikelets has been described as being golden-brown, reddish, yellow-brown or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and early November (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; meadows; bouldery hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; boulder outcrops; flats; silty valley bottoms; roadsides; seeps; along streams; along and in sandy stream beds; along sandy creeks; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in clayey washes; along drainage ways; marshes; edges of pools and lakes; playas; sandy-silty banks of streams and washes, rock shelves; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos); along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often in damp or wet ground in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam and humus-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30, 46, 58, 63 (042208), 68, 77, 85 (042208), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Cyperus esculentus C. Linnaeus var. esculentus C. Linnaeus [excluded]: Yellow Nutsedge

COMMON NAMES: Bebollin, Cebollin (Hispanic), Chufa, Chufa Flatsedge, Coquillo (Hispanic), Coquillo Amarillo (Hispanic), Northern Nut Grass, Sai´ (Hispanic), Yellow Nut Grass, Yellow Nutgrass, Yellow Nut Sedge, Yellow Nutsedge, Zacate (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 30 inches in height), the leaves are yellow-green, the color of the spikelets has been described as being golden-brown, reddish, yellow-brown or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and early November (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; meadows; bouldery hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; boulder outcrops; flats; silty valley bottoms; roadsides; seeps; along streams; along and in sandy stream beds; along sandy creeks; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in clayey washes; along drainage ways; marshes; edges of pools and lakes; playas; sandy-silty banks of streams and washes, rock shelves; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos); along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often in damp or wet ground in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam and humus-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (042208), 68, 77, 85 (042208), 101 (color photograph of species)*

 

Cyperus ferax (see footnote under Cyperus odoratus)

 

Cyperus involucratus C.F. Rottboll: Umbrella Plant

SYNONYMY: Cyperus alternifolius auct. non C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Alternate-leaf Flat Sedge, Galingale, Umbrella Palm, Umbrella Plant, Umbrella-plant, Umbrella Sedge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial or semi-aquatic perennial graminoid (1 to 6 feet in height), the flowers are yellowish, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-April (flowering records: one for early February, one for mid-February, one for early April and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyon bottoms; along slopes; along washes; marsh lands; gravelly-sandy banks of streams and rivers; along canals; culverts; along ditches; banks of canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in wet and damp ground in gravelly-sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,700 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 63 (042208), 77, 85 (042208)*

 

Cyperus odoratus C. Linnaeus: Fragrant Flatsedge

COMMON NAMES: Fragrant Flatsedge, Large Head Flat Sedge, Rusty Flat Sedge, Rusty Flatsedge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (2 to 52  inches in height), the foliage is yellow-green, the spikelets are red-brown, yellow-brown or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late June and late November (additional records: one for late January and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy canyon bottoms; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; muddy flats; around springs; along streams; gravelly stream beds; amongst dense grasses along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy-loamy river beds; sandy washes; sandy drainage ways; sandy, clayey and silty banks of streams and rivers; around pools and lakes; cienegas; marsh lands; silty swampy areas; shorelines; alluvial terraces; flood plains; around tanks and reservoirs; ditches; banks of canals and ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas growing in shallow water and wet ground in rocky, stony, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam and silty-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the Fragrant Flatsedge forms large dense bunches. Ducks use this plant for cover and the seeds, shoots and roots for food. *5, 6, 46, 58, 63 (042308), 85 (042308), 89 (recorded as Cyperus ferax Rich.)*

 

Cyperus squarrosus C. Linnaeus: Bearded Flatsedge

SYNONYMY: Cyperus aristatus C.F. Rottboll. COMMON NAMES: Awned Cyperus, Awned Flat Sedge, Bearded Flatsedge, Bearded Nutgrass, Dwarf Sedge, Umbrella Sedge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 4 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between late July and late October (additional records: one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; mountainsides; mesas tops; canyons; along canyon bottoms; sand-filled crevices; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; bedrock basins; gravelly roadsides; rocky draws; seeps; springs; along spring seeps; along sandy streams; along sandy stream beds; silty creek beds; in sandy washes; along bedrock and sandy drainage ways; waterholes; playas; bogs; cienegas; marsh lands; depressions; edges of puddles; along silty banks of streams, creeks and washes; along shores of lakes; rock shelves; flood plains; around and in stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing in moist and damp ground in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Cyperus aristatus Rottb.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (042308), 77, 85 (042408), 89 (recorded as Cyperus aristatus Rottb.)*

 

Schoenoplectus maritimus (C. Linnaeus) B.L. Lye: Cosmopolitan Bulrush

SYNONYMY: Bolboschoenus maritimus (C. Linnaeus) E. Palla, Scirpus maritimus C. Linnaeus var. paludosus (A. Nelson) G. Kükenthal, Scirpus paludosus A. Nelson. COMMON NAMES: Alkali Bulrush, Bayonet Grass, Cosmopolitan Bulrush, Prairie Bulrush, Prairie Rush, Purua Grass, River Bulrush, Saltmarsh Bulrush, Sea Club-rush, Seacoast Bulrush, Seaside Bulrush, Vak Fide (Pima). DESCRIPTION: Semi-aquatic or terrestrial perennial graminoid (18 to 60 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between early January and late October (flowering records: two for early January, one for early May, one for mid-May, one for early June, one for late June, one for early September and two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs; along streams; creek beds; silty-sandy and clayey river beds; marsh lands; silty depressions; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; edges of ponds; edges of mud flats, and riparian areas in wet sandy soils; silty clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 5,800 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46 (Scirpus paludosus A. Nels.), 63 (042408), 77, 85 (042408)*

 

Scirpus americanus (see Schoenoplectus americanus)

 

Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus (see Schoenoplectus maritimus) 

 

Scirpus paludosus (see Schoenoplectus maritimus)  

 

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Allium macropetalum P.A. Rydberg: Largeflower Onion

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Onion, Cebollin, Desert Onion, Largeflower Onion, Largeflower Wild Onion, Large-petal Onion, Wild Onion. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (3 to 8 inches in height), 1 to 5 bulbs growing without basal bulbets, the color of the leaves has been described as being green, the umbels of 10 to 20 flowers cream with maroon midribs, lavender-pink, magenta, orchid-pink, pink, pink-white, rose-white, white-purple with dark purple veins or white with red-brown midribs, flowering generally takes place between late February and June (additional records: one for early June, two for mid-June, two for mid-August and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; plateaus; canyons; sandy canyonsides; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly hills; hillside mesas; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; grassy valley floors; along creeks; along and in cobbly washes; rocky benches; terraces; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 900 to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (061107), 77 (color photograph #54), 85 (042408), 89 (recorded as Allium reticulatum Don.)*

 

Allium reticulatum (see footnote in Allium macropetalum)

 

Brodiea capitata (see footnote 85 under Dichelostemma capitatum)

 

Brodiaea capitata (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) 

 

Brodiaea pulchella (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) 

 

Brodiaea pulchella var. pauciflorum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum)

 

Calochortus kennedyi T.C. Porter: Desert Mariposa Lily

COMMON NAMES: Desert Mariposa, Desert Mariposa Lily, Desert Mariposa Tulip, Mariposa Lily, Red Mariposa Lily. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 2 feet in height), the leaves are grayish-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being golden, orange, orange-yellow, reddish or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hilltops; rocky-clayey hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; flats; basins; along creeks; benches, and riparian areas in rocky soils and rocky clay, gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 1,300 to 7,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (042408), 77 (color photograph #55), 85 (042608), 86, 89*

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) A. Wood subsp. capitatum: Bluedicks

SYNONYMY: Brodiaea capitata G. Bentham, Brodiaea pulchella (R.A. Salisbury) E.L. Greene, Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller, Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. capitatum (G. Bentham) J.L. Reveal. COMMON NAMES: Bluedicks, Hahd (Pima). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (10 to 16 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between December and July (additional record: one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon walls; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder outcrops; creosote flats; roadsides; creek beds; in stony-gravelly and sandy washes; sandy benches, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and stony clay soils, occurring from sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16 (Dichelostemma pulchellum (Salisb.) Heller), 28 (color photograph of Dichelostemma pulchellum), 63 (011408), 85 (042608), 89 (recorded as Brodiea capitata Benth.)*

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) A. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator: Bluedicks

SYNONYMY: Brodiaea pulchella (R.A. Salisbury) E.L. Greene var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) J.S. Morton, Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover. COMMON NAMES: Blue Dicks, Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Hahd (Pima), Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (16 to 30 inches in height), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-lavender-purple, blue-purple, lavender, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June (additional records: one record for early January, one record for mid-July, one record for mid-September and one record for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; rocky mountainsides; gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; gravelly ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; rocky arroyos; gulches; ravines; along streams; silty creek bottoms; rivers; rocky and sandy washes; lakes; sandy beaches; gravelly terraces; ditches; around stock tanks, and riparian areas in rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky clay and clay soils; sandy loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 8,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 28 (color photograph of Dichelostemma pulchellum), 46 (Dichelostemma pulchellum (Salisb.) Heller var. pauciflorum (Torr.) Hoover), 58, 63 (011408), 77 (color photograph #56 and #103 labeled Dichelostemma pulchellum), 85 (042608), 86 (note - Dichelostemma pulchellum)*

 

Dichelostemma pulchellum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) 

 

Dichelostemma pulchellum var. capitatum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) 

 

Dichelostemma pulchellum var. pauciflorum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum)

 

 

Family Najadaceae: The Waternymph Family

 

Najas major (see Najas marina) 

 

Najas marina C. Linnaeus: Spiny Naiad

SYNONYMY: Najas major C. Allioni. COMMON NAMES: Holly-leaf Water Naiad, Holly-leaf Waternymph, Holly-leaved Water Nymph, Spiny Naiad. DESCRIPTION: Aquatic annual forb/herb (2 to 18 inches in length), the herbage is bright green, flowering generally takes place between early January and late October (based on two flowering records: one for early January and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs; streams; rivers; ponds; lakes; lagoons; sloughs; swamps, and mud flats as a submerged aquatic in sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,100 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: The stems, leaves, flowers and seeds are fed on by ducks. *5, 6, 46, 63 (042608), 85 (042608), WTK (June 2005)

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Agrostis semiverticillata (see Polypogon viridis)

 

Agrostis verticillata (see footnote 89 under Polypogon viridis)

 

Andropogon barbinodis (see Bothriochloa barbinodis)

 

Andropogon contortus (see Heteropogon contortus) 

 

Andropogon torreyanus (see footnote 89 under Bothriochloa barbinodis) 

 

Aristida C. Linnaeus: Threeawn

COMMON NAMES: Three Awn Grass, Threeawn *63 (042608), 89*

 

Aristida adscensionis C. Linnaeus: Sixweeks Threeawn

COMMON NAMES: Six Weeks Three Awn Grass, Six-weeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Three-awn Grass, Sixweeks Threeawn, Three-awn, Zacate Cola de Zorra, Zacate Tres Barbas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1¼ to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green to yellow curing to straw, the florets are purple, only one flowering record was found and that was for late September), the seedheads may be purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky ledges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; sand hills; dunes; prairies; gravelly-sandy and sandy plains; sandy flats; along rocky railroad right-of-ways; along road beds; along roadsides; along arroyos; rocky draws; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of draws; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; ditches; gravelly-sandy riparian areas; sandy waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-pebbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and rocky-gravelly loam and clayey loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: May sometimes be confused with Aristida purpurea var. parishii. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (070207), 77, 85 (042608), 89 (recorded as Aristida americana (Kunth) Griseb.), 105*

 

Aristida americana (see footnote 89 under Aristida adscensionis)

 

Aristida divaricata F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Wildenow: Poverty Threeawn

COMMON NAMES: Poverty Three-awn, Poverty Threeawn. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 7 to 40 inches in height, one plant was described as being 1¼ inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green curing to straw, flowering generally takes place between July and October (flowering records: one  for early June and one for mid-June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; crevices in rocks; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; plains; rocky flats; roadsides; rocky draws; edges of ponds and lakes; cobbly-clayey and sandy benches, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and cobbly clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. This plant is closely related to Aristida barbata. *5, 6, 30, 33, 46, 63 (042708), 85 (042708), 89 (recorded as Aristida humboldtiana Trin. & Rupr.), 105*

 

Aristida divergens (see footnote 89 under Aristida ternipes) 

 

Aristida glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)  

 

Aristida hamulosa (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)

 

Aristida humboldtiana (see footnote 89 under Aristida divaricata)

 

Aristida longiseta (see Aristida purpurea var. longiseta)

 

Aristida parishii (see Aristida purpurea var. parishii)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Purple Threeawn

COMMON NAMES: Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Three-awn, Purple Threeawn, Reverchon Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Three Awn, Three-awn, Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 4 to 40 inches in height and 4 to 12 inches in width at the base), the foliage is light to dark green curing to gray or straw, the inflorescence is green, purplish or dark red-purple, the awns are purple, flowering generally takes place between March and September (flowering records, including varieties: two for late January, one for late February, one for early March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April, two for early May, one for mid-May, one for late May, one for early June, one for late June, one for early July, one for mid-August, one for mid-September and two for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly-sandy and sandy mesas; plateaus; rocky cliffs; rocky summits; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; along gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; gravelly bluffs; rocky ridges; ridge tops; meadows; rocky and clayey hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery, rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand hills; sand dunes; in blow sand; rocky, gravelly and sandy plains; rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy flats; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; along rocky arroyos; along draws; gulches; springs; along streams; bouldery stream beds; along creeks; along and in creek beds; river beds; along bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery-rocky, rocky and pebbly drainage ways; depressions; sandy banks; gravel bars; sandy beaches; sandy benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; recently burned areas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky desert pavement; bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-rocky, bouldery-cindery, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, pebbly and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-clayey loam, cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, sandy-silty loam, clayey loam, silty loam and humus loam soils; rocky clay, rocky-sandy clay, sandy clay and clay soils, and gravelly silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 48, 58, 63 (121007), 85 (042708), 89, 105*

 

Aristida purpurea var. glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. longiseta (E.G. von Steudel) G. Vasey: Fendler Threeawn

SYNONYMY: Aristida longiseta E.G. von Steudel. COMMON NAMES: Dog Town Grass, Fendler Threeawn, Long-awned Aristida, Long-awned Three-awn, Red Threeawn, Three-awn Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 6 to 24 inches in height and 4 to 8 inches in width at the base), the foliage is green curing to tan with older growth remaining on the plant for the prior growing season giving it a grayish-green color, the color of the inflorescence has been described as being purple or red, the awns are red-purple, flowering generally takes place between April and October (flowering records: one for early May and one for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly-sandy and sandy mesas; rocky cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; meadows; foothills; hills; gravelly hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; rocky and gravelly flats; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; along streams; stream beds; drainage ways; banks; terraces; recently burned areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-clay loam, gravelly-clay loam, sandy loam, clay loam and humus loam soils; rocky clay and clayey soils, and gravelly silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 2,400 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33, 46 (Aristida longiseta Steud.), 48 (sp.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (121007), 77, 85 (042708), 105 (Aristida longiseta Steud.)*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. nealleyi (G. Vasey) K.W. Allred: Blue Threeawn

SYNONYMY: Aristida glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) W.G. Walpers, Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Holmgren & N. Holmgren. COMMON NAMES:  Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Nealley’s Threeawn, Reverchon Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 6 to 40 inches in height and to 12 inches in width at the base), the inflorescence is purple, the awns are purple, flowering generally takes place between March and September; however, flowering may occur throughout the year under favorable conditions (flowering records: one for late January, one for late February, one for early April, one for early July, one for mid-August, one for mid-September and two for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; along gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; flats; along roadsides; along rocky arroyos; along draws; springs; along and in creek beds; river beds; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery-rocky drainage ways; banks; gravel bars; sandy beaches; sandy benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, rocky-clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky-sandy clay soils, occurring from 800 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental, it reportedly has a “feathery” appearance. *5, 6, 16, 33 (Aristida glauca (Nees) Walp.), 46 (Aristida glauca (Nees) Walp.), 48 (sp.), 56, 57, 63 (121007), 77, 85 (042808), 105 (sp.)*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. parishii (A.S. Hitchcock) K.W. Allred: Parish’s Threeawn

SYNONYMY: Aristida parishii A.S. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Three-awn, Parish Threeawn, Parish’s Three-awn, Parish’s Threeawn, Threeawn. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 4 to 40 inches in height), the spikelets are reddish-purple, flowering generally takes place between February and May (flowering records: one for early March and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been range reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hills, rocky slopes; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along roadsides; arroyos; draws; along stream beds; along and in bouldery-cobbly-sandy and sandy washes; banks; beaches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky-clay loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, occurring from 500 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Aristida parishii Hitchc.), 46 (Aristida parishii Hitchc.), 48 (sp.), 63 (121007), 77, 85 (042708), 105 (sp.)*

 

Aristida scheidiana (see footnote 89 under Aristida ternipes)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass,

COMMON NAMES: Aristida Grass, Spider Grass, Spidergrass, Spider Threeawn, Three Awn, Three-awn, Threeawn, Zacate Arana. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 10 to 64 inches in height, one plant was described as being 4 inches in diameter at the base and 52 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between August and October (flowering records: one for late June, one for late August, one for early September, one for mid-September, one for early November, two for late November and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery-cobbly mesas; plateaus; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; along rocky canyon bottoms; rock talus; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, sandy, sandy-loamy and sandy-clayey slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly and sandy bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly plains; bouldery-sandy, gravelly, sandy and silty flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; shallow draws; along streams; stream beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; in drainage ways; banks of creeks; along rivers; along edges of washes; sandy beaches; benches; rocky terraces; mesquite bosques; flood plains; along fence lines; stock tanks (charcos or repressos), ditches; sandy riparian areas, and gravelly disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and humus loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the forest (woodland transition), woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (042808), 77, 85 (042808), 89 (recorded as Aristida divergens Vasey and Aristida scheidiana Trin. & Rupr.)*

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. gentilis (J.S. Henrickson) K.W. Allred: Spidergrass

SYNONYMY: Aristida hamulosa J.S. Henrickson, Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. hamulosa (J.S. Henrickson) J.S. Trent, Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. minor (G. Vasey) A.S. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Threeawn, Hook Threeawn, Mesa Threeawn, Poverty Threeawn, Spidergrass, Three Awn, Three-awn, Three-awn Grass, Threeawn, Wild Oat, Zacate Arana de Tres. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 16 inches to 4 feet in height), flowering generally takes place between June and September (flowering records: one for late August, one for early November and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rock cliffs; canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; ridges; sandy hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; gravelly plains; silty flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along clayey-loamy roadsides; shallow draws; along and in sandy washes; in drainage ways; sandy beaches; benches; terraces; mesquite bosques; flood plains; along fence lines; stock tanks (charcos or repressos), ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 33 (Aristida hamulosa Henr.), 46 (Aristida hamulosa Henr.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (042808), 77, 85 (042808), 105 (note on page 15)*

 

Aristida ternipes var. hamulosa (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)  

 

Aristida ternipes var. minor (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. ternipes: Spidergrass

COMMON NAMES: Spider Grass, Spidergrass, Three Awn, Three-awn, Threeawn, Zacate Arana. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 16 to 64 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between August and October (flowering records: one for late April, one for mid-September and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; along rocky canyon bottoms; rock talus; crevices in rocks; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly-sandy hills; hillsides; gravelly and sandy bajadas; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along roadsides; along shallow draws; along streams; along and in sandy washes; in drainage ways; terraces; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and gravelly disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 56, 57, 63 (042808), 85 (042808)*

 

Arundo donax C. Linnaeus: Giant Reed

COMMON NAMES: Arundo Grass, Caña (Hispanic), Caña de Castilla (Hispanic), Caña Hueca (Hispanic), Cañaveral (Hispanic), Canuto (Hispanic), Carricillo (Hispanic), Carrizo (Hispanic), Carrizo de la Selva (Hispanic), Donax, Elephant Grass, Giant Cane, Giant Reed, Gubaguih (Hispanic), Halal (Hispanic), Pakaab (Hispanic),  Tarro (Hispanic), Tekhalal (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid, subshrub or shrub (6 to 33 feet in height, clonal root masses (to over 3 feet thick) may cover up to several acres in width), flowering generally takes place between early spring and fall (flowering records: one for mid-September and one for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms; plains; along roadsides; arroyos; seeps; springs; along seepage streams; along streams; along sandy creeks; along and in rivers; along and in sandy river beds; drainage ways; water holes; lakes; coastal basins; along banks of streams and rivers; sandy terraces; flood plains; ditches; banks of ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas growing most often in water and wet and moist ground but occasionally on dry riverbanks in gravelly and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from  sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 18, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33, 46, 56, 63 (042808), 77, 85 (042808), 89, 109*

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Wild Oat

COMMON NAMES: Flaxgrass, Folle Avoine, Oat Grass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 64 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between late February and August (flowering records: one for late February, one for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April and one for mid-June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and rocky-sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; flats; valleys; along roadsides; seeps; springs; along streams; along and in creeks; creek beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; depressions; rocky banks of rivers and washes; benches; bottom lands; flood plains; canals; ditches; canal and ditch banks; sandy riparian areas; waste places and gravelly disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and bouldery clay and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Seed can remain dormant in soil for as long as 10 years. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 63 (061207), 68, 77, 85 (042908), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter: Cane Bluestem

SYNONYMY: Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura. COMMON NAMES: Algodonero, Beard-grass, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Beardgrass, Cane Bluestem, Feather Bluestem, Feather Grass, Palmer’s Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Pitted Beardgrass, Plains Beardgrass, Popotillo, Silver Beardgrass; Ya-jewel-g-ute (Havasupai), Zacate Popotillo, Zacatón (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 2 to 5 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 4 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green or yellow-green curing to a dull red, reddish-brown or yellow, the silvery-white inflorescences are oblong to fan-shaped, the spikelets tawny-green or tan, flowering generally takes place between mid-August and late October (note that other authors show an April or May to October flowering period). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; plateaus; along cliff faces; canyons; along bedrock, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly flats; along gravelly roadsides; rocky arroyos; rocky chasms; seeps; springs; along sandy streams; along and in bouldery stream beds; along creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; in bouldery-cobbly-sandy river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-loamy and sandy washes; in rocky drainage ways; along sandy banks of creeks, rivers and washes; swales; rock tanks; bouldery-sandy and sandy beaches; benches; rocky and gravelly terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-gravelly, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it is extremely drought resistant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33 (Andropogon barbinodis Lag.), 46 (Andropogon barbinodis Lag.), 48, 58, 63 (061207), 77, 85 (042908), 89 (recorded as Andropogon torreyanus Steud.), 105 (Andropogon barbinodis Lag.)*

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Needle Grama

COMMON NAMES: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Pasto Cabra (Hispanic), Six Weeks Grama Grass, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Tochite (Hispanic), Zacate Saitillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 24 inches in height), the foliage is light green curing to straw, flowering generally takes place between June and late October (flowering records: one for mid-August, one for late August, three for early September, three for mid-September, two for late September and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; sandy mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky coves; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; edges of dune fields; plains; gravelly and sandy flats, basins; loamy valley bottoms; coastal dunes; roadsides; in arroyos; arroyo bottoms; stony-sandy draws, along streams; stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly, sandy, clayey and silty-clayey washes; in drainage ways; depressions; sandy-loamy banks of washes; benches; sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; waste places, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and silty clay and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (042908), 68, 77, 85 (043008), 89, 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura: Sixweeks Grama

SYNONYMY: Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. barbata [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Navajita Annual, Six-weeks Grama, Sixweeks Grama, Six-weeks Grass, Zacate Liebrero. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual (or short-lived perennial) graminoid (a bunchgrass ½ to 18 inches in height), the foliage is light green curing to straw, the color of the spikelets has been described as being reddish, may flower throughout the year, but mostly in the summer and fall (flowering records: one for early March, one for early September, three for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, one for late October and two for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; sandy mesas; canyons; talus; buttes; rocky ridge tops; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; sandy bajadas; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; alluvial plains; sandy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; sandy-clayey valley floors; shell mounds; along cobbly and sandy roadsides; along arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along streams; moist stream beds; along sandy creeks; river beds; along and in sandy and silty-clayey washes; pebbly-sandy water holes; playas; depressions; swales; banks of rivers and washes; sand bars; sandy-clayey-loamy beaches; gravelly terraces; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks (charcos and repressos); sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly, pebbly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy-clayey loam soils; sandy clay, silty clay and clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Sixweeks Grama may be confused with Rothrock Grama. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (043008), 68, 77, 85 (043008), 89 (recorded as Boutloua polystachya (Benth.) Torr.), 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata var. barbata (see Bouteloua barbata) 

 

Bouteloua barbata var. rothrockii (see Bouteloua rothrockii) 

 

Bouteloua bromoides (see footnote 89 under Bouteloua repens)

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Sideoats Grama

COMMON NAMES: Avenilla (Hispanic), Banderilla (Hispanic), Banderita (Hispanic), Grama del Cerro (Hispanic), Navajita Banderilla, Qm-u-se’-a (Havasupai), Side Oats Grama, Side-oats Grama, Sideoats Grama, Sideoats Grama Grass, Tall Grama, Uitsaku Juatarhu (Purépecha). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 3 to 52 inches in height and to 2 feet in width at the base, one plant was reported to be 28 inches in height and 4 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green or purple-green curing to reddish-brown or straw, the flowers are bright purple with orange, ed or yellow anthers, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-November (additional record: one for early December), the mature fruits are red-brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery mesas; plateaus; cliffs; rocky canyon rims; canyons; along canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky and sandy ledges; rock ridges; meadows; openings in forests and woodlands; foothills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hills; sandy hill tops; rocky hillsides; along rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and cobble; sand hills; sandy plains; sandy flats; sandy valleys; along roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; around streams; along stream beds; along creeks; rocky creek beds; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly and sandy washes; in drainage ways; marshes; along banks of draws, streams and washes; benches; gravelly terraces; shores of lakes; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along fence lines; riparian areas, and rocky and gravelly disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, clayey loam, silty-clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 300 to 9,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion. In areas where it occurs naturally, consider including Sideoats Grama seed in all reseeding mixtures. This plant is a larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 30, 33 (“One of the most important range grasses in the Southwest, highly palatable and a vigorous grower.”), 46, 48, 58, 63 (011608), 77, 82, 85 (043008), 89, 105 (“This is one of our most important range grasses. ... It cures well and maintains a fairly high feeding value throughout the year. ... Sideoats is a normal component of most Arizona grassland ranges, and these ranges are not in excellent condition without an abundance of the grass. It lengthens the grazing season and increases forage production, in addition to providing variety in the feed.”), 106 (061407)*

 

Bouteloua filiformis (see Bouteloua repens)

 

Boutloua polystachya (see footnote 89 under Bouteloua barbata)

 

Bouteloua repens (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill: Slender Grama

SYNONYMY: Bouteloua filiformis (E.P. Fournier) D. Griffiths). COMMON NAMES: Navajta Rastrera, Large Mesquite Grama, Slender Grama, Zacate Sabanilla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 4 to 26 inches in height and to 4 inches in width at the base), the leaves are bright green (purple and yellow forms have also been reported) curing to gray or yellow, flowering generally takes place between July and December (additional records: two for late February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; gravelly mesas; canyons; along gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; rocky buttes; ridge tops; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy slopes; bedrock and rocky outcrops; prairies; rocky and sandy plains; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; arroyos; rocky draws; along stream beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; in drainage ways; sandy shores of oceans; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, cobbly-sandy loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Slender Grama holds up well under heavy grazing pressure. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Bouteloua filiformis (Fourn.) Griffiths), 46 (Bouteloua filiformis (Fourn.) Griffiths), 48, 58, 63 (051707), 77, 85 (043008), 89 (recorded as Bouteloua bromoides (H.B.K.) Lag.), 105 (Bouteloua filiformis (Fourn.) Griffiths)*

 

Bouteloua rothrockii G. Vasey: Rothrock’s Grama

SYNONYMY: Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. rothrockii (G. Vasey) F.W. Gould. COMMON NAMES: Navajita Liebrero, Rothrock Grama, Rothrock’s Grama. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 10 to 30 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being green curing to straw, the flowers are brownish-red or reddish, flowering generally takes place between late July and October (additional records: one for early March, one for late May and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along gravelly roadsides; sandy draws; sandy gulch bottoms; stream beds; along washes; in drainage ways; swales; margins of cienegas; terraces; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,900 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This short-lived perennial may be useful as an ornamental, it has been described as being hardy and drought-resistant,. Rothrock Grama may be confused with the annual Sixweeks Grama. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 63 (061407), 77, 85 (043008), 89, 105*

 

Bouteloua trifida G. Thurber (var. trifida is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Red Grama

COMMON NAMES: China, Navajita, Navajita Roja, Red Grama, Red Gramma, Three-awn Grama. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 16 inches in height), the color of the inflorescences has been described as being purple, red or yellow, flowering generally takes place between March and sometimes in October (flowering records: two for early April, two for late April, one for early August, two for mid-August and two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; along canyon walls; gorges; talus slopes; crevices; rock ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky-gravelly hills; bouldery and rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly, sandy and sandy-loamy slopes; rock outcrops; plains; gravelly flats; arroyos; gulches; along and in cobbly-gravelly-sandy washes; in drainage ways; around pools; depressions, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from 700 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 63 (050108), 77, 85 (050108), 89*

 

Brachiaria arizonica (see Urochloa arizonica)  

 

Brachiaria fasciculata (see Urochloa fusca)

 

Bromus arizonicus (C.L. Shear) G.L. Stebbins: Arizona Brome

SYNONYMY: Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott var. arizonicus C.L. Shear. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Brome. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (8 inches to 5 feet in height), the leaves are reportedly yellow-green, and the flowers burgundy, flowering generally takes place between early February and early September (additional records: two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; summits of mountains; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ledges; ridges; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; along streams; stream beds; creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; marshy areas; banks; sandbars; sandy benches; sandy flood plains; ditch banks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loamy soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (051707), 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (122207), 89 (recorded as Bromus carinatus H. & A. var. arizonicus Shear)*

 

Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott: California Brome

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Brome, Basiawari (Hispanic), Basicuáare (Hispanic), Bromo de California (Hispanic), California Brome, Camaloti (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Masiyague (Hispanic), Mountain Brome, Mountain Bromegrass, Pipillo (Hispanic), Pipilo (Hispanic), Tigrillo (Hispanic), Tupikua (Purépecha), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bromo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (16 to 64 inches in height and 4 to 12 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being reddish, the flowers green, purple or purplish-red, flowering generally takes place between late March and early October (additional records: one for late February, two for late October and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; bouldery canyons; along rocky and gravelly canyon bottoms; chasms; bases of cliffs; rock walls; crevices in rocks; ridge tops; along ridgelines; meadows; openings in forests and woodlands; loamy hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, hummocks; rocky, sandy and loamy slopes; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sandy plains; flats; basins; coastal dunes; along gravelly and sandy-loamy roadsides; arroyos; banks of arroyos; along bouldery-rocky and sandy draws; gulches; seeps; springs; edges of springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-silty and sandy washes; in drainage ways; cienegas; among and in pools; marshes; rocky-silty and sandy banks of streams, creeks, rivers and washes; shores of lakes; sandy benches; terraces; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and rocky silty, gravelly-sandy silty and silty soils occurring from sea level to 11,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (050208), 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (050308), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Bromus carinatus var. arizonicus (see footnote 89 under Bromus arizonicus)

 

Bromus catharticus M.H. Vahl: Rescuegrass

SYNONYMY: Bromus unioloides K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth, Bromus willdenowii K.S. Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Rescue Brome, Rescue Grass, Rescuegrass, Schraders-grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (10 to 48 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being green, flowering generally takes place between May and September (flowering records: one for late February, two for mid-March, one for early April, two for late April, one for mid-May and one for early July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; rock walls; meadows; sand hills; valley bottoms; roadsides; draws; along draw bottoms; seeps; stream beds; along rivers; along and in cobbly washes; drainage ways; banks of rivers; margins of cienegas; shoes of lakes; sandy beaches; sandy benches; flood plains; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46 (“introduced from South America; West Indies and western South America”), 56, 57, 58, 63 (050408), 68, 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information. Rescuegrass, Bromus willdenowii (confused with Bromus catharticus) is also listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This introduced annual grass has been reported to develop toxic concentrations of nitrate.”), 85 (050408), 89, (recorded as Bromus unioloides H.B.K.), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Bromus diandrus A.W. Roth var. rigidus (A.W. Roth) J.M. Lainz: Ripgut Brome

SYNONYMY: Bromus rigidus A.W. Roth. COMMON NAMES: Ripgut Brome, Ripgut Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height). Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus; meadows; amongst boulders; bases of boulders; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; arroyos; sloughs; along streams; sandy washes; sandy banks of creeks; edges of lakes; sandy beaches; sandy benches; alluvial terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy and sandy-silty flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,100 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 33 (Bromus rigidus Roth), 46 (Bromus rigidus Roth), 63 (050508), 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (050508), 89 (recorded as Bromus maximus Desf. var. gussoni  Parl.), 101 (color photograph, Bromus rigidus Roth)*

 

Bromus maximus var. gussoni (see footnote 89 under Bromus diandrus var. rigidus)

 

Bromus rigidus (see Bromus diandrus var. rigidus)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Red Brome

SYNONYMY: Bromus madritensis C. Linnaeus subsp rubens (C. Linnaeus) P.T. Husnot [orthographic error]. COMMON NAMES: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (a tufted bunchgrass 4 to 20 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between late February and early May (only four flowering records were located: two for late February and two for early May), the color of the spikelets has been described as being purple, red, red-brown or reddish-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; talus; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; volcanic cinder cones; meadows; edges of wet meadows; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; rocky, cindery and gravelly flats; valleys; along roadsides; draws; rocky and gravelly ravines; around seeping streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky creek beds; along rivers; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky and sandy drainage ways; swales; around lakes; gravelly-sandy, sandy and loamy banks of rivers; beaches; sandy benches; gravelly and sandy terraces; sandy-loamy and loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; around reservoirs; canal banks; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-pebbly, rocky-sandy, shaley, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 900 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This grass is light green curing to a light straw yellow color with reddish brown or purplish seed heads. EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (111307), 68, 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (050508), 105*

 

Bromus tectorum C. Linnaeus: Cheatgrass

SYNONYMY: Bromus tectorum C. Linnaeus var. glabratus H. Spencer. COMMON NAMES: Brome Grass, Broncograss, Cheat Brome, Cheat Grass, Cheatgrass, Cheatgrass Brome, Downy Brome, Downy Chess, Early Chess, Military Grass, Slender Chess, Wild Oats. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 36 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being light green when young and purple or purple-green at maturity curing to a straw-yellow, flowering generally akes place between mid-March and mid-June (based on a very limited number of records: one for mid-March, one for early April, one for mid-May and one for mid-June). ABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; along sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; rocky ledges; hillsides; bouldery slopes; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; creosote flats; along railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly roadsides; gulches; seeps; springs; along streams; margins of sandy stream beds; along creeks; along sandy creek beds; rivers; rocky and sandy washes; in drainage ways; boggy areas; depressions; banks of rivers; shores of lakes; sandy beaches; flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; loam soils, rocky clay and clay soils; and gravelly silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,800 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 63 (050608), 68, 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (050608 - the single record of sighting at Tumamoc Hill indicated that the plants had been removed, also recorded as Bromus tectorum C. Linnaeus var. tectorum), 101 (color photograph), 105*

 

Bromus tectorum var. glabratus (see Bromus tectorum)    

 

Bromus tectorum var. tectorum (see footnote 85 under Bromus tectorum)

 

Bromus unioloides (see Bromus catharticus) 

 

Bromus willdenowii (see Bromus catharticus)

 

Cenchrus ciliaris (see Pennisetum ciliare) 

 

Chloris crinita (see Trichloris crinita)   

 

Chloris elegans (see Chloris virgata) 

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz: Feather Fingergrass

SYNONYMY: Chloris elegans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Barbas de Indio (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra, Plumerito (Hispanic), Feather Finger Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Feather Windmill Grass; Feather Windmill-grass; Finger Grass, Showy Chloris, Verdillo (Hispanic), Zacate de Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Zacate Lagunero (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (a bunchgrass 4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being light green curing to light straw, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and late September (flowering records: one for mid-May,  one for late July, two for mid-August, six for mid-September and one for late September). ABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; ridges; meadows; rocky foothills; amongst hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst rocks; prairies; gravelly flats; valleys; along roadsides; sandy arroyo bottoms; draw bottoms; along streams; rocky stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; in drainage ways; around ponds; cienegas; marsh land; silty depressions; swales; along banks of rivers; sandy-clayey sides of washes; sandy beaches; rocky shoals; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; along fence lines; stock tanks (repressos); ditches; bouldery-cobbly-sandy and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; humus-clay loam and loam soils; rocky clay, sandy clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 57, 58, 63 (050808), 68, 77, 85 (050908), 105, 89 (recorded as Chloris elegans H.B.K.)*

 

Cortaderia selloana (J.A. Schultes & J.H. Schultes) P.F. Ascherson & K.O. Graebner: Uruguayan Pampus Grass

COMMON NAMES: Little Pampus Grass, Pampus Grass, Silver Pampus Grass, Uruguayan Pampus Grass, Uruguayan Pampusgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen graminoid (6 to 20 feet in height and 7 to 23 or more feet in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green, green or silvery-gray curing to straw, the flowers are lavender, pink or white, flowering generally takes place between summer and fall. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from boulder outcrops; amongst boulders; flats; roadsides; creeks; rivers; along stream banks; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22, 26 (color photograph), 63 (050908), 77, 85 (050908), 106 (050908)*

 

Cottea pappophoroides K.S. Kunth: Cotta Grass

COMMON NAME: Cotta Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between August and October (flowering records: two for early September and one for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; talus; bases of cliffs; rocky buttes; ledges; ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; sandy plains; gravelly flats; along roads; sandy banks of arroyos; along and in draws; along rocky and sandy washes; sandy banks of washes; benches; alluvial terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas sometimes reported as growing in shade or partial shade in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 900 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (050908), 77, 85 (051008), 89*

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass

COMMON NAMES: Acabacahuiztle (Hispanic), Acacahuitzli (Nahuatl), Bermudagrass, Bramilla (Hispanic), Canzuuc (Maya), Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Gallitos (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Grama de la Costa (Hispanic), Gramilla (Hispanic), Grana (Hispanic), Guix-biguiñi (Zapoteco), Lan-suuk (Maya), Pasto Bermuda (Hispanic), Pasto Estrella (Hispanic), Pata de Gallo (Hispanic), Pata de Perdiz (Hispanic), Pata de Pollo (Hispanic), Tsakam Toom (Hispanic), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bermuda (Hispanic), Zacate Borrego (Hispanic), Zacate Chino (Hispanic), Zacate del Conejo (Hispanic), Zacate Inglés (Hispanic), Zacate Pilillo (Hispanic), Zaruue (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a low-growing sodgrass, 2 to 24 inches in height), the color of the florets has been described as being purple, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; meadows; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky outcrops; sand hummocks; prairies; plains; sandy flats; clayey valley bottoms; roadsides; sandy arroyo bottoms; seeps; springs; stream beds; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in sandy washes; drainage ways; edges of bogs, marshes and ponds; along sandy banks of streams, creeks, rivers and washes; cienegas; gravel bars; sandy beaches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; in and around stock tanks; along ditch banks; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-sandy, rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,500 feet in elevation in the forests, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This green or yellow-green sodgrass cures to a yellow straw color after frost. EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bermudagrass is sometimes confused with another exotic species, Large Crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis, a species of similar general appearance. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (061407), 68, 77, 80 (Bermudagrass is listed as a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant. “Cattle grazing on Bermudagrass pasture may develop photosensitization, paralysis or a nervous syndrome.”), 85 (051008), 89, 101 (color photograph), 105, 109*

 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. von Wildenow: Egyptian Grass

COMMON NAMES: Crowfootgrass, Durban Crowfootgrass, Durban’s Crow-foot Grass, Egyptian Grass, Egyptian Crowfootgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 40 inches in height), the color of the florets has been described as being maroon, flowering generally takes place between summer and fall (flowering records: one for mid-August and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms; hills; along dunes; sandy-loamy plains; coastal plains; gravelly roadsides; along streams; sandy river beds; in sandy washes; along banks of rivers; beaches; flood plains, and gravelly disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46 (Dactyloctenium aegyptium (C. Linnaeus) H.E. Richter), 56, 57, 63 (051008), 85 (051008)*

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow ex P.A. Rydberg: Low Woollygrass

SYNONYMY: Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock, Triodia pulchella K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Desert Fluffgrass, Fluff Grass, Fluff-grass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Oerennuak Grass, Zacate Borreguero. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (often appearing to be an annual and also described as being a short-lived perennial) graminoid (a bunchgrass ½ to 6 inches in height), the color of this grass has been described as being bluish-green curing to a gray-white, the color of the flower green or silvery, flowering generally takes place between February and October (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy-loamy mesas; rocky canyons; rocky talus slopes; clayey ridge tops; ridgelines; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-loamy and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sandy plains; cindery, gravelly and sandy-loamy flats; valleys; rocky, along gravelly and sandy roadsides; stream beds; creek beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along and in sandy drainage ways; marshes; benches; gravelly and sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; sandy-gravelly clay and clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This low, densely tufted perennial grass may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by the Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). This plant is generally avoided by grazing animals. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.), 46 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.), 58, 63 (040407), 77, 85 (051008), 89 (recorded as Triodia pulchella H.B.K.), 105 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.)*

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson: Arizona Cottontop

SYNONYMY: Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Cotton Grass, Arizona Cottongrass, Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cottongrass, Cotton-top, Cottontop, Zacate Punta Blanca. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green, gray-green, green or yellow-green curing to gray or straw, color of the spikelets has been described as being purplish-pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-August and mid-November (additional records: one for early May and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; shaded rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; canyon bottoms; bouldery and rocky talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock buttes; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; silty plains; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; rocky draws; gulches; ravines; along creeks; river beds; along and in sandy washes; in drainage ways; along the sandy banks of arroyos, streams and washes; gravel bars; terraces; clayey bottom lands; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, pebbly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils; gravelly clay, silty clay and clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Arizona Cottontop may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase), 46 (Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase), 48, 58, 63 (011808), 77, 85 (051108), 89 (recorded as Panicum saccharatum Buckl.), 105 (Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase)*

 

Digitaria insularis (C. Linnaeus) C.C. Mez ex E.A. Ekman: Sourgrass

SYNONYMY: Trichachne insularis (C. Linnaeus) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck. COMMON NAMES: Cotton Grass, Feather Grass, Plumerillo Café (Hispanic), Sourgrass, Zacate Mano Punta Café (Hispanic), Zacate Taiwan (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 2 to 5 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being green, flowering generally takes place in August and November (flowering record: one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hilltops; rocky slopes; gravelly plains; bouldery-sandy and rocky flats; roadsides; arroyos; draws; drainage ways; rocky and sandy flood plains; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-sandy, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,100 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 30, 33 (Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees. - Sourgrass is reported as being unpalatable and avoided by cattle in the West Indies where it is common.), 46 (Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (051108), 77, 85 (051108)*

 

Digitaria sanguinalis (C. Linnaeus) J.A. Scopoli: Hairy Crabgrass

COMMON NAMES: Common Crabgrass, Crab Grass, Crabgrass, Hairy Crab Grass, Hairy Crabgrass, Large Crabgrass, Purple Crabgrass, Redhair Crabgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 52 inches in height), flowering record: one for mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; meadows; foothills; hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; sandy flats; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; draws; seeps; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; creek bottoms; along rivers; along and in sandy washes; drainage ways; sandy and silty banks of creeks and washes; edges of depressions and lakes; flood plains; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,100 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Large Crabgrass is sometimes confused with another exotic species, Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a species of similar general appearance. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 58, 63 (051108), 68, 85 (051108), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene: Saltgrass

SYNONYMY: Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene var. stricta (J. Torrey) F. Lamson-Scribner, Distichlis stricta (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Coastal Saltgrass, Desert Saltgrass, Inland Saltgrass, XoKásxK (Seri), Marsh Spikegrass, Saltgrass, Seashore Saltgrass, Spicate Saltgrass, Spike Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a low-growing sodgrass generally 4 to 12 but may grow up to as much as 24 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-green, gray-green or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between May and October (flowering records: two for mid-June and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; sandy-loamy meadows; foothills; hillsides; rocky and gypsum slopes; sand hills; dunes; sandy, sandy-salty and alkaline flats; clayey valleys; around seeps; around springs; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; sandy, sandy-clayey and clayey river beds; salt playas; cienegas; coastal and tidal salt marshes; marshes; depressions; pozos in salt flats; sandy and clayey banks of streams, rivers and lakes; along beaches; sandy shores of lakes; alkali river flats; among saline playa flats; clayey bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; sandy edges of reservoirs; banks of canals; clayey ditches; clayey-loamy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; sandy loam, clay loam and loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level (-282) to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the plants are either male or female with populations often growing in female- or male-majority populations. *5, 6, 33 (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene var. stricta (Gray) Beetle), 46 (Distichlis stricta (Torr.) Rydb.), 48, 63 (051208), 68 (Distichlis stricta (Torr.) Rydb.)*, 85 (051208), 89, 101 (color photograph), 105 (Distichlis stricta (Torr.) Rydb.)*

 

Distichlis spicata var. stricta (see Distichlis spicata)

 

Distichlis stricta (see Distichlis spicata)

 

Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: Jungle Rice

SYNONYMY: Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link. COMMON NAMES: Arroz del Monte (Hispanic), Awnless Barnyard Grass, Junglegrass, Jungle Rice, Jungle-rice, Junglerice, Jungle Ricegrass, Leopard Grass, Tiger Grass; Watergrass, Zacate Pinto, Zacate Rayado, Zacate Tigre. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between February and November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; canyons; rocky hillsides; pockets of soil on rocky outcrops; gravelly-silty and silty flats; springs; stream beds; along creeks; bouldery-cobbly-sandy river beds; marsh land; swales, along banks of rivers and drainage ways; around pools; shores of lakes; loamy bottom land; rocky and sandy flood plains; around and in stock tanks; shores of reservoirs; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas often growing in wet or damp ground in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky and sandy soils; loam soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33 (Echinocloa colonum (L.) Link), 46 (Echinocloa colonum (L.) Link), 56, 57, 63 (051308), 68 (Echinocloa colonum (L.) Link), 77, 85 (051308), 89 (also recorded as Echinochloa colona (L.) Link var. zonale (Guss.) Dewey), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Echinochloa colona var. zonale (see footnote 89 under Echinochloa colona) 

 

Echinochloa colonum (see Echinochloa colona)

 

Echinochloa crus-galli (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Barnyardgrass

COMMON NAMES: Barnyard Grass, Barnyardgrass, Cockspur, Common Barnyard Grass, Grama Morada (Hispanic), Japanese Millet, Large Barnyard Grass, Mexican Barnyard Grass, Pasto Alemán (Hispanic), Pasto Mijillo (Hispanic) Watergrass, Zacate de Agua (Hispanic), Zacate de Corral (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 83 inches in height and to 40 inches in diameter at base), flowering generally takes place between June and October (flowering may take place year round, flowering records: two for late July, two for late August and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; gravelly-sandy plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; loamy meadows; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst cobbles; sandy flats; along roadsides; along draws; gullies; ravines; seeps; springs; along banks of springs; along and in sandy streams; along and in rocky-sandy and sandy stream beds; along creeks; within creek beds; along rivers; cobbly-sandy and sandy river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; bogs; cienegas; marsh lands; swales; sandy-loamy and sandy banks of rivers and washes; edges of ponds; shores of ponds and lakes; sand bars; sandy beaches; sandy benches; alluvial terraces; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos) and reservoirs; along ditches; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam, humus-clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 30, 33, 46, 58, 63 (051308), 68, 80 (Barnyard Grass is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant “This annual grass has been reported to develop toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (051405, also recorded as Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. crus-galli), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Elymus elymoides (C.S. Rafinesque) G.D. Swezey: Squirreltail

COMMON NAMES: Alkali Rye, Barb Goatgrass, Beardless Wild Rye, Bottle Brush, Bottle Brush Grass, Bottlebrush Squirreltail, Bottlebrush Squirrel Tail, Creeping Wild Rye, Squaw Grass, Squirrel Tail, Squirreltail, Western Bottle-brush Grass, Zee’iilwo’ii Ntsaaigii (Navajo). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 3 to 40 inches in height, plants 1 to 16 inches in width at the base have been reported), the foliage is green, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; sandy-clayey-loamy mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon rims; canyon bottoms; rocky and clayey talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; rocky ledges; ridges; ridgelines; ridge tops; clearings in forests; rocky-silty, sandy and loamy meadows; foothills; rocky hills; sandy hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly-loamy, rocky-sandy, rocky-loamy, shaley, gravelly, sandy and clayey-silty slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; sandy alcoves; sand dunes; gravelly flats; rocky basins; sandy-silty valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along cindery roadsides; sandy alcoves; arroyos; draws; gulches; rocky gullies; seeps; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; rocky creek beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; in rocky drainage ways; along gravelly and sandy banks; benches; terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; fence lines; along ditches; riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas sometimes in the protection or shade of bushes, shrubs or trees in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, shaley, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-gravelly loam, rocky-clayey loam, stony-clayey loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam, clayey loam, humus loam and loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and rocky silty, sandy silty, clayey silty and silty soils, occurring from 2,200 to 11,500 feet in elevation in the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey (Sitanion hystrix J.G. Smith) subsp. elymoides), 46 (subsp. elymoides - Sitanion hystrix J.G. Smith, “The mature awns penetrate the flesh of grazing animals, causing inflammation.”), 48, 58, 63 (011808), 68, 77, 85 (051508)*

 

Elymus elymoides (C.S. Rafinesque) G.D. Swezey subsp. elymoides: Squirreltail

SYNONYMY: Sitanion hystrix (T. Nuttall) J.G. Smith. COMMON NAMES: Alkali Rye, Beardless Wild Rye, Bottlebrush Squirreltail, Common Squirreltail, Creeping Wild Rye, Squaw Grass, Squirreltail. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; meadows; hills; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; gravelly flats; sand dunes; gullies; springs; edges of cienegas; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas in rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,600 to 11,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46 (Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Smith, “The mature awns penetrate the flesh of grazing animals, causing inflammation.”), 63 (011808), 85 (051508)*

 

Elymus triticoides (see Leymus triticoides)

 

Enneapogon desvauxii N.A. Desvaux ex A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Nineawn Pappusgrass

COMMON NAMES: Feather Pappusgrass, Nineawn Pappusgrass, Spike Pappusgrass, Wright Pappusgrass, Zacate Ladera, Zacate Lobero. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clump grass) 4 to 20 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green or light green, the flowers grayish-green or purplish, flowering generally takes place in summer and fall between early August and early October (additional record: one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; cliffs; sandy rims; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; along bases of cliffs; knolls; bouldery ledges; ridges, ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky, gravelly and clay hills; gravelly hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-loamy, gravelly and sandy slopes; bedrock and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; plains; debris fans at mouths of canyons; gravelly flats, along roadsides; rocky arroyo bottoms; gulches; along stream beds; rocky washes; drainage ways; depressions; debris fans; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and rocky-gravelly silty soils, occurring from 900 to 7,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider using in a mix with other grasses when over-seeding. *5, 6, 16, 15, 33, 46, 58, 63 (122207), 77, 85 (051508), 89 (recorded as Pappophorum wrightii Wats.), 105 (“This grass seems to be rather short-lived for a perennial. However, it is a prolific seeder and re-establishes rapidly and abundantly during seasons of good rainfall”)*

 

Eragrostis barrelieri J.A. Daveau: Mediterranean Lovegrass

COMMON NAME: Mediterranean Lovegrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 24 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being lead-green, flowering generally takes place between early April and early October (flowering records: one for early April, one for late May and one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; canyons; rocky and gravelly hills; gravelly slopes; rock outcrops; sandy flats; along gravelly and sandy roadsides; rocky gullies; along streams; along creeks; in washes; pebbly drainage ways; banks of rivers; edges of playas; sand bars; sandy flood plains; within ditches; waste places, and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, pebbly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 63 (051508), 77, 85 (051508)*

 

Eragrostis cilianensis (C. Allioni) F. Vignolo-Lutati ex E.E. Janchen: Stinkgrass

SYNONYMY: Eragrostis megastachya (G.L. Koeler) J.H. Link. COMMON NAMES: Amoresco (Hispanic), Candy Grass, Candy-grass, Candygrass, Éragrostide Fétide, Lovegrass, Stink Grass, Stinkgrass, Stinking Lovegrass, Strong-scented Lovegrass, Strongscented Lovegrass, Watergrass, Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Borreguero (Hispanic), Zacate de Amor Hediondo (Hispanic), Zacate Estepario (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (a bunchgrass 4 to 36 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green to light green, the spikelets white or whitish with green veins turning tawny with age, flowering generally takes place between late May and late November (flowering records: one for late May, one for early August, two for mid-August, two for late August, one for early September, five for mid-September, four for late September and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; gravelly and sandy canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; sandy meadows; knolls; ledges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly, rocky-gravelly, gravelly-sandy-loamy, gravelly-loamy, sandy-clayey, loamy and clayey slopes; rocky outcrops; between rocks; coves; plains; sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; seeps; along streams; along and in cobbly-sandy stream beds; along creeks; along and in gravelly, sandy and silty-clayey washes; drainage ways; cienegas; marsh lands; bedrock depressions; silty swales; rocky-sandy, sandy and sandy loamy banks of rivers and washes; sandy edges of ponds, lakes and marshes; sand bars; benches; terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around and in stock tanks (charcos, repressos); sandy ditches; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, cobbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, clayey-hums loam and loam soils, and sandy clay, silty clay and clay soils; occurring from sea level to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33 (Eragrostis megastachya (Koel.) Link), 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (051608), 68, 77, 80 (This plant is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This annual grass was reported to cause poisoning in horses when fed in large quantities over a long period of time.”), 85 (051808), 89 (recorded as Eragrostis megastachya (Koeler) Link), 101 (color photograph), 105 (Eragrostis megastachya (Koel.) Link)*

 

Eragrostis echinochloidea O. Stapf: African Lovegrass

COMMON NAME: African Lovegrass, Lovegrass, Tickgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 12 to 40 inches in height), the color of the spikelets has been described as being greenish to lead (flowering record: one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bedrock canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; foothills; hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy plains; flats; along roadsides; stream beds; along washes; swales; sandy banks of washes and drainage ways; flood plains; mesquite bosques; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (051808), 77, 85 (051808)*

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass

COMMON NAMES: Lehman Lovegrass, Lehmann Lovegrass, Lehmann’s Lovegrass, Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 8 to 48 inches in height), the foliage is bright green or yellow-green curing to a dull yellow, the spikelets are grayish-green or straw colored, flowering generally takes place between early July and mid-October (flowering records: one for early July, one for mid-August, one for early September, one for early October and one for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; along canyon bottoms; gravelly ridges; meadows; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-loamy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; gravelly plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along roadsides; along arroyos; springs; along and in stream beds; along creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; along gravelly and sandy washes; drainage ways; depressions; along banks of rivers; sandy beaches; cobbly-sandy benches; travertine clefts; lake shores; terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 700 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (121607), 77, 85 (051808), 105*

 

Eragrostis megastachya (see Eragrostis cilianensis) 

 

Eragrostis mexicana (J.W. Hornemann) J.H. Link subsp. mexicana: Mexican Lovegrass

SYNONYMY: Eragrostis neomexicana G. Vasey ex L.H. Dewey. COMMON NAMES: Mexican Lovegrass, New Mexican Lovegrass New Mexico Lovegrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 48 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between July and October (flowering record: one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; pockets of soil on rocky outcrops; flats; along roadsides; draws; gulches; springs; stream beds; in sandy washes; terraces; mesquite bosques; around edges of charcos; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas sometimes reported as occurring in the shade of shrubs, trees and rock faces in rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 33 (Eragrostis neomexicana Vasey), 46 (Eragrostis neomexicana Vasey), 63 (051808), 85 (051808), 89 (recorded as Eragrostis neo-mexicana Vasey)*

 

Eragrostis neomexicana (see Eragrostis mexicana subsp. mexicana)

 

Eragrostis pectinacea (A. Michaux) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck ex E.G. von Steudel: Tufted Lovegrass

COMMON NAMES: Carolina Lovegrass, Éragrostide Pectinée, Ihta Zaa (Mixteco), Pasto de Semillas de Pajarito (Hispanic), Purple Love Grass, Purple Lovegrass, Spreading Lovegrass, Tufted Lovegrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the spikelets has been described as being lead-green, flowering generally takes place between July and November (flowering records: one for mid-August, two for late August, three for mid-September, two for late September and one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; along talus slopes; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; bouldery-rocky, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-loamy and sandy-loamy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; along railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; arroyos; sandy-silty arroyo bottoms; draws; gulches; sandy ravines; springs; along streams; along and in sandy stream beds; along gravelly-sandy creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in bouldery-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; in sandy, sandy silty and silty drainage ways; dry ephemeral pools; lake beds; playas; cienegas; marsh land; sandy silty and silty depressions; clayey swales; sandy edges of marshes; edges of arroyos, rivers and washes; sandy and sandy-loamy banks of streams and washes; edges of ponds; along shores of pools and lakes; cobbly sand bars; sandy beaches; gravelly terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; sandy edges of tanks and reservoirs; in stock ponds; gravelly and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, bouldery-sandy, rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and hums-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 58, 63 (052008), 77, 85 (051908)*

 

Eragrostis pilosa (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Indian Lovegrass

COMMON NAMES: Éragrostide Poilue, India Lovegrass, Indian Love Grass, Indian Lovegrass, Perplexed Lovegrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 28 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons; slopes; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; sandy creek beds; waste places, and disturbed areas in sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 63 (052008), 85 (052008), 89*

 

Eriochloa acuminata (J.S. Presl) K.S. Kunth: Tapertip Cupgrass

COMMON NAMES: Cupgrass, Southwestern Cupgrass, Tapertip Cup Grass, Tapertip Cupgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 48 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between June and October (flowering records: two for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain sides; rocky canyons; bedrock canyon bottoms; talus slopes; sandy meadows; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, sandy, rocky-loamy, loamy and clayey slopes; bedrock outcrops; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; draws; gulches; seeps; along streams; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; pools; depressions; along banks of rivers and drainage ways; edges of ponds; alluvial terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; edges of stock ponds; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam, humus-clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,100 to 9,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 33 (Eriochloa lemmoni Vasey & Scribn. var. gracilis (Fourn.) Gould.), 46 (Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) Hitchc.), 63 (052008), 68 (Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) Hitchc.), 101 (color photograph, Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) A.S. Hitchc.), 85 (052008)*

 

Eriochloa acuminata (J.S. Presl) K.S. Kunth var. acuminata: Tapertip Cupgrass

SYNONYMY: Eriochloa gracilis (E.P. Fournier) A.S. Hitchcock, Eriochloa lemmonii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner var. gracilis (E.P. Fournier) F.W. Gould. COMMON NAMES: Cupgrass, Southwestern Cupgrass, Tapertip Cupgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green, flowering generally takes place between June and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; hills; rocky and loamy slopes; bedrock outcrops; amongst boulders; flats; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; draws; seeps; along streams; along and in washes; rocky drainage ways; pools; banks of rivers; edges of ponds; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky and sandy soils and rocky loam, humus-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 1,100 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Eriochloa lemmoni Vasey & Scribn. var. gracilis (Fourn.) Gould.), 46 (Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) Hitchc.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (052008), 68 (Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) Hitchc.), 77, 85 (052008), 101 (color photograph, Eriochloa gracilis (Fourn.) A.S. Hitchc.)*

 

Eriochloa aristata G. Vasey: Bearded Cupgrass

SYNONYMY: Eriochloa aristata G. Vasey var. aristata. COMMON NAMES: Awned Cup Grass, Bearded Cupgrass, Zacate Taza Aristida. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between July and October (flowering record: one for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyon bottoms; sandy plains; sandy and sandy-silty flats; valley bottoms; along roadsides; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in sandy washes; swampy areas; depressions; swales; sandy edges of washes; along banks of streams and rivers; margins of sloughs; terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; around and in charcos; along ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 57, 63 (052008), 85 (052008)*

 

Eriochloa aristata var. aristata (see Eriochloa aristata)

 

Eriochloa gracilis (see Eriochloa acuminata var. acuminata)

 

Eriochloa lemmonii var. gracilis (see Eriochloa acuminata var. acuminata)

 

Erioneuron pulchellum (see Dasyochloa pulchellah)

 

Festuca megalura (see Vulpia myuros)

 

Festuca myuros (see Vulpia myuros)

 

Festuca octoflora (see Vulpia octoflora var. octoflora)

 

Festuca octoflora var. hirtella (see Vulpia octoflora var. hirtella) 

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Tanglehead

SYNONYMY: Andropogon contortus C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Barba Negra, Common Tangleweed, Piligrass (Hawaii), Tangelhead, Tangle-head, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 8 to 60 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green curing to orange-brown, flowering generally takes place between January and early May and again between August and early November (flowering records: one for late February, one for early May, one for mid-September and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; cliffs; along rocky canyons; along canyon walls; along bouldery and gravelly canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rocky ridges; bouldery ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly-clayey hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; sandy plains; gravelly flats; along roadsides; along and in rocky arroyos; along draws; gullies; ravines; around seeping streams; stream beds; creek beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in rocky and sandy drainage ways; edges of washes; banks of streams; around pools; terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 100 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 63 (052108), 77, 85 (052108), 89 (recorded as Andropogon contortus), 105 (Reports that Tanglehead Grass “is one of the easiest grasses to establish under conditions of low rainfall.”)*

 

Hilaria belangeri (E.G. von Steudel) G.V. Nash: Curly-mesquite

COMMON NAMES: Common Curlymesquite, Creeping Curly-mesquite, Curly Mesquite, Curlymesquite, Curly Mesquite Grass, Curlymesquite Grass, Southwestern Buffalo Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a sodgrass 4 to 14 inches in height, plants to 4 inches in width at the base have been reported), the plants are bluish-green curing to white in color, inflorescences are green, dark red-purple or purplish, the awns are purple, flowering generally takes place between early August and early November (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; ridgelines; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly and clayey slopes; gravelly bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along roadsides; along arroyos; along streams; along creeks; along and in gravelly washes; in drainage ways; depressions; swales; banks of washes; benches and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; bouldery-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, depending upon the variety this plant may be (var. belangeri) or may not be (var. longifolia) soloniferous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 63 (011908), 85 (052108), 89 (recorded as Hilaria cenchroides H.B.K. var. longifolia Vasey), 105 (Curly Mesquite, a palatable and nutritious grass, may be used as an indicator plant of range conditions. Where Curly Mesquite is abundant in comparison to other high-volume production grasses the stocking load should be reduced, sound range management is indicated where high-volume production grasses are abundant or increasing.)*

 

Hilaria belangeri (E.G. von Steudel) G.V. Nash var. belangeri: Curly-mesquite

COMMON NAMES: Common Curlymesquite, Creeping Curly-mesquite, Curly Mesquite, Curly Mesquite Grass, Southwestern Buffalo Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a sodgrass 4 to 14 inches in height, plants to 4 inches in width at the base have been reported), the plants are bluish-green curing to white in color, inflorescences are green, dark red-purple or purplish, the awns are purple, flowering generally takes place between early August and early November (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; ridgelines; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along roadsides; along arroyos; along streams; along creeks; along and in gravelly washes; in drainage ways; depressions; swales; banks of washes; benches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; bouldery-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, this variety is stoloniferous. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 48, 58, 63 (011908), 85 (062208), 105 (Curly Mesquite, a palatable and nutritious grass, may be used as an indicator plant of range conditions. Where Curly Mesquite is abundant in comparison to other high-volume production grasses the stocking load should be reduced, sound range management is indicated where high-volume production grasses are abundant or increasing.)*

 

Hilaria cenchroides var. longifolia (see footnote 89 under Hilaria belangeri)

 

Hilaria mutica (see Pleuraphis mutica)

 

Hopia obtusa (see Panicum obtusum)

 

Hordeum leporinum (see Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum)

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus: Mouse Barley

COMMON NAMES: Barley, Bulbous Barley, Mouse Barley, Wild Barley. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 44 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between mid-March and October (flowering records: one for mid-March, one for late March, one for late April, ten for mid-May and two for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; gravelly canyons; rocky-gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; buttes; meadows; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, cobbly-gravelly-loamy and loamy slopes; sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; gulches; springs; along streams; along creeks; loamy creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; cienegas; depressions; edges of seeps, creek beds and river; edges of ponds; banks of arroyos, rivers and washes; channel bars; along sandy and silty flood plains; around stock tanks; along ditches; banks of ditches; gravelly and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 63 (052108), 85 (052108), 89*

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus subsp. glaucum (E.G. von Steudel) N.N. Tzvelev: Smooth Barley

SYNONYMY: Hordeum stebbinsii G. Covas. COMMON NAMES: Barley, Smooth Barley, Wild Barley, -ya-jewel-g-ute- (Hairs Kills Horses - Supai). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height), the florets are green, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May (flowering records: one for mid-March, one for late March, one for late April, ten for mid-May and two for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; gravelly canyons; rocky-gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; buttes; meadows; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, cobbly-gravelly-loamy and loamy slopes; sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; gulches; springs; along streams; along creeks; loamy creek beds; along and in rocky and gravelly-sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; cienegas; depressions; edges of seeps, creek beds and rivers, banks of arroyos and rivers; channel bars; along sandy and silty flood plains; around stock tanks; along ditches; banks of ditches; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,100 feet in elevations in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46 (Hordeum stebbinsii Covas), 56, 57, 58, 63 (052108), 77, 85 (052108)*

 

Hordeum pusillum T. Nuttall: Little Barley

SYNONYMY: Hordeum pusillum T. Nuttall var. pubens A.S. Hitchock. COMMON NAMES: Little Barley, Little Wildbarley, Mouse Barley. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 24 inches in height), the foliage is gray-green turning yellow-green, the inflorescence is yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and June (flowering records: one for mid-March,  two for early April and one for late April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyon rims; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ridge tops; sandy meadows; rocky hillsides; rocky, clayey-loamy and clayey slopes; sandy alcoves; gravelly flats; railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly and sandy-loamy roadsides; draws; gulches; ravines; seeps; around springs; stream beds; along creeks; in creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in washes; among and in pools; cienegas; clayey depressions; clayey swales; edges of marsh lands; shores of lakes; sandy benches; clayey bottom lands; flood plains; along fence lines; around stock tanks; ditches; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,500 to 8,100 in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 64 (052308), 77, 85 (052308), 89*

 

Hordeum pusillum T. Nuttall var. pubens (see Hordeum pusillum)

 

Hordeum stebbinsii (see Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum)

 

Hordeum vulgare C. Linnaeus: Common Barley

COMMON NAMES: Barley, Cereal Barley, Common Barley, Little Barley, Orge, Orge Vulgaire, Siivayu (Pima). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (40 to 60 inches in height), flowering record: one for late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; hillsides; along gravelly roadsides; springs; in river beds; in drainage ways; sandy banks of rivers; flood plains; around ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from 900 to 9,900 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 33 (note), 46 (supplement page 1041), 56, 57, 63 (052308), 80 (This plant is listed as a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant. “Barley infected with the fungus Giberella (scabby barley) has poisoned hogs, but ruminants appear immune. Also plants accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (052408)*

 

Lamarckia aurea (C. Linnaeus) C. Moench: Goldentop Grass

COMMON NAMES: Golden Top, Golden-top, Goldentop, Goldentop Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 16 inches in height), flowering records: two for early April, one for mid-April and two for late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountaintops; mesas; rocky canyons; chasms; buttes; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; roadsides; along streams; stream beds; creeks; in sandy washes; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,100 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 63 (052408), 77, 85 (052408), 89*

 

Leptochloa fascicularis (see Leptochloa fusca subsp. fascicularis)

 

Leptochloa filiformis (see Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata)

 

Leptochloa fusca (C. Linnaeus) K.S. Kunth subsp. fascicularis (J.B. de Lamarck) N. Snow: Bearded Sprangletop

SYNONYMY: Leptochloa fascicularis (J.B. de Lamarck) A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Beaded Sprangletop, Bearded Sprangletop, Salt Meadow Grass, Salt Meadowgrass, Salt Sprangletop. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 60 inches in height), the color of the inflorescence has been described as being pale green, flowering generally takes place between June and November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky slopes; flats; seeps; along and in sandy streams; stream beds; along rivers; in drainage ways; around pools, ponds and lakes; playas; cienegas; marshes; depressions; sloughs; swales; along banks of rivers; around pools; along fence lines; around and in stock tanks (charcos) and reservoirs; along ditches; ditch banks; riparian areas, and waste places usually growing in association with damp, moist or wet ground in sandy soils; humus-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) A. Gray), 46 (Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) Gray), 56, 57, 63 (052408), 68 (Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) Gray), 77, 85 (052508)*

 

Leptochloa fusca (C. Linnaeus) K.S. Kunth subsp. uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase: Mexican Sprangletop

SYNONYMY: Leptochloa uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase. COMMON NAMES: Mexican Sprangletop, Sprangletop. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (6 to 44 inches in height and to 20 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-green or gray-green, the inflorescence gray-green, flowering generally takes place between late May and October (flowering records: one for late May and one for late June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; foothills; rocky slopes; flats; roadsides; springs; along streams; stream beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; sandy banks of pools and sand tanks; along banks of streams; sandy beaches; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; along and in ditches; along ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas usually growing in association with damp, moist or wet ground in rocky and sandy soils; loamy soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 100 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 33 (Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase), 46 (Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase), 63 (052408), 68 (Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase), 77, 85 (052508), 89 (recorded as Leptochloa imbricata Thurb.), 101 (color photograph, Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase)*

 

Leptochloa imbricata (see footnote 89 under Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia)

 

Leptochloa mucronata (see Leptochloa panicea subsp. mucronata)

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. brachiata E.G. von Steudel) N. Snow: Mucronate Sprangletop

SYNONYMY: Leptochloa filiformis (J.B. de Lamarck) A.M. Palisot de Beauvpis. COMMON NAMES: Mucronate Sprangletop, Red Sprangletop. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (4 to 60 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being magenta or purple, flowering generally takes place between May and September (flowering records: two for late August, one for early September and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus slopes; buttes; ridge tops; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-loamy slopes; bajadas; bouldery and rocky outcrops; silty lava flows; flats; valleys; along roadsides; arroyos; draws; along streams; along cobbly-sandy stream beds; along creeks; bouldery-cobbly-sandy river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy, sandy-loamy and silty washes; in clayey drainage ways; playas; rocky banks of washes; edges of ponds; bosques; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; around stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16 (Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv.), 33 (Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv.), 46 (Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv.), 58, 63 (030507), 68, 77, 85 (052508), 89 (recorded as Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv.)*

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. mucronata (A. Michaux) R. Nowack: Mucronate Sprangletop

SYNONYMY: Leptochloa mucronata (A. Michaux) H.B. Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Desparramo Rojo, Mississippi Sprangletop, Mucronate Sprangletop, Slendergrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (4 to 44 inches in height), flowering records: one for mid-August, one for early September and one for mid-November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyon bottoms; chasms; ledges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and rocky-clayey slopes; sandy-silty flats; valley bottoms; gravelly roadsides; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy, sandy and silty washes; silty swampy areas; sandy-silty and silty depressions; banks of streams; benches; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; along ditches; banks of ditches; around stock tanks (charcos, repressos); gravelly riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,600 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33 (Leptochloa mucronata pulchella Scribn., brief note on page 135), 63 (030507), 85 (052608)*

 

Leptochloa uninervia (see Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia)

 

Leptochloa viscida (F.L. Scribner) W.J. Beal: Sticky Sprangletop

COMMON NAMES: Sonoran Sprangletop, Sticky Sprangletop, Zacate Salado Pagajoso. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 24 inches in height), the color of the florets has been described as being reddish, flowering generally takes place between June and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky slopes; valleys; roadsides; rivulets; streams; sandy river beds; in sandy washes; in sandy drainage ways; playas; marsh land; edges of ponds; edges of cienegas; clayey depressions; swales; clayey-loamy swales; along margins of washes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around and in stock tanks (charcos, repressos); riparian areas, and waste places often growing in damp or wet ground in rocky and sandy soils; sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 33, 46, 56, 57, 63 (052608), 85 (052608), 89*

 

Leymus triticoides (S.B. Buckley) R.K. Pilger: Beardless Wildrye

SYNONYMY: Elymus triticoides S.B. Buckley. COMMON NAMES: Beardless Lyme Grass, Beardless Wildrye, Creeping Wildrye. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 to 50 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green, flowering generally takes place between early May and October (flowering records: one for early May and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon rims; canyons; talus; rocky ledges; meadows; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; valleys; draws; seeps; along sandy streams; along creeks; sandy-loamy river beds; along washes; cienegas; sandy-loamy and sandy-clayey banks of creeks, rivers and washes; alluvial terraces; flood plains, and riparian areas in sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the forest woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33 (Elymus triticoides Buckl.), 46 (Elymus triticoides Buckl.), 58, 63 (052608), 85 (052608), 89 (recorded as Elymus triticoides Buckley)*

 

Lolium temulentum C. Linnaeus (subsp. temulentum is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Darnel Ryegrass

COMMON NAMES: Darnel, Darnel Ryegrass, Poison Darnel. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 48 inches in height), flowering generally takes place in the spring. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs; amongst boulders; roadsides; river beds; along ditches; banks of ditches, and disturbed areas in bouldery soils, occurring from 100 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 63 (052608), 80 (This species has been listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. This grass has “been suspected of being toxic to man and livestock, directly or through fungus contamination, but evidence is not conclusive.”), 85 (052608), 89*

 

Melinis repens (C.L. von Willdenow) G. Zizka: Rose Natal Grass

SYNONYMY: Rhynchelytrum repens (C.L. von Willdenow) C.E. Hubbard, Rhynchelytrum roseum (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) O. Stapf & C.E. Hubbard ex J.W. Bews. COMMON NAMES: Creeping Molasses Grass, Natal Grass, Natal Redtop, Pasto (Hispanic), Red Natal Grass, Rose Natal Grass, Zacate Natal (Hispanic), Zacate Rosado (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (8 to 60 inches in height), the color of the inflorescences has been described as being brownish-pink, pink, darkish purple, purplish-pink, rose or white, flowering generally takes place between July and early December (flowering records: one for mid-February, one for early April, three for early October and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky canyons; along gravelly canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky and rocky gravelly slopes; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; valleys; along roadsides; along streams; rocky stream beds; along creeks; along and in rocky and sandy washes; drainage ways; depressions; swales; banks of streams and drainage ways; terraces; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 18, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33 (Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & Hubb.), 46 (Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & Hubb.), 56, 57, 63 (052608), 77, 85 (052608)*

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Littleseed Muhly

COMMON NAMES: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Little-seed Muhly, Littleseed Muhly. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height/length), the color of the spikelets has been described as being purplish, flowering generally takes place between March and May (flowering records: two for late March, one for late April, one for early May, two for mid-May, one for mid-September and one for mid-December, plants in flower have reportedly been collected in all months except for June and July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; sandy and sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; scree; along bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ledges, rocky ridges; margins of meadows; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava bluffs; lava slopes; along lava slides; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal plains; along railroad right-of-ways; sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; springs; along streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainage ways; gravelly-sandy tinajas; along gravelly-sandy banks; benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks (charcos); rocky margins of reservoirs; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas and disturbed areas in gravelly desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This grass sometimes forms dense mound-like colonies. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 63 (052708), 77, 85 (052708), 89*

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush Muhly

COMMON NAMES: Bakú (Tarahumara), Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Hoe Grass, Liendrilla Amacollada (Hispanic), Mesquite Grass, Mesquitegrass, Porter’s Muhlenbergia, Telaraña (Hispanic), Zacate Aparejo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 10 to 44 inches in length and 18 inches to 10 feet in width, several plants were described as being 3 feet in height and 10 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being a dull green, the leaves green, purplish-green or yellow-green curing to buff, flowering generally takes place between late February and late October, the seed heads are purplish covering the plant in a misty shroud. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and stony-sandy mountainsides; mesas; rocky cliffs; bouldery and rocky canyons; rocky canyon sides; gravelly canyon bottoms; gorges; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; buttes; sandy-silty and silty ledges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; along bouldery, rocky, rocky-loamy, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; alcoves; lava fields; dune-like areas of fine blow sand; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; valley bottoms; rocky and gravelly roadsides; rocky arroyos; gulches; ravines; bouldery stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery-cobbly and rocky drainage ways; around ponds; gravelly-sandy banks; sandy-silty and silty benches; gravelly terraces; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing in the protection of shrubs and trees in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-clayey loam, cobbly-sandy loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. In areas where it occurs naturally, consider including Bush Muhly seed in all reseeding mixtures. According to the USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System, Bush Muhly germinates best when temperatures are at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Centigrade). When re-vegetating desert washes consider planting Bush Muhly along with Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Limberbush (Jatropha cardiophylla), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea) and White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa). Bush Muhly is browsed by the Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana). *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 63 (052708), 77, 85 (052708), 89, 105 (“This was formerly one of the most abundant and important grasses of southern Arizona, but is found now largely as individual plants under the protection of shrubs. ... Where possible this grass should be allowed to set a full crop of seed during the summer growing season at least every second or third year. Deferment of grazing during July and August every year is recommended on run-down ranges.”), WTK (August 2005)*

 

Panicum C. Linnaeus: Panicgrass 

                COMMON NAME: Panicgrass *63 (052808), 89*

 

Panicum antidotale A.J. Retzius: Blue Panicum

COMMON NAMES: Blue Panic, Blue Panicgrass, Blue Panicum, Giant Panic Grass, Giant Panicum. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 20 inches to 10 feet in height and to 40 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage is bluish-green to pale green, the florets are purplish or reddish, flowering generally takes place between early and late September - possibly longer (flowering records: two for early September and two for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; flats; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; along rivers; river beds; along sandy washes; sandy benches; shallow depressions; banks; sandy terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 22 (color photograph bottom of page 25), 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (052708), 80 (Species of the genus Panicum are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Species of this genus have been reported to cause loss in livestock due to photosensitization and nitrate poisoning. This plant is also listed as a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant, severe losses from pulmonary emphysema and edema have been reported in Texas from grazing fertilized and irrigated pastures of this introduced, perennial grass, but no losses have been reported from it in Arizona.), 85 (052708), 105*

 

Panicum arizonicum (see Urochloa arizonica)

 

Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus: Witchgrass

SYNONYMY: Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus var. occidentale P.A. Rydberg. COMMON NAMES: Annual Witchgrass, Common Panic Grass, Common Witchgrass, Old Witch Grass (a tumbleweed), Panic Capillaire, Panicgrass, Ticklegrass, Tumble Panic, Tumbleweed Grass, Witches Hair, Witchgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 60 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish, purplish or yellow-green, the inflorescences green-purple, reddish-purple or whitish, flowering generally takes place between May and October (flowering records: two for mid-August, one for late August, one for early September, one for late September and one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; chasms; crevices in rocks; ledges; openings in forests; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky and gravelly slopes; prairies; amongst boulders; sandy plains; sandy flats; roadsides; seeps; around and in springs; gulches; along streams; gravelly stream beds; creeks; sandy creek beds; along rivers; along and in sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; playa lake bottoms; marsh lands; bedrock and sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; along margins of creeks; rocky shores of lakes; sandy beaches; alluvial terraces; sandy flood plains; ditches; cobbly riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas usually growing in moist ground in rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46 (Panicum capillare L. var. occidentale Rydb.), 63 (052708)68, 80 (Species of the genus Panicum are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Species of this genus have been reported to cause loss in livestock due to photosensitization and nitrate poisoning.), 85 (052708), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Panicum capillare var. occidentale (see Panicum capillare)

 

Panicum capillare var. stramineum (see Panicum hirticaule var. stramineum)

 

Panicum fasciculatum (see Urochloa fusca)

 

Panicum fasciculatum var. reticulatum (see Urochloa fusca)

 

Panicum fuscum (see footnote 89 under Urochloa fusca)

 

Panicum hirticaule J.S. Presl: Mexican Panicgrass

COMMON NAMES: Mexican Panicgrass, Roughstalk Witchgrass, Roughstalked Witchgrass, Witchgrass, Woodland Panic. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 44 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between June and early November (flowering records: one for early August, three for early September, one for mid-September, one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; gravelly canyons; gravelly and gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ridge tops; meadows; rocky foothills; rocky and rocky-loam hills; bedrock, rocky, rocky-gravelly and rocky-clayey hillsides; bouldery-rocky, rocky, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-loamy and sandy slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; soil pockets in bedrock outcrops; amongst boulders; bases of rocks; margins of dunes; sandy plains; rocky, sandy-loamy, clayey and sandy-silty flats; alluvial basins; valleys; valley bottoms; along railroad right-of-ways; along rocky-loamy roadsides; sandy draws; ravines; seeps; along streams; bouldery-sandy and gravelly-sandy stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy, clayey, silty-clayey and silty washes; in sandy and clayey drainage ways; clayey depressions; clayey-loamy swales; margins of sloughs; rocky-sandy banks of washes and drainage ways; clayey-loamy and silty swales; along margins of washes; sand bars; benches; rocky shelves; along gravelly-sandy and sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; rocky clay, gravelly clay, silty clay and clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 58, 63 (052708), 80 (Species of the genus Panicum are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Species of this genus have been reported to cause loss in livestock due to photosensitization and nitrate poisoning.), 85 (052808), 89 (recorded as Panicum hirticaulum Presl)*

 

Panicum hirticaule J.S. Presl var. stramineum (A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase) A.A. Beetle: Sonoran Panicgrass

SYNONYMY: Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus var. stramineum (A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase) F.W. Gould, Panicum stramineum A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase. COMMON NAMES: Sonoran Panicgrass, Witchgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 36 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between August and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy plains; clayey flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; rivers; along washes; clayey depressions; margins of sloughs; bottom lands; ditches, and disturbed areas in clay soils, occurring from 1,400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 30 (sp.), 33 (Panicum capillare L. var. stramineum (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould), 46 (Panicum stramineum Hitchc. & Chase), 56, 57, 58, 63 (052708), 80 (Species of the genus Panicum are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Species of this genus have been reported to cause loss in livestock due to photosensitization and nitrate poisoning.), 85 (052808)*

 

Panicum hirticaulum (see footnote 89 under Panicum hirticaule)

 

Panicum obtusum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Vine Mesquite

SYNONYMY: Hopia obtusa (K.S. Kunth) F.O. Zuloaga & O. Morrone. COMMON NAMES: Grapevine Mesquite, Vine Mesquite, Vine-mesquite, Vine Mesquite Grass, Vine-mesquite Grass, Wiregrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a sodgrass 8 to 32 inches in length, with runners (stolons) 1 to 10 feet in length), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green or yellow-green curing to reddish-straw and then gray-tan, flowering generally takes place between May and late October (flowering records: one for mid-July, one for late July, one for mid-August and two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; gravelly ridges; sandy meadows; foothills; hillsides; gravelly and loamy slopes; sandy dunes; prairies; sandy-loamy flats; valleys; sandy-silty valley bottoms; along sandy roadsides; arroyos; rocky draws; gullies; ravines; seeps; springs; along streams; creeks; along rivers; along sandy river beds; in rocky and sandy washes; along rocky drainage ways; playas; depressions; clayey swales; cienegas; marsh lands; swampy areas; sandy and sandy-silty banks of arroyos, streams, rivers and washes; shores of lakes; benches; cobbly-sandy-silty terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; sandy margins of stock tanks (charcos); ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing in seasonally wet and moist ground in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and cobbly-sandy silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is useful in binding soils and controlling erosion. *5, 6, 33, 46, 48, 57, 58, 63 (052808)77, 80 (Species of the genus Panicum are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Species of this genus have been reported to cause loss in livestock due to photosensitization and nitrate poisoning.), 85 (052808), 89, 105*

 

Panicum saccharatum (see footnote 89 under Digitaria californica)

 

Panicum stramineum (see Panicum hirticaule var. stramineum)

 

Pappophorum apertum (see Pappophorum vaginatum) 

 

Pappophorum mucronulatum (see Pappophorum vaginatum) 

 

Pappophorum vaginatum S.B. Buckley: Whiplash Pappusgrass

SYNONYMY: Pappophorum apertum W. Munro ex F. Lamson-Scribner, Pappophorum mucronulatum auct. non C.G. Nees von Esenbeck. COMMON NAMES: Mucronulate Pappusgrass, Pappusgrass, Pima Pappusgrass, Whiplash Pappusgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 16 to 52 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green or light green, the inflorescences purple-tinged, flowering generally takes place between March and October (flowering record: one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; ridge tops; foothills; hillsides; rocky, sandy and clayey slopes; plains; gravelly and sandy-silty flats; basins; valleys; valley bottoms; along railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides, along sandy gullies; along and in washes; along drainage ways; depressions; along edges of washes; flood plains; sandy ditches, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 2,000 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Pappophorum mucronulatum Nees.), 46 (Pappophorum mucronulatum Nees.), 48, 56, 57, 63 (052908), 77, 85 (052908), 89 (recorded as Pappophorum apertum Munro), 105 (Pappophorum mucronulatum Nees.)*

 

Pappophorum wrightii (see footnote 89 under Enneapogon desvauxii) 

 

Paspalum distichum C. Linnaeus: Knotgrass

COMMON NAMES: Ditch Grass, Jointgrass, Ft. Thompsongrass, Knotgrass, Knotgrass Paspalum, Thompsongrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-June and November (flowering records: one for mid-June and one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; meadows; hillsides; sandy and sandy-loamy slopes; coves; dunes; prairies; mud flats; muddy basins; valleys; bottoms of draws; around and in springs; seeps; along and in streams; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy streambeds; along and in creeks; along and in rivers; sandy, sandy-loamy, silty-clayey and clayey river beds; around and in pools, ponds and lakes; cienegas; marsh lands; shores of ponds and lakes; edges of streams, creeks and rivers; sandy banks of rivers; beaches; alluvial terraces; sandy flood plains; around tanks and reservoirs; along and in ditches and sandy and sandy-loamy riparian areas often growing in shallow water and wet and moist ground in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and mucky soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and soil binder. This grass is used for food by ducks and Whitetail Deer. *5, 6, 33, 46, 58, 63 (052908), 85 (052908), 89*

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: Buffelgrass

SYNONYMY: Cenchrus ciliaris C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffel Grass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Cadillo Buffel (Hispanic), Huizapol (Hispanic), Sandbur, Zacate Buffle (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass from 4 inches to 5 feet in height), the leaves are green, the spikes are gray, reddish-brown, purple or yellowish turning a golden-brown when dry, flowering may take place several times a year when sufficient moisture is available (one record each for; mid-February, mid-April, early October, late October and late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; along rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; sandy plains; valleys; rocky roadsides; along arroyos; draws; ravines; springs; rocky river beds; along and in washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-silty loess soils, occurring from sea level to 7,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 63 (053008), 77, 85 (053008)*

 

Pennisetum ruppelii (see Pennisetum setaceum)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda: Crimson Fountaingrass

SYNONYMY: Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel. COMMON NAMES: African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Fountain-grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Tender Fountaingrass, Zacate de la Fuente. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass grass 1 to 5 feet in height, one clump noted as being 5 feet in height by 5 feet in width), the leaves are green, the spikes are green, purple, white or luminous yellow, flowering generally takes place from late March to mid-December), the fruits are purplish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ridges; swards; rocky foothills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders, rocks cobbles and gravels; flats; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; draws; along streams; along and in creeks; river beds; along and in washes; drainage ways; sandy edges of creeks; margins of pools; lake shores; sand bars; mesquite bosques; culverts; ditches; canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly, pebbly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 300 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22 (color photograph), 26 (color photograph), 33, 46, 63 (053008), 77, 85 (053008), 109*

 

Phalaris caroliniana T. Walter: Carolina Canarygrass

COMMON NAMES: Carolina Canary Grass, Carolina Canarygrass, Southern Canarygrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (10 to 60 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-green, flowering generally takes place between March and August (flowering records: one for early April and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; slopes; flats; valleys; along roadsides; bottoms of draws; along seeps; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; creeks; rivers; sandy and sandy-clayey river beds; along sandy washes; drainage ways; marshy areas; swampy areas; along edges of streams and creeks; bottom lands; around stock tanks; along and in ditches; banks of ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing in moist ground in gravelly and sandy soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (053008), 85 (053008), 89*

 

Phalaris minor A.J. Retzius: Littleseed Canarygrass

COMMON NAMES: Alpisillo, Alpiste Silvestre, Canarygrass, Lesser Canarygrass, Littleseed Canary Grass, Littleseed Canarygrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 48 inches in height), flowering generally takes place in April and May (flowering record: one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky and rocky-clayey slopes; plains; mud flats; valleys; along sandy and gravelly-loamy roadsides; along sandy arroyo bottoms; seeps; along river; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; drainage ways; depressions; sandy banks of rivers; along margins of pools and ponds; alluvial terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; edges of stock tanks; reservoirs; along ditches; banks of ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas growing in moist ground in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and rocky clay and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 63 (053008), 77, 85 (053108), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Phragmites australis (A.J. Cavanilles) C.B. Trinius ex E.G. von Steudel: Common Reed

SYNONYMY: Phragmites communis C.B. Trinius. COMMON NAMES: Carrizo, Common Reed, Danube Grass, Giant Reed Grass, Reed Grass, Roseau Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid subshrub or shrub (40 inches to 20 feet in height), flowering generally takes place between July (as early as May) and November (as late as January, flowering record: one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; meadows; hills; along sandy flats; mud flats; along seeps; springs; along streams; along creeks; rivers; sandy river beds; rocky washes; drainage ways; water holes; pools; ponds; lakes; playas; cienegas; marsh lands; saline depressions; sloughs; swales; around springs; ponds and lakes, along coastlines; edges of swampy areas; along the bouldery, gravelly and sandy banks of streams, stream beds, creeks and rivers, sand bars; beaches; terraces; canals; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas usually growing in wet, damp or muddy ground in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and clay soils or occasionally forming floating mats or rafts, occurring from (50 feet below) sea level to 7,100 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion. Clones may live for more than 1,000 years; however, no portion of a clone lives for more than 8 years (USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System). The Common Reed provides shelter, nesting cover and food for many species of crustaceans, birds; fishes, aquatic insects and mammals. *5, 6, 16, 30, 33 (Phragmites communis Trin.), 46 (Phragmites communis Trin.), 63 (053108), 77, 85 (053108)*

 

Phragmites communis (see Phragmites australis) 

 

Pleuraphis mutica S.B. Buckley: Tobosagrass

SYNONYMY: Hilaria mutica (S.B. Buckley) G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Tobosa, Tobosa Grass, Tobosagrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 12 to 36 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dull bluish-green or gray-green curing to gray, the inflorescence purplish, straw or white, the spikelets greenish-tan or tinged with pink, flowering generally takes place between May and October (however, under favorable conditions flowering may take place throughout the year, flowering records: one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late August, one for mid-October, one for late October and two for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; bouldery mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; foothills; rocky and sandy-loamy hills; rocky hilltops; rocky hillsides; across bouldery, bouldery-rocky-clayey, rocky, cobbly-clayey and sandy slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; bouldery and rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocky-gravels; lava fields; gravelly plains; sandy, sandy-clayey, sandy-silty and loamy flats; basins; sandy valleys; valley bottoms; along roadsides; along and in bedrock, rocky and sandy washes; along drainage ways; clayey depressions; swales; along margins of washes; alluvial terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques, and ditches in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, rocky-clayey loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam, clayey loam and loam soils; bouldery-rocky clay, cobbly clay, sandy clay, silty clay and clay soils, and rocky-gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 33 (Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth.), 46 (Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth.), 48, 63 (053108), 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Tobosa (Hilaria mutica) can be a host of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information. Tobosa is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. This perennial grass “may become infected with Ergot (Claviceps) and cause Ergot poisoning of livestock.”), 85 (060108), 89 (recorded as Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth.), 105 (Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth.)*

 

Poa annua C. Linnaeus: Annual Bluegrass

COMMON NAMES: Annual Blue Grass, Annual Bluegrass, Dwarf Meadowgrass, Low Speargrass, Walkgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 12 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being whitish (flowering records: three for mid-August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; meadows; flats; along roadsides; sandy seeps; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; rivers; sandy river beds; ponds; cienegas; marsh lands; shores of lagoons and lakes; banks of streams; sand bars; beaches; around stock tanks; around reservoirs; along ditches; banks of ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas growing in wet, moist and damp ground in gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky-clayey loam soils, occurring from 200 to 12,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 33, 46, 58, 63 (060108), 68, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Bluegrasses of the genus Poa can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (060208), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Poa bigelovii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner: Bigelow’s Bluegrass

COMMON NAMES: Bigelow Bluegrass, Bigelow’s Blue Grass, Bigelow’s Bluegrass, Zacate Azule Nativo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 20 inches in height), the inflorescences are greenish or silvery, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-April (flowering records: two for early February, one for late February, one for early March, one for mid-March, two for early April and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; sandy cliffs; rocky and gravelly-sandy canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; along talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; meadows; gravelly-sandy foothills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-clayey-loamy, gravelly and gravelly-loamy slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst rocks; coves; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; basins; rocky valley floors; along roadsides; sandy arroyos; rocky draws; bottoms of draws; seeps; springs; around seeping streams; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-loamy washes; in drainage ways; edges of washes; along sandy banks of arroyos, streams and washes; shore of lakes; river channel bars; beach talus; benches; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; rocky margins of reservoirs; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 500 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (060208), 77, 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Bluegrasses of the genus Poa can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (060208), 89*

 

Polypogon monspeliensis (C. Linnaeus) R.L. Desfontaines: Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass

COMMON NAMES: Annual Beardgrass, Annual Rabbit’s-foot Grass, Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass, Ban Bai Fide (Pima), Rabbit-foot Grass, Rabbitfoot Beardgrass, Rabbitfoot Grass, Rabbitfoot Polypogon, Rabbitfootgrass, Rabbit’sfootgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 40 inches in height), the color of the florets has been described as being bright green or white-green, flowering generally takes place between March and October (flowering records: four for mid-May, three for early June, two for mid-June and one for late July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; escarpments; rocky canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy and sandy canyon bottoms; talus; meadows; sandy edges of wet meadows; foothills; rocky hillsides; sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; along sandy flats; basins; valleys; along sandy roadsides; draws; bottoms of draws; sandy seeps; around and in clayey and loamy springs; around silty seeping springs; along streams; around seeping streams; along rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky, stony and sandy creek beds; along rivers; rocky, rocky-silty, gravelly-sandy and sandy river beds; along and in bouldery-sandy and gravelly washes; drainage ways; ponds; silty bottoms of lakes; cienegas; marsh lands; sandy swamp lands; depressions; swales; gravelly-sandy and sandy edges of springs, streams, creeks, rivers, washes, pools, ponds and lakes; along sandy, sandy-loamy and clayey banks of creeks, rivers and washes; terraces; bottom lands; along rocky-cobbly flood plains; along canals; along ditches; water troughs; banks of ditches; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas often growing in wet, moist and damp ground in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-cobbly, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils; clay soils, and rocky silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (060208), 68, 77, 85 (060308), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Polypogon viridis (A. Gouan) M.A. Breistroffer: Beardless Rabbitsfoot Grass

SYNONYMY: Agrostis semiverticillata (P. Forsskal) C.F. Christensen. COMMON NAMES: Beardless Rabbitsfoot Grass, Beardless Rabbit’sfootgrass, Cola de Ardilla (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Cola de Zorrillo (Hispanic), Water Bent, Water Bentgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 36 inches in height), the color of the inflorescence has been described as being reddish, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and October (flowering records: one for mid-May, one for late May, one for mid-June and one for late June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; along rocky-gravelly canyons; chasms; hillsides; sandy and sandy-loamy slopes; amongst cobbles; arroyos; draws; gulches; along sandy seeps; around and in gravelly and sandy-loamy springs; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along bouldery creeks; along and in rocky creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; in cobbly washes; along and in sandy and sandy-loamy drainage ways; along edges of streams; sandy banks of springs, streams, creeks and rivers; around ponds; shores of lakes; bottom lands; sandy beaches; sandy benches; sandy flood plains; reservoirs; banks of canals; ditches, and riparian areas often growing in wet, moist and damp ground in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils and sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30, 33 (Agrostis semiverticillata (Forsk.) Christ.), 46 (Agrostis semiverticillata (Forsk.) C. Chr.), 63 (060308), 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Agrostis can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (060508), 89 (recorded as Agrostis verticillata Vill.)*

 

Rhynchelytrum repens (see Melinis repens)  

 

Rhynchelytrum roseum (see Melinis repens) 

 

Schismus arabicus C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Arabian Schismus

COMMON NAMES: Arabiangrass, Arabian Schismus, Camel Grass, Zacate Arabe. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 12 inches in height), the color of the corolla has been reported to be green, flowering generally takes place between late January and early May (flowering records: one for late January, one for early February, one for mid-February, one for mid-April and two for early May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; mesas; sandy canyons; bouldery canyon bottoms; bouldery talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; crevices of boulders; foothills; gravelly-shaley and sandy hills; rocky hill tops; rocky, rocky-gravelly-loamy and gravelly slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; sandy lava flows; sandy dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; basins; valleys; along sandy roadsides; rocky draws; along streams; along and in sandy stream beds; gravelly-sandy and sandy river beds; along and in bouldery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-silty washes; sandy drainage ways; rocky-sandy edges of washes and drainage ways; along banks of arroyos; sandy benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in gravelly desert pavement; bouldery, bouldery-rocky-gravelly, rocky, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-silty-clayey loam and loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 63 (060508), 68, 77, 85 (060508)*

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass

COMMON NAMES: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 14 inches in height), the color of the inflorescence has been described as being greenish-purple, flowering generally takes place between November and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus; rocky ridges; hill tops; rocky hillsides; along rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along streams; along gravelly-sandy and sandy creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 58, 63 (060608), 68, 77, 85 (060608)*

 

Setaria composita (see footnote 89 under Setaria vulpiseta)

 

Setaria grisebachii E.P. Fournier: Grisebach’s Bristlegrass

COMMON NAMES: Grisebach Bristlegrass, Grisebach’s Bristlegrass, Ola de Zorra. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellow with purple spots, flowering generally takes place between mid-August and November (flowering records: one for mid-August, one for late August, one for early September and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; cliffs; rocky and sandy canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky-silty and gravelly-clayey hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-clayey slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; flats; along railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; along arroyos; bottoms of draws; gorges; rocky gulches; along streams; along and in gravelly stream beds; creek beds; along sandy rivers; along and in sandy washes; along and in bouldery drainage ways; banks of washes; sandy benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas often growing in the shade in rocky, stony and sandy soils and rocky silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 8,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, woodland-grassland ecotones, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 58, 63 (060608), 77, 85 (060608), 89*

 

Setaria liebmanni E.P. Fournier: Liebmann’s Bristlegrass

COMMON NAMES: Bristlegrass, Liebmann Bristlegrass, Liebmann’s Bristlegrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between August and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; hills; rocky slopes; washes, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 63 (060708), 77, 85 (060708)*

 

Setaria macrostachya (see NOTES and related footnotes 33, 46, 85, 89 and 105 under Setaria vulpiseta) 

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes: Plains Bristlegrass

COMMON NAMES: Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 1 to 4 feet in height, one plant was described as being 2 inches in width at the base, several plants were described as being 8 to 16 inches in width at the base), the stems and leaves are pale to bright green sometimes with a bluish tinge curing to an orange-brown, the flowers orange and purple, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; canyonettes; rocky talus; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rocky buttes; crests of rocky buttes; ridges; foothills; hills; hilltops; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly flats; valleys; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; gravelly-sandy-loamy draws; stream beds; sandy creeks; along and in gravelly washes; drainage ways; gravelly-sandy banks of stream beds and washes; benches; sandy flood channels; sandy-loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas sometimes growing in the partial shade of shrubs and trees in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, and cobbly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes, the Plains Bristlegrass was recorded in many reference texts as Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.; however, Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth, with the common name Large-spike Bristlegrass is an EXOTIC species that may also be found in Arizona. The native Plains Bristlegrass may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is reportedly a good soil binder. Plains Bristlegrass is an important forage grass with a high palatability; however, it is often selectively grazed over other range grasses and does not stand up well to heavy grazing. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.), 46 (Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.), 48, 56, 57, 58, 63 (060708), 77, 85 (060708, Setaria macrostachya Kunth), 89 (recorded as Setaria composita H.B.K.), 105 (Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.)*

 

Sitanion hystrix (see Elymus elymoides subsp. elymoides)

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass

COMMON NAMES: Aleppo Milletgrass, Herbe de Cuba, Johnson Grass, Johnsongrass, Sorgho d’Alep, Sorgo de Aleppo, Zacate Johnson. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (20 inches to 8 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream-purple, dark red-purple and purplish, flowering may take place year-round. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; meadows; foothills; hillsides; sandy-loam and sandy-silty slopes; amongst boulders; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; springs; along streams; along and in stream beds; along rocky-gravelly-sandy creeks; in rivers; river beds; rocky and sandy washes; cienegas; sandy banks of creeks, rivers and washes; drainage ways; cobbly-sandy benches; sandy terraces; loamy bottom land; sandy floodplains; along sandy-loamy ditches; along clayey-loamy banks of canals and ditches; gravelly-sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas often growing in wet, damp or moist ground in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, cobbly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; clayey soils, and sandy-silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,100 feet elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (060708), 68 (“Johnsongrass ordinarily is good feed, but sometimes the plant, particularly the leaves, contain hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, a cyanide type of poisoning. Any factor which interrupts normal growth may cause the release of HCN within plants. Rapid growth of new leaves, wilting due to drought, frost, freezing, cutting, or trampling are the most dangerous events.” See text for additional information), 77, 80 (Johnsongrass is Listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant. “Most losses from Johnsongrass are due to hydrocyanic-acid poisoning, but plants also accumulate dangerous levels of nitrate. Danger from HCN poisoning is greatest when soils are high in available nitrogen and low in phosphorus, when plants have been exposed to drouth or disease which results in slow or stunted growth, and when plants are making rapid regrowth or have been frosted. Leaves are more toxic than stems, and young plants are more toxic than mature ones.... Management to defer pastures during dangerous periods of growth, and feeding of animals before turning them on pastures containing Johnsongrass are the best preventive measures. ” See text for additional information.), 85 (060808), 89, 101 (color photograph), 105*

 

Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey: Alkali Sacaton

COMMON NAMES: Alkali Sacaton, Alkali-sacaton, Sacaton, Tava’i (Yaqui), Tl’oh Dahikalii (Navajo), Zacaton, Zacaton Alcalino. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 14 inches to 5 feet in height developing clonal rings 3 to 7 feet in width), the color of the foliage has been described as grayish-green, the spikelets are brownish or lead-colored, flowering generally takes place between May and October (flowering records: two for mid-June, two for late July, two for early August, three for late August, one for early September and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; sandy-loamy mesas; sandy plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; meadows; foothills; sandy hills; gravelly-silty hilltops; sandy hillocks; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy and sandy slopes; gravelly outcrops; sandy hummocks; dunes; sandy plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; sandy valleys; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; seeps; around springs; around seeping springs; stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; along sandy washes; in gravelly, sandy and sandy-clayey drainage ways; playas, edges of salt flats, pools; cienegas; swampy areas; gravelly-sandy depressions; sloughs; clayey swales; sandy edges and margins of draws, washes, pools and marshes; sandy banks of rivers; beaches; benches; terraces; sandy bottom lands; along sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas sometimes growing in wet, moist or damp ground, often growing in alkaline ground in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and gravelly silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 63 (060908), 77, 85 (060808, also recorded as Sporobolus airoides var. airoides), 105*

 

Sporobolus airoides var. airoides (see footnote 85 under Sporobolus airoides)

 

Sporobolus airoides var. wrightii (see Sporobolus wrightii)

 

Sporobolus contractus A.S. Hitchcock: Spike Dropseed

COMMON NAME: Spike Dropseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 5 feet in height and 4 to 12 inches in width at the base), flowering generally takes place be between June and October (flowering records: one for late September and three for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky and gravelly canyons; sandy and sandy-clayey canyon bottoms; talus; bluffs; foothills; sandy hills; sandy hillsides; rocky, rocky-clayey, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; along cindery-gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; bouldery ravines; along creeks; along and in gravelly, gravelly-clayey, sandy and silty-clayey washes; drainage ways; depressions; pot holes; cindery swales; silty and silty-clayey margins of seeps; sandy edges of washes and drainage ways; sandy banks of creeks and rivers; sandy beaches; sandy benches; bouldery-gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; along fence lines; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, cindery, cindery-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils; rocky clay, rocky-sandy clay, gravelly clay, sandy clay, silty clay and clay soils, and gravelly-clayey silty, clayey silty and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 63 (061008), 77, 85 (061108)*

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Sand Dropseed

COMMON NAMES: Covered-spike Dropseed, Sand Dropseed, Sporobole à Fleures Cachées, Vai Tava'i (Yaqui, also called Vaso which is the Yaqui generic name for grass), Zacate de Arena. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 12 inches to 4 feet (one record of 6½ feet) in height and 1 to 4 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being bluish-green, dark green or purple curing to light straw-yellow, the spikelets brownish or purplish, flowering generally takes place between April and mid-October (flowering records: one for late July, two for mid-August, two for late August, one for early September, one for mid-September, three for late September and one for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery and gravelly-sandy mesas; plateaus; rocky and sandy rims of canyons; cliffs; rocky canyons; along sandy canyon bottoms; bouldery talus; rock ledges; along rocky, gravelly-loamy and sandy ridges; sandy meadows; tops of cinder cones; hills; hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy-loamy, gravelly, sandy and sandy-loamy slopes; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy and sandy-loamy prairies; plains; bouldery, gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; coastal dunes; sandy coastal plains; gravelly railroad right-of-ways; along cindery and sandy roadsides; arroyos; draws; bottoms of draws; gorges; along streams; along stream beds; along rivers; along and in river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, sandy, sandy-loamy and silty-clayey washes; drainage ways; gravelly-sandy depressions; clayey swales; rocky and gravelly edges of draws, drainage ways and depressions; sandy-loamy banks of arroyos, rivers and washes; sandy beaches; sandy benches; sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around charcos; along ditches; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly clay, gravelly-sandy clay, sandy-clay and clay soils, and gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam, silty-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from sea level to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (very similar to Sporobolus flexuosus and difficult to distinguish without having mature panicles), 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 63 (061108), 77, 85 (061108), 89 (recorded as Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray var. flexuosus Thurb.), 105*

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus var. flexuosus (see footnote 89 under Sporobolus cryptandrus and Sporobolus flexuosus)

 

Sporobolus flexuosus (G. Thurber ex G. Vasey) P.A. Rydberg: Mesa Dropseed

COMMON NAME: Mesa Dropseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 12 inches to 4 feet in height), the foliage is purplish, flowering generally takes place between June and November (flowering records: two for late August and one for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy rims of canyons; canyons; bases of cliffs; sandy crevices in rock; foothills; sandy hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and sandy slopes; amongst boulders, rocky-boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly plains; sandy flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along creeks; river beds; along and in washes; marsh lands; swales, cobbly edges of rivers; banks of rivers; rocky and sandy beaches; bouldery shores; bouldery-gravelly-sandy flood plains; sandy ditches, and sandy riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, sandy and loamy sandy soils and cindery-gravelly-loamy, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,300 to 7,000 feet in elevation; useful as an ornamental in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may have a life expectancy of 4 to 5 years. Black-tailed Jackrabbits and Pronghorn feed on this grass. *5, 6, 33 (very similar to Sporobolus cryptandrus and difficult to distinguish without having mature panicles), 46, 48, 63 (061208), 85 (061208), 89 (Note that J.J. Thornber reported Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray var. flexuosus Thurb. as occurring on the Mesa-like Mountain Slopes; howerver, in this listing this plant has been recorded as Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray.)*

 

Sporobolus wrightii W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner: Big Sacaton

SYNONYMY: Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey var. wrightii (W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner) F.W. Gould. COMMON NAMES: Alkali Sacaton, Big Sacaton, Giant Sacaton, Sacaton, Sacaton Grass, Wright Sacaton, Zacaton. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clumpgrass) 36 to 100 inches in height and 20 to 36 inches in width at the base), the color of the foliage has been described as being pale green with a gray cast, flowering generally takes place between March and November (flowering records: one for early August and two for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rock ledges; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; plains; clayey flats; valleys; along roadsides; along arroyos; bottoms of arroyos; along creeks; along rivers; along gravelly and sandy washes; playas; cienegas; depressions; rocky edges of canyons and washes; banks of rivers; alluvial terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky loam, sandy loam and silty-clayey loam soils, occurring from sea level to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and in slowing runoff, enhancing infiltration and controlling erosion. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. var. wrightii (Munro) Gould), 46, 48, 58, 63 (061208), 77, 85 (061208), 89, 105*

 

Trichachne californica (see Digitaria californica)

 

Trichachne insularis (see Digitaria insularis)

 

Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi: False Rhodes Grass

SYNONYMY: Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz. COMMON NAMES: False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris, Twoflower Chloris, Twoflower Trichloris. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (24 to 60 inches in height), the foliage has been described as being green or reddish, flowering generally takes place from late spring to fall. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, canyons, rocky hills, alluvial plains; bajadas; plains; gravelly-sandy flats; coastal plains; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; seeps; along sandy washes; alluvial terraces, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This large, showy grass may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 33 (Trichloris mendocina (Phil.) Kurtz), 46, 56, 57, 63 (050708), 58, 85 (050808), 89 (recorded as Trichloris fasiculata Fourn.)*

 

Trichloris fasiculata (see footnote 89 under Trichloris crinita)

 

Trichloris mendocina (see Trichloris crinita)

 

Tridens muticus (J. Torrey) G.V. Nash: Slim Tridens

COMMON NAMES: Slim Tridens, Tridente. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 3 to 32 inches in height, one plant was reported to be 32 inches in height and 4 inches in width at base), the foliage is bluish-green or gray-green curing to a light straw-yellow, flowering generally takes place between March and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; bouldery and rocky canyons; along rocky and gravelly canyon bottoms; gorges; bouldery-sandy grottos; talus slopes; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky hills; bouldery and rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky bajadas; boulder and rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; lava flows; plains; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; gravelly arroyos; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; bouldery-sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-loamy and sandy washes; drainage ways; around pools; benches, and riparian areas in gravelly desert pavement; bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam and loam soils; rocky clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 63 (061208), 77, 85 (061208), 105*

 

Tridens muticus (J. Torrey) G.V. Nash var. muticus: Slim Tridens

SYNONYMY: Triodia mutica (J. Torrey) F.L. Scribner. COMMON NAMES: Slim Tridens, Slim Triodia, Tridente. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 8 to 20 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between March and October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky knolls; rocky ledges; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; sandy-clayey and sandy-clayey-loamy flats; gravelly arroyos; draws; along rocky washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and rocky clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 16 (sp.), 33, 46, 48, 63 (061208), 77, 85 (061208), 89 (recorded as Triodia mutica (Torr.) Benth.), 105 (sp.)*

 

Tridens pulchellus (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

Triodia mutica (see Tridens muticus var. muticus)

 

Triodia pulchella (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

Trisetum interruptum S.B. Buckley: Prairie False Oat

COMMON NAMES: Prairie False Oat, Prairie Trisetum. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (2 to 24 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; ledges; foothills; hills; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; plains; gravelly flats; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; gravelly edges of washes; banks of rivers; shores of lakes; benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Prairie Trisetum has the general aspect of Common Mediterranean Grass (Schismus barbatus). *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (061308), 77, 85 (061308)*

 

Urochloa arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) O. Morrone & F.O. Zuloaga: Arizona Signalgrass

SYNONYMY: Brachiaria arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) S.T. Blake, Panicum arizonicum F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Panicgrass, Arizona Panicum, Arizona Signalgrass, Piojillo de Arizona. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 26 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between June and early November (flowering records: four for early August, one for late August, one for mid-September and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; rocky talus; meadows; rocky hills; rocky and rocky-clayey hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; sandy draws; rocky ravines; seeps; rivulets; along and in gravelly-sandy stream beds; along and in sandy washes; in clayey drainage ways; sandy banks of washes; shores of lakes; benches; alluvial terraces; sandy flood plain; mesquite bosques; margins of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and gravelly-clayey loam soils, and rocky clay, sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from 300 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Panicum arizonicum Scribn. & Merr.), 46 (Panicum arizonicum Scribn. & Merr.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (061308), 68, 77, 85 (061308), 89 (recordered as Panicum arizonicum Scribn. & Merrill)*

 

Urochloa fasciculata (see Urochloa fusca)

 

Urochloa fusca (O. Swartz) B.F. Hansen & R.P. Wunderlin: Browntop Signalgrass

SYNONYMY: Brachiaria fasciculata (O. Swartz) L.R. Parodi, Panicum fasciculatum O. Swartz, Panicum fasciculatum O. Swartz var. reticulatum (J. Torrey) W.J. Beal, Urochloa fasciculata (O. Swartz) R. Webster, nom. illeg. COMMON NAMES: Browntop Panicum, Browntop Signalgrass, Fieldgrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between July and early November (flowering records: one for mid-August and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons; hills; rocky slopes; valleys; roadsides; river beds; along sandy washes; drainage ways; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 900 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 33 (Panicum fasciculatum Swartz var. reticulatum (Torr.) Beal), 46 (Panicum fasciculatum Swartz var. reticulatum (Torr.) Beal), 56, 57, 63 (061408), 68, 85 (061408), 89 (recorded as Panicum fuscum Sw.)*

 

Vulpia myuros (C. Linnaeus) C.C. Gmelin: Rat-tail Fescue

SYNONYMY: Festuca megalura T. Nuttall, Festuca myuros C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Foxtail Fescue, Hair Sixweeksgrass, Rattail Grass, Rat-tail Fescue, Rat-tailed Fescue, Rattail Fescue, Rat-tail Sixweeks Grass, Rattail Sixweeks Grass, Zorro Fescue. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 36 inches in height), the color of the inflorescence has been described as being yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between March and July (flowering record: one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; foothills; hillsides; slopes; amongst rocks; sandy flats; roadsides; seeps; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; in washes; edges of vernal pools; sandy banks of tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; loamy soils, and clayey soils, occurring from 2,300 to 7,700 in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 33 (Festuca megalura Nutt., Festuca myuros L.), 46 (Festuca megalura Nutt., Festuca myuros L.), 63 (061408), 77, 85 (061408), 89 (recorded as Festuca myuros L.), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg: Sixweeks Fescue

COMMON NAME: Common Sixweeks Grass, Eight-flower Sixweeks Grass, Eight-flowered Fescue, Sixweeks Fescue, Six-weeks Grass, Sixweeks Grass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 24 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being yellow-green, the florets green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and July (flowering records: two for mid-February, one for mid-March, three for mid-April and six for mid-May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountain slopes; mesas; plateaus; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; rocky-sandy rims of craters; rocky ledges; along ridges; ridgelines; rocky-sandy and sandy meadows; rocky foothills; hills; hilltops; rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dune lands; plains; stony, gravelly and sandy flats; coastal beaches; roadsides; arroyos; draws; gulches; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky-sandy creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in stony-gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainage ways; swales; margins of cienegas; sandy edges of washes; along sandy banks of rivers and washes; around lakes; sand bars; sandy beaches; gravelly and sandy terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; flood plains; charcos; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; rocky-clayey loam, cobbly loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 200 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodlands; scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Sixweeks Fescue may be useful in restoration projects. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 46 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 58, 63 (061508), 85 (061508)*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) J.T. Henrard: Sixweeks Fescue

SYNONYMY: Festuca octoflora T. Walter var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) C.V. Piper ex A.S. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Eight-flowered Fescue, Fescua, Hairy Sixweeks Fescue, Sixweeks Fescue. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 20 inches in height), the color this grass has been described as being yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountain slopes; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; gravelly and sandy canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; rocky ledges; along ridges; ridgelines; meadows; rocky foothills; hills; rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; stony, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; gulches; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky-sandy creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in stony-gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainage ways; swales; around lakes; margins of cienegas; sandy banks; sandy beaches; gravelly and sandy terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; flood plains; charcos; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; rocky-clayey loam, cobbly loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 200 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: Sixweeks Fescue may be useful in restoration projects. *5, 6, 33 (Festuca octoflora var. hirtella Piper), 46 (Festuca octoflora Walt. var. hirtella Piper), 57, 63 (061508), 77, 85 (061508), 89 (recorded as Festuca octoflora Walt. var. hirtella Piper)*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg var. octoflora: Sixweeks Fescue

SYNONYMY: Festuca octoflora T. Walter. COMMON NAMES: Common Sixweeksgrass, Sixweeks Fescue. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 20 inches in height), the color this grass has been described as being yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May (flowering records: two for mid-February, one for mid-March and two for mid-April). HABITAT: : Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountain slopes; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; rocky ledges; along ridges; ridgelines; meadows; rocky foothills; hills; rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; stony, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; gulches; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky-sandy creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in stony-gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainage ways; swales; around lakes; margins of cienegas; sandy banks; sand bars; gravelly and sandy terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; flood plains; charcos; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, clayey loam and loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodlands; scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Sixweeks Fescue may be useful in restoration projects. *5, 6, 33 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 46 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 56, 63 (061508), 77, 85 (061508)*

 

 

Family Potamogetonaceae: The Pondweed Family

 

Potamogeton pusillus C. Linnaeus: Small Pondweed

COMMON NAMES: Baby Pondweed, Pondweed, Small Pondweed. DESCRIPTION: Aquatic perennial forb/herb (7 to 60 inches in length), the color of the flowers has been described as being green, flowering generally takes place between early May and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs; sluggish streams; creeks; pools; ponds; lakes; cienegas; marsh lands; depressions; stock tanks, and ditches growing submerged in water, occurring from 1,000 to 10,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Ducks feed on the stems, leaves and seeds. *5, 6, 46, 58, 63 (061508), 85 (061508), 89*

 

 

Family Typhaceae: The Cat-tail Family

 

Typha angustifolia (see note under Typha domingensis)

 

Typha domingensis C.H. Persoon: Southern Cattail

NOTE: Arizona specimens were historically referred to as Typha angustifolia C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Cat-tail, Cattail, Narrow-leaf Cattail, Southern Cat-tail, Southern Cattail, Tule. DESCRIPTION: Semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb (3 to 13 feet in height), the foliage is dark green or light yellowish-green, the pistillate flowers light brown or tawny-brown becoming buff or grayish and the staminate flowers golden-yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between March and November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons; seeps; around and in gravelly and gravelly-sandy springs; draws; along and in streams; along and in sandy stream beds, along sandy creeks; along rivers; sandy and sandy-silty river beds; rocky washes; water holes (pozos); lagoons (esteros); pools; ponds; lakes; marsh lands; swamp lands; sloughs; edges of pools; ponds and lakes; gravelly-sandy banks of streams, rivers and washes; along shores of lakes; sand bars; bottom lands; flood plains; along canals; along ditches, and gravelly-sandy riparian areas in shallow water and wet and moist ground in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (061508), 68, 77, 85 (061508)*

 

 

Family Zannichelliaceae: The Horned-pondweed Family

 

Zannichellia palustris C. Linnaeus: Horned Pondweed

COMMON NAMES: Common Poolmat, Horned Pondweed, Horned-pondweed, Horned Poolmat. DESCRIPTION: Aquatic perennial forb/herb (stems to 20 inches in length), the color of the foliage has been described as being green-gray, the flowers clear white, flowering records: one for early April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs; along and in streams; stream beds; along and in creeks; along and in rivers; washes; drainage ways; potholes; pools; ponds; lakes; estuaries; boggy areas; cienegas; marsh lands; edges of streams, creeks and rivers; banks of streams, rivers and ponds; stock tanks; reservoirs, and ditches most often reported as growing floating on or submerged in water and in wet and muddy ground, occurring from sea level to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Ducks feed on the stems and leaves. *5, 6, 46, 58, 63 (061508), 85 (061608), 89*

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

Species records are currently in the process of being updated.

 

 

Family Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle

COMMON NAMES: Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber Desert-honeysuckle, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height) (6), the color of the bark has been described as being gray, the leaves green or yellow-green, the flowers brick-red, brown-orange, brownish-red, burnt-orange, copper-red, orange, orange-red, orange with a purple fringe, purplish, red, red-orange, reddish-brown, orange-brown, orange-salmon, purplish, red-orange, red-orange-brown or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and early August (additional records: one for late February, two for early October, one for mid-October, two for late October, three for early November, two for mid-November, one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; escarpments; bases of cliffs; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; traces; valley bottoms; along arroyos; draws; sandy bottoms of draws; grottos; gulches; ravines; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery drainage ways; along rocky and gravelly-sandy banks; rocky shelves; mesquite bosques; ditches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, pebbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers may be fragrant. The flowers attract hummingbirds and both the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 57, 58, 63 (061907), 77 (color photograph #1), 85 (111407), 89, 91*

 

Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Wrightwort

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Carlowrightia, Arizona Wrightwort, Chuparosa, Desert Honeysuckle, Hummingbird Bush, Lemilla, Rama de Toro, Wrightwort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (2 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray or pale green, the flowers cream, lavender, white or white with purple and yellow markings, flowering generally takes place between late March and late May (additional records: one for mid-August and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been range reported from mountains; rocky canyons; along canyon walls; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hills; bouldery, rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, stony and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; valleys; gravelly roadsides; along arroyos; gulches; river beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; in drainageways; benches; loamy bottom lands; around stock tanks, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, stony, gravelly and sandy soils and clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Arizona Wrightwort is browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana). *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (051907), 77, 85 (052507), 89 (recorded as Carlowrightia arizonica Gray)*

 

Dicliptera resupinata (M.H. Vahl) A.L. de Jussieu: Arizona Foldwing

SYSNONYMY: Dicliptera pseudoverticillaris A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Dicliptera, Arizona Foldwing, Dicliptera, Foldwing, Purple Drop, Twin Seed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and flood plains, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 46, 56, 57*

 

Ruellia clandestina (see footnote 89 under Ruellia nudiflora)

 

Ruellia nudiflora (G. Engelmann & A. Gray) I. Urban var. nudiflora: Violet Wild Petunia

COMMON NAMES: Common Wild Petunia, Longneck Ruellia, Oregano de China, Ruellia, Violet Ruellia, Violet Wild Petunia, Wild Petunia. Description: terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, swales, flats, banks of arroyos, along streams and rocky and sandy washes and on flood plains usually amongst rocks, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 77, 85, 89 (recorded as Ruellia clandestina)*

 

Siphonoglossa longiflora (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Longflowered Tubetongue

SYNONYMY: Justicia longii R.A. Hilsenbeck. COMMON NAMES: Long-flowered Justicia, Longflowered Tubetongue, Tubetongue, Siphonoglossa, White Needle Flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 40 inches in height, one plant was described as being 12 inches in height with a crown 12 inches in width, one plant was described as being 16 inches in height with a crown 16 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green or dark green, the flowers white or light yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and early November (additional record: one for early February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky foothills; gravelly hills; bouldery-rocky, rocky and rocky-sandy hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; springs; along washes; in rocky drainages; along rocky banks of washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 4,800 feet tin elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the tubular flowers open in the evening and are reported to be slightly fragrant. This plant is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (051907), 85 (052507), 89 (recorded as Siphonoglossa longiflora (Torr.) Gray)*

 

 

Family Aizoaceae: The Fig-marigold Family

 

Trianthema portulacastrum C. Linnaeus: Desert Horsepurslane

COMMON NAMES: Black Pigweed, Desert Horsepurslane, Desert Purslane, Giant Pigweed, Horse Purslane, Phak Bia Hin, Pigweed, Purslane, Verdolaga Blanca, Verdolaga Rastrera. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, flood plains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

 

Family Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus albus C. Linnaeus: Prostrate Pigweed

SYNONYMY: Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson, Amaranthus graecizans auct. non C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Cochino, Prostrate Amaranth, Prostrate Pigweed, Quelite Manchado, Stiff Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed Amaranth, Tumble Pigweed, White Amaranth, White Pigweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 4 feet height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 89 (recorded as Amaranthus blitoides and Amaranthus graecizans), 101*

 

Amaranthus blitoides (see Amaranthus albus) 

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Fringed Amaranth

SYNONYMY: Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson var. fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Bledo, Fringed Amaranth, Fringed Pigweed, Guey Cimarron (Mayo), Quelite, Quelite Cimarron (Mayo), Quelitillo, Siim (Seri), Toothed Amaranth, Wee’e (Yaqui), Ziim C ic (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 64 inches in height), the color of the plant has been described as being green, pinkish-purple, pink-red or red, the flowers (in spikes) pinkish-white or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late November (additional record: one record for mid December), the fruits are pinkish-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery and rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; crater floors; valleys; coastal dunes; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; draws; springs; river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; playas; marshes; along banks of rivers; sandy beaches; sandy shores; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 63 (070207), 68, 85 (070207), 89 (recorded as Amaranthus fimbriatus (Torr.) Wats.)*

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus var. fimbriatus: (see Amaranthus fimbriatus)

 

Amaranthus graecizans (see Amaranthus albus)

 

Amaranthus obcordatus (A. Gray) P.C. Standley: TransPecos Amaranth

COMMON NAMES: Amaranth, Quelite, TransPecos Amaranth. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and flood plains, occurring from 2,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 46, 56, 57*

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Carelessweed

COMMON NAMES: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height, sometimes to 15 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, flood plains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68 (Palmer Amaranth contains nitrate varying from a trace to over 9 percent. The nitrate is not poisonous, but can be changed quickly into the toxic nitrite by enzymatic action.), 77, 80 (Listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant, see text for additional information.), 89, 101*

 

Cladothrix languinosa (see footnote 89 under Tidestromia lanuginosa)

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Woolly Tidestromia

COMMON NAMES: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeymat, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 18 inches in height, up to 5 feet in diameter). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, flood plains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Cladothrix languinosa)*

 

 

Family Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus lancea C. Linnaeus f.: African Sumac

COMMON NAMES: African Sumac, Karee, Karree, Sauce Africano, Willow Rhus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 15 to 33 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from washes, occurring from 2,400 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This species was not found in either BONAP Database or the NRCS Plants Database. *16, 18, 22, 26, 56, 57, 77, 109*

 

 

Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae): The Carrot Family

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: Hoary Bowlesia

COMMON NAMES: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (creeping prostrate stems to 2 inches in height and 4 to 12 inches in length), the color of the flowers (inconspicuous) has been described as being dark pink, purple, white or white-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: two for late January and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; ledges; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; desert plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; draws; seeps; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-clayey washes; along and in drainage ways; swampy areas; along banks of creeks, rivers and washes; flood plains; bottoms of tanks; ditch banks; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing in the shade of boulders, rocks and other vegetation in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and sandy loam soils; rocky clay and sandy clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 600 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 57, 58, 63 (061907), 68, 77, 85 (061907), 89 (recorded as Bowlesia lobata R. & P.)*

 

Bowlesia lobata (see footnote 89 under Bowlesia incana)

 

Caucalis microcarpa (see Yabea microcarpa)

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Wild Carrot

COMMON NAMES: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed (California), Rattlesnakeweed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (5 to 28 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, purplish or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for early September), the seed heads are reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from bouldery and rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; ridges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; bouldery hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; along shaded bases of rocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along rocky, gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; silty draws; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-clayey, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along and in drainage ways; depressions; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of arroyos, streams and rivers; benches; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; canals; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and sandy loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (052907), 77, 85 (052907), 89 (recorded as Daucus pusillus Michx.)*

 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides C. Linnaeus f.: Floating Marshpennywort

COMMON NAMES: Cut Leaf Pennywort., Floating Marshpennywort, Floating Water-pennywort, Hydrocotyle, Ombligo de Puerco (Hispanic), Water Pennywort. DESCRIPTION: Aquatic perennial forb/herb (½ to 14 inches in height. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from slow streams, still, fresh water, stock tanks, ponds, lakes and occasionally creeping on mud in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 30, 46, 58, 89*

 

Lilaeopsis recurva (see Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

 

Lilaeopsis schaffneriana subsp. recurva (see Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

 

Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose var. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter: Schaffner’s Grasswort

SYNONYMY: Lilaeopsis recurva A.W. Hill, Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose subsp. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter. COMMON NAMES: Cienega False Rush, Cienega Water Umbel, Huachuca Water Umbel, Schaffner Grasswort, Schaffner’s Grasswort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial semi-aquatic to aquatic perennial forb/herb (leaves 1½ to 9 inches in length). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from wet ground near perennial seeps, springs, stream beds, rivers, cienegas and marshy wetlands growing in shallow water and wet sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from 3,500 to 7,100 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This species has been recorded as having once occurred in the valley of the Santa Cruz River near Tucson. *5, 6, 8, 9, 46 (Santa Cruz River valley near Tucson, Pima County - Pringle in 1881, the type collection)*

 

Spermolepis echinata (T. Nuttall ex A.P. de Candolle) A.A. Heller: Bristly Scaleseed

COMMON NAMES: Beggar’s Lice, Bristly Scaleseed, Scaleseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Yabea microcarpa (W.J. Hooker & G.A Arnott) B.M. Koso-Poljansky: False Carrot

SYNONYMY: Caucalis microcarpa W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott. COMMON NAMES: California Hedge Parsley, False Carrot, Falsecarrot; False Hedge Parsley, Hedge Parsley, Wild Parsley. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between late February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and clayey-loamy slopes; amongst rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; gulches; along seeps; along streams; along creeks; along rocky and rocky-gravelly washes; along and in drainage ways; along banks of washes; sandy benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and stony clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Caucalis microcarpa Hook. & Arn.), 58, 63 (061907), 77, 85 (061907)*

 

 

Family Apocynacaeae: The Dogbane Family

 

Haplophyton cimcidium (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton cimcidium var. crooksii (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton crooksii (L. Benson) L. Benson: Cockroachplant

COMMON SYNONYMY: Haplophyton cimcidium auct. non A.L. de Candolle [misapplied], Haplophyton cimcidium A.L. de Candolle var. crooksii L. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Actimpatli, Atempatli, Arizona Cockroach Plant, Cockroachplant, Crooks Cockroachplant, Hierba-de-la-cucuracha (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the flowers cream-white, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally take place between early March and early December, the slender elongate fruits are gray-green or green pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; valleys; gulches; banks of drainage ways; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,900 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the yellow flowers open in the evening and close in the early morning, this plant is slow growing and may be drought deciduous, it may best be used planted with succulents in rock gardens. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (070207), 77 (color photograph #4), 85 (070207), 89 (recorded as Haplophyton cimicidium (Pav.) A. DC.), MBJ*

 

 

Family Aristolochiaceae: The Birthwort Family

 

Aristolochia watsoni E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe

COMMON NAMES: Dutchman’s Pipe, Dutchman’s Pipevine, Hierba del Indio, Indian-root, Pipevine Flower, Raiz del Indio, Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe, Watson Indian Root. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (evergreen ?) forb/herb or vine. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, flood plains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider using the Pipevine Flower as a ground cover. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77 (color photograph #59), 89*

 

 

Family Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Asclepias galioides (see Asclepias subverticillata) 

 

Asclepias nyctaginifolia A. Gray: Mojave Milkweed

COMMON NAMES: Four O’clock Milkweed, Hierba Lechosa, Mojave Milkweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, plains, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (species within this genus may contain a glucoside that is poisonous to livestock, especially to sheep; however, the plants are seldom eaten), 58, 77 (color photograph #60)*

 

Asclepias subverticillata (A. Gray) A.M. Vail: Horsetail Milkweed

SYNONYMY: Asclepias galioides auct. non K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland & Kunth [misapplied]. COMMON NAMES: Horsetail Milkweed, Poison Milkweed, Western Whorled Milkweed, Whorled Milkweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 inches to 4 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, pastures and hay fields, occurring from 2,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 28, 46 (this species contains a glucoside that is poisonous to livestock, especially to sheep; however, the plant is seldom eaten), 58, 68, 80 (Listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant, see text for additional information.), 86, 89, 101*

 

Cynanchum arizonicum (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners: Arizona Swallow-wort

SYNONYMY: Metastelma arizonicum A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Milkweed Vine, Arizona Smallwort, Arizona Swallow-wort, Milkweed Vine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine to 40 inches in length), the color of the small flowers has been described as being cream-white or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky crags; rocky canyons; ridges; bouldery and rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst boulders; gulches, ravines, around seeping streams; creeks; along rocky washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Metastelma arizonicum Gray), 58, 63 (070307), 77 (color photograph #61), 85 (070307), 89 (recorded as Metastelma arizonicum Gray)*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter: Fringed Twinevine

COMMON NAMES: Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Twinevine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine 20 inches to 40 feet in length), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, lilac-mauve, magenta-cream, maroon-cream, pink, purple, purple and cream, violet-pink, white, white and brown, white and maroon, white and purple or white and purple-maroon, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early November (additional record: one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky and sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; crevices; rocky foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; lava flows; rocky outcrops; sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; along and in rocky arroyos; gravelly-silty edges of draws; springs; along streams; in bouldery and sandy stream beds; along gravelly-sandy creeks; in creek beds; in rocky-cobbly-sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-silty washes; in drainage ways; water holes; swampy areas; sand bars; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy banks; benches; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along irrigation ditches; fence lines; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clay loam and loam soils; silty clay soils, and gravelly silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph of Sarcostemma cynanchoides), 46 (Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decne. and Funastrum heterophyllum (Engelm.) Standl.), 63 (111407), 68, 85 (111607), 86 (color photograph of Sarcostemma cynanchoides)*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. cynanchoides: Fringed Twinevine

SYNONYMY: Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne. COMMON NAMES: Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Twinevine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine 8 to 40 feet in length), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, pink, purplish or white, flowering generally takes place on and off between mid-March and late October (records: one for mid-March, one for mid-April, early May, mid-May, early June, late July, early August, mid-August, late August, early September, mid-September, one for early October and two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky and sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; crevices; rocky foothills; hills; hillsides; sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; plains; sandy flats; sandy roadsides; along arroyos; along streams; bouldery and sandy stream beds; gravelly-sandy creeks; rocky-cobbly-sandy river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in drainage ways; gravelly-silty edges of draws; banks; benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; fence lines; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clayey loam and loam soils; silty clay soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers may be fragrant. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (111407), 68, 77 (color photograph labeled Sarcostemma cynanchoides #6), 85 (also recorded as Sarcostemma cynanchoides subsp. cynanchoides Dcne. - 111607), 86 (color photograph), 89 (recorded as Philibertella cynanchoides (Gray) Vail)*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz: Hartweg’s Twinevine

SYNONYMY: Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners. COMMON NAMES: Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine, Hexe (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine 20 inches to 40 feet in length), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being lilac-mauve, magenta-cream, maroon-cream, purple, purple and cream, violet-pink, white, white and brown, white and maroon, white and purple or white and purple-maroon, flowering generally takes place between late March and late June and again between late August and early November (additional records: one for late July and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; lava flows; rocky outcrops; sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; rocky arroyos; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-silty washes; drainage ways; water holes; swampy areas; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy banks; sand bars; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; along ditches; fence lines; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Funastrum heterophyllum (Engelm.) Standl.), 58, 63 (111407), 68, 85 (111607), 89 (recorded as Philibertella hartegii Vail var. heterophylla (Engelm.) Vail)*

 

Funastrum heterophyllum (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

Gonolobus parvifolius (see Matelea parvifolia) 

 

Matelea parvifolia (J. Torrey) R.E. Woodson: Spearleaf

SYNONYMY: Gonolobus parvifolius J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Angle-pod, Anglepod, Littleleaf Matelea, Little Leaf Milk Vine, Milkweed Vine, Small-leaf Anglepod, Small-leaved Milkvine, Spearleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial shrub or vine (a twining vine 16 inches to 5 feet in length), the color of the twining stems has been described as being gray-green or green, the flowers black, brownish-purple, green or dark purple, flowering generally takes place between late January and early December, the fruits are long, warty, green seed pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridge tops; ridgelines; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; bouldery, cobbly and gravelly flats; rivers; in washes; along drainage ways; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Gonolobus parvifolius Torr.), 63 (052607), 77, 85 (052607)*

 

Metastelma arizonicum (see Cynanchum arizonicum)

 

Philibertella cynanchoides (see footnote 89 under Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. cynanchoide)

 

Philibertella hartegii var. heterophylla (see footnote 89 under Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

Sarcostemma cynanchoides subsp. cynanchoides (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. cynanchoides)

 

Sarcostemma cynanchoides subsp. hartwegii (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King: Dwarf Desertpeony

SYNONYMY: Perezia nana A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Ban Auppa-ga (Gila River Pima), Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height), the color of the holly-like leaves has been described as being pale grayish-green or olive-green, the flowers cream, lavender, lavender-pink, pink, light purple, white or white-pink, flowering generally takes place between late March and early June (additional records: one for late January, one for late February, one for early July, one for early August, one for mid-August, one for late September, one for mid-October, one for mid-November and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky foothills; gravelly hills; gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; gravelly plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; rocky gullies; in gravelly-sandy and sandy-clayey washes; drainage ways; banks of washes; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; mesquite mosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas usually under shrubs and trees in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clay loam and silty loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider using Desert Holly as a ground cover under larger shrubs and trees. The flowers give off a fragrance similar to that of violets or lilacs. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Perezia nana Gray), 58, 63 (031408), 77, 85 (031908), 89*

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King: Brownfoot

SYNONYMY: Perezia wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 to 52 inches in height, one plant was recorded as being 12 inches in height with a crown 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green (and holly-like), the flowers lavender, pink, pink-brown, pink-lavender, pinkish-purple, purple, white, white and pink or whitish-maroon, flowering generally takes place between early February and early July and sometimes in autumn between early September and early November (additional records: one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; crater walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; along ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky, stony-gravelly and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky plains; rocky flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; along arroyos; gullies; ravines; seeps; along creeks; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along drainage ways; rocky banks of streams; beaches; river basins; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky silty loam, sandy loam, silty-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (040507), 77, 85 (042107), 89 (recorded as Perezia wrightii Gray), WTK (August 2005)*

 

Actinolepis lanosa (see footnote 89 under Antheropeas lanosum)

 

Adenophyllum porophylloides (A. Gray) J.L. Strother: San Felipe Dogweed

SYNONYMY: Dyssodia porophylloides A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: San Felipe Adenophyllum, San Felipe Dogweed, San Felipe Dyssodia, San Felipe Fetid Marigold, Yerba del Venado. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (12 to 32 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers yellow, yellowish-brown or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between  mid-March and late October (additional records: one for early February, one for early November, two for mid-November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; buttes; ridge tops; foothills; rocky-gravelly and stony-gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along the bottoms of rocky arroyos; gulches; ravines; stream beds; along creeks; at waterfalls; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-gravelly, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam and cobbly-gravelly loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 700 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The leaves give off a strong odor when bruised, reportedly similar to Deerweed, Porophyllum gracile. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Dyssodia porophylloides), 46 (Dyssodia porophylloides Gray), 63 (070307), 77, 85 (070307), 89 (recorded as Dyssodia porophylloides Gray)*

 

Ambrosia aptera (see Ambrosia trifida var. texana)

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) W.W. Payne: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles. COMMON NAMES: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Burr Sage, Bur-sage, Bursage, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura (Hispanic), Leaf Burr Ragweed, Nu Nu Ju Its  (Tohono O’odham), Tinkl (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the branches has been described as being reddish-brown with white hairs, the leaves dull gray-green or green, the flowers yellowish or yellowish-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: two for mid-January, one for early June, one for mid-June and one for mid-September), the fruits are burrs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; soil pockets in rocks; plains; coastal plains; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along seeping streams; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along sandy drainage ways; rocky and sandy banks; around water holes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 46, 63 (040707), 77, 85 (040707), 91*

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle: Weakleaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg. COMMON NAMES: Altamisa de Playa, Bur-sage, Bursage Ragweed, Bur-weed, Chi’ichivo (Yaqui), Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Istafiate (northern Sinaloa, Mexico), Slimleaf Bursage, Weak-leaf Burr-ragweed, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 5 feet in height and may be procumbent and up to 6 feet in width in higher elevations), the leaves are gray, the color of the flowers has been described as being white, yellow, yellow-brown or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early May and early December (additional record: one for late March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rock faces; foothills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; flats; valleys; roadsides; ravines; seeps; springs; along streams; at rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in drainage ways; swales; around ponds and lakes; banks; rocky benches; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; fence rows; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and rocky silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (041807), 68, 77, 85 (041807), 89 (recorded as Franseria tenuifolia Gray)*

 

Ambrosia cordifolia (A. Gray) F.W. Payne: Tucson Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Fransera cordifolia A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Chicurilla, Sonoran Bursage, Tucson Burr Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (28 inches to 4 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, arroyos, washes and flood plains, occurring from 1,500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 13, 46, 56, 57, 77, 91*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne: Triangle Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Burrobush, Bur-sage, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Kokomak Segoi (Pima), Shegoi (Pima), Todshag (Papago), Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaved Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers greenish, greenish-yellow, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; dunes; sandy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; around seeping streams; runnels; river beds; along sandy washes; rocky banks of creeks; gravelly terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Triangleleaf Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 63 (040707), 77, 85 (040707), 89 (recorded as Franseria deltoidea Torr.), 91, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne: Burrobush

SYNONYMY: Franseria dumosa A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Burro Bush, Burrobush, Burro Weed, Burro-weed, Burroweed, Bur Sage, Bur-sage, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bur-sage, White Bursage, White Burrobush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height, one low mound-shaped plant was reported to be 40 inches in width), the color of the branches has been described as being gray, tan or white, the leaves blue-green-gray, gray-green or white-tomentose, the flowers cream, cream-yellow, greenish, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-January, two for mid-May, one for mid-June, one for late June, four for late September, one for early October, one for mid-November, one for late November and two for mid-December), the fruits are spiny burs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; gravelly mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; amongst boulders; lava fields; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sand sheets; sandy valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; along sandy washes; banks of stream beds and washes; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than 100 years of age with an estimated average longevity of 35.7 years. This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). In the re-vegetation of disturbed sites more success may be achieved through the use of transplanted plants than from over-seeding. White Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 63 (040907), 77, 85 (042407), 91*

 

Ambrosia trifida C. Linnaeus var. texana G.H. Scheele: Texan Great Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Ambrosia aptera A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Blood Ragweed, Blood Weed, Giant Ragweed, Great Ragweed, Texan Great Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (to over 10 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, bottom lands and waste places, in moist soils, occurring from 2,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation. *5, 6, 46, 58, 89, 101*

 

Anthemis cotula C. Linnaeus: Stinking Chamomile

COMMON NAMES: Dillweed, Dog’s Chamomile, Dog Daisy, Dog Fennel, Manzanilla, Manzanilla Cimarrona, Mather, Mayweed, Mayweed Chamomile, Stinking Chamomile, Stinking Mayweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 80, 89, 101*

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg: White Easterbonnets

SYNONYMY: Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly-daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum, Woolly Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (¾ to 8 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish, the leaves gray-green, the ray flowers white and the disk flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: two for mid-June and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; foothills; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; sand hills; gravelly plains; rocky and gravelly flats; gravelly and sandy roadsides; creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks; terraces; sandy bottom lands, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may grow in patches, larger plants tend to be prostrate. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Eriophyllum lanosum), 46 (Eriophyllum lanosum Gray), 58, 63 (070407), 77 (color photograph # 19 labeled Eriophyllum lanosum), 85 (070407), 89 (recorded as Actinolepis lanosa Gray)*

 

Aplopappus australis (see note under Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida) 

 

Aplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Aplopappus laricifolia (see note under Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Aplopappus laricifolius (see Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Aplopappus spinulosus (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida)

 

Aplopappus spinulosus var. turbinellus (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida)

 

Aplopappus tenuisectus (see Isocoma tenuisecta)

 

Aster commutatus var. crassulus (see Symphyotrichum falcatum var. crassulum)

 

Aster exilis (see Symphyotrichum divaricatuml)

 

Aster falcatus var. crassulus (see Symphyotrichum falcatum var. crassulum)

 

Aster hebecladus (see footnote under Symphyotrichum falcatum) 

 

Aster incanus (see footnote under Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. incana) 

 

Aster parviflorus (see footnote under Machaeranthera parviflora) 

 

Aster parvulus (see Machaeranthera parviflora)

 

Aster spinosus (see Chloracantha spinosa)

 

Aster subulatus var. ligulatus (see Symphyotrichum divaricatuml)

 

Aster tagetinus (see Machaeranthera tagetina)

 

Aster tanacetifolius (see Machaeranthera tanacetifolia)

 

Aster tephrodes (see Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. incana) 

 

Baccharis brachyphylla A. Gray: Shortleaf Baccharis

COMMON NAMES: Shortleaf Baccharis, Short-leaved Baccharis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, streambeds, and washes and flood plains, occurring from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Baccharis wrightii)*

 

Baccharis glutinosa (see Baccharis salicifolia)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon: Mule’s Fat

SYNONYMY: Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon. COMMON NAMES: Azumiate (Hispanic), Bachomo (Hispanic), Baldag Shi (Hispanic), Batamote (Hispanic), Broom Baccharis, Chamiso (Hispanic), Chamiso del Rio (Hispanic), Chilca, Cucamoarisha (Cora), Cuerepillo (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Ro (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Tee (Hispanic), False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote (Hispanic), Guatarote (Hispanic), Hierba del Pasmo (Hispanic), Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla (Hispanic), Jara Mexicana (Hispanic), Jaral (Hispanic), Jarilla (Hispanic), Mule’s Fat, Romerello, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten (Hispanic), Tu Ta’ Vi (Hispanic), Water Motie, Watermotie, Water Wally, Water-wally, Waterwally, Water Willow, Waterwillow. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (32 inches  to 15 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being gray, the leaves gray or dark green, the rayless flowers (dioecious) cream, cream-maroon, cream-maroon-purple, cream-white or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; along rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky hillsides; slopes; dunes; plains; flats; roadsides; arroyos; seeps; springs; along streams; bouldery-rocky and rocky stream beds; along and in bouldery creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; along rocky and sandy river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; drainage ways; marshlands; depressions; lake beds; edges of ponds; sandy banks; beach ridges; gravelly bottom lands; sandy flood plains; margins of stock tanks (charcos); along irrigation canals; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Seep Willow is useful in controlling watercourse erosion and slowing stream flow. *5, 6, 13 (Baccharis glutinosa Pers.), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Baccharis glutinosa), 30, 46 (Baccharis glutinosa Pers.), 48 (Baccharis glutinosa), 58, 63 (112907), 68, 77, 85 (113007), 89 (recorded as Baccharis viscosa (R. & P.) Kuntze)*

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Desertbroom

COMMON NAMES: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Caasot Caocl (Seri), Desert Broom, Desert-broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush, Rosin-brush, Soosk Vaks “Wet Shoes” (Maricopa?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height, one plant 40 inches in height was described as being 40 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green or yellow-green, the flowers (dioecious) cream, rust, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-September and late February (additional records: one for mid-March, two for late March, two for mid-April, one for late April, one for mid-July, one for early August and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy plains; flats; valley floors; roadsides; along arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gullies; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; gravelly creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly and sandy washes; playas; along gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos and washes; beaches; flood plains; bottom lands; along drainage ditches; along canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 63 (040907), 77, 85 (recorded as Baccharis emoryi Gray - 040907)*

 

Baccharis emoryi (see footnote 89 under Baccharis sarothroides)

 

Baccharis viscosa (see footnote 89 under Baccharis salicifolia)

 

Baccharis wrightii (see footnote 89 under Baccharis brachyphylla)

 

Baeria chrysostoma (see Lasthenia californica subsp. californica)

 

Baeria chrysostoma var. gracilis (see Lasthenia californica subsp. californica)

 

Baeria gracilis (see footnote 89 under Lasthenia californica subsp. californica) 

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia

COMMON NAME: Hairyseed Bahia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 89*

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Desert Marigold

COMMON NAMES: Baileya del Desierto, Cloth-of-gold, Desert Baileya, Desert-marigold, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Paperdaisy, Wild Marigold. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green, gray-white-green or grayish and woolly, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late December but may continue year round under favorable conditions. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky bluffs; buttes; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly-sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy pockets in lava outcrops; sand hills; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; sandy embankments; along sandy roadsides; arroyos; along streams; sandy creek beds; along rivers; rocky river beds; rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks of washes; alluvial terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas  in rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 200 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Consider seeding Desert Marigold with native Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) for a late winter and early spring desert wildflower display. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46 (“It is said that horses crop the heads, but fatal poisoning of sheep and goats eating this plant on overgrazed ranges has been reported.”), 48, 58, 63 (040907), 68 (“Desert Baileya, either fresh or dried, is poisonous to sheep and goats, but not to horses or cattle. The plant is not palatable to sheep, but the showy flower heads are relished, However, the flowering and fruiting heads are nearly twice as poisonous as the green leaves. Goats evidently do not graze the plant under range conditions, but have been poisoned in experimental feeding. Sheep losses from Desert Baileya have occurred in Arizona when green forage is scarce.”), 77, 80 (This plant is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “The toxic principle is an unknown water-soluble compound. Plants are toxic to sheep on the range in both the green and dry state. ... Goats have been poisoned by experimental feeding but apparently do not eat the plant on the range. Both cattle and horses graze the plant on the range but no losses have been observed. Losses generally occur only when other feed is short or animals are trailed through dense stands.” See text for additional information.), 85 (040907), 86, 89*

 

Bebbia juncea (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene (var. aspera E.L. Greene is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Sweetbush

COMMON NAMES: Chuckwalla Delight, Chuckwalla’s Delight, Junco, Rush Bebbia, Sweetbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (16 inches to 5 feet in height) the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, (orange), orange-yellow or yellow, flowering takes place throughout the year. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky cliff faces; rocky canyons; rocky bluffs; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly flats; sandy valleys; beach dunes; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; sandy draws; bottoms of rocky gulches; springs; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy banks of washes; rocky and sandy beaches; sandy terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly sweet-scented. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (070407), 85 (070407)*

 

Bigelowia hartweggii (see note under Isocoma tenuisecta)

 

Brickellia californica (J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray (var. californica is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): California Brickellbush

COMMON NAMES: Brickellbush, California Brickellbush, False Boneset, Pachaba (Hopi). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 7 feet in height, plants were reported that were 28 inches in both height and width), the branches are white, the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, dark green or green tinged with dark purple, the flowers cream, cream-pink, greenish, red-purple, yellow or pale yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early August and early December (additional record: one for early July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; along rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky-sandy canyonsides; along rocky canyon bottoms; bouldery and rocky talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky-sandy crater rims; crevices in rocks; rock clefts; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; bouldery ridgelines; openings in forests; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-clayey, gravelly and cindery slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and cobbles; rocky, cindery and sandy flats; along rocky-shaley roadsides; along gravelly arroyos; rocky ravines; springs; along streams; along and in rocky-cobbly stream beds; along creeks; rocky-sandy creek beds; gravelly river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly and gravelly washes; along rocky drainage ways; rocky banks of arroyos, ravines and washes; benches; terraces; sandy and sandy-clayey riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly, rocky-shaley, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay, sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from 600 to 8,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: this plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (062107)*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray: Coulter’s Brickellbush

SYNONYMY: Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri. COMMON NAMES: Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height), the color of the florets (rayless flowers) has been described as being cream, cream-maroon-purple, cream-purple, cream-yellow, green, greenish-yellow, purplish, purplish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-October (additional records: one for early November, one for mid-November, one for early December and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; rocky walls of ravines; springs; along stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; around waterholes; sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and silty loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color picture), 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 65 (082007), 77, 85 (082007), 89 (recorded as Brickellia coulteri Gray)*

 

Brickellia coulteri var. coulteri (see Brickellia coulteri) 

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Tackstem

COMMON NAMES: Tackstem, White Cupfruit, White Tackstem. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 12 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green, the flowers creamy-yellow, white and white with purple, red or red-purple stripes turning purplish with age, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery and rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; gravelly plains; gravelly and loamy flats; valleys; along rocky and gravelly roadsides; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy benches; terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070407), 77, 85 (070507), 86 (note), 89 (recorded as Calycoseris wrightii Gray)*

 

Castalis tragus (W. Aiton) N.T. Norlindh: Glandular Cape Marigold

SYNONYMY: Dimorphotheca aurantiaca Hortulanorum, Dimorphotheca sinuata A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: African Daisy, Namaqualand Daisy, Glandular Cape Marigold, Beto, Keltasääkukka, Sun Marigold. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 12 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from ridge tops, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 400 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 18, 63 (083006), 77*

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Maltese Star-thistle

COMMON NAMES: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, flood plains, along ditch banks and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 41, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Chaenactis carphoclinia A. Gray (var. carphoclinia is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Pebble Pincushion

COMMON NAMES: Broadleaved Chaenactis, False Yarrow, Pebble False-yarrow, Pebble Pincushion, Pincushion Flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains and along washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (062606), 77, 89*

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott: Steve’s Dustymaiden

COMMON NAMES: “Broad-leaved Chaenactis”, Desert Pincushion, Dusty Maiden, Dustymaiden, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Esteve’s Pincushion, “False Yarrow”, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dusty-maiden, Steve’s Dustymaiden. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the flowers (disk flowers only, no ray flowers) cream, cream-white, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-January and one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; bluffs; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; sandy hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; rocky and gravelly arroyos; along streams; along and in sandy washes; beaches; along terraces; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070507), 77, 85 (also recorded as Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides Hook. & Arn. - 070607), 86 (color photograph), 89 (recorded as Chaenactis stevioides H. & A.)*

 

Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides (see footnote 85 under Chaenactis stevioides) 

 

Chloracantha spinosa (G. Bentham) G.L. Nesom: Spiny Chloracantha

SYNONYMY: Aster spinosus G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Spiny Aster, Spiny Chloracantha, Mexican Devil-weed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb. subshrub or shrub (2 to 9 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, river bottoms, along ditches and disturbed areas in moist and saline soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 68, 80 (Species of Aster are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. These annual and perennial forbs may act as secondary or facultative selenium absorbers, converters, and indicators and may become toxic to livestock.), 89, 91*

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: New Mexico Thistle

COMMON NAMES: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb (20 inches to 7 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, gray-green or silvery, the florets lavender, lavender-pink, pink-lavender, pink-purple, purple, rose, rose-purple, violet-purple, white or whitish-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June (additional records: one each for early January, mid-February, late February and mid-July and two for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; flats; gravelly roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream banks; along rivers; rocky drainage ways; rocky and sandy banks; benches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 1,300 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070707), 77, 85 (070707)*

 

Conyza bonariensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist: Asthmaweed

SYNONYMY: Erigeron linifolius C.L. von Willldenow. COMMON NAMES: Argentiinankoiransilmä, Asthma Weed, Asthmaweed, Flaxleaved Fleabane, Fleabane, Hairy Fleabane, Horseweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (6 inches to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, washes and river bottoms, flood plains, waste places and disturbed areas in moist soils, occurring form 1,000 to 5,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 77, 101*

 

Conyza canadensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist var. canadensis: Canadian Horseweed

SYNONYMY: Erigeron canadensis C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: Blood Stanch, Canada Fleabane, Canadian Fleabane, Canadian Horseweed, Horsetail Conyza, Horseweed, Mare’s Tail. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (3 inches to 5 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, flood plains, waste land and disturbed areas in sandy soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101 (sp.)*

 

Conyza coulteri (see Laennecia coulteri)

 

Dimorphotheca aurantiaca (see Castalis tragus)

 

Dimorphotheca sinuata (see Castalis tragus)

 

Dyssodia acerosa (see Thymophylla acerosa)

 

Dyssodia pentachaeta (see Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta)

 

Dyssodia porophylloides (see Adenophyllum porophylloides)

 

Eclipta alba (see Eclipta prostrata)

 

Eclipta prostrata (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus: False Daisy

SYNONYMY: Eclipta alba (C. Linnaeus) J.C. Hasskarl. COMMON NAMES: Eclipta, False Daisy, White Eclipta, White Heads, Yerba de Tago, Yerba de Tajo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 46, 89*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey [superfluous autonym], Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. phenicodonta (J. Blake) I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Brittle Bush, Brittle-bush, Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 6 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, silvery-gray or whitish, the ray flowers yellow or yellow-orange and the disk flowers brown-maroon, dark purple, orange-yellow or yellow, the flowers appear 6 to 12 inches beyond the end of the foliage, flowering generally takes place between early November and late May (additional records: two for late August, one for early September, two for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; flats; roadsides; springs; creeks; rocky and sandy washes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Plants with yellow ray flowers and dark purple disk flowers have historically been referred to as variety phenicodonta (Blake) Johnst. and has been observed growing with the typical plant which has yellow disk flowers. Brittle Bush is reportedly browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 85 (040907), 86, 89, 91*

 

Encelia farinosa var. farinosa (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia farinosa var. phenicodonta (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Eremiastrum bellioides (see footnote under Monoptilon bellioides) 

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners: Turpentine Bush

SYNONYMY: Haplopappus laricifolius A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Ericameria, Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Roundleaf Rabbitbrush, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine-bush, Turpentine Brush, Turpentine-brush,. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 to 40 inches in height, one plant was reported to be 16 inches in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height and 40 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green, gray-silver, green or yellow-green, the flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early September to late December (additional records: one for mid-January, two for late January, one for mid-February, one for late March, one for late April, two for early May, two for late May, one for early July, one for late July and two for mid-August), the fruits are white. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery-gravelly mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky-clayey canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; rocky ledges; rocky and gravelly ridges; ridgelines; bouldery foothills; rocky hills; rocky and silty hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, loamy-clayey and gravelly-loamy-silty slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; flats; rocky basins; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and loamy roadsides; along arroyos; draws; gullies; along streams; along stream beds; along creek beds; bouldery-cobbly-sandy river beds; along sandy washes; drainage ways; gravelly terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-silty loam, clayey loam and loam soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and gravelly-loamy silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are visited by many types of insects. *5, 6, 13 (Haplopappus laricifolius A. Gray), 15, 16, 28, 46 (recorded as Aplopappus laricifolius Gray), 58, 63 (052207), 77, 85 (052607), 89 (recorded as Aplopappus laricifolia Gray)*

 

Erigeron canadensis (see Conyza canadensis)

 

Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson: Running Fleabane

SYNONYMY: Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Running Daisy, Running Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky hills, hillsides, slopes and riparian areas in moist and rocky soils, occurring from 2,600 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 48 (gen.), 77, 85*

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Spreading Fleabane

SYNONYMY: Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray var. typicus A.J. Cronquist. COMMON NAMES: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 28 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being a dull gray-green, the ray flowers blue, blue-lavender, blue-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-pink, pale pink, light purple, white or white-lavender, the disk flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and late September (additional records: three for mid-January, one for late January, one for early February, three for mid-February, five for late February, three for early October, two for mid-October, one for late October, nine for early November, five for late November, two for early December, three for mid-December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; lava flows; stony prairies; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; along arroyos; streams; rocky-sandy streambeds; along creeks; along creek beds; along and in gravelly-sandy washes; along lake shores; cienegas; sandy benches; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; edges of tanks; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy loam soils; rocky-silty clay and gravelly clay soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 400 to 10,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (070707), 77, 85 (070707), 86 (color photograph), 89 (recorded as Erigeron divergens T. & G.)*

 

Erigeron divergens var. cinereus (see Erigeron colomexicanus)

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray var. typicus (see Erigeron divergens)

 

Erigeron linifolius (see Conyza bonariensis)

 

Erigeron lobatus A. Nelson: Lobed Fleabane

COMMON NAMES: Desert Fleabane, Fleabane, Lobed Daisy, Lobed Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height), the color of the flower has been described as having blue, blue lavender, lavender, purple, white or white-purple rays and yellow disks, flowering generally takes place between January and November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; depressions along canyon bottoms; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; lava flows; rock outcrops; plains; flats; arroyos; seeps; stream beds; along rivers edges; along sandy washes; around water holes; rocky-sandy beaches; along ditches, and riparian areas in rocky soils and sandy clay soils, occurring from 600 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080106), 77, 85 (073006)*

 

Eriophyllum lanosum (see Antheropeas lanosum)

 

Evax caulescens (see footnote 89 under Evax verna var. verna)

 

Evax multicaulis (see Evax verna var. verna)

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque (var. verna C.S. Rafinesque is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Spring Pygmycudweed

SYNONYMY: (Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle). COMMON NAMES: Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 3 inches in length), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; hills; slopes; rocky, gravelly and loamy flats; valley floors; roadsides; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; margins of cienegas; depressions; swales; banks; benches; channel bars; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas and disturbed areas in gravelly-sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Evax multicaulis DC.), 58, 63 (122407), 77, 85 (122407)*

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque var. verna C.S. Rafinesque: Spring Pygmycudweed

SYNONYMY: Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 3 inches in length), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; hills; slopes; rocky, gravelly and loamy flats; valley floors; roadsides; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; margins of cienegas; depressions; swales; banks; benches; channel bars; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Evax multicaulis DC.), 58, 63 (122407), 77, 85 (122407), 89 (recorded as Evax caulescens Gray)*

 

Filago arizonica (A. Gray) J. Holub: Arizona Cottonrose

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Filago, Arizona Fluffweed, Arizona Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between early March and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-February, two for late February, two for mid-May, one for mid-June and one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava fields; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; along streams; river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainage ways; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos), and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (052307), 77, 85 (052607)*

 

Filago californica (see Logfia californica)

 

Filago depressa A. Gray: Dwarf Cottonrose

COMMON NAMES: Dwarf Cottonrose, Dwarf Filago. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77*

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria confertiflora (see Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Fransera cordifolia (see Ambrosia cordifolia)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Franseria tenuifolia (see footnote under Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Blanketflower

SYNONYMY: Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray var. arizonica A. Gray [superfluous autonym], Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray var. pringlei (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Blanketflower, Pringle Blanketflower, Pringle’s Blanketflower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the ray flowers gold, orange-yellow or yellow, the disc flowers gold, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; canyons; foothills; hills; slopes; bajadas; alluvial plains; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; grassy arroyo channels; draws; along and in gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-silty washes; depressions; gravelly-sandy-loamy terraces, and mesquite bosques in desert pavement; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 600 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (052307), 77, 85 (052607), 89 (recorded as Gaillardia arizonica Gray)*

 

Gaillardia arizonica var. arizonica (see Gaillardia arizonica)

 

Greenella arizonica (see Gutierrezia arizonica)

 

Gutierrezia arizonica (A. Gray) M.A. Lane: Arizona Snakeweed

SYNONYMY: Greenella arizonica A. Gray. COMMON NAME: Arizona Snakeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in  elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray: Threadleaf Snakeweed

COMMON NAMES: Broomweed, Little-head Sankeweed, Matchweed, Resinweed, Sankeweed, Sticky Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Three-leaf Snakeweed, Turpentineweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (16 to 48 inches in height), the color of the stems and leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers golden or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late July and early November (additional records: one for early January, one for late January, one for late February, one for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for mid-June, one for late November and two for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; sandy and sandy-silty mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; rocky canyon rims; rocky canyon walls; rocky canyon bottoms; rocky bases of cliffs; rocky ridges; ridge tops; rocky rims of craters; clearings in forests; foothills; bouldery, rocky and silty hills; gravelly-silty hill tops; hillsides; bouldery-cobbly-gravelly, rocky, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-loamy and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy alluvial plains; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; stony and sandy plains; sandy flats; basins; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; along rocky roadsides; draws; gullies; along streams; creek beds; along rivers; along rocky and sandy washes; banks of rivers and washes; sandy edges of marshes; benches; flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, bouldery-cobbly-gravelly, rocky, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and clayey loam soils; rocky clay, gravelly clay and clay soils, and gravelly silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,400 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46 (Snake-weeds “are more or less poisonous to sheep and goats when eaten in quantity, but are unpalatable and are seldom grazed. It is said that G. microcephala absorbs selenium in large quantity on certain soils.”), 56, 57, 58, 63 (062107), 68, 77, 80 (This plant is listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant. “The poisonous principal is apparently a saponin. It is most toxic at earlier stages of growth during early leaf development and when growing on sandy soils. ... Livestock apparently eat small amounts of the relatively unpalatable snakeweed without serious consequences. Therefore, range improvement to provide alternate, desirable feed and to reduce snakeweed infestations through grass competition will control most losses.” See text for additional information.), 85 (062107), 89*

 

Haplopappus australis (see note under Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida) 

 

Haplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Haplopappus laricifolius (see Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Haplopappus spinulosus (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida)

 

Haplopappus spinulosus var. turbinellus (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida)

 

Haplopappus tenuisectus (see Isocoma tenuisecta)

 

Hedosyne ambrosifolia (A. Gray) J.L. Strother: Ragged Marshelder

SYNONYMY: Iva ambrosiifolia A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Marsh Elder, Ragged Marshelder, Rag Sumpweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, along streams, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 46, 57, 89*

 

Helenium thurberi A. Gray: Thurber’s Sneezeweed

COMMON NAMES: Thurber Sneezeweed, Thurber’s Sneezeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: within the range of this species it has been reported from marshy places along streams, stream beds and creeks, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 89*

 

Helianthus annuus C. Linnaeus: Common Sunflower

COMMON NAMES: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Isoauringonkukka, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Wild Artichoke, Wild Sunflower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to13 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, creeks, ditch banks, waste places and disturbed areas in moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Helianthus petiolaris T. Nuttall: Prairie Sunflower

COMMON NAMES: Girasol, Narrowleaf Sunflower, Pikkuauringonkukka, Plains Sunflower, Prairie Sunflower, Sand Sunflower, Wild Sunflower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 4 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, slopes, dunes, sandy hummocks, plains, sandy flats, roadsides, river beds, along washes, riparian areas, flood plains and disturbed areas in cindery and sandy soils, gravelly clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 77, 85, 89*

 

Hemizonia fitchii (see footnote under Hemizonia pungens)

 

Hemizonia kelloggii E.L. Greene: Kellogg’s Tarweed

SYNONYMY: Hemizonia wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Kellogg Tarweed, Tarweed Kellogg’s, Tarweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,400 to 2,600 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 77, 89*

 

Hemizonia pungens (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Common Tarweed

COMMON NAMES: Common Spikeweed, Common Tarweed, Smooth Tarplant, Spikeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, marshy areas, flood plains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,300 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 89 (recorded as Hemizonia fitchii), 101*

 

Hemizonia wrightii (see Hemizonia kelloggii) 

 

Heterotheca psammophila R. Wagenknecht: Camphorweed

SYNONYMY: Heterotheca subaxillaris (J.B. de Lamarck) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby sensu T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles. COMMON NAMES: Camphorweed, Golden Aster, Gordolobo, Telegraph Plant. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial forb/herb (2 to 6 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, sandy washes, ditches, flood plains and disturbed areas in sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Heterotheca subaxillaris (see Heterotheca psammophila)

 

Hymenatherum hartwegii (see footnote under Thymophylla pentachaeta)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Singlewhorl Burrobrush

COMMON NAMES: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (3 to 13 feet in height), the color of the plants has been described as being gray-green, the flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between September and May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy canyon bottoms; rocky hills; hillsides; plains; gravelly embankments; along roadsides; sandy arroyo bottoms; stream beds, along rivers; river beds; rocky, cobbly and sandy washes; banks of rivers; sandy flood plains; bottom lands; mesquite bosques; ditches; along canals, and riparian areas in rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental Singlewhorl Burrobrush is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 13, 15, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (041007), 85 (041007 - also recorded as Ambrosia monogyra (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.L. Strother & B.G. Baldwin), 91, WTK (August 2006)*

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: TransPecos Thimblehead

COMMON NAMES: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower, Yellow Thimblehead. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), the color of the ray and disc flowers has been described as being green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early June and late November (additional record: one for late March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; clefts in cliffs; buttes; meadows; foothills; stony-gravelly hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along gravelly-silty roadsides; along rivers; along rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; terraces; flood plains; around stock tanks, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 1,300 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (062107), 89 (recorded as Hymenothrix wislizeni Gray)*

 

Isocoma coronopifolia (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Common Goldenbush

COMMON NAMES: Burroweed, Common Goldenbush, Common Goldenweed, Goldenbush, Goldenweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas in sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 56, 57, 85*

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene: Burroweed

SYNONYMY: Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 40 inches in height and 18 to 40 inches in width).  HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, draws, waste places and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89 (recorded as Bigelowia hartweggii)*

 

Iva ambrosiifolia (Hedosyne ambrosifolia) 

 

Lactuca serriola C. Linnaeus: Prickly Lettuce

COMMON NAMES: China Lettuce, Compass Plant, Horse Thistle, Milk Thistle, Prickly Lettuce, Wild Lettuce, Wild Opium. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, flood plains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom: Conyza

SYNONYMY: Conyza coulteri A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Conyza, Coulter Conyza, Coulter Marshtail. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, plains, river bottoms, washes, flood plains, moist soils, adjacent to riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Lasthenia californica A.P. de Candolle ex J. Lindley (subsp. californica is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): California Goldfields

SYNONYMY: (Baeria chrysostoma F.E. von Fischer & E.H. Mey, Baeria chrysostoma F.E. von Fischer & E.H. Mey var. gracilis (A.P. de Candolle) H.M. Hall, Lasthenia chrysostoma (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. von Meyer) E.L. Greene). COMMON NAMES: California Goldenfields, California Goldfields, Gold-fields, Goldfields. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (3 to 8 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being golden-yellow, yellow or yellow-orange, the disc flowers orange or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late May (additional records: three for mid-June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; gravelly mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; clayey-loamy plains; gravelly flats; valleys; along roadsides; seeps; along streams; sandy river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; clayey lake beds; edges of creeks and rivers; banks of washes; gravelly and sandy-loamy terraces; flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, stony loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 700 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Baeria chrysostoma Fisch. & Mey var. gracilis (DC.) Hall, variety gracillis is reported to be the only form occurring in Arizona), 63 (052405), 77, 85 (Lasthenia chrysostoma  (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Greene - 052607), 89 (recorded as Baeria gracilis (DC.) Gray)*

 

Lasthenia chrysostoma (see Lasthenia californica subsp. californica) 

 

Logfia californica (T. Nuttall) J. Holub: California Cottonrose

SYNONYMY: Filago californica T. Nuttall. COMMON NAMES: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream-white, white or white-straw, flowering generally takes place between late February and late May (additional record: one record for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; bouldery outcrops; plains; sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; river beds; along rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; flood plains; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (062107), 89 (recorded as Filago californica Nutt.)*

 

Machaeranthera arida B.L. Turner & J. Horne: Arid Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Machaeranthera coulteri (A. Gray) B.L. Turner & J. Horne var. arida (B.L. Turner & J. Horne) B.L. Turner, Psilactis coulteri auct. p.p., non A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arid Spiny Daisy, Arid Tansyaster, Silver Lake Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being blue, lavender-blue, pink, purple, violet, white or yellow, the disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and early September (additional records: two for early October, one for mid-October, two for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides; crater walls; gypsum outcrops; dunes; blowout areas between dunes; sandy flats; coastal plains; roadsides; springs; sandy-silty river beds; along and in sandy washes; edges of seeps; around pools; banks of rivers; gravelly benches; flood plains, and disturbed areas in rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Psilactis coulteri Gray), 56, 57, 63 (070807), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (070807)*

 

Machaeranthera canescens (F.T. Pursh) A. Gray subsp. canescens var. incana (J. Lindley) A. Gray: Hoary Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Aster tephrodes (A. Gray) J. Blake, Machaeranthera tephrodes (A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Machaeranthera incana (J. Lindley) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Goldenweed, Hoary Aster, Hoary Tansyaster, Purple Aster. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and flood plains in alluvial soils, occurring from 150 to 8,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 89 (recorded as Aster incanus)*

 

Machaeranthera coulteri var. arida (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Machaeranthera gracilis (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners: Slender Goldenweed

SYNONYMY: Aplopappus gracilis (T. Nuttall) A. Gray, Haplopappus gracilis (T. Nuttall) A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Goldenweed, Slender Goldenweed, Yellow Daisy, Yellow Spiny Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, dry plains and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 89*

 

Machaeranthera incana (see Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. incana)   

 

Machaeranthera parviflora A. Gray: Smallflower Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Aster parvulus J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Smallflower Tansyaster, Small-flowered Spiny Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and plains, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 89 (recorded as Aster parviflorus)*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners: Lacy Tansyaster

COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Ironplant, Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Daisy, Spiny Haplopappus, Tansyaster, Yellow Spiny Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 36 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish, gray-green or green, the ray flowers purple or yellow and disk flowers orange, yellow or yellow-orange, flowering (see footnote 46) generally takes place between mid-January and late December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky summits; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky rims of canyons; canyon walls; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky clefts; crevices in bedrock and boulders; ledges; rocky and chalky ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky-sandy rims of craters; crater walls; foothills; rocky hills; bouldery and rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; along lava slides; lava fields; plains; gravelly, sandy and clayey flats; valleys; along rocky, rocky-loamy and gravelly roadsides; arroyos; draws; gullies; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along and in cobbly drainage ways; banks of creeks and rivers; sandy benches; gravelly-sandy terraces; rocky terrace alcoves; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; dry bottoms of stock tanks (charcos); sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 58, 63 (062107), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (062107), 86*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida: Lacy Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. australis (E.L. Greene) H.M. Hall, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus Yellow Spiny Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 16 inches in height), the foliage is gray-green, the flowers are yellow, flowering (see footnote 46) generally takes place between March and late October (flowering record: one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs; bouldery hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; gravelly flats; along roadsides; arroyos; banks of rivers, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,600 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (083006), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 86, 89 (recorded as Aplopappus australis)*

 

Machaeranthera tagetina E.L. Greene: Mesa Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Aster tagetinus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Mesa Tansyaster, Tansyleaf Spine Aster. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, riverbanks, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 4,600 feet elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”)*

 

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Tansyleaf Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Aster tanacetifolius K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Tahoka Daisy, Tansyleaf Spine Aster, Tansyleaf Tansyaster. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 18 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 86, 89*

 

Machaeranthera tephrodes (see Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. incana) 

 

Malacothrix californica var. glabrata (see Malacothrix glabrata)

 

Malacothrix clevelandii A. Gray: Cleveland’s Desertdandelion

COMMON NAMES: Annual Malacothrix, Cleveland’s Desertdandelion, Cleveland’s Desertdandelion, Cleveland Yellow Saucers, Yellow Saucers. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along streams and washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Malacothrix coulteri A. Gray: Snakes Head

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Desertdandelion, Snakes Head. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 86, 89*

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray: Smooth Desertdandelion

SYNONYMY: Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton. COMMON NAMES: California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Desert-dandelion, Smooth Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height), the ray flowers are yellow (no disk flowers), flowering generally takes place between late February March and early June (additional record: one for early February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; at the edges of rivers; sandy bottom lands, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam and gravelly loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Malacothrix californica var. glabrata), 46, 58, 63 (070807), 77, 85 (070807), 86 (color photograph), 89*

 

Malacothrix sonchoides (T. Nuttall) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Sowthistle Desertdandelion

COMMON NAMES: Sowthistle Desertdandelion, Yellow Saucers. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, along rivers and sandy washes, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

Malacothrix sonorae W.S. Davis & J.E. Raven: Sonoran Desertdandelion

COMMON NAME: Sonoran Desert Dandelion, Sonoran Desertdandelion. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 10 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; hillsides; rocky slopes; gulches; along streams; along creeks; along washes, and riparian areas in rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 800 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 63 (052407), 85 (052607)*

 

Matricaria discoidea A.P. de Candolle: Disc Mayweed

SYNONYMY: Matricaria matricarioides (C.F. Lessing) T.C. Porter. COMMON NAMES: Disc Mayweed, False Chamomile, Manzanilla, Pineapple Weed, Rayless Chamomile. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, river bottoms, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 89, 101*

 

Matricaria matricarioides (see Matricaria discoidea)

 

Matricaria suaveolens (see Matricaria discoidea)

 

Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray: Lindley’s Silverpuffs

SYNONYMY: Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Uropappus lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) T. Nuttall, Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall. COMMON NAMES: Lindley Silverpuffs,  Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs, Starpoint. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 18 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides, sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Microseris linearifolia (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Mohave Desertstar

COMMON NAMES: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desert Star, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 12 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the ray flowers blue, blue-lavender-white, lavender, pink, purplish-lavender, white, white-lavender or white tinged with pink, pink-purple, purple or rose, the disk flowers golden or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; stony and sandy mesas; foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst rocks; lava fields; lava flows; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; gullies; creek beds; along and in sandy washes; stony drainage ways; playas; gravelly and sandy banks of small drainage ways, gravel bars; lake shores; terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 100 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This small winter annual may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are about ¾ inch in width. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Eremiastrum bellioides)*

 

Parthenice mollis A. Gray: Annual Monsterwort

COMMON NAME: Annual Monsterwort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 7 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas and along streambeds and washes, occurring from 3,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 89*

 

Parthenium incanum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Mariola

COMMON NAMES: Crowded Rayweed, Mariola. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray: Manybristle Chinchweed

COMMON NAMES: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Fetid-marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb herb (1 to 8 inches in height and 3 to 12 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being green or yellow, the ray and disk flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-December (additional records: two for early May, one for mid-May and two for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-sandy mesas; canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; gravelly-sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; along roadsides; along stream beds; along and in sandy washes; sandy banks; flood plains; mesquite bosques; bottoms of dry stock tanks (charcos); riparian areas; waste places, and gravelly-sandy disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, pebbly, pebbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam and gravelly loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The plant has been reported to be aromatic. This plant is a host of the Beet Leaf Hopper. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (122607), 77, 85 (122607), 86 (color photograph), 89*

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray var. papposa: Manybristle Chinchweed

COMMON NAMES: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Fetid-marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 8 inches in height and 3 to 12 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being green or yellow, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-December (additional records: two for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; sandy ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; gravelly and gravelly-sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valleys; roadsides; arroyos; sandy bottoms of arroyos; sandy bottoms of ravines; along streams; along stream beds; sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; sandy baysides; depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, silty loam and loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to (5,900) 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 46 (sp.), 63 (122607), 85 (122607), 86 (color photograph of species)*

 

Pectis prostrata A.J. Cavanilles: Spreading Chinchweed

COMMON NAMES: Creeping Pectis, Spreading Chinchweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from dry slopes, sandy plains and along streams in damp sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland ecological formation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 89*

 

Perezia nana (see Acourtia nana)

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Pluchea sericea (T. Nuttall) F.V. Coville: Arrowweed

SYNONYMY: Tessaria sericea (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners. COMMON NAMES: Arrowweed, Arrowweed Pluchea, Arrowwood, Marsh Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, rivers and ditches, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae) and is browsed by deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Aroowweed has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 28, 46, 48, 89*

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Slender Poreleaf

COMMON NAMES: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado (Herb of the Deer), Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (12 to 40 inches, one record at 79 inches, in height), the color of the stems and leaves has been described as being gray-green or dark green, the disk flowers cream, cream-maroon, cream-purple, maroon, pinkish, purple, purplish-white, white, white tinged with purple, or yellow (disk flowers only, there are no ray flowers), flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early October (additional records: four for mid-January, four for late October, two for early November and four for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; ridges; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valleys; roadsides; arroyos; rocky arroyo walls; rocky arroyo bottoms; springs; along creeks; sandy creek beds; rocky river beds; along and in sandy washes; drainage ways; cobbly and sandy banks of rivers; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The plants emit a pungent odor when bruised. Deer browse this plant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (070907), 77, 85 (070907), 89 (recorded as Porophyllum gracile Benth.)*

 

Psilactis coulteri (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Whitestem Paperflower

COMMON NAMES: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Paper-flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 30 inches in height and 8 to 20 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being white, the leaves green, greenish-gray or white, the disk flowers yellow, the ray flowers yellow fading to white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; clayey hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly flats; valleys; rocky embankments; roadsides; arroyos; along streams; along rocky and sandy washes; sandy drainage ways; sandy depressions; sandy banks of rivers and washes; rocky benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, cobbly-gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 63 (052807), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This showy, low-growing shrub is widespread in Arizona. No losses have been documented, but it may cause some poisoning similar to the other paperflowers.”), 85 (052807), 86, 89 (recorded as Riddellia cooperi Gray)*

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: New Mexico Plumeseed

COMMON NAMES: Desert Chicory, Desert-chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, Mexican Plumeseed, New Mexico Plumeseed, Plumeseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, white, white-pink, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knobs; ridges; ridge tops; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainage ways; sandy depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. It is often found growing through and supported by Triangleleaf Bursage and other small shrubs. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Riddellia cooperi (see footnote 89 under Psilostrophe cooperi)

 

Senecio douglasii var. monoensis (see Senecio flacciduss var. monoensis)

 

Senecio flaccidus C.F. Lessing var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) B.L. Turner & T.M. Barkley: Mono Ragwort

SYNONYMY: Senecio douglasii A.P. de Candolle var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) W.L. Jepson, Senecio monoensis E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Comb Butterweed, Creek Senecio, Groundsel, Mono Groundsel, Mono Ragwort, Sand Wash Groundsel, Shrubby Ragwort, Threadleaf Groundsel, Threadleaf Ragwort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being yellow-green, the ray flowers are yellow and the disk flowers are orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and gravelly-loamy roadsides; silty draws; bottoms of draws; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; in drainage ways; sandy banks; sandy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,400 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16 (recorded as Senecio douglasii DC. var. douglasii), 28 (color photograph - Senecio monoensis) 46 (Senecio monoensis Greene), 58, 63 (111707), 77, 80 (Threadleaf Groundsel, Woolly Groundsel, Senecio (Senecio longilobus and others) are listed as Major Poisonous Range Plants. Poisoning by Threadleaf Groundsel has been attributed to the presence of a number of alkaloids. “These alkaloids belong to a single group - the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Upon hydrolysis, these break into a nitrogen-containing fraction and a mono- or di-carboxylic necic acid. The nitrogen oxides are hepatotoxic, causing liver lesions that are attributed to senecio poisoning. ... Cattle and horses are equally sensitive to senecio poisoning; sheep and goats are less susceptible. ... Also, the consumption of small amounts of the plant over a period of a month or more will have a cumulative effect. ... When possible, livestock should be kept from areas heavily infested with Threadleaf Groundsel, particularly when the range is excessively dry.” See text for additional information.), 85 (111807)*

 

Senecio lemmonii A. Gray: Lemmon’s Ragwort

COMMON NAMES: Groundsel; Lemmon Butterweed, Lemmon’s Butterweed, Lemmon Groundsel, Lemmon Ragwort, Lemmon’s Ragwort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (generally 10 to 20 inches in height; however, plants up to 5 feet in height have been reported), the stems are reddish, the color of the foliage has been described as being purple beneath and green above, the ray flowers green-yellow or bright yellow and disk flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late February and mid-May (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-January, one for early February, one for late June, two for mid-November and four for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain summits; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky cliff faces; along rocky canyons; canyon rims; bases of cliffs; crevices in boulders and rocks; buttes; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky, shaley, gravelly and gravelly-silty hillsides; bouldery, bouldery-rocky and rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; bases of boulders and rocks; along arroyos; draws; around seeps; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of streams and washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, shaley, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Senecio lemmoni Gray), 58, 63 (062207), 77, 85 (062207), 89 (recorded as Senecio lemmonii Gray)*

 

Senecio monoensis (see Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis) 

 

Solidago sparsiflora (Solidago velutina)

 

Solidago canadensis var. arizonica (see Solidago velutina) 

 

Solidago velutina A.P. de Candolle: Threenerve Goldenrod

SYNONYMY: Solidago canadensis C. Linnaeus var. arizonica A. Gray, Solidago sparsiflora A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Sparse Goldenrod, Threenerve Goldenrod, Velvety Foothills Goldenrod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, hills, meadows, roadsides, springs and along stream beds and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and scrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 28 (sp. - Solidago canadensis), 46 (gen. / recorded as Solidago altissima), 58, 80 (Species of the genus Solidago are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Forced use of these unpalatable perennial forbs may result in abortion and death of livestock. Apparently plants are not toxic until after flowering.), 89*

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill: Spiny Sowthistle

SYNONYMY: Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill subsp. asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Achicoria Dulce, Annual Sow-thistle, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sow Thistle, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle, Spiny-leaf Sow-thistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being purplish to green, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; ridges; meadows; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; volcanic plugs; alkali flats; roadsides; seeps; around springs; along streams; along sandy creeks; along gravelly-sandy rivers; river beds; along and in stony-gravelly and sandy washes; drainage ways; cienegas; marsh land; sandy edges of streams, ponds and lakes; sand bars; terraces; flood plains; ditches; ditch banks; canals; bouldery-sandy and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery-sandy, rocky, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam, sandy-silty loam and silty loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 8,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 30, 58, 63 (041807), 68, 77, 80 (Species of the genus Sonchus are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus (Sonchus) have been reported to accumulate dangerous levels of nitrates.”), 85 (041807), 89, 101*

 

Sonchus asper subsp. asper (see Sonchus asper) 

 

Sonchus oleraceus C. Linnaeus: Common Sowthistle

COMMON NAMES: Achicoria (Hispanic), Achicoria Dulce (Hispanic), Annual Sowthistle, Borraja (Hispanic), Borrajilla (Hispanic), Cardo (Hispanic), Cerraja (Hispanic), Chicalotillo (Hispanic), Chicoria (Hispanic), Chicoria (Purépecha), Colewort, Common Sowthistle, Diente de León (Hispanic), Endivia (Hispanic), Grespino Commune (Hispanic), Hare’s Lettuce, Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Kaalivalvatti (Hispanic), Lechuguilla (Hispanic), Matalí Morado (Hispanic), Milk Thistle, Mitihuaraca (Hispanic), Muela de Caballo (Hispanic), Smooth Sowthistle, Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Tlamatsalin (Michoacán), Tskutsuk Chekamiti (Purépecha). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height), the ray flowers are cream or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late September (additional records: one for mid-January and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; near springs; along streams; along creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along washes; sandy beaches; along cobbly banks; edges of ponds; shorelines; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; canal banks; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 7,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 30, 46, 56, 57, 63 (120207), 68, 77 (color photograph #23), 80 (Species of the genus Sonchus are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus (Sonchus) have been reported to accumulate dangerous levels of nitrates.”), 85 (120207), 89, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Stephanomeria exigua T. Nuttall: Small Wirelettuce

COMMON NAMES: Annual Mitra, Small Stephanomeria, Small Wirelettuce, Wire Lettuce. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hills, rocky slopes, sand hills, dunes, plains, sandy washes and alluvial terraces in desert pavement; sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson: Brownplume Wirelettuce

SYNONYMY: Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson var. pauciflora. COMMON NAMES: Brownplume Wirelettuce, Desert Straw, Small-flowered Wirelettuce. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy plains, roadsides, along washes and flood plains, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora var. pauciflora (see Stephanomeria pauciflora)

 

Stylocline gnaphalioides T. Nuttall: Mountain Neststraw

COMMON NAMES: Everlasting Neststraw, Mountain Neststraw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, hillsides, gravelly and sandy flats, along washes and riparian areas in gravelly and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 85 (051006)*

 

Stylocline micropoides A. Gray: Woollyhead Neststraw

COMMON NAMES: Desert Nest Straw, Desert Neststraw, Woollyhead Fambract, Woolly Neststraw, Woollyhead Neststraw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 36 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being white, flowering generally take place between mid-February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; rocky canyon rims; talus slopes; hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; dunes; plains; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; along gravelly roadsides; along draws; along streams; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainage ways; lake shores; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (070907), 77, 85 (070907), 89 (recorded as Stylocline micropoides Gray)*

 

Symphyotrichum divaricatum (T. Nuttall) G.L. Nesom: Southern Annual Saltmarsh Aster

SYNONYMY: Aster exilis S. Elliott, Aster subulatus A. Michaux var. ligulatus L.H. Shinners. COMMON NAMES: Annual Saltmarsh Aster, Slender Aster, Slim Aster, Southern Annual Saltmarsh Aster. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and ditches, edges of ponds and stock tanks and riparian areas in moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 77, 80 (Species of the genus Aster are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. These annual and perennial forbs may act as secondary or facultative selenium absorbers, converters, and indicators and may become toxic to livestock.), 89*

 

Symphyotrichum falcatum (J. Lindley) G.L. Nesom var. crassulum P.A. Rydberg: White Prairie Aster

SYNONYMY: Aster commutatus (J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. crassulus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake, Aster falcatus J. Lindley var. crassulus (P.A. Rydberg) A.J. Cronquist. COMMON NAMES: Cluster Aster, Prairie Daisy, White Aster, White Heath Aster, White Prairie Aster, White Prairie Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, clearings, roadsides and riparian areas, occurring from 5,000 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and grassland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 80 (Species of the genus Aster are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. These annual and perennial forbs may act as secondary or facultative selenium absorbers, converters, and indicators and may become toxic to livestock.), 85, 89 (recorded as Aster hebecladus)*

 

Thymophylla acerosa (A.P. de Candolle) J.L. Strother: Pricklyleaf Dogweed

SYNONYMY: Dyssodia acerosa A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Fetid Marigold, Needleleaf Dogweed, Prickly Dogweed, Prickly Fetid Marigold, Pricklyleaf Dogweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 16 inches in height with a round shape, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 16 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 28 inches in width). The color of the stems has been described as being pinkish-brown, the leaves bright green, dark green or yellow-green, the ray flowers orange-yellow or yellow, the disk flowers yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between late February and early November (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; hilltops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; prairies; flats; valleys; roadsides; rocky draws; along washes; drainage ways; terraces; fence lines, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 900 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been reported to be sweet-scented. *5, 6. 15, 28 (color photograph, Dyssodia acerosa), 46 (Dyssodia acerosa DC.), 63 (122707), 77, 85 (122707), 86 (note, Dyssodia acerosa)*

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Candolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta: Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf

SYNONYMY: Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Candolle) B.L Robinson. COMMON NAMES: Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Five-needle Fetid Marigold, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height), the leaves are dark green, the flowers are orange-yellow or bright yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early December (additional records: two for mid-January and one for late February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-sandy and gravelly mesas; sandy bluffs; rocky ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; rocky plains; flats; basins, valley floors; along sandy roadsides; swales; banks of rivers; waste places and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, shaley, stony, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy-silty clay, silty clay and clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,400 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is a larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur (Nathalis iole). *5, 6, 16, 18, 28, 46 (Dyssodia pentachaeta (DC.) Robins.), 58, 63 (052807), 77, 82, 85 (052807), 86, 89 (recorded as Hymenatherum hartwegii Gray)*

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold

SYNONYMY: Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (10 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being gray, the leaves green or yellow-green, the flowers bright yellow, flowering generally takes place between late January and late December, the seeds have straw-colored bristles. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; shaded cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky gorges; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; in the shade of trees on sandy flats; valleys; draws; rocky gully bottoms; by streams; by rivers; along rocky and sandy washes; at the edges of arroyos in the shade of larger shrubs and trees; beaches; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (071007), 86 (color photograph), 89, 91*

 

Trixis californica var. californica (see Trixis californica)

 

Uropappus lindleyi (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Uropappus linearifolius (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray: Golden Crownbeard

COMMON NAMES: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 5 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, flood plains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80 (Listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant, this annual forb has been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.), 86, 89*

 

Xanthium commune (see Xanthium strumarium var. canadense) 

 

Xanthium saccharatum (see Xanthium strumarium var. canadense)

 

Xanthium strumarium C. Linnaeus var. canadense (P. Miller) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Canada Cocleburr

SYNONYMY: Xanthium canadense P. Miller, Xanthium commune N.L. Britton, Xanthium saccharatum C.F. Wallroth. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Cadillo (Hispanic), Cadillos (Hispanic), Chayotillo (Hispanic), Canada Cocleburr, Clotbur, Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur, Rough Cocklebur. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 7 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, stream beds, along and washes, flood plains, along ditches, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. If ingested, the spiny burs may cause the death of young animals. *5, 6, 15, 28, 30, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (081706), 68, 80 (Listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant, see text for additional information.), 89, 101*

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray: Desert Zinnia

SYNONYMY: Zinnia pumila A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 20 inches in height and to 2 feet in width), the color of the linear leaves has been described as being gray or gray-green, the ray flowers cream, cream-white, white, yellow or yellow-white, the disk flowers green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late September (additional records: one for early November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy bajadas; sand dunes; rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly and gravelly-sandy-clayey flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; washes; gravelly-sandy banks; sandy benches; terraces; drainage ways; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-silty loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 85 (052006)*

 

Zinnia grandiflora T. Nuttall: Rocky Mountain Zinnia

COMMON NAMES: Desert Zinnia, Little Golden Zinnia, Plains Zinnia, Prairie Zinnia, Rocky Mountain Zinnia, Texas Zinnia, Wild Zinnia, Zacate Pastor. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 12 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, hilltops and hillsides, dry gravelly and sandy slopes, dry plains, alluvial terraces, roadsides, arroyo bottoms, washes and disturbed areas in sandy soils; gravelly loam and clayey loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 2,400 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 85 (052006), 86, 89 (Some botanists believe that this may have been an incorrectly recorded Zinnia acerosa)*

 

Zinnia pumila (see Zinnia acerosa)

 

 

Family Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet: Desert Willow

COMMON NAMES: Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Texas Desert Willow, Western Desert-willow. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 30 or more feet in height and 10 to 20 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 15 feet in height with a crown 20 feet in width), the light green leaves may be straight (subsp. linearis and roughly to 12 inches in length and 3/8 inch in width) or curved (subsp. arcuata and roughly 3 to 5 ½ in length and 1/8 to 1/4 inch in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, lavender and white, pink, purple, purple-white, purple with yellow markings, reddish-purple, rose or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and mid-August (additional records: two for late September and one for early October), the seeds are dispersed from slender pods 4 to 12 inches in length. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; foothills; talus hills; hillsides; sandy slopes; sand dunes; plains; sandy flats; along roadsides; in gravelly-sandy and sandy arroyos; along streams; rocky and gravelly-sandy stream beds; sandy creek beds; sandy river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainage ways; sandy banks; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Desert Willow may be useful in controlling erosion. The bee Bombus sonorus is a pollinator and hummingbirds are known to visit the flowers. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 26, 28, 46, 52, 53, 74, 77, 85, 91*

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

msinckia intermedia (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia var. echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders: Common Fiddleneck

SYNONYMY: Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins. COMMON NAMES: Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: one for late January, two for late May and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps; along streams; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-loamy washes; sandy drainage ways; swales; sandy banks; rocky and gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; silty flood plains; edges of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46 (Amsinckia spp. - “The plants are very abundant on sandy or gravelly soil in western and southern Arizona, and are reported to make good spring forage while young. On the other hand it has been reported that horses, cattle, and swine eating the nutlets may develop cirrhosis of the liver.”), 58, 63 (041507), 68 (“The mature seeds have been demonstrated to cause hepatic cirrhosis, known as “hard liver disease” of cattle and swine., and the “walking disease” of horses. Sheep are either immune or highly resistant to the poison. The disease is common in the Pacific Northwest, but not in Arizona. This plant also may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 77 (color photograph labeled Amsinckia intermedia #7), 80 (This plant (Amsinckia intermedia and others) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Cattle, horses and swine may be poisoned by an unknown liver toxin from eating large amounts of the seeds of this desert annual. Also plants may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 85 (071007), 86, 89 (recorded as Amsinckia intermedia F. & M.), 101*

 

Amsinckia tessellata A. Gray (var. tesselata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Bristly Fiddleneck

COMMON NAMES: Bristly Fiddleneck, Checker Fiddleneck, Checkered Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Tessellate Fiddle Neck, Western Fiddleneck. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 32 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, dark yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; rocky roadsides; gullies; along rocky-sandy and sandy washes; depressions; banks of rivers; lake shores; terraces; mesquite bosques; margins of stock tanks, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and gravelly-sandy-clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 600 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Amsinckia spp. - “The plants are very abundant on sandy or gravelly soil in western and southern Arizona, and are reported to make good spring forage while young. On the other hand it has been reported that horses, cattle, and swine eating the nutlets may develop cirrhosis of the liver.”), 63 (052807), 77, 80 (The plant Amsinckia intermedia and others are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Cattle, horses and swine may be poisoned by an unknown liver toxin from eating large amounts of the seeds of this desert annual. Also plants may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 85 (052807), 89 (recorded as Amsinckia tessellata Gray)*

 

Coldenia canescens (see Tiquilia canescens var. canescens)

 

Cryptantha angustifolia (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Panamint Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Bristlelobe Cryptantha, Cat’s-eye Panamint, Desert Cryptantha, Hehe Ksatx (Seri), Narrow-leaf Cryptantha, Narrow-leaved Forget-me-not, Narrow-leaved Nievitas, Narrow-leaved Popcorn Flower, Panamint Cryptantha, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish, the flowers whitish, flowering generally takes place between early January and late May (additional records: two for late June and one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; clayey ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy and gravelly-sandy-loamy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; along roadsides; sandy draws; sandy river beds; along sandy washes; sand pits; gravelly-sandy banks; gravel bars; sandy bottom land; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and gravelly-sandy-clayey loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (111807), 77, 85 (111807), 89 (recorded as Cryptanthe angustifolia (Torr.) Greene)*

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, bright white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-June (additional records: two for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; sandy meadows; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; draws; rocky-sandy stream beds; beside creeks; creek beds; along rivers; bouldery and sandy washes; banks of rivers; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (071007), 89 (recorded as Cryptantha barbigera (Gray) Greene)*

 

Cryptantha intermedia (see footnote under Cryptantha nevadensis)

 

Cryptantha micrantha (J. Torrey) I.M. Johnston var. micrantha: Redroot Cryptantha

SYNONYMY: Eremocarya micrantha (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Dwarf Cryptantha, Purpleroot Pick-me-not, Purple-rooted Nievitas, Redroot Cat’s-eye, Redroot Cryptantha. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy mesas, foothills, hillsides, gravelly slopes, flats, sand dunes, sandy benches, along creeks and washes, flood plains and riparian areas in sandy soils, occurring from 300 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Cryptantha nevadensis A. Nelson & G.G. Kennedy: Nevada Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Nevada Cat’s-eye, Nevada Cryptantha, Nevada Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 89 (recorded as Cryptantha intermedia)*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Wingnut Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Wing-fruited Forget-me-not, Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 14 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the flowers bright white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between late January and early June (additional record: one for late July), the winged fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ledges; rocky hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; boulder fields; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; rocky gullies; springs; along rivers; sandy river beds; along rocky-sandy and sandy washes; benches; sandy margins of reservoirs, and sandy riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and rocky silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (071107), 89 (recorded as Cryptantha pterocarya (Gray) Greene)*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene var. cycloptera (E.L. Greene) J.F. Macbride: Wingnut Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 14 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green or yellow-green, the flowers bright white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May (additional record: one for mid-June), the winged fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand hummocks; rocky and gravelly flats; valley floors; rocky roadsides; rocky arroyos; beside streams; along sandy washes; terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (071107), 85 (071107)*

 

Eremocarya micrantha (see Cryptantha micrantha var. micrantha) 

 

Harpagonella palmeri A. Gray: Arizona Grapplinghook

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Harpagonella, Arizona Grapplinghook, Grappling Hook, Palmer Grapplinghook. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, benches and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene: Flatspine Stickseed

COMMON NAMES: Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Cupped Stickseed, Flatspine Stickseed, Hairy Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed, Western Sticktight. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height), the color of the plant has been described as being gray-green, the very small flowers blue or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; sandy and sandy-loamy mesas; plateaus; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; sandy ridges; ridge tops; wet meadows; hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky, stony, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; stony draws; ravines; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; clayey creek beds; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-silty and sandy washes; in gravelly drainage ways; around lakes; clayey depressions; along gravelly banks; rocky terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and rocky, gravelly and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, stony, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton, Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton var. coronata (Greene) Nels. & Macbr., Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene), 56, 57, 63 (111907), 85 (111907), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) H.H. Higgins: Flatspine Stickseed

SYNONYMY: Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) M.E. Jones, Lappula texana (G.H. Scheele) N.L. Britton, Lappula texana (G.H. Scheele) N.L. Britton var. coronata (E.L. Greene) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride. COMMON NAMES: Bluebur, Cupped Stickseed, Flatspine Stickseed, Hairy Stickseed, Western Sticktight. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 12 inches in height), the color of the plant has been described as being gray-green, the flowers blue or white, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June (flowering records for late March, early April, late April, late May and mid-June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; sandy and sandy-loamy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; sandy ridges; hills; rocky, stony and sandy slopes; gravelly flats; railroad right-of-ways; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; stony draws; clayey creek beds; along sandy washes; in gravelly drainage ways; around lakes; gravelly banks; terraces; flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, stony, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,400 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46 (Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton, Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton var. coronata (Greene) Nels. & Macbr.), 63 (111907), 77, 85 (111907), 89 (recorded as Lappula texana (Scheelle) Greene), 101 (color photograph of species)*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis: Flatspine Stickseed

SYNONYMY: Lappula redowski auct. non (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene [misapplied], Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. desertorum (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis (S. Watson) P.A. Rydberg, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Flatspine Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed, Western Sticktight. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-June (additional records: four for mid-January and five for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; sandy ridges; wet meadows; hill tops; rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; gravelly flats; valleys; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; springs; along creeks; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy-silty and sandy washes; along banks; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; clayey loam and loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 700 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene), 58, 63 (111907), 77, 85 (111907), 89 (recorded as Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene var. occidentalis (Wats.) Ryd.), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Lappula redowskii (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Lappula redowskii var. cupulata (see Lappula occidentalis var. cupulata)

 

Lappula redowskii var. desertorum (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Lappula redowskii var. occidentalis (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis) 

 

Lappula redowskii var. redowskii (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Lappula texana (see Lappula occidentalis var. cupulata)

 

Lappula texana var. coronata (see Lappula occidentalis var. cupulata)

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are pale lavender or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early June (additional records: two for mid-January and one for late June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; crevices in rocks; hills; rocky and gravelly slopes; sandy alluvial slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand dunes; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; beside streams; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in sandy washes; sandy banks of washes; gravel bars; benches; shorelines; flood plains; at stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and gravelly-clayey-silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (071107), 89 (recorded as Pectocarya penicillata (H. & A.) A. DC.)*

 

Pectocarya linearis (see footnote under Pectocarya platycarpa) 

 

Pectocarya platycarpa (P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston) P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Comb Bur, Broad-wing Comb-bur, Stickweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; foothills; rocky, gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; bajadas; lava fields; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; valley floors; along gravelly roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks; terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58 63 (041607), 77, 85 (071107), 89 (recorded as Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.)*

 

Pectocarya penicillata (see footnote under Pectocarya heterocarpa)

 

Pectocarya recurvata I.M. Johnston: Curvenut Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Arched Bomb-bur, Archnut Combbur, Arch-nutted Combbur, Curvenut Combseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 inches in height), the flowers are white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; sandy flats; roadsides; along sandy streams; along creeks; along creek beds; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainage ways; edges of washes; terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77*

 

Plagiobothrys arizonicus (A. Gray) E.L. Greene ex A. Gray: Arizona Popcornflower

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Popcornflower, Bloodweed, Blood Weed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb, the flowers are reportedly white.  HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, among rocks, stream beds, washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 80 (Listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant, members of this genus have been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.), 89*

 

Plagiobothrys pringlei E.L. Greene: Pringle’s Popcornflower

COMMON NAMES: Pringle Popcorn-flower, Pringle’s Popcornflower, Popcorn Flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (stems 4 to 16 inches in length). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, sandy mesas, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, sandy flats, roadsides, along streams, along washes, flood plains in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 8, 15, 16,, 46, 58, 77, 80 (Listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant, members of this genus have been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.), 89*

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Candolle) A. Richardson: Woody Crinklemat

COMMON NAMES: Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (generally 4 to 8 inches in height; however, plants were reported up to 2 feet in height), the leaves are gray or gray-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, lavender-pink, lavender-whitish, pink, purple, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and late May (additional records: one for mid-June, one for early July, two for early August, one for early September, one for mid-September and one for late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; bouldery and rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; butte tops; rocky ledges; along rocky and chalky ridges; openings in forests; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and gravelly-shaley slopes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; gorges; rocky ravines; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly terraces; flood plains, and along fence lines in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-shaley, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils and gravelly-sandy loam soils, occurring from 100 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (012708), 77, 85 (012707)*

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Candolle) A. Richardson var. canescens: Woody Crinklemat

                SYNONYMY: Coldenia canescens A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (4 to 8 inches in height), the leaves are gray or gray-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, lavender-pink, lavender-whitish, pink, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between late March and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ridges; gravelly bajadas; slopes; gravelly flats, and roadsides in rocky soils, occurring from 1,500 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Arabis eremophila (see Arabis perennans)

 

Arabis perennans S. Watson: Perennial Rockcress

SYNONYMY: Arabis eremophila E.L. Greene, Boechera perennans (S. Watson) W.A. Weber. COMMON NAMES: Perennial Rockcress, Rock Cress, Stiff-arm Rock Cress, Stiffarm Rock Cress. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 30 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being blue-purple, cream, pink, pink-lavender, purple, purple-magenta, purple-pink, purplish-rose, rose-magenta, violet-lavender or white-purple, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; sandy plateaus; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; along and at the sandy bases of escarpments; rock crevices; rock ledges; sandy ridges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rock knobs; bouldery, rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; bases of boulders; lava flows; flats; basins; rocky arroyo walls; gulches; rocky ravines; along creeks; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery-cobbly drainages; marshes; banks of streams and washes; gravelly terraces; rocky and gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 600 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (062207), 58, 77, 85 (062207), 89 (recorded as Arabis eremophila Greene)*

 

Boechera perennans (see Arabis perennans) 

 

Brassica nigra (C. Linnaeus) W.D. Koch: Black Mustard

COMMON NAMES: Black Mustard, Short-pod Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC. *5, 6, 15, 46, 68, 77, 80 (The genus Brassica is listed as both a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant “Mustards, both native and escaped, may cause several diseases including goiter and gastroenteritis.” and a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant “Cultivated mustards may cause numerous diseases including gastroenteritis, blindness, goiter, emphysema, redwater disease, nitrate poisoning, anemia, and photosensitization.”), 89, 101*

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: Asian Mustard

COMMON NAMES: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Mustard, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 40 inches in height), the large and serrated green leaves form in a basal rosette clasping on the stem, the flowers are white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early April (additional records: one for mid-November, three for early December and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; bases of cliffs; rocky ridge tops; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; gullies; creek beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy drainage ways; margins of ponds; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along ditches; recently burned areas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Sahara Mustard is usually a very large and robust plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 46, 56, 57, 63 (041907), 77, 80 (The genus Brassica is listed as both a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant and Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant. “Mustards, both native and escaped, may cause several diseases including goiter and gastroenteritis.” “Cultivated mustards may cause numerous diseases including gastroenteritis, blindness, goiter, emphysema, redwater disease, nitrate poisoning, anemia, and photosensitization.”), 85 (041907)*

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. Linnaeus) F.K. Medikus: Shepherd’s Purse

COMMON NAMES: Bosa de Pastor, Paniquesillo, Shepherd’s Purse. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb 3 to 18 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, disturbed areas and waste places, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86, 89, 101*

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. utahensis (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Descurainia incana (J.J. Bernhardi ex F.E. von Fischer & C.A. von Meyer) R.D. Dorn subsp. incisa (G. Engelmann) J.T. Kartesz & K.N. Gandhi: Mountain Tansymustard

SYNONYMY: Descurainia incisa (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton, Sisymbrium incisum G. Engelmann. COMMON NAME: Mountain Tansymustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 5 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and flood plains in clay soils, occurring from 2,300 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 85 (051806), 89*

 

Descurainia incisa (see Descurainia incana subsp. incisa)

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Western Tansymustard

COMMON NAMES: Aasam (Yaqui), Green Tansy Mustard, Huy Aasum (Yaqui), Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Tansy-mustard, Western Tansy-mustard, Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the feathery leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, greenish-yellow, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; sandy canyonsides; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rims of craters; cinder cones; ridges; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; sheltered rocky coves; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream beds; along rivers; along and in bouldery, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of creeks and rivers; sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-silty loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (071207), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Symptoms of poisoning are similar to the “blind staggers” disease caused by selenium, but the principle is unknown. Large quantities of the plant must be eaten for a considerably long time before symptoms appear. Consumption of toxic amounts is most likely to occur during the blossoming period in the spring. Poisoned cattle become partially or completely blind and wander aimlessly about until exhausted, or stand pushing against some solid object for hours. Animals lose their ability to use their tongue in swallowing and cannot eat or drink. They eventually die if neglected. As a result a popular term for the disease is “paralyzed tongue”. ... Analysis of plants in Arizona shows that tansy mustard also may accumulate toxic levels of nitrate. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested pastures during the spring-growth period, or by providing more desirable forage to reduce mustard consumption.” See text for additional information.), 85 (071207), 89 (recorded as Sisymbrium canescens Nutt.), 101 (note)*

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray: Wedgeleaf Draba

COMMON NAMES: Gasa, Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 5 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April (additional records: one for mid-May, one for late May, one for mid-July, one for mid-September, one for early December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; soil pockets on shaded cliff walls; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; rocky and stony ledges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; along rocky, cindery and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava flows; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps, springs; arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gulches; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy, sandy and silty washes; along drainage ways; sandy and silty banks; silty sand bars; cobbly benches; loamy bottom lands; floodplains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (112007), 77, 85 (112107), 89 (recorded as Draba platycarpa T. & G.)*

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray var. integrifolia S. Watson: Wedgeleaf Draba

COMMON NAMES: Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Wedgeleaf Whitlowgrass, Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 5 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early April (additional records: one for early December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; soil pockets on shaded cliff walls; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; amongst rocks; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps; along streams; along creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky-sandy and sandy washes; silty banks; benches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (112007), 85 (112107)*

 

Draba platycarpa (see fotnote 85 under Draba cuneifolia)

 

Dryopetalon runcinatum A. Gray: Rockmustard

COMMON NAME: Rockmustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb (to 25 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from moist rock crevices in canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, crevices and along streambeds and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene: California Mustard

SYNONYMY: Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being purple, the flowers pinkish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; plains; gravelly flats; rocky roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey-silty loam, sandy loam, clayey loam, silty-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 300 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene), 56, 57, 63 (041907), 77, 80 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This annual mustard has been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (071207), 89 (recorded as Thelypodium lasiophyllum (H. & A.) Greene)*

 

Lepidium C. Linnaeus: Pepperweed

COMMON NAME: Pepperweed. *63 (032608), 89*

 

Lepidium densiflorum H.A. Schrader: Common Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Common Pepperweed, Greenflower Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperwort, Peppergrass, Prairie Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (2½ to 24 inches in height), the older leaves are yellow-green, the flowers are cream or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and early September (flowering records: one for early February, one for mid-February, two for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April, one for early May, two for early June, two for mid-June, three for late June, one for early July, one for mid-July, one for late August and one for early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyonsides; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; meadows; along slopes; amongst rocks; gravelly plains; rocky flats; coastal plains; along roadsides; creek beds; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly washes; rocky terraces; flood plains; around gravelly-sandy stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loam soils; bouldery-gravelly-silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (122707), 85 (122707)*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Shaggyfruit Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Hairypod Pepperweed, Hispidcress, Pepper Grass, Peppergrass, Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 15 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late December and mid-May (additional records: one for late June, one for late August and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly-sandy-loamy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; along roadsides; along arroyos; arroyo bottoms; rocky chutes; around seeping streams; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along drainage ways; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of rivers and washes; channel bars; sandy beaches; benches; gravelly terraces; sandy, loamy and clayey bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; along gravelly-sandy and sandy edges of stock tanks; gravelly and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam and loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty, sandy-silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (041907), 56, 57, 68, 77, 85 (042007) 89*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum var. georgiinum (see Lepidium lasiocarpum var. lasiocarpum)

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall var. lasiocarpum: Shaggyfruit Pepperweed

SYNONYMY: Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall var. georgiinum (P.A. Rydberg) C.L. Hitchcock, Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall var. typicum C.L. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Hairypod Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (8 to 15 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: two for mid-January and one for late June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along streams; along creeks; sandy creek beds; river beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; flood plains; gravelly riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam and clayey loam soils; silty clay soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 58, 63 (052907), 85 (also recorded as Lepidium lasiocarpum var. georgiinum (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. and Lepidium lasiocarpum var. typicum C.L. Hitchc. - 052907)*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum var. typicum (see Lepidium lasiocarpum var. lasiocarpum)

 

Lepidium oblongum J.K. Small: Veiny Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Peppergrass, Veiny Peppergrass, Veiny Pepperweed, Wayside Peppergrass. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 46*

 

Lepidium thurberi E.O. Wooton: Thurber’s Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Thurber Peppergrass, Thurber Pepperweed, Thurber’s Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (10 to 24 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green or green, the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; canyons; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; amongst boulders; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly and sandy roadsides; draws; river beds; in gravelly and sandy washes; edges of playas; banks; channel bars; benches; terraces; sandy-clayey bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Lesquerella gordonii (A. Gray) S. Watson: Gordon’s Bladderpod

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Bladderpod Mustard, Beanpod, Bladderpod Mustard, Gordon Bladderpod, Gordon’s Bladderpod, Yellow Bladderpod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (3 inches to 24 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, dry plains, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and flood plains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

Matthiola bicornis (see Matthiola longipetala)

 

Matthiola longipetala subsp. bicornis (see Matthiola longipetala)

 

Matthiola longipetala (E.P. Ventenat) A.P. de Candolle: Night Scented Stock

SYNONYMY: Matthiola bicornis (J. Sibthorp & J.E. Smith) A.P. de Candolle, Matthiola longipetala (E.P. Ventenat) A.P. de Candolle subsp. bicornis J. Sibthorp & J.E. Smith. COMMON NAMES: Evening Scented Stock, Evening Stock, Night Scented Stock, Night Stock. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, along rivers, ponds and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,400 to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC. *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Nasturtium officinale (see Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)

 

Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum (see footnote 89 under Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)

 

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (C. Linnaeus) A. Hayek: Watercress

SYNONYMY: Nasturtium officinale R. Brown. COMMON NAMES: Pepper Leaf, True Watercress, Watercress, White Water-cress. DESCRIPTION: Semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, stream margins, creeks, brooks, cienegas and ponds, occurring from 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 86, 89 (recorded as Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum)*

 

Sisymbrium altissimum C. Linnaeus: Tall Tumblemustard

COMMON NAMES: Jim Hill Mustard, Tall Hedge-mustard, Tall Sisymbrium, Tall Tumblemustard, Tumble-mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (2 to 5 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 101*

 

Sisymbrium canescens (see note under Descurainia pinnata) 

 

Sisymbrium incisum (see Descurainia incana subsp. incisa)

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket

COMMON NAMES: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 5 feet in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-December and mid-April (additional records: one for late July, two for mid-August, three for late August, one for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November and three for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; rock ledges; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainage ways; sandy banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly; rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from 100 to 10,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (042007), 68, 77, 85 (042707), 101*

 

Sisymbrium orientale C. Linnaeus: Indian Hedgemustard

COMMON NAMES: Indian Hedgemustard, Oriental Hedgemustard, Tumble Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gorges; slopes; lava fields; creosote flats; rocky roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; by creeks; river beds; along sandy washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 600 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. A plant in fruit was collected on April 22, 1977 by Casey Hamilton at Milepost 210 on Interstate 10 at Eloy was recorded as a new record for this species for Arizona. *5, 6, 63 (071307), 77, 85 (071307)*

 

Streptanthus arizonicus (see Streptanthus carinatus A. Gray subsp. arizonicus)

 

Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex A. Gray: Lyreleaf Jewelflower

COMMON NAMES: Lyreleaf Jewelflower, Lyreleaf Twistflower, Lyre-leaved Twistflower, Pecos Twist Flower, Silver Bells. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3½ feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation. *5, 6, 8, 46, 77*

 

Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex A. Gray subsp. arizonicus (S. Watson) A.R. Kruckeberg, J.E. Rodman & R.D. Worthington: Lyreleaf Jewelflower

SYNONYMY: Streptanthus arizonicus S. Watson. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jewel Flower, Arizona Twist Flower, Lyreleaf Jewelflower, Lyreleaf Twistflower, Lyre-leaved Twistflower, Silver Bells. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3½ feet in height in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 86, 89*

 

Thelypodium S.F. Endlicher: Thelypody

COMMON NAME: Thelypody *63 (022207), 89*

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Thysanocarpus amplectens (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker: Sand Fringepod

SYNONYMY: Thysanocarpus amplectens E.L. Greene, Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker var. elegans (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) B.L. Robinson, Thysanocarpus elegans F.E. von Fischer& C.A. Mey. COMMON NAMES: Lace Pod, Lace-pod, Lacepod, Sand Fringepod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height, one plant was described as being 10 inches in height with a crown 2 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being pale gray-green, the flowers cream, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and early May (additional record: one for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rock walls; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; cracks in bedrock; buttes; ledges; ridges; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; bouldery and rocky hillsides; bouldery; rocky, cobbly and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; amongst boulders and rocks; bases of rocks; sand dunes; rocky flats; sandy valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; arroyos; rocky chutes; gulches; seeps; along streams; edges of stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; rocky river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainage ways; around pools; lake shores; rocky benches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along sandy margins of reservoirs; ditches, and rocky and sandy riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and loamy soils; gravelly clay, sandy clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,100 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Thysanocarpus amplectens Greene), 58, 63 (153007), 77, 85 (053007), 89*

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes var. elegans (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

Thysanocarpus elegans (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Cactus grahamii (see footnote 89 under Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii) 

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Saguaro

SYNONYMY: Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Giant Cactus, Giant Cereus, Ha Shun (Pima), Mashad (Tohono O’odham), “Pitahaya” (Spanish Conquistadors), Saguaro, Sahuaro. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent tree (5 to 60 feet in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter), the flowers are a waxy creamy-white, 2 to 3 inches across, opening at about 8 p.m. and closing at about 5 p.m. the next day, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for early September and one for early October), the ripe fruits split into 2 to 6 segments that curl back to reveal the red inner lining of the rinds which are sometimes mistakenly thought to be red flowers. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyon walls; ridges; ridgelines; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; stabilized dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; along and in river beds; in sandy washes, and flood plains in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from 100 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Saguaros are very slow to establish, a 5 year old plant may be no more than ¼ to ½ inch in height. The growth rate of Saguaros is extremely variable. William G. McGinnies in his book “Discovering the Desert” reports that a plant 36 inches in height may be from 20 to 50 years of age, he also presents a table of typical growth rates reporting the following: 4 inches - 8.0 years, 8 inches - 12.5 years, 16 inches - 19.1 years, 32 inches - 27.3 years, 3.3 feet - 30.3 years, 6.6 feet - 40.5 years, 10 feet - 47.5 years, 13 feet - 54 years, 16 feet - 60.0 years, 18 feet - 74.0 years. 20 feet - 83.0 years, 25 feet - 107.0 years, 30 feet - 131.0 years, and 35 feet - 157.0 years. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated saguaros is much faster. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument, was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other animals and birds feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 13 (color photographs, in habitat with associated species Plates C.2 and D.3), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 16, 18 (Carnegiea gigantea), 26 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 27 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 28 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 38 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 46 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus giganteus), 52 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 53 (Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 58, 63 (042207), 77 (color photograph #63), 85 (082907), 86 (color photograph, Cereus gigantea), 89 (recorded as Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 91 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose), 107, 119 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) B.&R.), WTK (August 2005)*

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus greggii (see Peniocereus greggii)

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) D.J. Pinkava: Buckhorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L.D. Benson, Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. ramosa R.H. Peebles. COMMON NAMES: Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (32 inches to 7 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 32 inches in height with a crown 72 inches in width, one plant was recorded as being 72 inches in height with a crown 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being grayish-blue-green, the flowers bronze-red, dark orange, brick-orange, magenta, dark pink, purple, brick-red, red-pinkish or dark yellow turning brown, flowering generally takes place between early March and early June (additional records: two for early January and two for early August), the spiny fruits are brown, gray or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; buttes; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; basins, and along gravelly-sandy washes in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 27, 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.), 77, WTK (May 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia arbuscula (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Arizona Pencil Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 12 feet in height, one plant reported to be 5 feet in height had a crown 5 feet in width, one plant reported to be 6½ feet in height had a crown 8¼ feet in width, one plant reported to be 7 feet in height had a crown 5½ feet in width), the stems are blue-green, dull green or yellow-green, the flowers are dark bronze, brown, green-yellow, orange-yellow, red, terra cotta or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early April and early June (additional record: one for late July), the spineless fleshy fruits are green with a pink blush, green tinged with purple or red or yellow-green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hills; growing with grasses on rocky and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and silty flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; along arroyos; river beds; along gravelly and sandy washes; along drainage ways; flood plains, and mesquite bosques in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruit is eaten by browsing animals including the Javelina (Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis). The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia arbuscula (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 56, 57, 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (053107), 91*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 5 feet in height and 5 feet in width), the stems are green, the spines golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are magenta, pink or white streaked with lavender, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and late September (additional records: one for early November and one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes; benches; alluvial terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and silty-clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits may be added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Cholla may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 63 (042607), 77, 85 (042707), 89 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 91, 119*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 8¼ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 6½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 10 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the stems are green or purple, the spines are golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are cream-yellow, pink, pink-purple, purple, purple-pink, rose-pink or yellow tinged with pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and mid-September (additional record: one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green or purple forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 800 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits are added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Chollas may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 27 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 63 (042607), 77, 85 (042707), 91, 119 (sp.), WTK (August 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. mamillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mamillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter, Opuntia  mamillata H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (40 inches to 9 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 8 feet in height and 8 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being drab green or green, the flowers cream tinged with magenta, pink, pink-purple, rose-pink or violet, flowering generally takes place between late May and mid-September (additional records: one for mid-April and one for late April), the smooth fleshy fruits are green forming pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; along washes, and flood plains in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits may be added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Cholla may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 27, 28 (sp.), 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.), 63 (042607), 58, 77, 85 (042707), 91, 119 (sp.)*

 

Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth: Christmas Cactus

SYNONYMY: Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajilla (Hispanic), Tasajillo, Tesajo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 6 feet in height (sometimes becoming vine-like and growing upwards with support 8 to 15 feet in height), one plant was reported as being 2 feet in height and 2 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 2½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 4 feet in height and 8 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 5 feet in height and 8¼ feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellow-green, the spines gray-brown, purple-brown or yellow-brown often being paler toward the tip, the flowers bronze, cream, green, green-yellow, yellow or whitish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for mid-July and one for late July), the spineless (with glochids) fleshy fruits are coral, orange, orange-red, red, reddish-orange or yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; gravelly ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; sand hills; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; arroyos; along ravines; along washes; sandy drainage ways; benches; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas often found growing within grasses, shrubs or trees in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, clayey loam and silty loam soils, and loamy clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Desert Christmas Cactus is believed to have a life span of about 50 years. A high mortality rate is to be expected with plants coming into contact with fire. Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers. The fruits are eaten by birds and small mammals. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 56, 57, 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (053107), 86, 89 (recorded as Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 91, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Walkingstick Cactus

SYNONYMY: Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey. COMMON NAMES: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (16 inches to 10 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being brown-green, grayish-maroon, grayish-purple, green, purple or purplish-green, the spines brown, gray, pink, purplish-gray or reddish-gray, the glochids are yellowish-white, the flowers brown, green-yellow, magenta, magenta-red, maroon, orange, pink, purple, purple-pink, red, red and yellow, saffron, terra cotta, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early April and early July (additional records: three for early January, two for early February, one for late July and one for early August), the fleshy ripe fruits are bright lemon-yellow, yellow or yellow-green and remain on the plant for some time. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; talus, ridgelines; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and silty flats; valleys; arroyos; along creeks; creek beds; along sandy washes; along drainage ways; banks; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; sandy flood channels, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to over 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests in the branches. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia spinosior (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia x tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) F.M. Knuth (pro sp.) [Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa x Cylindropuntia leptocaulis]: Tucson Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall, Opuntia x tetracantha J.W. Toumey (pro sp.) [Opuntia acanthocarpa x Opuntia leptocaulis]. COMMON NAMES: Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 7 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia x tetracantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Cylindropuntia versicolor (G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter) F.M. Knuth: Staghorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter. COMMON NAMES: Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 15 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, ridges, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, arroyos and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia versicolor (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Echinocactus wislizeni (see footnote 89 under Ferocactus wislizeni) 

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L.D. Benson: Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

SYNONYMY: Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L.D. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson. COMMON NAMES: Bundle Hedgehog, Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Bundle-spine Hedgehog, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 4 to 18 inches in height and 1½ to 3 inches in diameter in clusters of 1 to 30 stems), the flowers are lavender-pink, magenta, magenta-pink, magenta-purple, pink, pink-purple, purple or reddish-purple, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June (additional records: one for early October, one for mid-October, one for late October and one for early November), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky; gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; gravelly flats; valleys; along cobbly creeks; along washes; rocky and sandy banks, and flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruits are eaten by birds and other animals. *5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 16, 27, 45, 46 (Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (also recorded as Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L.D. Benson - 053107), 119 (sp. - Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler)*

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (see footnote 85 under Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz: Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

COMMON NAMES: Fendler Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 1½ to 10 inches in height either single or in clusters of up to 5 stems). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along arroyos in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 6,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and grassland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 89*

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. robustus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Candy Barrelcactus

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrel Cactus, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fish-hook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter), the flowers are orange, orange-yellow, parchment, pinkish-red, red, red-orange, yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-October (additional records: one for early January, three for early March, five for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April and two for early June) the ripe fruits are yellow and may remain on the plant until the next flowering period. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery hills; hillsides; rocky and cobbly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly flats; arroyos; along washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Fishhook Barrel Cacti are very slow to establish. A 4 year old plant may be no more than 1½ inches in height and 2 inches in width, and an 8 year old plant may be no more that 4¼ inches in height and 4¾ inches in width. Fishhook Barrel Cacti may live to be over 130 years of age. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated barrel cacti is much faster. The fruits are eaten by animals and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26 (gen.), 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (042807), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose 042907), 89 (recorded as Echinocactus wislizeni), 91, 119, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Mammillaria fasciculata (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann: Graham’s Nipple Cactus

SYNONYMY: Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii G. Engelmann [Superfluous autonym], Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. oliviae (C.R. Orcutt) L.D. Benson, Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann, Mammillaria oliviae C.R. Orcutt. Neomammillaria microcarpa (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose, Neomammillaria milleri N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose, Neomammillaria oliviae (C.R. Orcutt) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Fishhook, Biznaguita, Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Corkseed Cactus, Fishhook Cactus, Fishhook Mammillaria, Fishhook Pincushion, Graham Fishhook, Graham Nipple Cactus, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher, Nipple Cactus, Olive Pincushion, Pin-cushion Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 8 inches in height and 1½ to 3 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 1¼  inches in height and 1½ inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, pink, pink with a darker mid-stripe or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and early August (additional records: one for mid-March, two for mid-April, one for late August and one for late September, additionally, flowering may take place between mid-March and late September one week after a heavy rain), the fleshy fruits are bright orange, orange-red or red when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; canyon bottoms; crevices in boulders and rocks; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along and in sandy washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and clay soils often in the shade of other plants, occurring from 700 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Birds and rodents feed on the fruits. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 27 (sp.), 28, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86 (sp.), 89 (recorded as Cactus grahamii) , WTK (August 2005)*

 

Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Mammillaria grahamii var. oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Mammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii) 

 

Mammillaria oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii) 

 

Neomammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Neomammillaria milleri (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Neomammillaria oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. major (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia arbuscula (see Cylindropuntia arbuscula)

 

Opuntia arizonica (see footnote 89 under Opuntia phaeacantha) 

 

Opuntia blackeana (see footnote 89 under Opuntia phaeacantha) 

 

Opuntia discata (see footnote under Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii: Cactus Apple

SYNONYMY: Opuntia discata Griffiths, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L.D. Benson & D.L. Walkington. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Prickly Pear, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 20 inches to 6 feet in height and 20 inches to 10 feet or more in diameter, one plant was reported as being 3 feet in height and 4½ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being a dull green, blue-green, gray-green or yellow-green, the spines white with red, the glochids yellow, the flowers pink, reddish-pink or yellow turning to orange or orange-yellow with the flowers opening at about 8 AM and remaining open for one or two days, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for mid-August, one for early September, one for mid-September and one for late December), the fruits are magenta-rose, purple, red or red-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; gullies; along streams; creek beds; along washes; along drainage ways; benches; flood plains and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and may live to be 30 or more years of age. The juicy fruits (tunas) with edible pulp are fed on by many browsing animals, including Black Bear (Ursus americanus amblyceps), Coyote (Canis latrans mearnsi), Javelina (Peccari tajacu sonoriensis) and Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) among others, and birds. The plant provides cover for many desert animals. *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington “This is the largest and, in especially southern Arizona, one of the best-known native prickly pears of the Southwestern Deserts of the United States. It is variable in habit of growth, shape and size of joints, and size and distribution of spines. It is almost always found growing with var. major, which has longer brown spines restricted largely to the upper part of the narrower joint. Almost everywhere there are intergrading forms with many character recombinations. Var. discata is rarely stable but apparently a fringe-population extreme tied in closely with the more abundant and wide-ranging var. major.”), 15, 16 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson - “Rocky slopes and gravelly flats; common; intergrading with O. p. var. major.”), 27 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson), 28, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (092306), 77, 85 (050207), 89 (recorded as Opuntia discata Griffiths), 91 (Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck. (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington) / Opuntia phaeacantha var. major Engelmann - “Both species are sympatric throughout much of their range and often can be found together.”), 119 (spp. - Opuntia discata Griffiths, Opuntia engelmannii Salm Dyck.), WTK (August 2005)*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava: Cactus Apple

SYNONYMY: Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Cow Tongue Prickly Pear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub, flowering generally takes place, the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas; gravelly flats; along washes and flood plains, occurring from 2,200 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Opuntia ficus-indica (C. Linnaeus) P. Miller: Barbary Fig

COMMON NAMES: Barbary Fig, Boereturksvy, Burbank Prickly Pear, Burbank’s Spineless, Grootdoringturksvy, Indian-fig Pricklypear, Mission Cactus, Nopal, Nopal de Castilla, Prickly Pear, Spineless Cactus, Spiny Pest Pear, Sweet Pricklypear, Tuna (Hispanic), Tuna Blanca (Hispanic), Tuna Cactus, Tuna de Campo (Hispanic), Tuna de Castilla (Hispanic), Tuna Fina (Hispanic), Tuna Mansa (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 17 feet in height). HABITAT: Within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and flood plains, occurring from 2,300 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 18, 30, 46, 48 (gen.), 52 (sp.), 56, 57*

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. mammillata (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. mammillata)

 

Opuntia gilvescens (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia kleiniae var. tetracantha (see Cylindropuntia x tetracantha)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis (see Cylindropuntia leptocaulis) 

 

Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis (see Opuntia engelmannii var. linguiformis)  

 

Opuntia microdasys (J.G. Lehmann) L.K. Pfeiffer: Angel’s-wings

COMMON NAMES: Angel’s-wings, Bunny Ears, Bunny Ears Pricklypear, Cegador, Nopal Cegador, Polka Dot Cactus, Prickly Pear, Rabbit Ears. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within range reported from bajadas, flats, along washes and flood plains, occurring from 2,300 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 18, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 77*

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann: Tulip Pricklypear

SYNONYMY: Opuntia gilvescens D. Griffiths, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superfluous autonym], Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. superbospina (D. Griffith) L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Tulip Pricklypear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 7 feet in height and 5 to 8 feet in width and sometimes forming clumps up to 75 feet in width, sometimes developing a definite trunk, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 36 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 14 inches in height and 52 inches in width, plants were reported that were 16 inches in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 16 inches in height and 48 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 16 inches in height and 60 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 2o inches in height and 13 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 2 feet in height and 5 to 6 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 30 inches in height and 5 feet in width), the color of the pads has been described as being blue-green, gray-brown, gray-green, green, greenish-yellow or purple with brown, charcoal, gray, reddish or white spines and golden or reddish-brown glochids, the flowers are golden-apricot (with yellow-green mid-stripes), orange, orange-yellow, pink, pink-purple, red, red-pink, yellow (with an orange or  red center or brown, greenish, greenish-brown or red mid-stripes), or yellow-orange aging to red-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-March to early July (additional records: one for early January, one for late January, one for early February, one for late July, one for mid-August, two for late August, one for late September and one for early October), the ripe fruits are maroon, purple, red or red-brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountain rims; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; rocky-gravelly-sandy buttes; rocky ledges; foothills; rocky hills; bouldery, rocky and gravelly-sandy-loamy hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and silty slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops, amongst rocks; on boulders and rocks; plains; rocky, cindery and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; rocky arroyos; along river beds; along gravelly washes; silty-loamy and silty-clayey-loamy dry lake beds; gravelly-sandy terraces; sandy-loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, shaley, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and silty loam and silty-clayey loam soils; gravelly-sandy clay soils, and cobbly-sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 800 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant provides cover for many desert animals. Deer, javelina and rodents feed on the stems. The fruits are eaten by deer, grasshoppers, Javelina (Peccari tajacu sonoriensis) and other desert animals (including grasshoppers). Cristate forms have been reported. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. major Engelm., Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. phaeacantha), 16, 26 (color photograph), 27 (color photograph, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. major Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. superbospina (Griffith) L. Benson), 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 56, 57, 58, 63 (062307), 77, 85 (062307) 89 (recorded as Opuntia arizonica Griffiths, Opuntia blaceana Rose and Opuntia toumeyi Rose), 91, 119, WTK (August 2005)*

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. major (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. phaeacantha (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. superbospina (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia spinosior (see Cylindropuntia  spinosior)

 

Opuntia x tetracantha (see Cylindropuntia x tetracantha)

 

Opuntia toumeyi (see footnote 89 under Opuntia phaeacantha) 

 

Opuntia versicolor (see Cylindropuntia  versicolor) 

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Nightblooming Cereus

SYNONYMY: Cereus greggii G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Queen-of-the-night, Chaparral Cactus, Deer-horn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina-de-la-noche. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ¼ to ½ inch in width), the large white flowers (2 to 5 inches in diameter and 6 to 8½ inches in length) open after dusk and last only one night, flowering generally takes place between late May and early July (additional records: one for early January, two for mid-March and one for early December), the ripe fruits are orange red or bright red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; ridges; ridge crests; rocky slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; gravelly-sandy plains; gravelly flats; valleys; arroyos, and along sandy washes in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, and gravelly-sandy loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 800 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant.. Plant with other desert shrubs and trees, such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), that will provide support and protection. Birds feed on the fruit and seeds. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27 (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann), 28, 45, 46, 48, 63 (042807), 77, 85 (042807), 86, 89 (recorded as Cereus greggii Engelm.), 119*

 

 

Family Campanulaceae: The Bellflower Family

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson: Glandular Threadplant

COMMON NAMES: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 16 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish-brown, the foliage brown, the flowers pinkish-white, purple and white, white, white-blue-pink, white-cream-lavender, white and maroon or white tinged with purple, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and clay slopes; gravelly bajadas; sand dunes; sand dune ridges; rocky-sandy and sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly-sandy roadsides, along arroyos; in sandy stream beds; along creeks; river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainage ways; gravelly banks; benches; sandy terraces; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; sandy-clay loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77 (sp.), 89 (recorded as Nemacladus ramosissimus)*

 

Nemacladus ramosissimus (see footnote 89 under Nemacladus glanduliferus var. orientalis) 

 

 

Family Capparaceae (Capparidaceae): The Caper Family

 

Koeberlinia spinosa J.G. Zuccarini: Crown of Thorns

COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Allthorn, Corona de Cristo, Crown of Thorns, Crucifixion-thorn, Junco. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, rocky slopes, sandy and gravelly plains, gravelly flats, along arroyos and banks of washes, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 46 (placed in The Koeberliniaceae, The Junco Family), 53, 56, 57, 77, 89, 91, WTK (Note, the local variety is believed to be var. spinosa)*

 

Polanisia dodecandra (C. Linnaeus) A.P. de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis: Sandyseed Clammyweed

SYNONYMY: Polanisia trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray, Polanisia trachysperma J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis var. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis. COMMON NAMES: Roughseed Clammy Weed, Sandyseed Clammyweed, Western Clammyweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along stream beds and sandy washes, waste places and disturbed areas in sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. Polanisia dodecandra (C. Linnaeus) A.P. de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis (Polanisia trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray, Polanisia trachysperma J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis var. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis): Roughseed Clammy Weed, Sandyseed Clammyweed, Western Clammyweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46 (Polanisia trachysperma J. Torrey & A. Gray - placed in The Capparidaceae, The Caper Family), 56, 57, 58, 63 (020407), 68, 77, 86*

 

Polanisia trachysperma (see Polanisia dodecandra subsp. trachysperma)

 

Polanisia trachysperma var. trachysperma (see Polanisia dodecandra subsp. trachysperma) 

 

Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (Wislizenia refracta subsp. refracta)

 

Wislizenia refracta G. Engelmann subsp. refracta: Spectacle Fruit

SYNONYMY: Wislizenia refracta G. Engelmann var. melilotoides (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson. COMMON NAMES: Jackass Clover, Spectacle Fruit, Spectacle Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (16 inches to 4 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, stream beds and washes in sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 28 (sp.), 46 (sp. - placed in The Capparidaceae, The Caper Family), 63 (030407), 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. Feeding experiments have shown this annual forb to be highly toxic but the plant is not very palatable.), 89*

 

 

Family Caprifoliaceae: The Honeysuckle Family

 

Sambucus caerulea var. mexicana (see Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis)

 

Sambucus mexicana (see Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis)

 

Sambucus nigra C. Linnaeus subsp. canadensis (C. Linnaeus) R. Bolli: Common Elderberry

SYNONYMY: Sambucus caerulea C.F. Rafinesque var. mexicana (C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Candolle) L.D. Benson, Sambucus mexicana C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Alcanfor (Hispanic), American Elderberry, Arizona Blue Elder, Arizona Elder, Blueberry Elder, Arizona Elder, Azumate (en Mich), Azumatl (en Mich), Coyapa (Chiapas), Common Elderberry, Desert Elderberry, Elder, Elderberry, Flor de Sauco (Hispanic), Guarico (Hispanic), Ita tindo (Yuku en Oax), Ita tindoo (yaa Mixteco en Oax), Joday llochic (Tepehuano en Nayarit), Kondembasi (Tarasco), Má' Ma Joo (Hispanic), Mexican Elder, Mexican Elderberry, Ne Ho (en Oax), New Mexico Blueberry Elder, Ocoquihui (Chiapas), Road Berry, S'auco (Zoque-popoluca en Veracruz), Sauce (Hispanic), Sauce Chico (Hispanic), Sauco (Hispanic), Sauco Grande (Hispanic), Sauzo Tapiro (Hispanic), Tapiro (Hispanic), Tapiro Sauco (Hispanic), Toxem o Toxeem (Mixe en Oax), Toxiwua (en Michoacán). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen (drought deciduous) shrub or tree (7 to 36 feet in height and 8 to 20 feet in width). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from streams, creeks, sandy washes, watercourses, ditches, cienegas, flood plains and wet areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers, the fruits are eaten by birds and the foliage is browsed by deer. The Desert Elderberry has been EXTIRPATED from this township. One tree was seen in a residential fence line in Barrio Anita in May 2005, and one plant was reported as an adventive to wet, disturbed ground at the University of Arizona Desert Laboratory 1984. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 30, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 80, 89, WTK (May 2005)*

 

 

Family Caryophyllaceae: The Pink Family

 

Herniaria cinerea (see Herniaria hirsuta subsp. cinerea) 

 

Herniaria hirsuta C. Linnaeus subsp. cinerea (A.P. de Candolle) A.X. Coutinho: Hairy Rupturewort

SYNONYMY: Herniaria cinerea A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Burstwort, Hairy Rupturewort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, arroyos, washes, stock tanks, flood plains, riparian areas and disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC. *5, 6, 16, 46, 77*

 

Loeflinga pusilla (see footnote under Loeflingia squarrosa)

 

Loeflingia squarrosa T. Nuttall: Spreading Pygmyleaf

COMMON NAME: Spreading Pygmyleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Loeflinga pusilla)*

 

Silene antirrhina C. Linnaeus: Sleepy Silene

COMMON NAMES: Catchfly, Desert Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Silene. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being magenta, magenta-pink, pink, purple, purple-pink, red or rose, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-September and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; seeps; along streams; along rocky and sandy stream beds; along creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainage ways; sandy banks; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and waste places in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (060207), 77, 85 (060207), 89 (recorded as Silene antirrhina L.)*

 

Silene gallica C. Linnaeus: Common Catchfly

COMMON NAMES: Alfinetes da Terra, Calabacilla, Common Catchfly, English Catchfly, Flor Roxa, Forked Catchfly, French Silene, Gunpowder Weed, Ranskankohokki, Small Catchfly, Small-flowered Catchfly, Windmill Pink. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountainsides, flats and disturbed areas in moist rich soils, occurring from 2,300 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 85, 89*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex C. Linnaeus: Saltbush

COMMON NAME: Saltbush *63 (032207), 89 (recorded as Atriplex sp.)*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Four-wing Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: Atahi’xp (Seri), Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Salt-bush, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Sha’ashkachk Iibatkam (Pima), Wngscale, Yup (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 4½ feet in height and 4½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height and 6½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers cream, green or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-September (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March, one for late March, one for early October, two for late October and one for late November), the four-winged fruits are green drying to pale brown or tan. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy rims; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky and cindery slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; seeps; around springs; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along sandy washes; in drainage ways; swales; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks; gravel bars; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Four-wing Saltbush may be useful in controlling erosion. Antelope and deer browse this plant and birds and small rodents feed on the seeds. This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (110807), 77, 82, 85 (110807), 89 (recorded as Atriplex canescens (Pursh) James), 91 (“As a secondary or facultative absorber of selenium, Atriplex canescens can be mildly poisonous to livestock where selenium occurs in the soil.”)*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall var. canescens: Fourwing Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: Atahi’xp (Seri), Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Salt-bush, Four-wing Saltbush, Orache, Saladillo, Sha’ashkachk Iibatkam (Pima), Wngscale, Yup (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height and 5 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers cream, green or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-September), the four-winged fruits are green drying to pale brown or tan. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy rims; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky and cindery slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; seeps; around salt springs; stream beds; along creeks; creek bottoms; along rivers; sandy river beds; along sandy washes; in drainage ways; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks; gravel bars; terraces; flood plains; swales; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clay loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Four-wing Saltbush may be useful in controlling erosion. This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). *5, 6, 13, 16 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph - sp.), 28 (color photograph of species, sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (sp.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (110807)77 (sp.), 82, 85 (110807), 91 (“As a secondary or facultative absorber of selenium, Atriplex canescens can be mildly poisonous to livestock where selenium occurs in the soil.”)*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall var. linearis (S. Watson) P.A. Munz: Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush

SYNONYMY: Atriplex canescens subsp. linearis (S. Watson) W. Hall & F.E. Clements, Atriplex linearis S. Watson. COMMON NAMES: Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (1 to 7 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 20 inches in height and 30 inches in width), flowering generally occurs between mid-March and late September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; sand hills; sandy flats; coastal plains; roadsides; river beds; along and in washes; banks; sandy terraces; flood plains; canal right-of-ways; riparian areas and disturbed areas in sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Thinleaf Four-wing Saltbush may be useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 13 (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. var. macilenta (Jepson) Munz - “This variety is restricted to more alkaline soils than is var. canescens and is associated often with Atriplex polycarpa.”), 16 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph - sp.), 28 (color photograph of species, sp.), 46 (Atriplex linearis Wats.), 48 (sp.), 56, 57, 63 (110807), 77, 82, 85 (110807), 91 (“As a secondary or facultative absorber of selenium, Atriplex canescens can be mildly poisonous to livestock where selenium occurs in the soil.”)*

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich: Wheelscale Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, flood plains and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 26 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 68, 89*

 

Atriplex linearis (see Atriplex canescens var. linearis) 

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Cattle Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: All-scale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cattle-spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush, Desert Salt-bush, Kokomaki sha’l (Pima), Littleleaf Saltbush, Sage, Sagebrush, Shadscale. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 6½  feet in height, one plant was reported to be a round bush 2 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green, gray-white, silvery or silvery-gray, the flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early September and early November (additional records: two for early January, one for early April, one for late June, one for early August, one for late August and one for late December), the ripe fruits are orange. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; talus slopes; hill tops; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; coastal plains; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along drainage ways; on gravelly-loam and sandy banks; rocky benches; terraces; along lakeshores; margins of playas; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; canal right-of-ways; riparian areas and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and silty loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and is relatively drought resistant. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26 (gen.), 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 77, 89, 91*

 

Atriplex wrightii S. Watson: Wright’s Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: Wright Saltbush, Wright’s Saltbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 4 feet in height). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along washes, flood plains and disturbed areas in alkaline soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 26 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 68*

 

Chenopodium album C. Linnaeus: Lambsquarters

COMMON NAMES: Baconwee