April 17, 2008 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 12 SOUTH, RANGE 06 WEST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking northwest into the Little Ajo Mountains.

William T. Kendall September 17, 2003

 

 

“To know the desert involves an acquaintance with all its aspects, and all its physical features,

as well as all of the animals and plants that have learned how to find in it a congenial place to live. The

most significant lesson that the desert dweller can learn from a familiarity with its plant and animal life is to

 regard himself not as an exile from some better place, but as a man at home in an environment to which his life can be adjusted without physical or intellectual loss.” Forest Shreve, The Cactus and

Its Home (Found in Discovering the Desert, by William G. McGinnies)

 

 

 

MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 

 

Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum *MBJ (observation date, if shown)*  

 

William T. Kendall *WTK (observation date, if shown)*

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*

 

Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85 (date of search for information on species)*

 

E. Lendell Cockrum, 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. This Inclusion is based on the general distribution maps and statements. *118 (distribution note, map - Figure Number and Page Number)*

 

 

 

SPECIES DISTRIBUTION LISTINGS

 

 

Species Distribution Listings are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. Species Distribution Listings are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered works in progress. The source(s) used for the inclusion of the species in a listing is highlighted in green *00* in the footnotes. Due to the lack of first hand knowledge, in the listing of animals, unless otherwise noted in the footnotes, species may be included based on general distribution maps and/or statements and not on an actual sight record. I recommend that we consider a species as being “confirmed” to a township or general listing area only after we have at least three recorded sightings, cited in the footnotes, with no more than one of those records being based on general distribution mapping for the species. Note that the Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85* may have several collections recorded for a species within any given township or listing area, and that the date shown in parentheses is a date of the search of their records and not a date of recorded sighting.  Note also that many of the individual species collection records found in SEINet include additional associated species.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by division, class, family and genus within their kingdoms. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat, the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed and footnotes. An attempt is being made to identify the range in mature (flowering/fruiting) heights reported for the plants. The habitat description is provided in order to help you visualize the types of natural habitats the species is found in and ones in which it might be planted back into in a landscape or restoration project. The range in elevation has been rounded off to the nearest 100 feet up, for the higher elevation or down, for the lower elevation. Species reported from within 0 to 100 feet as their lower elevation limit have been recorded as occurring “from sea level”. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, may be noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native plants are recommended for use in landscape and restoration projects. Many native species require little, if any, irrigation once established. Ideally restoration should include those plants that were native to the property prior to clearing. In order to determine what plants were native to the property you might try to locate photographs of the property prior to clearing or look for natural areas and remnant populations and plants adjacent to where the restoration is to take place. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density.

 

The use of native plants in landscape and restoration projects encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty and unique identity and heritage.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Questions, concerns, corrections and comments, including the reporting of unrecorded species and information relating to historical distributions, may be sent to the following address: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 86091, Tucson, Arizona 85754-6091, or E-mail to:KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. These listings are not meant to take the place of on-site surveys for species. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings. Attempts are made to keep the information contained in the Species Distribution Listings as accurate as possible, but Kendall Environmental Surveys disclaims any implied warranty or representation about its accuracy, completeness, or appropriateness for any particular purposes. Users of the information found in the listings assume full responsibility for their use of the information and understand that Kendall Environmental Surveys is not responsible or liable for any claim, loss, or damage resulting from its use.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling these plants and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Footnotes for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may be shown in red (*00*). Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Introduction

 

Township Notes

 

Conservation Related Organizations and Nurseries

 

Listing of Plants

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

Class Filicopsida: The Ferns

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

Class Gnetopsida: The Gnetops

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

                                Class Insecta: The Insects

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Aves: The Birds

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

Class Osteichthyes: The Bony Fishes

Class Reptilia: The Reptiles

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP NOTES

 

 

LOCATION: This township is located in northwestern Pima County in south-central Arizona. The communities of Ajo, Gibson and Mexican Town are located in this township. A portion of the east boundary for the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge is located along the west township line.

 

Historic Mining Activities: Named mine sites include the New Cornelia Mine.

 

LANDMARKS: A major portion of the northwestern end of the Little Ajo Mountains is located in the southwestern half of this township. Named canyons and peaks include Ajo Peak (2,617 feet), Arkansas Mountain, Camelback Mountain (2,573 feet), Cardigan Peak (2,922 feet), Concentrator Hill, Copper Canyon, North Ajo Peak (2,776 feet) and Pinnacle Peak. Named arroyos include the Darby Arroyo and Gibson Arroyo. A portion of this township is located within the Valley of the Ajo.

 

ELEVATION: Elevations (excluding a mine pit depth of approximately 870 feet) range from approximately 1,529 feet at the northwest corner to approximately 2,776 feet at North Ajo Peak located in the southwest quarter of the township (1).

 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

SOILS: Soils have been described as being Hyperthermic (very hot) Arid Soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm)  mean annual precipitation) of the Gilman - Antho - Valencia Association (deep soils on floodplains and alluvial fans), Gunsight - Rillito - Harqua Association (deep, gravelly, calcareous soils on the upper slopes) and the Rock Outcrop - Lomitas - Cherioni Association (rock outcrop and very shallow, and shallow soils on low hills and mountains) (3).

 

BIOTIC COMMUNITY: Portions of this township are located within the Lower Colorado River and Arizona Upland Subdivisions of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Map Printed from TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township and Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS TOWNSHIP THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs (over 7 feet in height)

 

Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea - 5’ to 60’)

Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina - 2’ to 56’)

Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida - 40” to 40’)

Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota - 10’ to 33’)

Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens - 5’ to 33’)

Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla - 6’ to 26’)

Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla - 2½’ to 26’)

Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi - 5’ to 25’)

Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii - 40” to 25’)

Desert Olive (Forestiera shrevei - 40” to 25’)

Arizona Jumping Bean (Sebastiania bilocularis - 7’ to 20’, CAUTION: Handle with care, or do not handle

at all, the sap is poisonous, not recommended for use in urban landscaping)

Bitter Snakewood (Condalia globosa var. pubescens - 2’ to 20’)

Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta - 2’ to 18’)

Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida - 3’ to 15’)

Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi - 8” to 15’)

Kearney Snakewood (Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana - 40” to 13’)

Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata - 20” to 12’)

Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni - 2’ to 11’)

Desert Broom (Baccharis sarothroides - 3’ to 10’)

Desert Wolfberry (Lycium macrodon - 3’ to 10’)

Parish Desert-thorn (Lycium parishii - 3’ to 10’)

Pancake Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia chlorotica - 3’ to 10’)

Arizona Desert-thorn (Lycium exsertum - 20” to 10’)

Colorado Buckhorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis - 44” to 9’)

Teddybear Cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii - 3’ to 9’)

Shrubby Limberbush (Jatropha cuneata - 2’ to 9’)

Desert Honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi - 3’ to 8’)

Emory Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus emoryi - 1’ to 8’)

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Slender Janusia (Janusia gracilis - 18” to 10’)

Little Snapdragon Vine (Maurandella antirrhiniflora - 7’ to 8’)

Slimjim Bean (Phaseolus filiformis - 2’ to 7’)

Yellow Twining Snapdragon (Neogaerrhinum filipes - 2’ to 3’)

 

 

Shrubs (2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Major Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major - 32” to 7’)

Canyon Ragweed (Ambrosia ambrosioides - 1’ to 7’)

Limberbush (Jatropha cardiophylla - 1’ to 7’)

Desert Rosemallow (Hibiscus coulteri - 3” to 7’)

Desert Saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa - 1’ to 6½ ’)

Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii - 20” to 6’)

White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa - 18” to 6’)

Desert Christmas Cactus (Cylindropuntia leptocaulis - 1’ to 6’)

California Copperleaf (Acalypha californica - 20” to 5’)

Rough Jointfir (Ephedra aspera - 1’ to 5’)

White Cheesebush (Hymenoclea salsola var. pentalepis - 1 to 5’)

White Rantany (Krameria grayi - 1’ to 5’)

American Threefold (Trixis californica - 10” to 5’)

Fairyduster (Calliandra eriophylla - 4” to 5’)

Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea - 1’ to 4’)

Desert Penstemon (Penstemon pseudospectabilis - 1’ to 4’)

Range Ratany (Krameria erecta - 8” to 40”)

White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa - 7” to 40”)

Arizona Cockroach Plant (Haplophyton crooksii - 7” to 40”)

Eastern Mojave Buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium - 4” to 40”)

Bastardsage (Eriogonum wrightii var. nodosum - 6” to 36”)

 

 

Grasses

 

Blue Threeawn (Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi - 6” to 40”)

Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella - 2” to 6”)

 

 

Shrubs (under 2’), Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Desert Lily (Hesperocallis undulata - 1’ to 6’)

Coulter Globemallow (Sphaeralcea coulteri - 6” to 5’)

Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii - 12” to 52”)

Parish Larkspur (Delphinium parishii var. parishii - 1’ to 4’)

Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra - 6” to 4’)

Yellow Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus - 2” to 44”)

Bigelow Wishbone Bush (Mirabilis laevis var. villosa - 24” to 32”)

Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata - 6” to 30”)

Dagger-spine Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii var. chrysocentrus - 5” to 30”)

Whitestem Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi - 4” to 30”)

Golden Suncup (Camissonia brevipes subsp. brevipes - 1” to 30”)

Caliche Globemallow (Sphaeralcea laxa - 12” to 28”)

Nichol Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus nicholii - 12” to 24”)

Goodding Mock Vervain (Glandularia gooddingii - 12” to 24”)

Desert Senna (Senna covesii - 12” to 24”)

Arizona Lupine (Lupinus arizonicus - 8” to 24”)

Chia (Salvia columbariae var. columbariae - 4” to 24”)

Mojave Lupine (Lupinus sparsiflorus - 8” to 20”)

Whitedaisy Tidytips (Layia glandulosa - 4” to 20”)

Lacy Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida - 6” to 16”)

Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii var. acicularis - 6” to 15”)

White Tackstem (Calycoseris wrightii - 10” to 12”)

Arizona Poppy (Kallstroemia grandiflora - 8” to 12”)

Desert Evening Primroase (Camissonia chamaenerioides 6” to 12”)

Scarlet Lupine (Lupinus concinnus - 4” to 12”)

California Evening Primrose (Oenothera arizonica - 2” to 12”)

Mohave Desertstar (Monoptilon bellioides - 1” to 12”)

Arizona Scaley Cloakfern (Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. arizonica - to 8”)

Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii - 2” to 8”)

Yellow Desert Evening-primrose (Oenothera primiveris - 2” to 8”)

Miniature Woollystar (Eriastrum diffusum - 1½” to 8”)

 

 

 

 

CONSERVATION RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND NURSERIES

 

 

 

Arizona Department of Agriculture

http://www.azda.gov/

 

The Arizona Department of Agriculture enforces the sections of the Arizona Revised Statutes commonly referred to as the “Arizona Native Plant Law”. The Native Plant Law requires, in part, that anyone who is clearing land notify the State of Arizona in advance of the clearing. Some land owners involved in the clearing of land allow for nurseries and people who are interested in salvaging plants to do so prior to the clearing. The Arizona Department of Agriculture posts these notifications in their county offices. You may also contact the Arizona Department of Agriculture and, for a fee, be put on a mailing list of people receiving copies of the Notices of Intent to Clear Land.

 

Contact Information: Arizona Department of Agriculture, 1688 West Adams Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85007; 602-542-4373.

 

 

 

Arizona Native Plant Society

http://aznps.org/

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

 

LISTING OF SOURCES FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND SEEDS

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society maintains a listing of Native Plant and Seed Sources at: http://www.aznps.org/sources.html

 

 

Contact Information: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

 

Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.

 

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact Information: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759; 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact Information: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713; 520-791-9309.

 

 

 

Native Seeds/SEARCH

http://www.nativeseeds.org

 

The Native Seeds/SEARCH is a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to preserve the crop seeds that connect the Native American cultures to their lands. The mission of the Native Seeds/SEARCH is to conserve, distribute and document the adapted and diverse varieties of agricultural seeds, their wild relatives and the role these seeds play in the cultures of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico.

 

Contact Information: Native Seeds/SEARCH, 526 North Fourth Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85705; 520-622-5561, toll free at 866-622-5561, FAX 520-622-5561; e-mail:  info@nativeseeds.org

 

 

 

Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact Information: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo del Norte, Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415; Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234; e-mail:  russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson

 

The goal of Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson is to provide experienced care for injured and orphaned wild birds and mammals so that they can be released back into the wild. For assistance with an injured bird or mammal, please call 520-743-0217, briefly explain the situation, being sure to repeat your name and phone number before ending the call.

 

Contact Information: Lewis and Janet Miller, 3690 Hills of Gold, Tucson, Arizona 85745; 520-743-0217.

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

 

 

 

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

 

 

 

CLASS FILICOPSIDA: The FERNS

 

 

Family Pteridaceae: The Maidenhair Fern Family

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. arizonica R.W. Benham (5): Arizona Scaly Cloakfern

COMMON NAMES: Cloak Fern, Cloakfern, Arizona Scaly Cloakfern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 8 inches in length) (5), the color of the foliage is olive green or green above and reddish-brown beneath with brown to reddish-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; crevices in rocks; ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes, and along washes in rocky soils, occurring from 1,500 to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 63 (122007), 85 (122207)*

 

 

 

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

 

 

 

CLASS GNETOPSIDA: The GNETOPS

 

 

Family Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra aspera G. Engelmann ex S. Watson (5): Rough Jointfir

SYNONYMY: Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson var. aspera (G. Engelmann ex S. Watson) L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Aspera Mormon Tea, Boundary Ephedra, Canatillo, Canutillo, Mormon Tea, Nevada Ephedra, Nevada Joint-fir, Pitamo Real (Hispanic), Popotillo (Hispanic), Rough Jointfir, Sanguinaria, Tepopote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height, one plant was described as being 1 foot in height with a crown 4 feet in width) (6), the young dark green branches yellow with age, the production of strobili (female and male cones) generally takes place between January and June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; along rocky canyons; rocky ledges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly flats; along arroyos; rocky ravines; sandy stream beds; along and in rocky and gravelly washes; sandy banks; terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Rough Jointfir may reach full size within 20 years living to be 100 years or more in age. This plant is browsed by wildlife, including the Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13 (Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. var. aspera (Engelm.) L. Benson), 18 (gen.), 46 (Ephedra nevadensis Wats. var. aspera (Engelm.) L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 63 (051607), 77, 85 (081407), 91 (Ephedra aspera Engelm. ex S. Watson), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Ephedra nevadensis var. aspera (see Ephedra aspera)

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Hesperocallis undulata A. Gray (5): Desert Lily

COMMON NAMES: Ajo, Ajo Lily, Ajo Sylvestre, Desert Lily, Hesperocallis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height) (6), the basal rosette of leaves (8 to 20 inches in length) are bluish-green, the trumpet-shaped flowers (2½ inches in depth) are bluish-white or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional record: one for mid-January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; sandy hillsides; slopes; sand dunes; clayey plains; gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; valleys; sandy edges of river beds, and rocky and sandy washes in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy-loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 2,100 feet (one record for 6,900 feet) in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant. The flowers are pollinated by Hawk Moths. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph), 46 (This is one of the showiest of the Arizona desert wildflowers.), 63 (010808), 85 (010808), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida adscensionis C. Linnaeus: Sixweeks Threeawn

COMMON NAMES: Six Weeks Three Awn Grass, Sixweeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Three-awn Grass, Zacate Cola de Zorra, Zacate Tres Barbas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 40 inches in height), the color of this grass has been described as being bright green to yellow curing to straw, the florets are purple, flowering generally takes place between November and April, the tips of the awns may be purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; rocky ledges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand hills; dunes; sandy plains; sandy flats; along rocky railroad right-of-ways; along road beds; roadsides; along arroyos; rocky draws; springs; along streams; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of draws; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas; sandy waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-pebbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and rocky-gravelly loam and clayey loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (070207), 77, 85 (081407), 105*

 

Aristida glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)  

 

Aristida purpurea var. glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. nealleyi (G. Vasey) K.W. Allred: Blue Threeawn

SYNONYMY: Aristida glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) W.G. Walpers, Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Holmgren & N. Holmgren. COMMON NAMES:  Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Reverchon Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass 6 to 40 inches in height and to 12 inches in width at the base), the inflorescence is purple, the awns are purple, flowering generally takes place between March and September; however, flowering may occur throughout the year under favorable conditions (flowering records: one for late January, one for late February, one for early April, one for early July, one for mid-August, one for mid-September and two for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; along gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; crevices in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; flats; along roadsides; along rocky arroyos; along draws; springs; along and in creek beds; river beds; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery-rocky drainages; banks; gravel bars; sandy beaches; sandy benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, rocky-clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky-sandy clay soils, occurring from 800 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may useful as an ornamental, it reportedly has a “feathery” appearance. *5, 6, 16, 33 (Aristida glauca (Nees) Walp.), 46 (Aristida glauca (Nees) Walp.), 48 (sp.), 63 (121007), 77, 85 (121107), 105 (sp.)*

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Wild Oat

COMMON NAMES: Flaxgrass, Oat Grass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height), flowering generally takes place between February and July. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; flats; valleys; along roadsides; springs; along creeks; creek beds; along and in sandy washes; banks of rivers and washes; benches; bottom lands; flood plains; canal banks; ditches; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Seed can remain dormant in soil for as long as 10 years. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 63 (061207), 68, 77, 85 (081407), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Cenchrus ciliaris (see Pennisetum ciliare) 

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass

COMMON NAMES: Acabacahuiztle (Hispanic), Acacahuitzli (Nahuatl), Bermudagrass, Bramilla (Hispanic), Canzuuc (Maya), Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Gallitos (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Grama de la Costa (Hispanic), Gramilla (Hispanic), Grana (Hispanic), Guix-biguiñi (Zapoteco), Lan-suuk (Maya), Pasto Bermuda (Hispanic), Pasto Estrella (Hispanic), Pata de Gallo (Hispanic), Pata de Perdiz (Hispanic), Pata de Pollo (Hispanic), Tsakam Toom (Hispanic), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bermuda (Hispanic), Zacate Borrego (Hispanic), Zacate Chino (Hispanic), Zacate del Conejo (Hispanic), Zacate Inglés (Hispanic), Zacate Pilillo (Hispanic), Zaruue (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a low-growing sodgrass, 4 to 24 inches in height), the color of this grass has been described as being green or yellow-green, the florets purple, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky outcrops; sand hummocks; prairies; plains; sandy flats; clayey valley bottoms; roadsides; sandy arroyo bottoms; seeps; springs; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in sandy washes; drainages; along sandy banks of creeks, rivers and washes; cienegas; edges of ponds; beaches; edges of bogs; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; in and around stock tanks; along ditch banks; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-sandy, rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam and gravelly loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This green or yellow-green sodgrass cures to a yellow straw color after frost. EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bermudagrass is sometimes confused with another exotic species, Large Crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis, a species of similar general appearance. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33, 46, 58, 63 (061407), 68, 77, 80 (Bermudagrass is listed as a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant. “Cattle grazing on Bermudagrass pasture may develop photosensitization, paralysis or a nervous syndrome.”), 85 (080907), 101 (color photograph), 105, 109, WTK (August 2007)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow ex P.A. Rydberg: Low Woollygrass

SYNONYMY: Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock, Triodia pulchella K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth. COMMON NAMES: Desert Fluffgrass, Fluff Grass, Fluff-grass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Oerennuak Grass, Zacate Borreguero. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (often appearing to be an annual and also described as being a short-lived perennial) graminoid (a bunchgrass 2 to 6 inches in height), the color of this grass has been described as being bluish-green curing to a gray-white, the color of the flower green or silvery, flowering generally takes place between February and October (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy-loamy mesas; rocky canyons; rocky talus slopes; ridge tops; ridgelines; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-loamy and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sandy plains; cindery and gravelly flats; valleys; rocky, gravelly and sandy roadsides; stream beds; creek beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along and in sandy drainages; marshes; benches; gravelly and sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; sandy-gravelly clay and clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This low, densely tufted perennial grass may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by the Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). This plant is generally avoided by grazing animals. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.), 46 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.), 58, 63 (040407), 77, 85 (110607), 105 (Tridens pulchellus (H.B.K.) Hitchc.), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Erioneuron pulchellum (see Dasyochloa pulchellah)

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Littleseed Muhly

COMMON NAMES: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Little-seed Muhly, Littleseed Muhly. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height/length), the color of the spikelets has been described as being purplish, flowering generally takes place between March and May (flowering records: two for late March, one for late April, one for early May, two for mid-May, one for mid-September and one for mid-December, plants in flower have reportedly been collected in all months except for June and July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; sandy and sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; along bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ledges, rocky ridges; margins of meadows; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava bluffs; lava slopes; along lava slides; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal plains; along railroad right-of-ways; sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; springs; along streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy tinajas; along gravelly-sandy banks; benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks (charcos); rocky margins of reservoirs; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas and disturbed areas in gravelly desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This grass sometimes forms dense mound-like colonies. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 63 (070207), 77, 85 (111407)*

 

Cenchrus ciliaris (see Pennisetum ciliare) 

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: Buffelgrass

SYNONYMY: Cenchrus ciliaris C. Linnaeus. COMMON NAMES: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Cadillo Buffel (Hispanic), Huizapol (Hispanic), Sandbur, Zacate Buffle (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass from under 6 inches to 5 feet in height), the leaves are green, the spikes are gray, reddish-brown, purple or yellowish turning a golden-brown when dry, flowering may take place several times a year when sufficient moisture is available (one record each for; mid-February, mid-April, early October, late October and late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; along rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; sandy plains; valleys; roadsides; along arroyos; draws; ravines; springs; rocky river beds; along and in washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-silty loess soils, occurring from sea level to 7,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22 (color photograph), 30, 33, 46, 63 (081007), 77, 85 (081007), WTK (August 2007)*

 

Pennisetum ruppelii (see Pennisetum setaceum)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda: Crimson Fountaingrass

SYNONYMY: Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel. COMMON NAMES: African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Fountain-grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass grass 1 to 5 feet in height, one clump noted as being 5 feet in height by 5 feet in width), the leaves are green, the spikes are green, purple, white or luminous yellow, flowering generally takes place from late March to November, the fruits are purplish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ridges; swards; rocky foothills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; flats; railroad right-of-ways; along roadsides; draws; along streams; along and in creeks; river beds; along and in washes; drainages; sandy edges of creeks; sand bars; margins of pools; lake shores; mesquite bosques; culverts; ditches; canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly, pebbly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 300 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22 (color photograph), 26 (color photograph), 33, 46, 63 (080907), 77, 85 (080907), 109, WTK (August 2007)*

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass

COMMON NAMES: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 14 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between November and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus; rocky ridges; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along streams; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet (one record at 7,880 feet) in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 58, 63 (040407), 68, 77, 85 (081507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Tridens pulchellus (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

Triodia pulchella (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

 

 

Family Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle

COMMON NAMES: Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber Desert-honeysuckle, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height) (6), the color of the bark has been described as being gray, the leaves green or yellow-green, the flowers brick-red, brown-orange, brownish-red, burnt-orange, copper-red, orange, orange-red, orange with a purple fringe, purplish, red, red-orange, reddish-brown, orange-brown, orange-salmon, purplish, red-orange, red-orange-brown or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and early August (additional records: one for late February, two for early October, one for mid-October, two for late October, three for early November, two for mid-November, one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; escarpments; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky shelves; in grassy meadows; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; among boulders; grottos; traces; valley bottoms; along arroyos; draws; sandy bottoms of draws; gulches; ravines; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; creek bottoms; along rivers; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; bouldery drainages; along rocky and gravelly-sandy banks; mesquite bosques; ditches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, pebbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers may be fragrant. The flowers attract hummingbirds and both the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (061907), 77 (color photograph #1), 85 (111407), 91*

 

 

Family Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Fringed Amaranth

SYNONYMY: Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson var. fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Bledo, Fringed Amaranth, Fringed Pigweed, Guey Cimarron (Mayo), Quelite, Quelite Cimarron (Mayo), Quelitillo, Siim (Seri), Toothed Amaranth, Wee’e (Yaqui), Ziim C ic (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 64 inches in height), the color of the plant has been described as being green, pinkish-purple, pink-red or red, the flowers (in spikes) pinkish-white or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late November (additional record: one record for mid December), the fruits are pinkish-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery and rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; crater floors; valleys; coastal dunes; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; draws; springs; river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; playas; marshes; along banks of rivers; sandy beaches; sandy shores; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 63 (070207), 68, 85 (081507)*

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus var. fimbriatus: (see Amaranthus fimbriatus)

 

 

Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae): The Carrot Family

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Wild Carrot

COMMON NAMES: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed (California), Rattlesnakeweed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (5 to 28 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, purplish or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for early September), the seed heads are reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from bouldery and rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; ridges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; bouldery hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; along shaded bases of rocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along rocky, gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; silty draws; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-clayey, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along and in drainages; depressions; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of arroyos, streams and rivers; benches; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; canals; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and sandy loam soils; rocky clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (052907), 77, 85 (012308)*

 

 

Family Apocynacaeae: The Dogbane Family

 

Haplophyton cimcidium (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton cimcidium var. crooksii (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton crooksii (L. Benson) L. Benson: Cockroachplant

COMMON SYNONYMY: Haplophyton cimcidium auct. non A.L. de Candolle [misapplied], Haplophyton cimcidium A.L. de Candolle var. crooksii L. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Actimpatli, Atempatli, Arizona Cockroach Plant, Cockroachplant, Crooks Cockroachplant, Hierba-de-la-cucuracha (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the flowers cream-white, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally take place between early March and early December, the slender elongate fruits are gray-green or green pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; valleys; gulches; banks of drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,900 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the yellow flowers open in the evening and close in the early morning, this plant is slow growing and may be drought deciduous, it may best be used planted with succulents in rock gardens. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (070207), 77 (color photograph #4), 85 (081507), MBJ*

 

 

Family Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Cynanchum arizonicum (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners: Arizona Swallow-wort

SYNONYMY: Metastelma arizonicum A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Milkweed Vine, Arizona Smallwort, Arizona Swallow-wort, Milkweed Vine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine to 40 inches in length), the color of the small flowers has been described as being cream-white or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky crags; rocky canyons; ridges; bouldery and rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst boulders; gulches, ravines, around seeping streams; creeks; along rocky washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Metastelma arizonicum Gray), 58, 63 (070307), 77 (color photograph #61), 85 (081507)*

 

Gonolobus parvifolius (see Matelea parvifolia) 

 

Matelea parvifolia (J. Torrey) R.E. Woodson: Spearleaf

SYNONYMY: Gonolobus parvifolius J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Angle-pod, Anglepod, Littleleaf Matelea, Little Leaf Milk Vine, Milkweed Vine, Small-leaf Anglepod, Small-leaved Milkvine, Spearleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial shrub or vine (a twining vine 16 inches to 5 feet in length), the color of the twining stems has been described as being gray-green or green, the flowers black, brownish-purple, green or dark purple, flowering generally takes place between late January and early December, the fruits are long, warty, green seed pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridge tops; ridgelines; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; bouldery, cobbly and gravelly flats; rivers; in washes; along drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Gonolobus parvifolius Torr.), 63 (052607), 77, 85 (081507)*

 

Metastelma arizonicum (see Cynanchum arizonicum)

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King: Brownfoot

SYNONYMY: Perezia wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 to 52 inches in height, one plant was recorded as being 12 inches in height with a crown 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green (and holly-like), the flowers lavender, pink, pink-brown, pink-lavender, pinkish-purple, purple, white, white and pink or whitish-maroon, flowering generally takes place between early February and early July and sometimes in autumn between early September and early November (additional records: one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; crater walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; along ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky, stony-gravelly and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky plains; rocky flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; along arroyos; gullies; ravines; seeps; along creeks; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; rocky banks of streams; beaches; river basins; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky silty loam, sandy loam, silty-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (040507), 77, 85 (081507), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Adenophyllum porophylloides (A. Gray) J.L. Strother: San Felipe Dogweed

SYNONYMY: Dyssodia porophylloides A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: San Felipe Adenophyllum, San Felipe Dogweed, San Felipe Dyssodia, San Felipe Fetid Marigold, Yerba del Venado. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (12 to 32 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers yellow, yellowish-brown or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between  mid-March and late October (additional records: one for early February, one for early November, two for mid-November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; buttes; ridge tops; foothills; rocky-gravelly and stony-gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along the bottoms of rocky arroyos; gulches; ravines; stream beds; along creeks; at waterfalls; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-gravelly, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam and cobbly-gravelly loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 700 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The leaves give off a strong odor when bruised, reportedly similar to Deerweed, Porophyllum gracile. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Dyssodia porophylloides), 46 (Dyssodia porophylloides Gray), 63 (070307), 77, 85 (081507)*

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) W.W. Payne: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles. COMMON NAMES: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Burr Sage, Bur-sage, Bursage, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura (Hispanic), Leaf Burr Ragweed, Nu Nu Ju Its  (Tohono O’odham), Tinkl (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the branches has been described as being reddish-brown with white hairs, the leaves dull gray-green or green, the flowers yellowish or yellowish-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: two for mid-January, one for early June, one for mid-June and one for mid-September), the fruits are burrs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; soil pockets in rocks; plains; coastal plains; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along seeping streams; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along sandy drainages; rocky and sandy banks; around water holes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria ambrosioides Cav.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #67), 85 (081507), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne: Triangle Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Burrobush, Bur-sage, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Kokomak Segoi (Pima), Shegoi (Pima), Todshag (Papago), Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaved Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers greenish, greenish-yellow, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; dunes; sandy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; around seeping streams; runnels; river beds; along sandy washes; rocky banks of creeks; gravelly terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Triangleleaf Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria deltoidea Torr.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #68), 85 (081607), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne: Burrobush

SYNONYMY: Franseria dumosa A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Burro Bush, Burrobush, Burro Weed, Burro-weed, Burroweed, Bur Sage, Bur-sage, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bur-sage, White Bursage, White Burrobush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height, one low mound-shaped plant was reported to be 40 inches in width), the color of the branches has been described as being gray, tan or white, the leaves blue-green-gray, gray-green or white-tomentose, the flowers cream, cream-yellow, greenish, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-January, two for mid-May, one for mid-June, one for late June, four for late September, one for early October, one for mid-November, one for late November and two for mid-December), the fruits are spiny burs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; gravelly mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; amongst boulders; lava fields; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sand sheets; sandy valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; along sandy washes; banks of stream beds and washes; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than 100 years of age with an estimated average longevity of 35.7 years. This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). In the re-vegetation of disturbed sites more success may be achieved through the use of transplanted plants than from over-seeding. White Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria dumosa Gray), 63 (040907), 77, 85 (081707), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Ambrosia salsola (see footnote 85 under Hymenoclea salsola) 

 

Ambrosia salsola var. pentalepis (see footnote 85 under Hymenoclea salsola var. pentalepis) 

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Desertbroom

COMMON NAMES: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Caasot Caocl (Seri), Desert Broom, Desert-broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush, Rosin-brush, Soosk Vaks “Wet Shoes” (Maricopa?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height, one plant 40 inches in height was described as being 40 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green or yellow-green, the flowers (dioecious) cream, rust, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-September and late February (additional records: one for mid-March, two for late March, two for mid-April, one for late April, one for mid-July, one for early August and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy plains; flats; valley floors; roadsides; along arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gullies; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; gravelly creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly and sandy washes; playas; along gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos and washes; beaches; flood plains; bottom lands; along drainage ditches; along canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 77, 85 (082007), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Desert Marigold

COMMON NAMES: Baileya del Desierto, Cloth-of-gold, Desert Baileya, Desert-marigold, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Paperdaisy, Wild Marigold. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green, gray-white-green or grayish and woolly, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late December but may continue year round under favorable conditions. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky bluffs; buttes; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly-sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy pockets in lava outcrops; sand hills; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; sandy embankments; along sandy roadsides; arroyos; along streams; sandy creek beds; along rivers; rocky river beds; rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks of washes; alluvial terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas  in rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 200 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Consider seeding Desert Marigold with native Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and Globemallows (Sphaeralcea spp.) for a late winter and early spring desert wildflower display. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46 (“It is said that horses crop the heads, but fatal poisoning of sheep and goats eating this plant on overgrazed ranges has been reported.”), 48, 58, 63 (040907), 68 (“Desert Baileya, either fresh or dried, is poisonous to sheep and goats, but not to horses or cattle. The plant is not palatable to sheep, but the showy flower heads are relished, however, the flowering and fruiting heads are nearly twice as poisonous as the green leaves. Goats evidently do not graze the plant under range conditions, but have been poisoned in experimental feeding. Sheep losses from Desert Baileya have occurred in Arizona when green forage is scarce.”), 77 (color photograph #17), 80 (This plant is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “The toxic principle is an unknown water-soluble compound. Plants are toxic to sheep on the range in both the green and dry state. ... Goats have been poisoned by experimental feeding but apparently do not eat the plant on the range. Both cattle and horses graze the plant on the range but no losses have been observed. Losses generally occur only when other feed is short or animals are trailed through dense stands.” See text for additional information.), 85 (082007), 86 (color photograph), WTK (August 2007)*

 

Bebbia juncea (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene (var. aspera E.L. Greene is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Sweetbush

COMMON NAMES: Chuckwalla Delight, Chuckwalla’s Delight, Junco, Rush Bebbia, Sweetbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (16 inches to 5 feet in height) the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, (orange), orange-yellow or yellow, flowering takes place throughout the year. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky cliff faces; rocky canyons; rocky bluffs; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly flats; sandy valleys; beach dunes; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; sandy draws; bottoms of rocky gulches; springs; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy banks of washes; rocky and sandy beaches; sandy terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly sweet-scented. *5, 6, 13, 15, 46, 63 (052107), 77, 85 (082007), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray: Coulter’s Brickellbush

SYNONYMY: Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri. COMMON NAMES: Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height), the color of the florets (rayless flowers) has been described as being cream, cream-maroon-purple, cream-purple, cream-yellow, green, greenish-yellow, purplish, purplish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-October (additional records: one for early November, one for mid-November, one for early December and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; rocky walls of ravines; springs; along stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainages; around waterholes; sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and silty loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color picture), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 65 (082007), 77, 85 (082007), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Brickellia coulteri var. coulteri (see Brickellia coulteri) 

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Tackstem

COMMON NAMES: Tackstem, White Cupfruit, White Tackstem. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 12 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green, the flowers creamy-yellow, white and white with purple, red or red-purple stripes turning purplish with age, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery and rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; gravelly plains; gravelly and loamy flats; valleys; along rocky and gravelly roadsides; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy benches; terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070407), 77, 85 (082007), 86 (note)*

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott: Steve’s Dustymaiden

COMMON NAMES: “Broad-leaved Chaenactis”, Desert Pincushion, Dusty Maiden, Dustymaiden, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Esteve’s Pincushion, “False Yarrow”, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dusty-maiden, Steve’s Dustymaiden. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the flowers (disk flowers only, no ray flowers) cream, cream-white, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-January and one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; bluffs; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; sandy hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; rocky and gravelly arroyos; along streams; along and in sandy washes; beaches; along terraces; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070507), 77, 85 (also recorded as Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides Hook. & Arn. - 082107), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides (see footnote 85 under Chaenactis stevioides) 

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: New Mexico Thistle

COMMON NAMES: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb (20 inches to 7 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, gray-green or silvery, the florets lavender, lavender-pink, pink-lavender, pink-purple, purple, rose, rose-purple, violet-purple, white or whitish-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June (additional records: one each for early January, mid-February, late February and mid-July and two for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; flats; gravelly roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream banks; along rivers; rocky drainages; rocky and sandy banks; benches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 1,300 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070707), 77, 85 (082107)*

 

Dyssodia porophylloides (see Adenophyllum porophylloides)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey [superfluous autonym], Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. phenicodonta (J. Blake) I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Brittle Bush, Brittle-bush, Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 6 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, silvery-gray or whitish, the ray flowers yellow or yellow-orange and the disk flowers brown-maroon, dark purple, orange-yellow or yellow, the flowers appear 6 to 12 inches beyond the end of the foliage, flowering generally takes place between early November and late May (additional records: two for late August, one for early September, two for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; flats; roadsides; springs; creeks; rocky and sandy washes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Plants with yellow ray flowers and dark purple disk flowers have historically been referred to as variety phenicodonta (Blake) Johnst. and has been observed growing with the typical plant which has yellow disk flowers. Brittle Bush is reportedly browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 85 (082107), 86 (color photograph), 91, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Encelia farinosa var. farinosa (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia farinosa var. phenicodonta (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray: Button Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Green Brittle Bush, Rayless Encelia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are drought deciduous) shrub (1 to 5 feet in height and to 3 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green or gray-green and shiny on the upper surface, the disk flowers yellow or yellow-orange (disk flowers only, no ray flowers), flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early December (additional records: two for late February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; cliff tops; rim rock; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bluffs; buttes; foothills; hills; hill tops; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; plains; sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; gulches; seeps; along sandy washes; rocky drainages; sandy margins of creeks; flood plains, and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky and sandy soils; rocky loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (041007), 77, 85 (082107), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Encelia frutescens var. frutescens (see Encelia frutescens)  

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Spreading Fleabane

SYNONYMY: Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray var. typicus A.J. Cronquist. COMMON NAMES: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 28 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being a dull gray-green, the ray flowers blue, blue-lavender, blue-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-pink, pale pink, light purple, white or white-lavender, the disk flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and late September (additional records: three for mid-January, one for late January, one for early February, three for mid-February, five for late February, three for early October, two for mid-October, one for late October, nine for early November, five for late November, two for early December, three for mid-December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; lava flows; stony prairies; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; along arroyos; streams; rocky-sandy streambeds; along creeks; along creek beds; along and in gravelly-sandy washes; along lake shores; cienegas; sandy benches; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; edges of tanks; sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy loam soils; rocky-silty clay and gravelly clay soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 400 to 10,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (070707), 77, 85 (082207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Erigeron divergens var. typicus (see Erigeron divergens)

 

Erigeron lobatus A. Nelson: Lobed Fleabane

COMMON NAMES: Desert Fleabane, Fleabane, Lobed Daisy, Lobed Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height), the color of the ray flower has been described as being blue, blue-lavender, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-pink, purple, white or white-purple with yellow disk flowers, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: one for early January, three for mid-January, two for early June, one for mid-June, two for late June, one for mid-July, one for mid-August, two for late August, three for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for late October, one for early November, two for mid-November, one for early December, one for mid-December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; crevices in canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; rock outcrops; lava flows; plains; flats; arroyos; seeps; springs; stream beds; along sandy washes; drainages; marshes; depressions; along edges of rivers; around water holes; rocky-sandy beaches; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, shaley, gravelly and sandy soils and sandy clay soils, occurring from 500 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (082207), 77, 85 (082207)*

 

Filago arizonica (A. Gray) J. Holub: Arizona Cottonrose

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Filago, Arizona Fluffweed, Arizona Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between early March and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-February, two for late February, two for mid-May, one for mid-June and one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava fields; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; along streams; river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos), and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (052307), 77, 85 (082207)*

 

Filago californica (see Logfia californica)

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Gutierrezia M. Lagasca y Segura: Snakeweed

COMMON NAMES: Snakeweed *63 (022207), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Hymenoclea pentalepis (see Hymenoclea salsola var. pentalepis) 

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush

COMMON NAMES: Burro Brush, Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Ivdat (Pima), Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Burrobush, White Burro-bush, White Cheesebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub (1 to 7 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 3 feet in height and 2 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being creamish-green, dark green or yellow-green, the flowers cream, creamish-green, metallic gold, silvery, silvery-white, white or light yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late May, the fruit has silvery-white wings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; buttes; cinder cones; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky, cindery and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; along rocky and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gullies; gravelly-sandy ravines; stream beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; around ponds; rocky-gravelly banks; bouldery beaches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam and loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. White Cheesebush may be useful in the re-vegetation of disturbed sites. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (070807), 85 (also recorded as Ambrosia salsola (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.L. Strother & B.G. Baldwin - 082307), 91, MBJ/WTK August 2007)*

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray var. pentalepis (P.A. Rydberg) L.D. Benson: Burrobrush

SYNONYMY: Hymenoclea pentalepis P.A. Rydberg. COMMON NAMES: Burrobrush, Cheesebush, Cheeseweed, Ivdat? (Pima), Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Burrobush, White Burro-bush, White Cheesebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub (1 to 5 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 4 feet in height and 5 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green or yellow-green, the flowers cream, creamish-green, metallic gold, silvery, white or light yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May, the fruit has silvery-white wings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; buttes; foothills; sandy hills; rocky, cindery and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; rocky and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo beds; arroyo margins; gravelly-sandy ravines, stream beds; river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; around ponds; banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. White Cheesebush may be useful in the re-vegetation of disturbed sites. *5, 6, 13, 28 (sp., color photograph), 46 (Hymenoclea pentalepis Rydb.), 48 (gen.), 63 (070807), 77, 85 (also recorded as Ambrosia salsola  (J. Torrey & A. Gray) Strother & B.G. Baldwin var. pentalepis ((P.A. Rydberg) Strother & B.G. Baldwin - 082307), 91*

 

Layia glandulosa (W.J. Hooker) W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott: Whitedaisy Tidytips

COMMON NAMES: Tidy Tips, White Layia, White Tidytips, Whitedaisy Tidytips,. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being red-purple, the leaves gray-green in a basal rosette, the ray flowers pure white or whitish-cream, the disk flowers are orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-June (additional records: one for late January and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; ledges; rocky ridges; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; roadsides; draws; amongst grasses surrounding springs; along streams; along creeks; along creek beds; rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; wash bottoms; gravely terraces; clay floors of dry lakes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (070807), 77, 85 (082307)*

 

Logfia californica (T. Nuttall) J. Holub: California Cottonrose

SYNONYMY: Filago californica T. Nuttall. COMMON NAMES: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream-white, white or white-straw, flowering generally takes place between late February and late May (additional record: one record for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; bouldery outcrops; plains; sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; river beds; along rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; flood plains; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Filago californica Nutt.), 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (082307)*

 

Machaeranthera arida B.L. Turner & J. Horne: Arid Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Machaeranthera coulteri (A. Gray) B.L. Turner & J. Horne var. arida (B.L. Turner & J. Horne) B.L. Turner, Psilactis coulteri auct. p.p., non A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arid Spiny Daisy, Arid Tansyaster, Silver Lake Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being blue, lavender-blue, pink, purple, violet, white or yellow, the disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and early September (additional records: two for early October, one for mid-October, two for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides; crater walls; gypsum outcrops; dunes; blowout areas between dunes; sandy flats; coastal plains; roadsides; edges of seeps; springs; sandy-silty river beds; along and in sandy washes; banks of rivers; gravelly benches; around pools; flood plains, and disturbed areas in rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Psilactis coulteri Gray), 63 (070807), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (082407)*

 

Machaeranthera coulteri var. arida (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. pinnatifida: Lacy Tansyaster

COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus Yellow Spiny Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 16 inches in height), the foliage is gray-green, the ray flowers are purple or yellow and the disk flowers are yellow, flowering (see footnote 46) generally takes place between mid-February and mid-December (flowering records: one for mid-February,  three for mid-March, one for late March, three for early April, four for mid-April, two for late April, four for early May, two for mid-May, one for late May, two for early June, one for mid-June, one for late June, three for early July, two for mid-July, two for mid-August, one for early September, one for mid-September, one for late October, one for late November and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyon bluffs; talus slopes; along rocky-sandy rims of craters; bouldery hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; gravelly and clayey flats; along roadsides; arroyos; banks of rivers; sandy benches; dry bottoms of stock tanks (charcos), and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 46 (shows the flowering period for the species (Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC.) as being from March to October - Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC., Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. var. turbinellus (Rydb.) Blake), 58, 63 (111307), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (012608), 86 (color photograph - (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida) Haplopappus spinulosus)*

 

Malacothrix californica var. glabrata (see Malacothrix glabrata)

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray: Smooth Desertdandelion

SYNONYMY: Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton. COMMON NAMES: California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Desert-dandelion, Smooth Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height), the ray flowers are yellow (no disk flowers), flowering generally takes place between late February March and early June (additional record: one for early February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; at the edges of rivers; sandy bottom lands, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam and gravelly loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Malacothrix californica var. glabrata), 46, 58, 63 (070807), 77, 85 (082507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Mohave Desertstar

COMMON NAMES: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desert Star, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 12 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the ray flowers blue, blue-lavender-white, lavender, pink, purplish-lavender, white, white-lavender or white tinged with pink, pink-purple, purple or rose, the disk flowers golden or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; stony and sandy mesas; foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst rocks; lava fields; lava flows; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; gullies; creek beds; along and in sandy washes; stony drainages; playas; gravelly and sandy banks of small drainages, gravel bars; lake shores; terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 100 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This small winter annual may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are about ¾ inch in width. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (070807), 77 (color photograph #21), 85 (082607), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Slender Poreleaf

COMMON NAMES: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado (Herb of the Deer), Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (12 to 40 inches, one record at 79 inches, in height), the color of the stems and leaves has been described as being gray-green or dark green, the disk flowers cream, cream-maroon, cream-purple, maroon, pinkish, purple, purplish-white, white, white tinged with purple, or yellow (disk flowers only, there are no ray flowers), flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early October (additional records: four for mid-January, four for late October, two for early November and four for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; ridges; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valleys; roadsides; arroyos; rocky arroyo walls; rocky arroyo bottoms; springs; along creeks; sandy creek beds; rocky river beds; along and in sandy washes; drainages; cobbly and sandy banks of rivers; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The plants emit a pungent odor when bruised. Deer browse this plant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070907), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Psilactis coulteri (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Whitestem Paperflower

COMMON NAMES: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Paper-flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 30 inches in height and 8 to 20 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being white, the leaves green, greenish-gray or white, the disk flowers yellow, the ray flowers yellow fading to white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; clayey hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly flats; valleys; rocky embankments; roadsides; arroyos; along streams; along rocky and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy depressions; sandy banks of rivers and washes; rocky benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, cobbly-gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (052807), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This showy, low-growing shrub is widespread in Arizona. No losses have been documented, but it may cause some poisoning similar to the other paperflowers.”), 85 (082607), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: New Mexico Plumeseed

COMMON NAMES: Desert Chicory, Desert-chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, Mexican Plumeseed, New Mexico Plumeseed, Plumeseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, white, white-pink, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knobs; ridges; ridge tops; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; sandy depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. It is often found growing through and supported by Triangleleaf Bursage and other small shrubs. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (120107), 77 (color photograph #22), 85 (120207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Senecio douglasii var. monoensis (see Senecio flacciduss var. monoensis)

 

Senecio flaccidus C.F. Lessing var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) B.L. Turner & T.M. Barkley: Mono Ragwort

SYNONYMY: Senecio douglasii A.P. de Candolle var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) W.L. Jepson, Senecio monoensis E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Comb Butterweed, Creek Senecio, Groundsel, Mono Groundsel, Mono Ragwort, Sand Wash Groundsel, Shrubby Ragwort, Threadleaf Groundsel, Threadleaf Ragwort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 40 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being yellow-green, the ray flowers are yellow and the disk flowers are orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and gravelly-loamy roadsides; silty draws; bottoms of draws; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; in drainages; sandy banks; sandy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,400 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph - Senecio monoensis) 46 (Senecio monoensis Greene), 58, 63 (111707), 77, 80 (Threadleaf Groundsel, Woolly Groundsel, Senecio (Senecio longilobus and others) are listed as Major Poisonous Range Plants. Poisoning by Threadleaf Groundsel has been attributed to the presence of a number of alkaloids. “These alkaloids belong to a single group - the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Upon hydrolysis, these break into a nitrogen-containing fraction and a mono- or di-carboxylic necic acid. The nitrogen oxides are hepatotoxic, causing liver lesions that are attributed to senecio poisoning. ... Cattle and horses are equally sensitive to senecio poisoning; sheep and goats are less susceptible. ... Also, the consumption of small amounts of the plant over a period of a month or more will have a cumulative effect. ... When possible, livestock should be kept from areas heavily infested with Threadleaf Groundsel, particularly when the range is excessively dry.” See text for additional information.), 85 (111807)*

 

Senecio monoensis (see Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis) 

 

Stylocline micropoides A. Gray: Woollyhead Neststraw

COMMON NAMES: Desert Nest Straw, Desert Neststraw, Woollyhead Fambract, Woolly Neststraw, Woollyhead Neststraw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 36 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being white, flowering generally take place between mid-February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; rocky canyon rims; talus slopes; hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; dunes; plains; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; along gravelly roadsides; along draws; along streams; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; lake shores; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (070907), 77, 85 (012708)*

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold

SYNONYMY: Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (10 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being gray, the leaves green or yellow-green, the flowers bright yellow, flowering generally takes place between late January and late December, the seeds have straw-colored bristles. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; shaded cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky gorges; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; in the shade of trees on sandy flats; valleys; draws; rocky gully bottoms; by streams; by rivers; along rocky and sandy washes; at the edges of arroyos in the shade of larger shrubs and trees; beaches; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607), 86 (color photograph), 91, WTK (August 2007)*

 

Trixis californica var. californica (see Trixis californica)

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

msinckia intermedia (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia var. echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders: Common Fiddleneck

SYNONYMY: Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins. COMMON NAMES: Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: one for late January, two for late May and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps; along streams; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-loamy washes; sandy drainages; swales; sandy banks; rocky and gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; silty flood plains; edges of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46 (Amsinckia spp. - “The plants are very abundant on sandy or gravelly soil in western and southern Arizona, and are reported to make good spring forage while young. On the other hand it has been reported that horses, cattle, and swine eating the nutlets may develop cirrhosis of the liver.”), 58, 63 (041507), 68 (“The mature seeds have been demonstrated to cause hepatic cirrhosis, known as “hard liver disease” of cattle and swine., and the “walking disease” of horses. Sheep are either immune or highly resistant to the poison. The disease is common in the Pacific Northwest, but not in Arizona. This plant also may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 77 (color photograph labeled Amsinckia intermedia #7), 80 (This plant (Amsinckia intermedia and others) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Cattle, horses and swine may be poisoned by an unknown liver toxin from eating large amounts of the seeds of this desert annual. Also plants may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 85 (082607), 86, 101, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, bright white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-June (additional records: two for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; sandy meadows; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; draws; rocky-sandy stream beds; beside creeks; creek beds; along rivers; bouldery and sandy washes; banks of rivers; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene: Guadalupe Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Guadalupe Cat’s-eye, Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being red-brown, the flowers white, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one each for early May and mid-May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; buttes; gravelly ridges; hills, rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; creosote flats; roadsides; springs; along and in rocky-sandy and gravelly-sandy washes; along banks of washes; terraces; stock tanks, and riparian areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. pilosa I.M. Johnston: Guadalupe Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the flowers are small and white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late April (additional record: one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; lava fields; plains; flats; roadsides; around seeping streams; along streams; along and in rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; along banks of streams, and riparian areas in desert pavement and rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Wingnut Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Wing-fruited Forget-me-not, Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 14 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the flowers bright white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between late January and early June (additional record: one for late July), the winged fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ledges; rocky hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; boulder fields; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; rocky gullies; springs; along rivers; sandy river beds; along rocky-sandy and sandy washes; benches; sandy margins of reservoirs, and sandy riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and rocky silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene var. cycloptera (E.L. Greene) J.F. Macbride: Wingnut Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 14 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green or yellow-green, the flowers bright white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May (additional record: one for mid-June), the winged fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand hummocks; rocky and gravelly flats; valley floors; rocky roadsides; rocky arroyos; beside streams; along sandy washes; terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (071107), 85 (082607)*

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are pale lavender or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early June (additional records: two for mid-January and one for late June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; crevices in rocks; hills; rocky and gravelly slopes; sandy alluvial slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand dunes; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; beside streams; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in sandy washes; sandy banks of washes; gravel bars; benches; shorelines; flood plains; at stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and gravelly-clayey-silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

Pectocarya platycarpa (P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston) P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Comb Bur, Broad-wing Comb-bur, Stickweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; foothills; rocky, gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; lava fields; valley floors; along gravelly roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; terraces; sandy banks; sandy and loamy bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58 63 (041607), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

Pectocarya recurvata I.M. Johnston: Curvenut Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Arched Bomb-bur, Archnut Combbur, Arch-nutted Combbur, Curvenut Combseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 inches in height), the flowers are white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; sandy flats; roadsides; along sandy streams; along creeks; along creek beds; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainages; edges of washes; terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: Asian Mustard

COMMON NAMES: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Mustard, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 40 inches in height), the large and serrated green leaves form in a basal rosette clasping on the stem, the flowers are white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early April (additional records: one for mid-November, three for early December and one for mid-April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; bases of cliffs; rocky ridge tops; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; gullies; creek beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy drainages; margins of ponds; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along ditches; recently burned areas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Sahara Mustard is usually a very large and robust plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 46, 63 (041907), 77, 80 (The genus Brassica is listed as both a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant “Mustards, both native and escaped, may cause several diseases including goiter and gastroenteritis.” and a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant “Cultivated mustards may cause numerous diseases including gastroenteritis, blindness, goiter, emphysema, redwater disease, nitrate poisoning, anemia, and photosensitization.”), 85 (082707), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. utahensis (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Western Tansymustard

COMMON NAMES: Aasam (Yaqui), Green Tansy Mustard, Huy Aasum (Yaqui), Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Tansy-mustard, Western Tansy-mustard, Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the feathery leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, greenish-yellow, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; sandy canyonsides; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rims of craters; cinder cones; ridges; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; sheltered rocky coves; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream beds; along rivers; along and in bouldery, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of creeks and rivers; sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-silty loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (071207), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Symptoms of poisoning are similar to the “blind staggers” disease caused by selenium, but the principle is unknown. Large quantities of the plant must be eaten for a considerably long time before symptoms appear. Consumption of toxic amounts is most likely to occur during the blossoming period in the spring. Poisoned cattle become partially or completely blind and wander aimlessly about until exhausted, or stand pushing against some solid object for hours. Animals lose their ability to use their tongue in swallowing and cannot eat or drink. They eventually die if neglected. As a result a popular term for the disease is “paralyzed tongue”. ... Analysis of plants in Arizona shows that tansy mustard also may accumulate toxic levels of nitrate. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested pastures during the spring-growth period, or by providing more desirable forage to reduce mustard consumption.” See text for additional information.), 85 (082707), 101 (note)*

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray var. integrifolia S. Watson: Wedgeleaf Draba

COMMON NAMES: Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Wedgeleaf Whitlowgrass, Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 5 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early April (additional records: one for early December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; soil pockets on shaded cliff walls; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; amongst rocks; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps; along streams; along creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky-sandy and sandy washes; silty banks; benches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (112007), 85 (112107)*

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene: California Mustard

SYNONYMY: Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being purple, the flowers pinkish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; plains; gravelly flats; rocky roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey-silty loam, sandy loam, clayey loam, silty-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 300 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene), 63 (041907), 77, 80 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This annual mustard has been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (082707)*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Shaggyfruit Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Hairypod Pepperweed, Hispidcress, Pepper Grass, Peppergrass, Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 15 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late December and mid-May (additional records: one for late June, one for late August and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly-sandy-loamy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; along roadsides; along arroyos; arroyo bottoms; rocky chutes; around seeping streams; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along drainages; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of rivers and washes; channel bars; sandy beaches; benches; gravelly terraces; sandy, loamy and clayey bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; along gravelly-sandy and sandy edges of stock tanks; gravelly and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam and loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty, sandy-silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (012808), 68, 77, 85 (012908)*

 

Lesquerella tenella A. Nelson: Moapa Bladderpod

SYNONYMY: Physaria tenella (A. Nelson) S.L. O’Kane & I.A. Al-Shehbaz. COMMON NAMES: Bladderpod, Delicate Bladderpod, Moapa Bladderpod, Palmer Bean Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; chasms; rocky hills; gravelly slopes; alluvial slopes; sandy bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; rocky and sandy flats; valley floors; rocky roadsides; gulches; along ravines; springs; along sandy streams; along rivers; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along banks of washes; lakesides, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 900 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 34 (gen.), 48 (gen.), 63 (071307), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey (var. coulteri is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coulter’s Lyrepod

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter Lyrepod, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (16 to 40 inches in height, one plant was reported as being 16 inches in height with a crown 8 inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being brown-cream, brownish-green, brown-purple, greenish-ochre, straw or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late April (additional records: one for early September, one for late September, one for late November and two for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; flats; arroyos; rocky gullies; seeps; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along stony drainages; banks; mesquite bosques; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers have been reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 46 (Lyrocarpa coulteri Hook. & Harv. var. typica Rollins), 63 (052907), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. coulteri: Coulter’s Lyrepod

SYNONYMY: Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. typica R.C. Rollins. COMMON NAMES: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter Lyrepod, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (16 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being brown-cream, brownish-green, brown-purple or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late April (additional records: one for early September, one for late September, one for late November and two for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; flats; arroyos; seeps; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along stony drainages; banks; mesquite bosques; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers have been reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 46 (Lyrocarpa coulteri Hook. & Harv. var. typica Rollins), 63 (052907), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri var. typica (see Lyrocarpa coulteri var. coulteri) 

 

Physaria tenella (see Lesquerella tenella)  

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket

COMMON NAMES: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 5 feet in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-December and mid-April (additional records: one for late July, two for mid-August, three for late August, one for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November and three for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; rock ledges; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly; rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from 100 to 10,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (042007), 68, 77, 85 (082807), 101 (color photograph), WTK (November 2005)

 

Sisymbrium orientale C. Linnaeus: Indian Hedgemustard

COMMON NAMES: Indian Hedgemustard, Oriental Hedgemustard, Tumble Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gorges; slopes; lava fields; creosote flats; rocky roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; by creeks; river beds; along sandy washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 600 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. A plant in fruit was collected on April 22, 1977 by Casey Hamilton at Milepost 210 on Interstate 10 at Eloy was recorded as a new record for this species for Arizona. *5, 6, 63 (071307), 77, 85 (082907)*

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

 

Family Burseraceae: The Frankincense Family

 

Bursera microphylla A. Gray: Elephant Tree

COMMON NAMES: Copal, Elephant Bursera, Elephant Tree, Hop (Seri), Little Leaf Elephant Tree, Small-leaf Elephant Tree, Small-leaf Elephant-tree, Torote, Torote Colorado, Xoop (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial semisucculent deciduous shrub or tree (2½ to 26 feet in height), the trunk is thick and short with crooked rapidly tapering branches, the branches are gray to reddish-gray, exfoliating gray, yellow or yellow-brown papery bark, the leaf-bearing twigs are cherry-red, the leaves are green, the inconspicuous flowers are cream-white, cream-yellow or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between late June and early July, the fruits are reddish-brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; cliffs; cracks on cliff faces; rocky ledges; ridge crests; foothills; rocky hills, rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; flats; coastal plains; shell mantled beach ridges; rocky arroyos; rocky ravines; along and in washes; banks of washes; sandy strands; bottoms of tanks; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,300 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is frost sensitive. The common name “Elephant Tree” was given to this plant because of the resemblance of the stout, tapering branches to an elephant’s trunk. The leaves have an odor, similar to that of citrus, when crushed. The fruits are reportedly eaten by Gray Vireos and other birds. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 45, 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (071307), 85 (082907), 91, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Saguaro

SYNONYMY: Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Giant Cactus, Giant Cereus, Ha Shun (Pima), Mashad (Tohono O’odham), “Pitahaya” (Spanish Conquistadors), Saguaro, Sahuaro. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent tree (5 to 60 feet in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter), the flowers are a waxy creamy-white, 2 to 3 inches across, opening at about 8 p.m. and closing at about 5 p.m. the next day, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for early September and one for early October), the ripe fruits split into 2 to 6 segments that curl back to reveal the red inner lining of the rinds which are sometimes mistakenly thought to be red flowers. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyon walls; ridges; ridgelines; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; stabilized dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; along and in river beds; in sandy washes, and flood plains in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from 100 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Saguaros are very slow to establish, a 5 year old plant may be no more than ¼ to ½ inch in height. The growth rate of Saguaros is extremely variable. William G. McGinnies in his book “Discovering the Desert” reports that a plant 36 inches in height may be from 20 to 50 years of age, he also presents a table of typical growth rates reporting the following: 4 inches - 8.0 years, 8 inches - 12.5 years, 16 inches - 19.1 years, 32 inches - 27.3 years, 3.3 feet - 30.3 years, 6.6 feet - 40.5 years, 10 feet - 47.5 years, 13 feet - 54 years, 16 feet - 60.0 years, 18 feet - 74.0 years. 20 feet - 83.0 years, 25 feet - 107.0 years, 30 feet - 131.0 years, and 35 feet - 157.0 years. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated saguaros is much faster. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument, was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other animals and birds feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 13 (color photographs, in habitat with associated species Plates C.2 and D.3), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 16, 18 (Carnegiea gigantea), 26 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 27 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 28 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 38 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 46 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus giganteus), 52 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 53 (Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 58, 63 (042207), 77 (color photograph #63), 85 (082907), 86 (color photograph, Cereus gigantea), 91 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose), 107, 119 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) B.&R.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth: Buck-horn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow. COMMON NAMES: Buck-horn Cholla, Buckhorn Cholla, Deer-horn Cactus, Stag-horn Cholla, Yellow Flowered Cane Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (18 inches to 15 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 20 inches in height with a crown 60 inches in width, one plant was recorded as being 5 feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being bluish-gray-green, gray-green or green with golden, gray or tan spines, the flowers bronze, bronze with a reddish mid-stripe, bronze-yellow, copper-yellow, green-yellow, maroon, orange, purple, red, reddish-bronze, yellow, yellow-brown, yellow-magenta or variegated, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid June (additional records: two for early January, three for late June, one for mid-July, two for early August and one for mid-November), the spiny fruits are brown or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountaintops; stony mesas; bouldery canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; basins; gulches; creek beds; along bouldery, bouldery-gravelly, gravelly; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; edges of rocky-sandy creeks; rocky benches; gravelly-silty terraces, and loamy bottom lands in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam and loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27, 28 (color photograph, Opuntia acanthocarpa), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (071407), 85 (083107), 119 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. coloradensis (L.D. Benson) D.J. Pinkava: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. coloradensis L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla, Colorado Desert Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (44 inches to 9 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 80 inches in height with a crown and 80 inches in width), the color of the spines has been described as being golden-yellow or yellow, the flowers bronze, bronze with red tips, chartreuse-yellow, golden-yellow, magenta, orange-yellow, pink, yellow tinged with pink, yellow with red tips or red throats or yellow-green with purple centers, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: two for late June, one for mid-July) the spiny fruits are brown or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery canyons; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky-gravelly and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; desert flats; along creek beds; along gravelly washes, and rocky benches in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,200 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow var. coloradensis L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27, 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (071407), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) D.J. Pinkava: Buckhorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L.D. Benson, Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. ramosa R.H. Peebles. COMMON NAMES: Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (32 inches to 7 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 32 inches in height with a crown 72 inches in width, one plant was recorded as being 72 inches in height with a crown 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being grayish-blue-green, the flowers bronze-red, dark orange, brick-orange, magenta, dark pink, purple, brick-red, red-pinkish or dark yellow turning brown, flowering generally takes place between early March and early June (additional records: two for early January and two for early August), the spiny fruits are brown, gray or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; buttes; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; basins, and along gravelly-sandy washes in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann & Bigelow var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow) var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel. var. ramosa Peebles), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (053007), 77 (color photograph labeled Opuntia acanthocarpa #66), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), WTK (August 2007)*

 

Cylindropuntia bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Teddybear Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jumping Cactus, “Ball” Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cactus, Jumping Cholla, Silver Cholla, Teddybear Cactus, Teddy Bear Cholla, Teddy-bear Cholla, Teddybear Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (3 to 9 feet in height, one plant was reported to be just over 8 feet in height and 40 inches in width with 2 to 3 main trunks), the color of the stems has been described as being light green or bluish-green, the flowers chartreuse-yellow, cream tinged with rose, green-yellow, magenta, pink, yellow tinged with red-purple or white tinged with lavender, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for early September and one for early December), the nearly spineless fruits are greenish-yellow or yellow and fleshy when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and sandy mountainsides; canyons; cliffs; talus slopes; bluffs; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly and silty flats; basins; valleys; arroyos; along sandy washes; benches, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and silty loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This is the spiniest cholla cactus in Arizona. Thomas Kearney and Robert Peebles in their book Arizona Flora had this to say about the Teddybear Cholla: “The combination of barbed spines and densely armed, easily detached joints has earned profound respect for this formidable cholla.” Teddy-bear Chollas may live to be 60 or more years of age. The Teddybear Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Pack Rats (Neotoma sp.) use the joints of this plant in the construction of their nests. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia bigelovii (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 18, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia bigelovii), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 48, 63 (042507), 77 (color photograph #13), 85 (100107), 86 (color photograph), 91 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 119 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 5 feet in height and 5 feet in width), the stems are green, the spines golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are magenta, pink or white streaked with lavender, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and late September (additional records: one for early November and one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes; benches; alluvial terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and silty-clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits may be added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Cholla may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 15, 16, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia fulgida), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 48, 52 (Opuntia fulgida), 53 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 63 (042607), 77, 85 (100407), 91 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 119 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.)*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 8¼ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 6½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 10 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the stems are green or purple, the spines are golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are cream-yellow, pink, pink-purple, purple, purple-pink, rose-pink or yellow tinged with pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and mid-September (additional record: one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green or purple forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 800 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits are added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Chollas may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 15, 16 (sp.), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 52 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 53 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 63 (042607), 77, 85 (100407), 91 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 119 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), WTK (August 2007)*

 

Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth: Christmas Cactus

SYNONYMY: Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajilla (Hispanic), Tasajillo, Tesajo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 6 feet in height (sometimes becoming vine-like and growing upwards with support 8 to 15 feet in height), one plant was reported as being 2 feet in height and 2 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 2½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 4 feet in height and 8 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 5 feet in height and 8¼ feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellow-green, the spines gray-brown, purple-brown or yellow-brown often being paler toward the tip, the flowers bronze, cream, green, green-yellow, yellow or whitish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for mid-July and one for late July), the spineless (with glochids) fleshy fruits are coral, orange, orange-red, red, reddish-orange or yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; gravelly ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; sand hills; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; arroyos; along ravines; along washes; sandy drainages; benches; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas often found growing within grasses, shrubs or trees in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, clayey loam and silty loam soils, and loamy clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Desert Christmas Cactus is believed to have a life span of about 50 years. A high mortality rate is to be expected with plants coming into contact with fire. Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers. The fruits are eaten by birds and small mammals. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia leptocaulis), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (100507), 86 (color photograph, Opuntia leptocaulis), 91 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 119 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. acicularis L. Benson: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus

COMMON NAMES: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Needle-spine Hedgehog, Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 15 inches in height and 1½ to 2½  inches in diameter in clusters of 5 to 25, or as many as 50 or more stems), the color of the flowers has been described as being magenta or purple, flowering generally takes place between early March to early May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for mid-July), the ripe fruits are purple or red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ledges; rocky ridges; rocky hills; rocky; gravelly and sandy hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly-sandy and sandy bajadas; on boulders and rocks; amongst rocks; sand dunes; plains; desert flats; basins; valleys, and along and in sandy washes in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 18 (sp.), 27 (color photograph), 28 (sp., color photograph of the species), 45 (sp., color photograph of the species), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (053107), 85 (100707), 119 (sp., Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Rümpler), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. chrysocentrus (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) K.T. Rümpler: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus

COMMON NAMES: Dagger-spine Hedgehog, Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus, Saints Cactus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 5 to 30 inches in height, 2 to 3 inches in width in clusters of from 3 to 10 up to as many as 50 erect stems), the color of the flowers has been described as being magenta or purple, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-May, the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; bouldery canyons; ledges; rocky ridges; gravelly and sandy hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gulches; along bouldery-gravelly washes in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 700 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12 (color photographs of the species), 18 (sp.), 27, 28 (sp., color photograph of the species), 45 (sp., color photograph of the species), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (081107), 85 (100707), 119 (sp., Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Rümpler), WTK (August 2007 - lower central is white and foil-like with other central spines being reddish-brown)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii var. nicholii (see Echinocereus nicholii) 

 

Echinocereus nicholii (L. Benson) E. Parfitt: Nichol’s Hedgehog Cactus

SYNONYMY: Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. nicholii L. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Golden Hedgehog, Nichol Hedgehog, Nichol Hedgehog Cactus, Nichol’s Hedgehog Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 1 to 2 feet in height (one stem of approximately 5 feet in length was observed) in clusters of 10 to 30 stems), the spines are golden-yellow, the flowers are lavender, pink or rose-pink, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-April (additional records: one for mid-June), the fleshy fruits turn bronze or red-brown at maturity. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyon rims; rocky canyons; ridges; hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops, and rocky, gravelly and sandy flats in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12 (Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Lemaire var. nicholii L. Benson), 27 (color photograph, Echinocereus engelmannii Parry var. nicholii L. Benson), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Rümpler var. nicholii L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 63 (071507), 85 (100707), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Ferocactus covillei (see Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt: Emory’s Barrel Cactus

SYNONYMY: Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory Barrel, Emory Barrel Cactus, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Nail-keg Barrel, Red-spined Barrel Cactus, Semxl (Seri?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and 12 to 40 inches in diameter), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, red or yellow sometimes with a broad pink or reddish center stripe, flowering generally takes place between early June and mid-September (additional records: one for late March, one for mid-April and one for early May), the fleshy fruits are bright yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky peaks; rocky-gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand dunes; plains; grassy flats; coastal plains; arroyos; along stream beds; wash margins, and sandy flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are fragrant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 63 (060107), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. emoryi - 100707), 91 (Ferocactus emoryi Britton & Rose), 119 (Ferocactus covillei B. & R.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Ferocactus emoryi var. emoryi (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Candy Barrelcactus

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrel Cactus, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fish-hook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter), the flowers are orange, orange-yellow, parchment, pinkish-red, red, red-orange, yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-October (additional records: one for early January, three for early March, five for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April and two for early June) the ripe fruits are yellow and may remain on the plant until the next flowering period. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery hills; hillsides; rocky and cobbly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly flats; arroyos; along washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Fishhook Barrel Cacti are very slow to establish. A 4 year old plant may be no more than 1½ inches in height and 2 inches in width, and an 8 year old plant may be no more that 4¼ inches in height and 4¾ inches in width. Fishhook Barrel Cacti may live to be over 130 years of age. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated barrel cacti is much faster. The fruits are eaten by animals and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph), 28, 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (042807), 77 (color photograph #10), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose 100707), 91, 119, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus wislizenii)

 

Lemaireocereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann: Graham’s Nipple Cactus

SYNONYMY: Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii G. Engelmann [Superfluous autonym], Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. oliviae (C.R. Orcutt) L.D. Benson, Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann, Mammillaria oliviae C.R. Orcutt. Neomammillaria microcarpa (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose, Neomammillaria milleri N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose, Neomammillaria oliviae (C.R. Orcutt) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Fishhook, Biznaguita, Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Corkseed Cactus, Fishhook Cactus, Fishhook Mammillaria, Fishhook Pincushion, Graham Fishhook, Graham Nipple Cactus, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher, Nipple Cactus, Olive Pincushion, Pin-cushion Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 8 inches in height and 1½ to 3 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 1¼  inches in height and 1½ inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, pink, pink with a darker mid-stripe or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and early August (additional records: one for mid-March, two for mid-April, one for late August and one for late September, additionally, flowering may take place between mid-March and late September one week after a heavy rain), the fleshy fruits are bright orange, orange-red or red when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; canyon bottoms; crevices in boulders and rocks; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along and in sandy washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and clay soils often in the shade of other plants, occurring from 700 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Birds and rodents feed on the fruits. *5, 6, 12 (color photographs, Mammillaria grahamii Engelm., Mammillaria grahamii Engelm. var. grahamii, Mammillaria grahamii Engelm. var. oliviae (Orcutt) L.Benson, Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm.), 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 27 (color photographs, Mammillaria grahamii, Mammillaria microcarpa), 28 (color photograph, Mammillaria microcarpa), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm., Mammillaria oliviae Orcutt), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (100907), 77 (color photograph #11), 85 (restricted distribution information - 100807), 86 (color photograph, Mammillaria microcarpa), 119 (Neomammillaria microcarpa (Engelm.) B. & R., Neomammillaria milleri B. & R.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Mammillaria grahamii var. oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Mammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii) 

 

Mammillaria oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii) 

 

Neomammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Neomammillaria milleri (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Neomammillaria oliviae (see Mammillaria grahamii)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. major (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia bigelovii (see Cylindropuntia bigelovii)

 

Opuntia chlorotica G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Dollarjoint Pricklypear

COMMON NAMES: Dollarjoint Pricklypear, Nopal, Nopal Rastrera, Pancake Pear, Pancake-pear, Pancake Prickly Pear, Pancake Prickly-pear, Silver-dollar Cactus, Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height with a definite trunk to 1 foot in height), the color of the stems has been described as being blue-green or gray-green, the spines and glochids are golden or yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are pale yellow, yellow-green, yellow-orange or yellow with a reddish flush, flowering generally takes place between early April and mid-July (additional records: one for late August and one for mid-September), the ripe fruits are grayish-purple, red or purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; hills; hilltops; rocky hillsides; bouldery-rocky-gravelly and rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; lava flow fields; sandy flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; creek beds; edges of washes; sandy flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery-rocky-gravelly, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 26 (gen.), 27 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 63 (062207), 77, 85 (100907), 91, 119*

 

Opuntia discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii: Cactus Apple

SYNONYMY: Opuntia discata Griffiths, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L.D. Benson & D.L. Walkington. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Prickly Pear, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 20 inches to 6 feet in height and 20 inches to 10 feet or more in diameter, one plant was reported as being 3 feet in height and 4½ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being a dull green, blue-green, gray-green or yellow-green, the spines white with red, the glochids yellow, the flowers pink, reddish-pink or yellow turning to orange or orange-yellow with the flowers opening at about 8 AM and remaining open for one or two days, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for mid-August, one for early September, one for mid-September and one for late December), the fruits are magenta-rose, purple, red or red-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; gullies; along streams; creek beds; along washes; along drainages; benches; flood plains and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and may live to be 30 or more years of age. The juicy fruits (tunas) with edible pulp are fed on by many browsing animals, including Black Bear (Ursus americanus amblyceps), Coyote (Canis latrans mearnsi), Javelina (Peccari tajacu sonoriensis) and Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) among others, and birds. The plant provides cover for many desert animals. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington “This is the largest and, in especially southern Arizona, one of the best-known native prickly pears of the Southwestern Deserts of the United States. It is variable in habit of growth, shape and size of joints, and size and distribution of spines. It is almost always found growing with var. major, which has longer brown spines restricted largely to the upper part of the narrower joint. Almost everywhere there are intergrading forms with many character recombinations. Var. discata is rarely stable but apparently a fringe-population extreme tied in closely with the more abundant and wide-ranging var. major.”), 15, 16 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson - “Rocky slopes and gravelly flats; common; intergrading with O. p. var. major.”), 26 (sp. - Opuntia engelmannii), 27 (color photograph, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (092306), 77 (color photograph #14 labeled Opuntia phaeacantha), 85 (101007), 91 (Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck. (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington) / Opuntia phaeacantha var. major Engelmann - “Both species are sympatric throughout much of their range and often can be found together.”), 119 (sp. - Opuntia discata Griffiths), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Opuntia fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis (see Cylindropuntia leptocaulis) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Stenocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) F. Buxbaum: Organpipe Cactus

SYNONYMY: Cereus thurberi G. Engelmann, Lemaireocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Marismena, Mehuele, Organo, Organ Pipe Cactus, Organ-pipe Cactus, Organpipe Cactus, Pitahaya, Pitahaya Dulce (Sweet Cactus Fruit), Pitayo Dulce (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (stems 5 to 25 feet in height and 5 to 12 or more inches in width with 10 to 20 stems with larger specimens having 40 to 45 stems clustering to 6 to 18 feet in diameter), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellowish, the spines brownish, gray or black, the flowers (2½ to 3 inches in length and  1½ to 2½  inches in width) brownish-green, greenish-white, pale lavender, lavender with white margins, pink, purple, white or white with a pale pink center opening after sunset and closing the following morning, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and mid-June (additional records: one for early March, one for mid-April, one for mid-July and one for late July), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliff ledges; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; ridges; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sandy plains; flats; valleys; coastal bluffs; sandy and powdery coastal plains, and rocky benches in rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, gravelly, sandy and powdery soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is sensitive to frosts. It has been estimated that plants 10 to 15 feet in height may be between 50 and 75 years of age, The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. The flowers are pollinated by bats, including Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae), and bees. The ripe fruits are eaten by ants, bats, Coyotes (Canis latrans mearnsi), Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica). The candy, Pitahaya Dulce, is made by cooking the fruits of the Organ Pipe Cactus with those of Prickly Pear Cacti.*5, 6, 8, 12 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 13 (color photograph, in habitat with associated species Plate D.1), 18, 27 (color photograph and color photograph in habitat (p.93), Cereus thurberi), 28 (color photograph, Cereus thurberi), 45 (color photograph, Stenocereus thurberi), 46 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus thurberi), 53 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 63 (062307), 85 (101107), 91 (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Buxb.), 119 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) B. & R.), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Cattle Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: All-scale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cattle-spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush, Desert Salt-bush, Kokomaki sha’l (Pima), Littleleaf Saltbush, Sage, Sagebrush, Shadscale. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 6½  feet in height, one plant was reported to be a round bush 2 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green, gray-white, silvery or silvery-gray, the flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early September and early November (additional records: two for early January, one for early April, one for late June, one for early August, one for late August and one for late December), the ripe fruits are orange. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; talus slopes; hill tops; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; coastal plains; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; on gravelly-loam and sandy banks; rocky benches; terraces; along lakeshores; margins of playas; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; canal right-of-ways; riparian areas and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and silty loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and is relatively drought resistant. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26 (gen.), 28, 46, 48, 63 (101207), 77, 85 (101207), 91, MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Salsola iberica (see Salsola tragus)

 

Salsola australis (see Salsola tragus)

 

Salsola kali (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola kali subsp. tenuifolia (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia (see footnote 46 under Salsola tragus)

 

Salsola kali subsp. tragus (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus: Prickly Russian Thistle

SYNONYMY: Salsola australis R. Brown, Salsola iberica (f. Sennen & C. Pau) Botsch ex S.K. Czerepanov, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tenuifolia C.H. Moquis-Tandon, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia I.F. Tausch, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) L.J. Čelakovský. COMMON NAMES: Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 6 feet in height), the color of the stems  has been described as being green, grayish-green, purple striped or red, the leaves grayish-green, the inconspicuous flowers (without petals) green, whitish or whitish-green, flowering generally takes place between early May and early November (additional record: one record for early April), the fruit is a reddish top-shaped pod with papery wings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; crater rims; foothills; gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; dunes; plains; gravelly flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; creek beds; sandy river beds; along bouldery and sandy washes; drainages; benches; alluvial terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; around stock tanks; along ditch banks; waste places, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery-cobbly-sandy, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Salsola iberica), 46 (Salsola kali L. and Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia Tausch), 58, 63 (081007), 68 (Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia Tausch, “is a host plant for the sugarbeet leafhopper which carries the virus causing curly top in beets. It is also the source of “blight” in other crop plants such as tomatoes, spinach and beans.”), 77, 80 (Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia is listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant. “Russian thistle is capable of storing up toxic quantities of nitrate, particularly during the flush period of growth. Salsola has also been suspected of causing oxalate poisoning in Australia. ... Large-scale control can best be accomplished through range improvement to replace the thistle with grass.” See text for additional information.), 85 (081007), 101 (color photograph, Salsola iberica Sennen), WTK (August 2007)*

 

 

Family Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Acalypha californica G. Bentham: California Copperleaf

SYNONYMY: Acalypha pringlei S. Watson. COMMON NAMES: California Copperleaf, Copperleaf, Hierba del Cancer, Pringle Three-seeded Mercury. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being green or green and red, the flowers are red, flowering generally takes place between early August and early December (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March, one for mid-March, one for late March and one for late April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; cliffs; buttes; ledges; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly slopes; sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; rocky mounds; flats; basins; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; ravines; along and in rocky and sandy washes; in drainages; banks of arroyos, and along flood plains in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 100 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 13 (Acalypha pringlei S. Wats.), 46 (Acalypha pringlei Wats.), 63 (101207), 85 (101207)*

 

Acalypha pringlei (see Acalypha californica) 

 

Argythamnia neomexicana J. Müller Argoviensis: New Mexico Silverbush

SYNONYMY: Ditaxis neomexicana (J. Müller Argoviensis) F.X. Heller. COMMON NAMES: Common Ditaxis, Ditaxis, New Mexico Ditaxis, New Mexico Silverbush, New Mexico Wild Mercury, Silverbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green or green, the small flowers cream, cream-yellow, green, white or white with a yellow center, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-December, the mature fruits are tan. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; ridge tops; rocky and gravelly-sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly and silty flats; coastal beaches; roadsides; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; rivulets; along creeks; along and in creek beds, river beds; along sandy washes; banks of washes; sandy drainages; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Ditaxis neomexicana (Müll.Arg.) Heller), 58, 63 (071507), 77, 85 (101207)*

 

Chamaesyce S.F. Gray: Sandmat

COMMON NAMES: Sandmat *63 (032307), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Chamaesyce arizonica (G. Engelmann) J.C. Arthur: Arizona Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Euphorbia arizonica G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Euphorbia, Arizona Sandmat, Arizona Spurge, Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 8 inches in height), the foliage is reddish or reddish-purple, the flowers are pinkish, flowering generally takes place between early February and early December (additional record: one for mid-January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; gravelly bases of cliffs; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; boulder fields; plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; sandy arroyos; rocky arroyo beds; sandy seeps; along sandy streams; stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of sandy washes; drainages; swales; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46 (Euphorbia arizonica Engelm.), 58, 63 (060207), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101407), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley: Carrizo Mountain Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (8 to 16 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish, the foliage green or reddish sometimes with white and showy appendages, the flowers pale pink or white, flowering takes place from mid-January and mid-December, the fruits have ringed ridges. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliff sides; talus slopes; rocky canyons; cinder cones; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; ridgecrests; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bluffs; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; crater floors; gravelly flats; valley plains; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; creek beds; along rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky drainages; playas; cobbly edges of washes; sand bars; floodplains; dry charco (stock tank) bottoms; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (101507), 68 (gen.), 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101507), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish: Smallseed Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish var. hirtella P.E. Boissier, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. polycarpa, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. hirtella P.E. Boissier. COMMON NAMES: Desert Spurge, Golondrina, Koapa’im (Yaqui), Smallseed Sandmat, Small-seeded Sand Mat, Smallseed Spurge, Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2¼ inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pink, the herbage green or reddish, the flowers purple, flowering takes place early February and late December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rocky mounds; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; beach dunes; roadsides; arroyos; gravelly-sandy arroyo bottoms; around streams; rocky river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; swales; sand bars; along shores of lakes; sandy bottom lands; margins of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (101507), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (also recorded as Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. typica Wheeler - 101507), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Croton corymbulosus (see Croton pottsii var. pottsii)  

 

Croton pottsii (J.F. Klotzsch) J. Müller Argoviensis (var. pottsii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Leatherweed

SYNONYMY: (Croton corymbulosus G. Engelmann). COMMON NAMES: Leatherweed, Leather Weed Croton. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 40 inches in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height and 80 inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being green or white, flowering generally takes place between early August and early November (additional records: one for early May, two for mid-May and two for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; foothills; hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; flats; roadsides; in washes; benches, and disturbed areas in rocky and gravelly soils and clay soils, occurring from 2,600 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 63 (071807), 85 (101507)*

 

Croton sonorae J. Torrey: Sonoran Croton

COMMON NAMES: Rama Blanca, Sonora Croton, Sonoran Croton, Vera Prieta. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (deciduous) shrub (2 to 7 feet in height, one plant was described as being 4 feet in height and 4 feet in width), the leaves are dark green with orange older leaves, the flowers are whitish, flowering generally takes place between early July and late September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky peaks; rocky hills; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; cobbly plains; rocky arroyos; seeps; in rocky washes; rocky drainages; benches, and disturbed areas in rocky and cobbly soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 13 (Croton sonorae Torrey), 46 (Croton sonorae Torr.), 63 (101507), 85 (101507)*

 

Ditaxis neomexicana (see Argythamnia neomexicana) 

 

Euphorbia sp. (see Chamaesyce sp) 

 

Euphorbia arizonica (see Chamaesyce arizonica)

 

Euphorbia pediculifera (see Chamaesyce pediculifera)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)   

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. typica (see footnote 85 under Chamaesyce polycarpa)

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Sangre de Cristo

COMMON NAMES: Limberbush, Matacora, Nettlespurge, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Sangringada, Torote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (deciduous, semi-succulent) shrub (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being reddish, the leaves shiny green, the small bell-shaped flowers pink, white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and early September (additional records: two for  late September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder fields; gravelly plains; valleys; rocky roadsides; sandy arroyos; cobbly draws; along and in sandy washes; flood plains; riparian areas, and rocky disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils and cobbly-gravelly loam and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 100 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the shiny heart-shaped emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 45 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (060307), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Jatropha are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Seeds of several species of Jatropha are toxic to humans and livestock but no poisoning has been reported from Arizona.”), 85 (101607), 91, MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Jatropha cuneata I.L. Wiggins & R.C. Rollins: Physicnut

COMMON NAMES: Leatherplant, Limber Bush, Limberbush, Matacora, Physicnut, Sange-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Shrubby Limberbush, Tecote Prieto, Torote Amarillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (cold and drought deciduous, semi-succulent) shrub (2 to 9 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pinkish, the leaves dark green, the small tubular flowers white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between July and September (flowering records: one for early January, one for mid-March and one for mid-August), the fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; sandy knolls; amongst rocks in pockets of sand; sand dunes; gravelly plains; sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along and in cobbly-gravelly washes; rocky benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 2,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental; however, it may be killed or killed back to the ground in a severe freeze.. A clear or orange-red sap of the stems and blood-red sap of thee roots reportedly has a fragrance similar to that of citrus. The Shrubby Limberbush may live to be more 55 years of age. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 63 (042907), 80 (Species of the genus Jatropha are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Seeds of several species of Jatropha are toxic to humans and livestock but no poisoning has been reported from Arizona.”), 85 (120407), 91, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Sapium biloculare (see Sebastiania bilocularis)

 

Sebastiania bilocularis S. Watson: Arrow Poison Plant

SYNONYMY: Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) F.A. Pax. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jumping Bean, Arrow Poison Plant, Hierba de la Flecha (Spanish - Herb of the Arrow), Hierba Malla (Hispanic - Bad Herb), Hoyo Kuta (Yaqui), Jumping Bean Sapium, Mago, Mexican Jumping Bean, Yerba de Fleche, Yerba-de-fleche, Yerba Mala. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (7 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 8 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 11 feet in height with a crown 12 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being green or red, the flowers yellowish, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; along canyon bottoms; cliffs; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; flats; valleys; along and in arroyos; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; drainages; water courses, and water holes in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful in restoration projects; however, care must be taken in handling the plant due to the toxic sap. The sap is poisonous and the wind may release sufficient toxin to cause stinging eyes and congested lungs. The male flowers are fragrant. Jerking movements mage within the seed by the larva of a small moth (Cydia deshaisiana) causes the “beans” to “jump”.* 5, 6, 13 (Sapium biloculare Pax), 46 (Sapium biloculare (Wats.) Pax), 53 (Sapium biloculare (S. Wats.) Pax), 63 (060307), 85 (101607), 91 (Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) Pax), 106 (note on the moth, Cydia deshaisiana - 060307), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

 

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Whitethorn Acacia

COMMON NAMES: Chaparo Prieta, Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn, Yellow Cat Claw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (drought and cold) shrub or tree (2 to 18 feet in height and about the same in width, one plant was reported to be 8 feet in height and 8 feet in width) , the spines are white, the small flowers are golden-yellow, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late April and late October (additional records: one for early March and one for early April), the fruits are brown, purple-red or reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy-loamy plains; gravelly flats; along rocky arroyos; arroyo bottoms; creeks; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and silty-clayey washes; sandy banks of washes; sandy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, and silty clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 5,000 feet (infrequently to as low as 500 feet and to as high as 9,200 feet) in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant. Whitethorn Acacia is used for food by the Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus). *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (101607), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant. “The plants are high in cyanide forming-compounds and have been reported to cause death of cattle in Arizona. In general, the plants are not palatable to livestock although the pods are grazed. However, in the fall of the year at or near frost time, when the range grasses become less palatable, cattle may eat heavily of these plants and death is likely to result. ... Animals should be removed from heavily infested areas during the early frost period or considerable death losses may occur.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley). OMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are gray-green or green, the fragrant flowers are cream yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the ripe fruits (twisted seed pods) are brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; basins; valleys; along arroyos; draws; ravines; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; banks of streams; sandy-loamy flood plains; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (“This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the cloths and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (“A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52, 53, 58, 63 (043007), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91*

 

Acacia greggii var. arizonica (see Acacia greggii var. greggii)  

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii: Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley. COMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Catclaw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are green or grey-green, the fragrant flowers are yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the fruits (twisted seed pods) are brownish-red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; rocky slopes; amongst boulders; flats; valleys; edges of arroyos; draws; ravines; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along sandy washes; drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, sp.), 15 (sp.), 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - “This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the clothes and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (sp. - “A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52 (sp.) 53, (sp.) 58, 63 (043007), 77 (sp.), 80 (The species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91 (sp.), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham: Fairyduster

SYNONYMY: Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairy Duster, Fairy-duster, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (4 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being bluish, light gray, whitish or white-gray, the leaves grayish, dark green or red, the flowers cream-white, pink, pink-red, pink-white, red, red and white, reddish-purple or rose, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May (additional records: one for mid-January, one for mid-February, two for late February, seven for early March, one for early June, two for mid-June, one for mid-August, two for late August, one for early September, one for early October, three for mid-October, four for late October, one for early November, two for late November and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knolls; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; interior dunes; plains; gravelly flats; valley bottoms; rocky roadsides; rocky-sandy arroyos; along and in sandy washes; edges of rocky drainages; gravelly terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and as a soil binder. Fairy Duster is browsed by wildlife and found to be highly palatable by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (071907), 58, 77 (color photograph #32), 85 (101707), 86 (color photograph), 91, WTK (August 2007)*

 

Calliandra eriophylla var. eriophylla (see Calliandra eriophylla)

 

Cassia covesii (see Senna covesii) 

 

Cercidium floridum (see Parkinsonia florida)   

 

Cercidium microphyllum (see Parkinsonia microphylla)   

 

Dalea mollis G. Bentham: Hairy Prairie Clover

COMMON NAMES: : Hairy Prairie Clover, Hairy Prairie-clover, Hairy Prairieclover, Silk Dalea, Soft Dalea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2½ to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue-magenta, blue-violet and white, gray, magenta-blue, pink, pink-orange, purple or white with lavender or purple spots, flowering generally takes place between early January and mid-June (additional records: two for early July, two for mid-September, one for mid-October, one for early November and two for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; foothills; sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; lava flows; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo walls; springs, running streams; creeks; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; beaches; sandy shell mounds; riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-silty loam and clayey loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 46, 63 (072007), 85 (101807)*

 

Dalea neomexicana (A. Gray) V.L. Cory (var. neomexicana is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Downy Prairie Clover

COMMON NAMES: Downy Prairie Clover, New Mexico Dalea, New Mexican Indigo Pea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (2 to 4 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being blue-green, the flowers lavender, pink or white, flowering generally takes place between early November and late April (additional records: one for mid-July, one for mid-August, one for late September, one for early October and one for mid-October), the fruit are fuzzy and white. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from ridges; hills; slopes; gravelly roadsides, and gravelly and sandy disturbed areas in gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (101807), 77, 85 (101807)*

 

Hoffmanseggia densiflora (see Hoffmannseggia glauca)  

 

Hoffmannseggia glauca (C.G. de Ortega) I.J. Eifert: Indian Rushpea

SYNONYMY: Hoffmanseggia densiflora G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Camote de Raton (Mouse’s Sweet Potato), Camote-de-raton, Hog Potato, Hog-potato, Hogpotato, Indian-potato, Indian Rushpea, Pignut, Sicklepod Rushpea, Shahd (Pima). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 12 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being golden-yellow, orange and red, yellow, bright yellow with orange or red markings or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; lava beds; plains; sandy flats; valleys; along rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy roadsides; along washes; cienegas; swamps; playas; alluvial terraces; channel bars; flood plains; stock tanks; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and rocky clay and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Hog-potato provides food for quail and Whitetail Deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi). *5, 6, 16, 46 (Hoffmanseggia densiflora Benth.), 63 (072107), 68, 77, 85 (101907), 86 (color photograph), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Hosackia humilis (see Lotus salsuginosus var. brevivexillus) 

 

Hosackia tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lotus rigidus (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene: Shrubby Deervetch

COMMON NAMES: Desert Rock-pea, Shrubby Deervetch, Wiry Lotus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 40 inches in height), the color of the plants has been described as grayish-green or green, the flowers amber, bright orange, yellow or yellow tinged with orange, flowering generally takes place between early January and late June (additional records: one for early November, one for mid-November and two for early December), the ripe pods are brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides; canyons; canyon bottoms; crevices in boulders and rocks; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst boulders, rocks and cobbles; sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; rocky and sandy arroyo bottoms; draws; ravines; around streams; rocky stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; along drainages; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This is the most drought-tolerant Lotus in Arizona. *5, 6, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (062407), 77 (color photograph #79), 85 (101907), 91*

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene (var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil

SYNONYMY: (Hosackia humilis (E.L. Greene) L. Abrams). COMMON NAMES: Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch, Deer-vetch. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellow or white with red tips, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; foothills; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; flats; along arroyos; along creeks; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of rivers; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072107), 77, 85 (102007)*

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley: Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil

SYNONYMY: Hosackia humilis (E.L. Greene) L. Abrams. COMMON NAMES: Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellow or white with red tips, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; foothills; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; flats; along arroyos; along creeks; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of rivers; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072107), 77, 85 (102007)*

 

Lotus strigosus (T. Nuttall) E.L. Greene var. tomentellus P.T. Isely: Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil

SYNONYMY: Hosackia tomentellus (E.L. Greene) L. Abrams, Lotus tomentellus E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Annual Lotus, Desert Deer-vetch, Desert Deervetch, Desert Lotus, Greene’s Desert Deervetch, Hairy Deer Vetch, Hairy Lotus, Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 10 inches in length), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May (additional record: one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; rocky and sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and rocky-gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks, lava fields; sand hills; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; roadsides; springs; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 300 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The foliage may appear to be somewhat succulent. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Lotus tomentellus Greene), 48 (gen.), 63 (060307), 77, 85 (102007)*

 

Lotus tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lupinus arizonicus (S. Watson) S. Watson: Arizona Lupine

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Lupine, Lupino, Zaah Coocta (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 2 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being pale blue, pink-purple, pale purple, reddish-purple or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; buttes; foothills; rocky hillsides; bajadas; boulder outcrops; sand dunes; plains; sandy flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; edges of rivers; lakes shores; beach crests; loamy flood plains, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (102007), 80 (Some, but not all, species of the genus Lupinus are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The lupines contain numerous poisonous alkaloids. They are mostly dangerous to sheep but cattle, goats, horses, hogs and deer have also been poisoned. The seeds and pods are most poisonous but both young and dried plants may be dangerous. However, not all species are poisonous and some may furnish moderately palatable and nutritious forage for sheep. ... Animals will seldom eat a toxic dose if desirable forage is available. Losses can generally be avoided by good range management to improve forage, by keeping animals away from dense lupine patches (particularly in late summer or on the trail), or by grazing with cattle.” See text for additional information.), 85 (102007)*

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh: Bajada Lupine

COMMON NAMES: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 12 inches in height), the color of the stems and leaves has been described as being grayish or gray-green (and woolly), the flowers blue, blue-magenta, blue-purple, lavender-pink, lavender-rose, pink, pink-lavender, purplish, red-purple or white rimed with pink, flowering generally takes place between late February and mid-May (additional record: one for mid-June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; chasms; bases of cliffs; ridges; ridgelines; foothills; rocky hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly and sandy flats; valley plains; sandy roadsides; arroyos; along creeks; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of arroyos, creeks and washes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; rocky clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072307), 77 (color photograph #80), 80 (Some, but not all, species of the genus Lupinus are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The lupines contain numerous poisonous alkaloids. They are mostly dangerous to sheep but cattle, goats, horses, hogs and deer have also been poisoned. The seeds and pods are most poisonous but both young and dried plants may be dangerous. However, not all species are poisonous and some may furnish moderately palatable and nutritious forage for sheep. ... Animals will seldom eat a toxic dose if desirable forage is available. Losses can generally be avoided by good range management to improve forage, by keeping animals away from dense lupine patches (particularly in late summer or on the trail), or by grazing with cattle.” See text for additional information.), 85 (102007)*

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham: Mojave Lupine

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Coulter’s Lupine, Desert Lupine, Lupine, Mojave Lupine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 20 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers blue, blue-lavender, blue-lilac, purple, purplish-blue, violet or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late May (additional records: one for early September, one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; sandy ridges; foothills; hill tops; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy flats; roadsides; along ravines; beside streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along and in creek beds; river beds; along and in sandy washes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils; sandy clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072307), 77 (color photograph #81), 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “The lupines contain numerous poisonous alkaloids. They are mostly dangerous to sheep but cattle, goats, horses, hogs and deer have also been poisoned. The seeds and pods are most poisonous but both young and dried plants may be dangerous. However, not all species are poisonous and some may furnish moderately palatable and nutritious forage for sheep. ... Animals will seldom eat a toxic dose if desirable forage is available. Losses can generally be avoided by good range management to improve forage, by keeping animals away from dense lupine patches (particularly in late summer or on the trail), or by grazing with cattle.” See text for additional information.), 86 (color photograph), 85 (102007)*

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Desert Ironwood

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Ironwood, Comitin, Desert Iron Wood, Desert Ironwood, Ho Id Cam (Pima), Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo-de-hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height and about the same in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish-green, gray or gray-green, the flowers lavender, pink, pink-lavender, purplish, violet, white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for early January and one for early March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; rocky and sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; along bluffs; buttes; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; rocky and sandy arroyos; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of washes; benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). Hummingbirds including the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa spp.) and the Solitary Bee (Centris pallida) have been observed visiting the flowers. The seeds are an important food for the Desert Wood Rat (Neotoma lepida) and other desert animals. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102007), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Jerusalem Thorn

COMMON NAMES: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Horsebean, Jerusalem Thorn, Jerusalem-thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Palo Verde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought (and possibly cold) deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 40 feet in height), the color of the older bark has been described as being brown or gray, the younger bark, branches and twigs green or yellow-green, the leaves green, the flowers orange, yellow, yellow with orange or red spots or golden-yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and late June (additional records: one for late July, two for early August, one for late August, one for mid-September, one for late September, one for mid-October, three for late October, one for early November and one for mid-November) with the bloom generally lasting 3 to 4 weeks, the seedpods are brown and about 2 to 4 inches in length. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; foothills; hills; bajadas; gravelly and sandy alluvial fans; sand hummocks; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; along arroyos; river beds; along sandy washes; banks of rivers; mesquite terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; along drainage ditches; along the banks of canals; irrigation ditches; riparian areas; waste places and disturbed areas in rocky-cobbly, rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: In Arizona, the Jerusalem Thorn is native to the Castle Dome Mountains in Yuma County and the foothills of the Baboquivari, Coyote and Quinlan Mountains in Pima County. The foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife. This plant was observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 58, 63 (081007), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Poisonous Cropland and Garden Plant. “This ornamental shrub or small tree has been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (102107), 91, WTK (August 2007)*

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson: Blue Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium floridum G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Blue Palo-verde, Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 40 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being blue-green, green, yellow or yellow-green, the leaves are blue-green, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for mid-August, two for early September, one for late September, one for early October, one for mid-October, two for late October and three for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky and sandy hills; bajadas; rocky slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; flats; valley bottoms; along roadsides; gravelly arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; seeps; stream beds; along rivers; along river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky and sandy banks of washes; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; fence rows; stock tanks; canal banks; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it has a very showy display of yellow flowers in March or April. The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents and used by Bruchid Beetles. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate S.2 - Cercidium floridum Bentham), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 46 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum Benth. ex Gray), 53 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 58, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey: Yellow Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Dipua, Foothill Palo Verde, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Littleleaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Little-leaf Palo Verde, Little-leaf Palo-verde, Littleleaf Palo Verde, Littleleaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Palo-verde, Paloverde, Yellow-Palo-verde, Yellow Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 26 feet in height), the bark is green or yellow-green, the leaves are green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; buttes; ledges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-silty bajadas; boulder fields; boulder and rock outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valley bottoms; rocky roadsides; arroyos; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; gravelly terraces; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Foothill Paloverde is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate T.1 - Cercidium microphyllum), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 46 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnston), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnst), 53 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnst.), 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnston), MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Phaseolus filiformis G. Bentham: Slimjim Bean

SYNONYMY: Phaseolus wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Bean, Slimjim Bean, Wright Bean, Wright’s Limabean. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or (trailing) vine (2 to 7 feet in length), the leaves are gray-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being bluish, magenta, pink, purple, reddish, rose or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May and between early August and mid-December, the fruits are green pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; gravelly talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and pebbles; lava flows; dunes; sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; springs; gravelly washes; strands; shore lines; edges of wet tanks; water holes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas, sometimes in the shade of trees in bouldery, rocky, pebbly, pebbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly-sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph - Phaseolus wrightii), 46 (Phaseolus wrightii Gray - “All of the native beans (Phaseolus spp.) improve the soil, make a good ground cover, and provide excellent forage for livestock.”), 48 (gen.), 63 (060407), 77, 85 (102107)*

 

Phaseolus wrightii (see Phaseolus filiformis)   

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey var. glandulosa: Honey Mesquite

SYNONYMY: Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. glandulosa (J. Torrey) T.D. Cockerell. COMMON NAMES: Common Mesquite, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mizquitl. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (4 to 30 feet in height), the flowers are cream-yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and late June (additional records: two for mid-July and one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; plains; sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; along streams; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in washes; bottom lands; flood plains, and stock tanks in rocky and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, maturity may be reached at three years of age, the Honey Mesquite may live to be 100 years in age. The Costa’s hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers, this plant provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (sp. - Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC.), 52 (color photograph of species, sp.), 53 (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), 63 (123007), 85 (010408), 101 (color photograph of species, sp.)*

 

Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa (see Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) 

 

Prosopis juliflora var. velutina (see Prosopis velutina)  

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton: Velvet Mesquite

SYNONYMY: Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent. COMMON NAMES: Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 56 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 6½ feet in height with a canopy 6½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a canopy 16½ feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream-yellow, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late August (additional records: one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; rocky plains; gravelly flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; playa lake beds; banks of creeks; benches; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; around reservoirs; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than several hundred years of age. The Velvet Mesquite is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert water courses have been lost to fuel wood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields and commercial and residential development. The plant is a food source for quail, Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) and Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Coyotes (Canis latrans), Round-tailed Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus), Desert Cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and other wild animals feed on the seed pods. Velvet Mesquite is the host for a Drywood Termite (Incisitermes banksi). Bruchid Beetles feed on the fruits and seeds. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph - Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 48, 52 (color photograph), 53 (sp. - Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), 58, 63 (050107), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Heavy, long-continued consumption of pods and leaves of these common desert shrubs may cause rumen impaction and poisoning.”), 85 (102107), 91, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby: Coves’ Cassia

SYNONYMY: Cassia covesii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Coves Cassia, Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Kau Ohasen (Yaqui), Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 2 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers orange-yellow, rusty-yellow, yellow or yellow with reddish veins, flowering generally takes place between early March and late September (additional records: one for mid-February, one for mid-October, two for late October, two for early November, one for mid-November, one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky-sandy ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and silty flats; gravelly-sandy and sandy roadsides; arroyo bottoms; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; gravelly drainages; benches; gravel bars; mesquite bosques; sandy-loamy and silty flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Cove Cassia is a larval food plant for the Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae) and Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe) and is used for food by Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii gambelii). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Cassia covesii), 46 (Cassia covesii Gray), 63 (062407), 68, 77, 82, 85 (102207), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)

 

 

Family Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Ocotillo

SYNONYMY: Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens G. Engelmann [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Albarda, Barda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candlewood, Coach-whip, Coachwhip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought and cold deciduous moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 5 to 100 wand-like stems branching from the base to 5 to 33 feet in height with a crown width of 5 to 10 feet), the stems are gray or gray and green, the leaves are green, the color of the flowers has been described as being coral-red, orange, red, red-orange, salmon or scarlet in 2 to 10 inch long clusters that appear at the tips of the stems, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for late June, two for early July, one for mid-July, one for early August, two for mid-September, one for late September, one for mid-October, two for late October, one for early November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; crags; canyon rims; rocky canyons; crevices in rocks; gravelly ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; gravelly and gravelly-sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; arroyos, and terraces in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older plants may be 150 to 200 years in age. This “vase-shaped” plant has been described by Benson and Darrow as being “one of the most distinctive shrubs in the Southwestern Deserts, and it is one of the plants giving outstanding character to the flora of the region”. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Butterflies, Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Finches, Orioles, Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), Solitary Bees, Syrphid Flies, Verdins, and Warblers have been observed visiting the flowers. The Ocotillo is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photographs Plate N), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (102207), 77 (color photograph #27), 85 (102207), 86 (color photograph), 91, 107, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens (Fouquieria splendens)

 

 

Family Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Emmenanthe penduliflora G. Bentham (var. penduliflora is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Whisperingbells

COMMON NAMES: Golden Bells, Yellow Bells, Yellow Whispering-bells, Whispering Bells, Whispering-bells, Whisperingbells. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the bell-shaped or cup-like flowers cream, cream-yellow, lemon-yellow or pale yellow fading to white, flowering generally takes place between late January and early June (additional record: one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; gravelly canyon floors; ridges; foothills; gravelly hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and sandy slopes; roadsides; arroyos; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; creeks; creek beds; rivers; rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; sandy riparian areas, and gravelly disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,100 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (102207), 85 (102207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene (var. bipinnatifida (J. Torrey) L. Constance is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Spotted Hideseed

COMMON NAMES: Common Eucrypta, Spotted Hideseed, Torrey Eucrypta. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 9 inches in height) the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, pale purple, white or white-blue, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; shaded bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; arroyos; springs; around seeping streams; along creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky-sandy and sandy washes; benches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (072507), 77, 85 (102207)*

 

Eucrypta micrantha (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Dainty Desert Hideseed

COMMON NAMES: Dainty Desert Hideseed, Peluda, Small-flower Eucrypta, Smallflower Eucrypta, Small-flowered Eucrypta. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual (may appear to be vining) forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the cup-shaped flowers blue, pale lavender, blue-magenta, blue-purple, purplish, reddish-purple with a yellow throat or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; rocky arroyos; along streams; along rivers; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; sandy depressions; banks of rivers; sand bars; benches, and riparian areas often in the shade of shrubs and trees in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (072507), 77, 85 (102207)*

 

Nama demissum A. Gray (var. demissum is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Purplemat

SYNONYMY: (Nama demissum A. Gray var. deserti A. Brand). COMMON NAMES: Leafy Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Purplemat, Purple Nama. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (½ to 3 inches in height, stems may trail to 8 inches in length), the color of the bell-shaped flowers has been described as being magenta with a yellow throat, purplish, red-purple, rose or rose-purple, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly talus slopes; hills; rocky hillsides; gravelly slopes; sand dunes; desert plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; marshes; gravelly and sandy banks; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas and disturbed in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 200 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Nama demissum Gray var. deserti Brand), 63 (060407), 77, 85 (102207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Nama demissum var. deserti (see Nama demissum var. demissum)

 

Phacelia ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia ambigua var. ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia bombycina E.O. Wooten & P.C. Standley: Mangas Spring Phacelia

COMMON NAMES: Mangas Spring Phacelia, Mangus Spring Scorpion-weed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 20 inches in height), the flower color has been reported to be light blue or purple, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid- June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; chalky talus slopes; canyons; sandy and clayey ridges; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; in the shade of large boulders; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; arroyos; gulches; ravines; creeks; river beds; sandy washes; edges of flowing streams, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, gravelly, sandy and chalky soils; clayey loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,600 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46 (genus, no entry for this species), 63 (060407), 85 (102207)*

 

Phacelia caerulea E.L. Greene: Skyblue Phacelia

SYNONYMY: Phacelia coerulea E.L. Greene [orthographic variant]. COMMON NAMES: Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Weed, Skyblue Phacelia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 20 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, lavender, lavender-white, purple, violet or whitish, flowering generally takes place between late February and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus slopes; knolls; rocky ridges, ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly slopes; amongst rocks; gravelly flats; valley floors; gravelly roadsides; rocky arroyos; along streams; river beds; along sandy washes; sandy-loamy terraces; flood plains, and sandy riparian areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 63 (072607), 77, 85 (102207)*

 

Phacelia coerulea (see Phacelia caerulea)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Cleftleaf Wildheliotrope

COMMON NAMES: Caterpillar Weed, Cleftleaf Wildheliotrope, Common Phacelia, Desert Heliotrope, Scalloped Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the bell-shaped flowers blue, blue-lavender, blue-magenta, blue-purple, cream-white, indigo-purple, lavender-blue-purple, lavender-purple, magenta-lavender, purple, purple-blue, rose-purple, violet, violet-purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and mid-June (additional records: one for early July, one for early September and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; cinder cones; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; ledges; rocky and clayey ridges; ridge tops; buttes; foothills; hills; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly hillsides; knolls; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky alluvial fans; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; sand dunes; plains; gravelly, sandy and loamy flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; draws; gulches; along creeks; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks; sandy beaches; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clayey loam and loam soils; sandy slay and clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (072507), 77, 80 (Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata and Phacelia pedicellata) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “These annual forbs have caused liver damage in horses, hogs and cattle. Also their glandular hairs may cause severe dermatitis to susceptible persons.”), 85 (102307)*

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. ambigua (M.E. Jones) J.F. Macbride: Purplestem Phacelia

SYNONYMY: Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones, Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones var. ambigua M.E. Jones. COMMON NAMES: Caterpillar Weed, Caterpillar-weed, Notch-leaf Phacelia, Notch-leaved Phacelia, Phacelia, Purplestem Phacelia, Purplestem Scorpionweed, Scorpion-weed, Wild Heliotrope, Wild-heliotrope, Ytamoosh-oohit (Desert Tortoise Food). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, lavender, purple or violet, flowering generally takes place between early January and early June (additional records: one for early September and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; ledges; ridges; foothills; hills; rocky-gravelly and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas, amongst rocks; plains; gravelly, sandy and loamy flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; draws; gulches; sandy river beds; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks; benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph, sp.), 46, 63 (060407), 80 (Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata and Phacelia pedicellata) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “These annual forbs have caused liver damage in horses, hogs and cattle. Also their glandular hairs may cause severe dermatitis to susceptible persons.”), 85 (102307)*

 

Phacelia distans G. Bentham: Distant Phacelia

SYNONYMY: Phacelia distans G. Bentham var. australis A. Brand. COMMON NAMES: Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Phacelia, Distant Phacelia, Fern-leaf Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild Heliotrope. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-lavender, blue-lavender-purple, blue-pink, blue-purple, lavender, lavender-pink, purple or violet-blue, flowering generally takes place between late January and early June (additional records: one for late July, one for early September and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and rocky-silty canyons; chasms; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valley floors; coastal plains; roadsides; along creeks; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loam soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (102307), 77 (color photograph 29), 85 (102307), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Phacelia distans var. australis (see Phacelia distans) 

 

 

Family Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow ex J.A. Schultes: Littleleaf Ratany

SYNONYMY: Krameria parviflora G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (8 to 40 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being blue-gray-green, gray, gray-green, gray-red or greenish, the flowers burgundy, lavender-purple, magenta, maroon, maroon-magenta, pink, purple, purple-red, red-purple,  or rose-pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late November (additional record: one for early January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; sandy mesas; along cliffs; buttes; ledges; rocky-gravelly ridges; ridge tops; rocky ridge faces; foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky and rocky-sandy hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava flows; rock outcrops; boulder fields; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly plains; gravelly flats; valleys; arroyos; in rocky-gravelly and sandy washes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 400 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) and Whitetail Deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Krameria parviflora Benth.), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072607), 77 (color photograph #30), 85 (102407)*

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: White Ratany

COMMON NAMES: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height and to 5 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 2 feet in height with a crown 30 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-gray, the flowers lavender, magenta, maroon, pinkish-purple, purple or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June and between early September and late November (additional records: one for mid-August and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; gravelly-sandy hills; hill tops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly and sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valleys; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; benches; terraces; bottom lands; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,600 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. White Ratany is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (050307), 77, 85 (102407), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Krameria parviflora (see Krameria erecta)  

 

 

Family Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Hedeoma nana (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet: Dwarf False Pennyroyal

COMMON NAMES: Dwarf False Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Low Hedeoma, Mock-pennyroyal, Oregano. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height, one plant was reported to be 9 inches in height and 12 inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being albino, blue, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-pink, magenta-purple, pink, purple, purple-blue, white or whitish lavender, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly flats; valley floors; springs; arroyos; along streams; along creeks; rocky creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; bouldery drainages; banks of streams; flood plains; riparian areas and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, pebbly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 600 to 7,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The crushed herbage is very aromatic. *5, 6, 15, 46 (Hedeoma nanum (Torr.) Briq.), 63 (072707), 77, 85 (102407)*

 

Hedeoma nanum (see footnote 46 under Hedeoma nana)

 

Hyptis emoryi J. Torrey: Desert Lavender

COMMON NAMES: Bee Sage, Desert Lavender, Desert-lavender, Lavender, Mariola (Yaqui), Salvia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (8 inches to 15 feet in height and to 8 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green, grayish-white or green-gray, the flowers blue, blue-lavender, bluish-purple, lavender, purple, violet or violet-blue, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early June and between early September and mid-December (additional records: one for early July, one for mid-July and two for mid-August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; along rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; buttes; ledges; rocky and gravelly ridges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; alluvial plains, bajadas; flats; rocky arroyos; arroyo bottoms; troughs; along stream beds; by creeks; along and in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; in rocky drainages; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, but is sensitive to frosts. The foliage is fragrant, having the odor of lavender or turpentine. Native bees and hummingbirds visit the flowers and the seeds provide food for wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (072807), 77 (color photograph #31), 85 (102407), 91, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham (var. columbariae is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Chia

COMMON NAMES: California Chia, California Sage, Chia, Desert Chia, Desert Sage. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, bluish-purple or purple, flowering generally takes place between late January and early May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for mid-August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ridges; hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; creek beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; rocky clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (072807), 77, 85 (102407), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Watson: Whitebract Blazingstar

COMMON NAMES: Bracted Blazing Star, Desert Blazing Star, Sand Blazing Star, Blazing Star, Whitebract Blazingstar, Whitebract Stickleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as cream, cream-yellow, white, yellow or yellow with orange veins, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly talus slopes; cracks in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; lava fields; plains; desert flats; along rivers; sandy washes; rocky and gravelly banks of washes; beaches, and terraces in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (072807), 85 (102507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Slender Janusia

COMMON NAMES: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or (twining) vine (18 inches to 10 feet in length, one plant was reported to have been 16 inches in height with a 10 inch crown), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-November (additional records: two for early January, one for late January, one for mid-December and one for late December), the winged fruits are purple-red or reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; gravelly ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly bajadas; volcanic plugs; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly flats; rocky arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gullies; along streams; rocky stream beds; along creeks; in sandy washes; drainages; banks of streams; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Slender Janusia is a food plant of the Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi), Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus subsp. crooki) and Whitetail Deer (Odocoileus virginianus subsp. couesi). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (050507), 77 (color photograph #83), 85 (102507), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

 

Family Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon P. Miller: Indian Mallow

COMMON NAME: Indian Mallow. *63 (032807), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Abutilon parvulum A. Gray: Dwarf Indian Mallow

COMMON NAMES: Indian Mallow, Dwarf Indian Mallow, Small Leaf Indian Mallow, Small-leaved Abutilon. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 24 inches in height; one plant was described as being 12 inches in height and 20 inches in width; sometimes prostrate), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers golden, orange, orange-peach, orange-red, orange-salmon, orange-yellow, orange-yellow-brown, salmon, golden yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between early April and late October (additional records: one for mid-March and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon walls; crevices in rocks; ledges; ridges; foothills; hills; gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; gulches; creeks; along rocky and gravelly washes; gravelly terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,500 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations.*5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (072907), 77, 85 (102507)*

 

Hibiscus coulteri W.H. Harvey ex A. Gray: Desert Rosemallow

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Hibiscus, Desert Rosemallow, Pelotazo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 inches to 7 feet in height; one plant was described as being 18 inches in height with a 6 inch crown), the color of the foliage has been described as being green, dark green with reddish margins or green-purple, the flowers lemon, lemon-yellow, yellow, yellow with purple or red veins at base or white with pink coloration, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May and between late July and late December (additional record: one for mid-February. It has been reported that flowering may take place throughout the year; however, flower buds may be killed by frosts.). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky canyons; canyon walls; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; along rocky and sandy arroyos; gulches; along rocky and sandy washes; cobbly drainages, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky-clayey loam and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (072907), 58, 77, 85 (102507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Malva parviflora C. Linnaeus: Cheeseweed Mallow

COMMON NAMES: Cheeseweed, Cheeseweed Mallow, Little Mallow, Malva, Small-flowered Malva, Malva Loca, Small-whorl Mallow. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (5 inches to 4 feet in height and to 3 feet in width), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, pale lavender, pinkish, purple, white or white with a lavender-pink fringe (the petals about ¼ inch in length), flowering generally takes place between early February and late May (additional records: one for mid-June, one for late July, one for late August, and one for late September, it has been reported that flowering may take place throughout the year.). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; meadows; hillsides; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; springs; along streams; along creek beds; along sandy washes; cobbly-sandy and sandy drainages, around ponds; around lakes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in cobbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Very similar to Common Mallow (Malva neglecta C.F. Wallroth) which has spreading or nearly prostrate stem, flower petals that are 1/3 to 2/3 inches in length and curled lobes on the fruit. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (050507), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant, “Consumption of large amounts of this common introduced annual forb within a few days has caused death in livestock.”), 85 (102507), 101 (note), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Malvastrum bicuspidatum (S. Watson) J.N. Rose: Shrubby False Mallow

COMMON NAMES: Malva Peluda, Mexican Shrub Mallow, Shrubby False Mallow, Tachi. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (20 inches to 7 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; coastal plains; arroyos, and disturbed areas in rocky soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 8, 13, 46, 63 (072907), 77, 85 (102507)*

 

Sphaeralcea A.F. Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire: Globemallow  

COMMON NAME: Globemallow. *63 (032807), WTK (June 2005)*

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (S. Watson) A. Gray: Coulter’s Globemallow

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Globemallow, Coulter’s Globe-mallow, Coulter’s Globemallow, Sevoa’ara (Yaqui). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 60 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being light blue, orange, pinkish, reddish-apricot or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one for early January, two for mid-January, one for late May, one for early June, two for late August, one for mid-September, one for early November, two for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky sides of buttes; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; alluvial slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy desert plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; rocky and sandy roadsides; river beds; along sandy washes; sandy banks; silty swales; mesquite bosques; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (112407), 68 (gen.), 77, 85 (also recorded as Sphaeralcea coulteri var. coulteri S. Wats. - 112407), 86*

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri var. coulteri (see footnote 85 under Sphaeralcea coulteri)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow

COMMON NAMES: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 28 inches in height and to 40 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being light green, gray or gray-green, the flowers bluish-pink, orange, orange-pink, peach-orange, pink-orange, red or red-orange with dark purple anthers, flowering generally takes place between early February and late November (additional record: one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-gravelly mesas; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; rims of craters; rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; hill tops; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks and gravel; sandy and sandy-loamy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; basins; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; sandy arroyos; draws; springs; along sandy washes; along edges of stream beds; banks of rivers; gravel bars; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and silty clay soils, occurring from 1,600 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. It is often found on caliche and limestone soils. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (072907), 68, 77 (color photograph #40), 85 (102507)*

 

 

Family Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Trailing Windmills

COMMON NAMES: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 inches in height and with trailing stems 6 inches to 10 feet in length), the color of the sticky foliage has been described as being gray-green or green above and silvery beneath, the flowers blue, fuchsia; lavender, lavender-rose, magenta-pink, magenta-rose, pink, pink-lavender, pink-purple, purple, reddish-purple, rose, rose-pink, violet-magenta or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; lava hills; lava flows; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; gravelly-sandy valleys; rocky and gravelly roadsides; rocky-gravelly-sandy and sandy arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; along river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy benches; terraces; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; gravelly-sandy riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, cindery; gravely, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky-gravelly loam and gravelly loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (102607), 68, 77 (color photographs #41 and #86), 85 (102607), 86 (color photograph), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Boerhavia C. Linnaeus: Spiderling

COMMON NAME: Spiderling. *63 (032807), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Mirabilis bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa) 

 

Mirabilis bigelovii var. bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa)

 

Mirabilis laevis (G. Bentham) M.C. Curran var. villosa (A. Kellogg) R.W. Spellenberg: Wishbone-bush

SYNONYMY: Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray, Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray var. bigelovii A. Gray [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Bigelow Four O’clock, Desert Wishbone Bush, Desert, Wishbone Bush, Wishbone-bush, Wishbonebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (24 to 32 inches in height), the color of the kidney-shaped leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers cream-white, lavender, pink, white or whitish-cream, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-May (additional records: one for early June, one for late June,  one for mid-August,  one for late August, one for early September, one for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, seven for late October, two for mid-November, three for late November and two for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; scree; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; meadows; rocky hills; hillsides; bouldery-rocky, rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; flats; gravelly-sandy valley floors; along arroyos; springs; rocky-sandy stream beds; along gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky drainages; riparian areas and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 500 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The herbage is reportedly very sticky. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph - Mirabilis bigelovii), 46 (Mirabilis bigelovii Gray), 63 (102607), 77 (color photograph #44 - labeled Mirabilis bigelovii), 85 (102607)*

 

 

Family Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Forestiera phillyreoides (see Forestiera shrevei) 

 

Forestiera shrevei P.C. Standley: Desert Olive

SYNONYMY: Forestera phillyreoides (G. Bentham) J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Desert Olive, Desert-olive Forestiera, Forestiera, Palo de Tucublate, Shreve Desert Olive, Sonoran Desert Olive, Tanglebrush, Tanglebush, Wild Olive, Wild-olive; Twinberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous to nearly evergreen shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height), the leaves are green, the flowers are greenish, flowering generally takes place between late December and early March (additional records: one for mid-April and one for early November), the egg-shaped fruits are purplish-black when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; clefts in cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; canyon bottoms; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; arroyos; at streams; along washes, and riparian areas in bouldery and rocky soils, occurring from 1,300 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28 (color photograph), 30, 46 (Forestera phillyreoides (Benth.) Torr.), 52 (Forestera phillyreoides), 53 (Forestera phillyreoides (Benth.) Torr.), 58, 63 (073007), 77, 85 (102707)*

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray: Rough Menodora

SYNONYMY: Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit, Yellow Menodora. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 4 feet in height), the stems are green-yellow, the leaves are grayish-green or green, the flowers are white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-October (additional records: one for early November and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; buttes, boulder crags; rocky-sandy ridges; ridge tops; meadows; foothills; talus hills; clayey hills; gravelly hill tops; rocky and gravelly-clay hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; gravelly and sandy flats; gravelly roadsides; springs; along sandy washes; drainages; benches, and riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, sandy-clayey loam and clay loam soils, and gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 1,100 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Rough Menodora is an important browse plant for wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (073007), 77, 85 (102707), 86 (color photograph), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Menodora scoparia (see Menodora scabra) 

 

 

Family Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Camissonia brevipes (A. Gray) J.E. Raven subsp. brevipes: Golden Suncup

SYNONYMY: Oenothera brevipes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Primrose, Golden Suncup, Hierba del Golpe, Sundrop, Yellow Cups. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 30 inches in height), the basal rosette of leaves are gray-green, the flowers are bright lemon yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late May (additional records: one for mid-January, one for mid-June and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon rims; scree; rocky and gravelly talus slopes; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; sandy plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; along ravines; in sandy washes; sandy banks; shorelines in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers open at sunrise. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph, Oenothera brevipes), 46 (Oenothera brevipes Gray), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (102707), 85 (102707), 86 (color photograph, Oenothera brevipes)*

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven: California Suncup

SYNONYMY: Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening Primrose, Mustard Evening-primrose, Sun-drops. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), the flowers are orange-yellow, white or bright yellow fading reddish, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June (additional records: one for late July and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; along canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky chutes; rocky and rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; creosote flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; draws; along creeks; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Oenothera leptocarpa Greene), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 58, 63 (062507), 77 (color photograph #46), 85 (101707)*

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven: Longcapsule Suncup

SYNONYMY: Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height), the color of the plants has been described as being reddish with stems being pink or red and leaves being either green with red spots or green tipped with red, purple or red, the flowers cream, pink, purple, white, white-cream, white-pink, whitish-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; cracks in rocks; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rock walls; gravelly flats; rocky draws; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; banks and cobbly edges of washes; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Oenothera chamaeneriodes Gray), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (073107), 77, 85 (102807)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven: Browneyes

COMMON NAMES: Brown-eyed Primrose, Browneyes, Clavate-fruited Primrose, Evening Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height), the color of the leaves in the basal rosette has been described as being green with purple spots, the flowers pink, purplish, white fading to pink or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late December and late May (additional records: one for early September and one for early December), the fruits are cup-shaped. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; sandy canyons; gravelly talus slopes; rocky hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly-loamy bajadas; lava fields; lava flows; sand hills; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; gravelly and sandy roadsides; sandy draws; sandy stream beds; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along sandy banks and edges of washes and drainages; gravelly depressions; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and powdery silty soils, occurring from 100 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46 (recorded as: Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém., Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém. var. aurantiaca (Wats.) Munz, Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém. var. peeblesii Munz and Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém. var. peirsonii Munz), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (102807), 85 (102807)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. peeblesii (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven: Peebles’ Browneyes

SYNONYMY: Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. peeblesii P.A. Munz. COMMON NAMES: Browneyes, Peeble Browneyes, Peebles’ Browneyes. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being creamy, creamy-white, creamy-yellow, pink, white, white with pink spots or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between late December and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; sandy canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways, gravelly roadsides; sandy draws; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly depressions; along banks of drainages; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-clayey loam, clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém. var. peeblesii Munz), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (102807), 85 (102807)*

 

Camissonia refracta (S. Watson) J.E. Raven: Narrowleaf Suncup

SYNONYMY: Oenothera refracta S. Watson. COMMON NAMES: Narrowleaf Suncup, Narrow-leaved Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, white or white-cream, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky and gravelly talus slopes; gravelly hills; hillsides; gravelly slopes; bajadas; on boulders and gravels; desert plains; gravelly flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; creeks; rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; edges of washes; sandy banks; cobbly-sandy benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from 300 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 46 (Oenothera refracta Wats.), 48 (gen.), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (080207), 85 (102807)*

 

Eulobus californicus (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.L. Wagner: California Evening Primrose

SYNONYMY: Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.E. Klein, Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. arizonica P.A. Munz. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Primrose, California Evening Primrose, California Evening-primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height with stems 4 to 40 inches in length), the flowers are white (fading to a pale pink), flowering generally takes place between early February and early July. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky ridges; sand dunes; sandy and clayey flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; along rivers; in sandy river beds; washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. The White-lined Sphinx Moth (Hyles lineata) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46 (Oenothera deltoides Torr. & Frém. var. arizonica Munz), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (010608), 85 (010608)*

 

Oenothera brevipes (see Camissonia brevipes subsp. brevipes) 

 

Oenothera californica (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera californica subsp. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)   

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes (see Camissonia chamaenerioides) 

 

Oenothera clavaeformis (see footnote 46 under Camissonia claviformis)

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. peeblesii (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. peeblesii)

 

Oenothera deltoides var. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)

 

Oenothera leptocarpa (Camissonia californica)

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray: Desert Evening-primrose

COMMON NAMES: Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (prostrate, cespitose 2 to 8 inches in height), the basal rosette of leaves are green with purple blotches or greenish-gray, the flowers are cream, white or yellow fading to pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early May (additional records: one for mid-August and one for late August), the fruits are tear-drop shaped. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; silty hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand dunes; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; along draws; along creeks; creek beds; along sandy washes; swales; sandy banks; playas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; bouldery-silty-clayey loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers open in the evening and close the following morning. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 58, 63 (080207), 77, 85 (102807)*

 

Oenothera refracta (see Camissonia refracta)   

 

 

Family Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago fastigiata (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago insularis (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago insularis var. fastigiata (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago ovata P. Forsskal: Desert Indianwheat

SYNONYMY: Plantago fastigiata J. Morris, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood var. fastigiata (J. Morris) W.L. Jepson. COMMON NAMES: Blond Psyllium, Desert Indian-wheat, Indianwheat, Fleaseed, Fleawort, Indian Wheat, Muumshum (Gila River Pima), Psyllium. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green, the flowers are cream, tan with reddish-brown mid-stripes or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for early January, four for mid-January, one early July, one for early August, one for early September, one for mid-November, two records for mid-December and two records for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; talus slopes; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; lava flows; sand dunes; ridges on sand dune; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; rocky embankments; roadsides; seeps; along rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams; gravelly and sandy river terraces; sandy shores; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Plantago insularis Eastw.), 48 (gen.), 63 (080207), 77, 85 (102907)*

 

Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin: Woolly Plantain

SYNONYMY: Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin var. gnaphaloides (T. Nuttall) A. Gray, Plantago purshii J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes. COMMON NAMES: Bristle Bract Plantain, Hierba del Pastor (Hispanic), Indian Wheat, Pastora, Pursh Indian Wheat, Pursh Plantain, Woolly Plantain. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers buff with a brownish tinge toward the center, cream or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional records: one for mid-July, two for late July, one for late August and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; gravelly mesas; cliffs; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; chasms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; sandy hills; hilltops; hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sandy and loamy plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; draws; around springs; along streams; stream beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy banks; gravelly and sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; gravelly and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; loam soils, and rocky clay and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 8,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph, Plantago purshii), 30, 46 (Plantago purshii Roem. & Schult.), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (062607), 77 (color photograph #89), 85 (102907), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Plantago patagonica var. gnaphaloides (see Plantago patagonica)

 

Plantago purshii (see Plantago patagonica)

 

 

Family Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) H.L. Mason: Miniature Woollystar

COMMON NAMES: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 8 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-lavender, blue with white throats, blue-yellow, lavender with dark purple stripes, light purple or pale white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional record: one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; buttes; sandy ridges; bouldery and rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; sandy arroyos; sandy river beds; along stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky-sandy and gravelly drainages; among clumps of grasses at the edges of arroyos; banks of rivers; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy clay soils, occurring from 700 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (060707), 77 (color photograph #49), 85 (102907)*

 

Gilia stellata A.A. Heller: Star Gilia

COMMON NAMES: Star Gilia, Star Gily-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb  (3 to 16 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue and yellow, blue with white throats, blue with yellow eyes, blue-lavender, blue-pink-lavender, lavender, lavender-pink, lavender with dark purple stripes, purple, pale violet, white or white-lavender, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky cliffs; along canyons; canyon bottoms; gorges; sandy ridges; hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky; gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; gravelly flats; valleys; rocky and gravelly roadsides; sandy arroyos; springs; stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along and in gravelly drainages; banks of washes; gravelly benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam, clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy clay soils, occurring from 400 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are rank smelling. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46 (Supplement), 63 (050507), 77, 85 (102907)*

 

Langloisia setosissima (J. Torrey & A. Gray ex J. Torrey) E.L. Greene (subsp. setosissima is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Great Basin Langloisia

COMMON NAMES: Bristly Langloisia, Great Basin Langloisia, Moth Langloisia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 4 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, light purple or white, flowering generally takes place between late February and early June (additional record: one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; gravelly talus slopes; buttes; ridge tops; ridgelines; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; knolls; bajadas; rock outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; gravel bars; shorelines; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces; flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam soils, and silty clay soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (080307), 85 (103007)*

 

Langloisia setosissima (J. Torrey & A. Gray ex J. Torrey) E.L. Greene subsp. setosissima: Great Basin Langloisia

COMMON NAMES: Bristly Langloisia, Great Basin Langloisia, Moth Langloisia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 4 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, light purple or white, flowering generally takes place between late February and early June (additional record: one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; gravelly talus slopes; buttes; ridge tops; ridgelines; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; knolls; bajadas; rock outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; gravel bars; shorelines; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces; flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clay loam soils, and silty clay soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (sp.), 63 (080307), 85 (103007)*

 

 

Family Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey (var. brevicornu is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Brittle Spineflower

COMMON NAMES: Brittle Spine Flower, Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height) the color of the basal rosette of leaves has been described as being maroon, reddish or yellow-green, the small inconspicuous flowers green (sepals only, no petals) white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; lava flows; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; banks of rivers; gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and silty loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (080407), 77, 85 (103007)*

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey var. brevicornu: Brittle Spineflower

COMMON NAMES: Brittle Spine Flower, Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height) the color of the basal rosette of leaves has been described as being maroon, reddish or yellow-green, the small inconspicuous flowers green (sepals only, no petals) white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; lava flows; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; banks of rivers; gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and silty loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (080407), 77, 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum clutei (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey (var. deflexum is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Flatcrown Buckwheat

SYNONYMY: (Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg, Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. turbinatum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal). COMMON NAMES: Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton-weed, Skeletonweed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being blue-gray, gray-green, green or purple-red, the leaves (basal rosette) blue-gray, gray-green or green, the small flowers cream, pink, pink-white, white or white with pink mid-stripes, flowering takes place between early February and late December (additional records: three for mid-January), the fruits may be bright pink. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky sides of buttes; ridgelines; foothills; talus hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, cindery, sandy and clayey slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; gravelly roadsides; sandy arroyos; gravelly ravines; creek beds; gravelly river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; sand bars; cobbly and sandy debris fans; sandy bottom lands; roadside ditches; along canal banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and gravelly loam soils, and sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from 200 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (080407), 68, 77, 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. deflexum: Flatcrown Buckwheat

SYNONYMY: Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg, Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. turbinatum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal. COMMON NAMES: Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton-weed, Skeletonweed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being blue-gray, gray-green, green or purple-red, the leaves (basal rosette) blue-gray, gray-green or green, the small flowers cream, pink, pink-white, white or white with pink mid-stripes, flowering takes place between early February and late December (additional records: three for mid-January), the fruits may be bright pink. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky sides of buttes; ridgelines; foothills; talus hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, cindery, sandy and clayey slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; gravelly roadsides; sandy arroyos; gravelly ravines; creek beds; gravelly river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; sand bars; cobbly and sandy debris fans; sandy bottom lands; roadside ditches; along canal banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and gravelly loam soils, and sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from 200 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46 (Eriogonum clutei Rydb. and sp.), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (080407), 68, 77, 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum deflexum var. turbinatum (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum fasciculatum G. Bentham: Eastern Mojave Buckwheat

COMMON NAMES: Bladderstem, California Buckwheat, Desert Trumpet, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat-brush, Indian Pipe-weed, Maderista. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (4 to 40 inches (sometimes reaching 5 to 10 feet) in height, one plant 1 foot in height was 2 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being brown or gray, the leaves gray-green or green, the flowers pink, pink-white, white, white with a green or pink mid-stripe or white-pink, flowering generally takes place between early January and early July (additional records: one for early August, one for mid-August, two for mid-September, one for early October, five for mid-October, one for late October, two for late November, four for early December and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; ridgelines; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; rocky arroyos; gullies; creek beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy washes; along drainages; sandy banks of rivers; gravelly terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-cindery and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are slightly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen. & sp.), 28 (color photograph of variety Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080507), 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum fasciculatum G. Bentham var. polifolium (G. Bentham) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Eastern Mojave Buckwheat

SYNONYMY: Eriogonum polifolium G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Bladderstem, Buckwheat, California Buckwheat, Desert Trumpet, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat-brush, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat Brush, Flat-topped Buckwheatbrush, Indian Pipe-weed, Maderista. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (4 to 40 inches in height, one plant 1 foot in height was 2 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being greenish-coral, the leaves gray-green, the flowers cream, cream-white-pink, pink, white or white-pink, flowering generally takes place between early January and late June (additional records: one for mid-September, one for early October, three for mid-October, one for late October, two for late November, one for early December and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; rocky arroyos; gullies; creek beds; along rocky and sandy washes; along drainages; banks of rivers; gravelly terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky; rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 1,100 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen. & sp.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080507), 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum inflatum J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont: Desert Trumpet

COMMON NAMES: Bladder Stem, Bladderstem, Cigarette Plant, Desert Trumpet, Indian Pipe-weed, Indianpipe Weed, Native American Pipeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), this plant has a basal rosette of gray-green, green or red leaves, the stems gray-green, green or purple-red, the flowers are greenish-yellow, orange-yellow, pink or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and late November (additional records: one for mid-January, one for early February and one for mid-February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-clayey mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; talus slopes; rocky buttes; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridgelines; crater walls; foothills; rocky hills; gravelly crests of hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy bajadas; rocky coves; gypsum outcrops; sand dunes; plains; flats; rocky valleys; along gravelly roadsides; along rocky and gravelly arroyos; along rivers; along and in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky banks of rivers; gravelly terraces; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080507), 77 (plants observed had yellow flowers and stems that were not inflated), 85 (103107), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Eriogonum inflatum J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. inflatum: Desert Trumpet

COMMON NAMES: Bladder Stem, Bladderstem, Cigarette Plant, Desert Trumpet, Indian Pipe-weed, Indianpipe Weed, Inflated Buckwheat, Native American Pipeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), this plant has a basal rosette of green leaves turning red with age, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and early November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; sand dunes; flats; gravelly roadsides; sandy washes; rocky banks of rivers, and gravelly terraces in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from 700 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (sp., color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080507), 77 (sp. - plants observed had yellow flowers and stems that were not inflated), 85 (103107), 86 (sp., color photograph), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Eriogonum nodosum (see Eriogonum wrightii var. nodosum) 

 

Eriogonum polifolium (see Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium) 

 

Eriogonum thomasii J. Torrey: Thomas’ Buckwheat

COMMON NAMES: Thomas Buckwheat, Thomas’ Buckwheat, Thomas Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in height), the flowers are cream, cream-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-May (additional records: two for early January, one for early June, one for late June and one for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountainsides; rocky and sandy mesas; rocky plateaus; rocky canyons; sides of canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ridges on rocky talus; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly-loamy and gravelly slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; lava fields; sand dunes; gravelly, sandy, sandy-silty and silty flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly drainages; sandy banks; lake shores; gravelly-sandy flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam and cobbly-gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080607), 85 (103107)*

 

Eriogonum wrightii J. Torrey ex G Bentham: Bastardsage

COMMON NAMES: Bastardsage, Wright Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat Brush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 3 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the color of the flowers has been described as being cream-white, pink, white or white-pink, flowering generally takes place between late June and late December (additional records: three for mid-January, one for mid-February, one for late March and one for mid-April). HABITAT: within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; rocky crags; cliffs; rocky rims of canyons; rocky canyons; along canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; ledges; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; sandy meadows; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky and sandy flats; valleys; embankments; roadsides; sandy creek beds; in rocky washes; gravelly and pebbly drainages; rocky banks, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, shaley, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, pebbly and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay, sandy clay and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is an important browse plant for deer. *5, 6, 13 (Eriogonum wrightii Torrey), 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (110107), 85 (110107)*

 

 

Family Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Delphinium amabile (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium amabile subsp. apachense (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium parishii A. Gray var. parishii: Parish’s Larkspur

SYNONYMY: Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom, Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom subsp. apachense (A. Eastwood) J.A. Ewan. COMMON NAMES: Desert Larkspur Ocean-blue Larkspur, Paleface Delphinium, Paleface Larkspur, Parish Desert Larkspur, Parish Larkspur, Parish’s Larkspur. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being brownish-purple, the basal rosette of leaves dark green, the flowers blue, bluish-purple, lavender, purple, purple-blue, sky-blue or violet-blue, flowering generally takes place between late February and early June (additional records: one for early January and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky knolls; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; sandy plains; sandy flats; roadsides; ravines; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; rivers; along sandy washes; drainages; springs; sandy banks of streams; benches; gravelly terraces; high ground in marshes, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and gravelly-clayey loam soils, and rocky clay and gypsum clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This species is the most drought tolerant North American Larkspur. *5, 6, 15, 28 (sp., color photograph), 46 (gen. - Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom, Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom subsp. apachense (A. Eastwood) J.A. Ewan), 48 (gen.), 63 (080607), 80 (Four species of Larkspur are listed as Major Poisonous Range Plants; however, “All species of Larkspur in Arizona should be considered potentially dangerous. ... The most toxic period of growth is when the plant is young and prior to flowering” - May and June for Low Larkspur (Delphinium nelsoni, Delphinium scaposum and Delphinium virescens) and May through July for Tall Larkspur (Delphinium scopulorum). “Plants remain dangerous throughout their life. Cattle are the principle livestock poisoned by larkspur. Sheep apparently graze larkspur without harm. ... Since cattle will graze on larkspur even though other forage is available, management to keep them away from heavily infested areas during this period is the best control technique.” See text for additional information.), 85 (110207)*

 

 

Family Resedaceae: The Mignonette Family

 

Oligomeris linifolia (M.H. Vahl) J.F. Macbride: Lineleaf Whitepuff

COMMON NAMES: Desert Cambess, Linearleaf Cambess, Lineleaf Whitepuff, Oligomeris, Slender-leaf Cambess, Xamassa (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 12 inches in height), the stems and leaves are semi-succulent, the color of the leaves has been described as being green (turning red before dying), the flowers cream or greenish, flowering generally takes place between late December and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; bases of cliffs; canyons; canyonsides; canyon bottoms; gravelly talus; crater walls; crater floors; foothills; rocky hillsides; gravelly bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; gravelly-loamy and sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; sandy roadsides; seeps; springs; along streams; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; silty playas; gravelly banks; lake shores; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils; sandy clay and silty clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (080607), 77, 85 (110207)*

 

 

Family Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia globosa I.M. Johnston var. pubescens I.M. Johnston: Bitter Snakewood

COMMON NAMES: Bitter Condalia, Bitter Snakewood, Crucerilla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height with a crown 5 feet in width, one plant one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height with a crown 6 feet in width, one plant one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 13 feet in width, one plant one plant was reported to be 15 feet in height with a crown 15 feet in width and a trunk 2 feet in diameter), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-brown, green or yellow-green, the cup-shaped flowers (sepals, no petals) yellow or yellow-green, flowering may take place throughout the year (flowering records: one for mid-March, one for mid-April, one for early June, one for late August, one for late September, two for early October, one for late October, two for early December and one for late December), the color of the fruits has been described as being black, dark blue or purple-black. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; foothills; rocky hills; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; bajadas; sandy plains; along gravelly and sandy arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; along and in rocky and sandy washes; along sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 200 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the branches are spine-tipped, the flowers are sweet scented. *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 52 (color photograph of species, sp.), 53, 63 (051307), 85 (110207), 91*

 

Condalia spathulata (see footnote 46 under Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana) 

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Kearney’s Snakewood

COMMON NAMES: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney Snakewood, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squaw-bush, Squawbush.  DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (though considered evergreen except during periods of severe drought) shrub (40 inches to 13 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 6½ feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 10 feet width), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellowish), flowering generally takes place between early February and November (flowering records: one for early February, one for mid-August, one for late August and one for mid-September), the fruits are black, dark purple or reddish black. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyon bottoms; cliff faces; rocky ledges; edges of meadows; foothills; rolling hills; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; gulches; rocky washes; along drainages; terraces; flood plains, and around tanks in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE:. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (recorded as Condalia spathulata A. Gray), 58, 63 (060807), 77, 85 (080707), 91*

 

 

Family Rubiaceae: The Madder Family

 

Galium proliferum A. Gray: Limestone Bedstraw

COMMON NAMES: Bedstraw, Desert Bedstraw, Great Basin Bedstraw, Limestone Bedstraw, Spreading Bedstraw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 12 inches in height), the herbage is dark green, the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: two for mid-January and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sandy flats; gravelly-sandy arroyo bottoms; along streams; creeks; along and in sandy washes; along drainages; rocky banks; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky clay soils, occurring from 700 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (080707), 77, 85 (110307)*

 

 

Family Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Antirrhinum filipes (see Neogaerrhinum filipes) 

 

Maurandella antirrhiniflora (F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow) W.H. Rothmaler: Roving Sailor

SYNONYMY: Maurandya antirrhiniflora F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow. COMMON NAMES: Blue Snapdragon Vine, Little Snapdragon Vine, Roving Sailor, Snapdragon Maurandya, Snapdragon Vine, Twining Snapdragon, Vine Blue Snapdragon, Violet Twining, Violet Twining Snapdragon. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (a twining vine 7 to 8 feet in length), the color of the arrowhead-shaped leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers blue, blue-violet, lilac, magenta, magenta-lilac, magenta-pink, maroon-pink, pink-purple, purple, purple-blue, purple-red, purple-rose, bright red, reddish-lavender, reddish-pink, red-rose, rose, rose-pink, rose-purple or pale violet, flowering generally takes place between late March and early November (additional record: one for late February), the fruit is cup-shaped. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliff faces; canyons; canyonsides; on shaded canyon walls; canyon bottoms; gorges; gravelly talus slopes; crevices in rocks; rock walls; ledges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and stony slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; flats; draws; gulches; along streams; along stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; along gravelly and sandy washes; watercourses; in and among shallow pools; rocky banks; gravel bars; shaley and sandy terraces; flood plains, and riparian areas often in shade and among shrubs in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, shaley, gravelly, pebbly and sandy soils and clayey loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the vines will die back to the ground in the winter months. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Maurandya antirrhiniflora), 46 (Maurandya antirrhiniflora Humb. & Bonpl.), 58, 63 (080707), 77 (color photograph #93 labeled Maurandya antirrhiniflora), 85 (110307), 86 (color photograph, Maurandya antirrhiniflora)*

 

Maurandya antirrhiniflora (see Maurandella antirrhiniflora) 

 

Mimulus guttatus A.P. de Candolle: Seep Monkeyflower

COMMON NAMES: Common Monkey Flower, Monkey-flower, Seep Monkeyflower, Seep-spring Monkey Flower, Spotted Monkey Flower, Yellow Monkey Flower, Yellow Monkey-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2 to 44 inches in height), the leaves are dark green, the flowers are bright yellow or yellow with orange-red dots, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early October (additional records: one for mid-January, one for late January, one for late October and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; boggy alpine meadows; foothills; rocky hillsides; bajadas; rocky outcrops; valleys; arroyos; gulches; ravine bottoms; seeps; springs; along streams; moist sand in rocky stream beds; along brooks; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; drainages; waterfalls; cracks and ledges in vertical walls behind waterfalls; pools; edges of boggy areas; cienegas; banks of arroyos; along sandy edges of streams, creeks and rivers; gravel bars; lake shores; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; irrigation ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in moist or  wet; rocky, rocky-gravelly and sandy soils; loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 12,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (080707), 77 (color photograph #52), 85 (110307), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Mimulus verbenaceus (see Mimulus cardinalis)

 

Neogaerrhinum filipes (A. Gray) W.H. Rothmaler: Filipes Snapdragon

SYNONYMY:  Antirrhinum filipes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Filipes Snapdragon, Yellow Twining Snapdragon, Yellow Twining-snapdragon. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (2 to 3 feet in length), the flowers are bright yellow and yellow with dark red spots, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; gorges; talus slopes; buttes; rocky meadows; gravelly hills; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; sandy plains; rocky and gravelly flats; gravelly roadsides; draws; washes; in rocky drainages; gravelly and sandy banks; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing beneath or on shrubs in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46, 63 (080807), 85 (110307), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones: Desert Penstemon

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Penstemon, Desert Penstemon, Mohave Beardtongue, Nevada Penstemon, Rosey Desert Beardtongue. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (1 to 4 feet in height and to 2 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, the flowers cerise, fuchsia, lavender-red, pink, pink-purple, purple, rose-pink or rosy-magenta, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional records: one for mid-January, one for late July, one for late October, three for early November and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hills; sandy-loamy hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; bedrock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; roadsides; ravines; in sandy stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in sandy washes; banks of streams and creeks; in and among pools; riparian areas, and disturbed areas sometimes in the shade of boulders and trees in bouldery, rocky, cindery, pebbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081107), 80 (Species of the genus Penstemon are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of Penstemon are facultative or secondary selenium absorbers.”), 85 (110307)*

 

 

Family Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Lycium C. Linnaeus: Desert-thorn 

COMMON NAMES: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry. *63 (040207), WTK June 2003*

 

Lycium exsertum A. Gray: Arizona Desert-thorn

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Desert-thorn, Desert Thorn, Wolf-berry, Wolfberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (20 inches to 10 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height with a crown 6½ feet in width), the branches are brown-gray or gray, the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-cream, cream-lavender, lavender, lavender-white, pink, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late April (additional records: one for late July, one for late September, one for mid-October, one for early November, one for late November and one for mid-December), the fruit are orange-red, red or red-orange. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sandy flats; along arroyos; seeps; springs; along creek beds; along and in sandy washes; gravelly drainages; swales; sandy banks; benches; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and loam soils, occurring from 1,100 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it reportedly may have the appearance of a Weeping Willow. Bombyliid Flies have been observed visiting the flowers. The Arizona Desert-thorn is a host plant of the Texas Root Rot Fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (011108), 77, 85 (011108)*

 

Lycium macrodon A. Gray: Desert Wolfberry

COMMON NAMES: Aayam (Seri), Desert Thorn, Desert Wolfberry, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height, one plant recorded was 7 feet in height with a crown 7 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being dark gray, the branches mahogany, the leaves dark green, the flower greenish-white, white or white with a violet tinge, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late-April (additional record: one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; gravelly slopes; bajadas; sandy plains; sandy flats; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy arroyos; along stream beds; river beds; along gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy clayey loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (081207), 77, 85 (also recorded as Lycium macrodon A. Gray var. macrodon - 081207)*

 

Lycium macrodon var. macrodon (see footnote 85 under Lycium macrodon)

 

Lycium parishii A. Gray: Parish’s Desert-thorn

COMMON NAMES: Parish Desert-thorn, Parish’s Desert-thorn, Parish Thornberry, Parish Wolfberry, Salicieso. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green, the flowers lavender, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early October to mid-April (additional record: one for mid-August), the ripe fruit is orange-red or red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; sandy plains; basins; sandy valleys; along arroyos; along and in gravelly; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; sandy-loamy benches; rocky shelves; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (062907), 85 (also recorded as Lycium parishii A. Gray var.  parishii - 081207)*

 

Lycium parishii var.  parishii (see footnote 85 under Lycium parishii)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia: Desert Tobacco

SYNONYMY: Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal. COMMON NAMES: Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche (a Punch), Tabaquillo (Little Tobacco), Tabaquillo de Coyote, Wo’i Viva (Yaqui). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3½ feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers cream, cream-white, greenish-white, white, yellow or lemon yellow, flowering takes place throughout the year. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices; rocky bluffs; ridges; craters; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo walls; arroyo bottoms; along streams; gravelly-sandy stream beds; creek beds; along rocky and sandy washes; drainages; rocky and silty banks of washes; lake shores; flood plains; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Nicotiana trigonophylla), 46 (Nicotiana trigonophylla Dunal), 58, 63 (081207), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “The poisonous principle is the highly toxic nicotine and other alkaloids which are poisonous to all classes of livestock and to humans. The plants are generally unpalatable to range livestock but frequent losses have been reported. ... Since wild tobaccos are generally unpalatable and grow predominantly in waste places, range improvement to reduce waste areas and to provide ample forage is the best means of preventing losses.”), 85 (081207), 86 (color photograph, Nicotiana trigonophylla)

 

Nicotiana trigonophylla (see Nicotiana obtusifolia var. obtusifolia) 

 

 

Family Tamaricaceae: The Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Saltcedar

COMMON NAMES: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Salt Cedar, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (5 to 33 feet in height, one shrubby tree was recorded as being 20 feet in height with a crown 20 feet in width), the color of the bark on saplings and stems has been described as being red or reddish-brown, the scale-like leaves are grayish-green, the flowers are pink, pinkish-purple, white or white-pink, flowerings generally takes place between late March and mid-October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; flats; valley plains; roadsides; seeps; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; edges of ponds; playas; marshy areas; lake shores; sand bars; rocky bottom lands; charcos (stock tanks) ; reservoirs; canals; irrigation ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, pebbly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Saltcedar is similar to and may be confused with Smallflower Tamarisk (Tamarisk parviflora DC.), Tamarisk flowers are 5-petaled and Smallflower Tamarisk flowers are 4-petaled, and the bark on the stems of Saltcedar is reddish-brown whereas on Smallflower Tamarisk it is brown to deep purple. Some Arizona populations of Tamarisk may have historically been referred to as Tamarix pentandra. *5, 6, 13, 22 (color photograph), 58, 63 (081207), 77, 85 (081207), 91, 101 (color photograph), 109, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig: Southwestern Mock Vervain

SYNONYMY: Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom. COMMON NAMES: Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Mock Vervain, Goodding Verbena, Goodding’s Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Mexican Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain, Sweet William, Verbena, Vervain. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers blue, sky blue, blue-lavender, bluish-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-purple, pink, pink-lavender, pink-purple, purple or purple-lavender, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-October (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; talus hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; flats; sandy roadsides; gravelly arroyos; gulches; seeps; springs; along stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy and silty banks of washes; around pools; cobbly benches; terraces; sandy bottom lands; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, pebbly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 800 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet and Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom), 48 (gen.), 63 (081307), 77 (color photograph #53), 85 (081307)*

 

Verbena gooddingii (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

Verbena gooddingii var. nepetifolia (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

 

Family Viscaceae (Loranthaceae): The Christmas Mistletoe Family

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall: Mesquite Mistletoe

SYNONYMY: Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease. COMMON NAMES: American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite American Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter), the stems are green or yellow-green, the fragrant flowers are greenish-yellow, flowering generally takes place between late July and mid-May (additional records: one for early June, one record for late June and one record for early July), the fruits are orange, pink, red, red-orange or white. HABITAT: Partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Desert Ironwood, Foothill Paloverde, Long-leaf Paloverde and Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found growing on Acacia spp. (Acacia constricta, Whtitethorn Acacia; Acacia farnesiana, Sweet Acacia; Acacia greggii, Catclaw Acacia); Condalia spp. (Condalia globosa, Bitter Snakewood); Condalia warnockii, Kearney Snakewood); Larrea spp. (Larrea tridentata, Creosote Bush); Olneya spp. (Olneya tesota, Desert Ironwood); Parkinsonia spp. (Parkinsonia aculeata, Jerusalem Thorn; Parkinsonia florida, Blue Paloverde; Parkinsonia microphylla, Yellow Paloverde); Prosopis spp. (Prosopis glandulosa, Honey Mesquite; Prosopis pubescens, Screwbean Mesquite; Prosopis velutina, Velvet Mesquite), and Ziziphus spp.(Ziziphus obtusifolia, Lotebush), occurring from 500 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feeds on the berries and disperses the seeds to other host plants. Verdins nest in the stems. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (050607), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Phoradendron are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Cattle may be killed by browsing these parasitic forbs, but plants are unpalatable and poisoning is rare. Also children may be poisoned by eating the berries.”), 85 (111107), 97, WTK (June 2005)*

 

Phoradendron californicum var. distans (see Phoradendron californicum) 

 

 

Family Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Fagonia californica (see footnote 46 under Fagonia laevis)

 

Fagonia californica subsp. laevis (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia californica subsp. longipes (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia laevis P.C. Standley: California Fagonbush

SYNONYMY: Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. laevis (P.C. Standley) I.L. Wiggins, Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. longipes (P.C. Standley) R.S. Felger, Fagonia longipes P.C. Standley. COMMON NAMES: California Fagonbush, Smooth-stemmed Fagonia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height, plants reported to be 4 to 6 inches in height had a crown 8 to 10 inches in width, one plant was described as being 12 inches in height with a crown 18 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers lavender, lavender-pink, magenta, pink, purple, purple-pink or reddish-lavender, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May and late September to early December (additional records: two for mid-June and two for late July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky and sandy mesas; cliffs; canyons; bases of cliffs; craters; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; flats; valley floors; roadsides; arroyos; rocky and gravelly arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of washes; benches, and sandy flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; stony clayey loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, and alkaline clay soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Fagonia californica Benth.), 63 (081307), 77, 85 (081407), 86 (color photograph, Fagonia californica)*

 

Fagonia longipes (see Fagonia laevis) 

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Poppy

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona-poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Caltrop, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Mexican-poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy, Summer-poppy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height and 2 to 4 feet in length), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish-orange, the leaves gray-green or green, the flowers apricot-orange, harvest-moon-orange, melon-orange, orange, bright orange with a crimson center or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between late June and early November (additional records: one for late November and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, canyons, canyon bottoms; rocky ridge tops; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, open plains, rocky and gravelly flats, railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly-loamy and gravelly-clayey roadsides, stream beds; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy terraces; bottom lands; mesquite bosques; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and sandy loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,400 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Arizona Poppy is a food plant of doves, quail and Whitetail Deer (Odocoileus virginianus subsp. couesi). *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (110307), 68, 77, 80 (Species of the genus Kallstroemia are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Animals must be forced to eat large amounts of this unpalatable, annual forb before poisoning occurs.”), 85 (110307), 86 (color photograph), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

Larrea divaricata subsp. tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville (var. tridentata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Creosote Bush

SYNONYMY: (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles (subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger). COMMON NAMES: Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Creosote-bush, Creosotebush, Gobernadora, (erroneously called Greasewood), Guamis, Hediondilla (Little Bad Smeller). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height and about the same in width), the leaves are bright glossy green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-white, flowering takes place throughout the year with the peak blooming periods occurring in the spring, between March and April, and then again between November and December, the round fuzzy fruits are gray, reddish, white or rust. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; gravelly and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in well-drained bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older stems of the Creosote Bush may be 40 to 90 years of age. As the Creosote Bush ages the older central stems of the plant die off and new stems form at the outer edge of the crown. New stems are not created at the center of the plant. As the crown of the plant expands a “clonal ring”, made up of genetically identical individual shrublets, develops which continues the outward expansion of the ring eventually reaching several yards in diameter. It has been estimated that some of the older rings approach 11,700 years of age. Lac Scale insects (Tachardiella sp.) and Jackrabbits feed on this plant. Stem galls are produced by the Creosote Gall midge (Asphondylia sp.). The Creosote Bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting a Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelinas. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph - sp.), 28, (color photograph, Larrea tridentata), 46 (Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville “An outstanding xerophyte and a very important element of the perennial desert flora in southern and western Arizona. ... Creosote-bush has a strong characteristic odor, especially noticeable when the foliage is wet. The plant is ordinarily not touched by livestock, although it is reported that sheep, especially pregnant ewes, have been killed by partaking of it. This plant is reported to cause dermatitis in exceptional persons who are allergic to it.”), 48, 63 (var. tridentata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona - 081407), 77 (color photograph #101), 80 (This species is listed under Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Early reports accusing this common desert shrub of being poisonous have been proven wrong.”), 85 (081407), 91, 101 (color photograph), 107*

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata: Creosote Bush

SYNONYMY: Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger. COMMON NAMES: Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Creosote-bush, Creosotebush, Gobernadora, (erroneously called Greasewood), Guamis, Hediondilla (Little Bad Smeller). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height and about the same in width), the leaves are bright glossy green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-white, flowering takes place throughout the year with the peak blooming periods occurring in the spring, between March and April, and then again between November and December, the round fuzzy fruits are gray, reddish, white or rust. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; gravelly and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in well-drained bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older stems of the Creosote Bush may be 40 to 90 years of age. As the Creosote Bush ages the older central stems of the plant die off and new stems form at the outer edge of the crown. New stems are not created at the center of the plant. As the crown of the plant expands a “clonal ring”, made up of genetically identical individual shrublets, develops which continues the outward expansion of the ring eventually reaching several yards in diameter. It has been estimated that some of the older rings approach 11,700 years of age. Lac Scale insects (Tachardiella sp.) and Jackrabbits feed on this plant. Stem galls are produced by the Creosote Gall midge (Asphondylia sp.). The Creosote Bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting a Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelinas. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 28 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 46 (sp., Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville “An outstanding xerophyte and a very important element of the perennial desert flora in southern and western Arizona. ... Creosote-bush has a strong characteristic odor, especially noticeable when the foliage is wet. The plant is ordinarily not touched by livestock, although it is reported that sheep, especially pregnant ewes, have been killed by partaking of it. This plant is reported to cause dermatitis in exceptional persons who are allergic to it.”), 48, 63 (081407), 77 (color photograph #101), 80 (This species is listed under Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Early reports accusing this common desert shrub of being poisonous have been proven wrong.”), 85 (081407), 91, 101 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 107, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  ANIMALS FROM

COLLECTION AND FROM BEING DISTURBED OR KILLED

 

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

 

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

 

 

 

CLASS INSECTA: The INSECTS

 

 

ORDER HYMENOPTERA: The ANTS, BEES, SAWFLIES, WASPS and Their ALLIES

 

 

 

Family Apidae: The Honeybee Family

 

If stung, remove the stinger as soon as possible, call 911 or 1-800-222-1222 for additional information

 and/or consider transport to a medical facility, it may take hundreds of bee stings to inflict a fatal

toxic dose of venom in a healthy adult; however, one sting can cause a fatal allergic

(anaphylactic)  reaction in a hypersensitive person. *97* 

If stung contact the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

Apis mellifera C. Linnaeus: Honeybee

COMMON NAMES: African Honeybee, European Honeybee, Honeybee, Western Honeybee. HABITS: Found in bee boxes, buildings, water boxes and holes in ground, caves, cavities in saguaros, crevices, hollow trees and logs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: Introduced EXOTIC Invasive Species. The Honeybee is an exotic domesticated animal kept for crop pollination and for the production of honey and beeswax. *60, 97, 106 (071006), WTK (June 2005)*

 

 

 

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

 

 

 

CLASS AVES: The BIRDS

 

 

Family Cathartidae: The New World Vulture Family

 

Cathartes aura (C. Linnaeus): Turkey Vulture

COMMON NAMES: Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Buzzard, Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on carrion. No nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on cliffs, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subspp. septentrionalis and teter - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), WTK (August 2007)*

 

 

Family Columbidae: The Dove and Pigeon Family

 

Zenaida asiatica (C. Linnaeus): White-winged Dove

COMMON NAMES: Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon. HABITS: Feeds on berries, fruit, gastropods, insects, mollusks and seeds. Nests are flimsy stick platforms located in thickets and trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subspp. asiatica, grandis (Saunders), mearnsi (R. Ridgway) and monticola (Saunders) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806), MBJ/WTK (August 2007)*

 

 

Family Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Geococcyx californianus (R.P. Lesson): Greater Roadrunner

COMMON NAMES: Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Roadrunner, Tadai. HABITS: Feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes. Nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

 

CLASS MAMMALIA: The MAMMALS

 

 

Family Antilocapridae: The Pronghorn Family

 

Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis Goldman: Sonoran Pronghorn

COMMON NAMES: “Antelope”, Prong-horn, Pronghorn, Pronghorn Antelope, Prong-horned Antelope, Sonoran Pronghorn, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti including chain-fruit cholla, forbs, grasses, ocotillo and sagebrush. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (a marginal distribution record was identified near Cipriano Well in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument - 113006, 55 (sp. - Antilocapra americana Ord “Formerly widely distributed in grassland areas throughout the state; presently restricted to areas of favorable habitat.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052806), 106 (052806), 118 (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis Goldman - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 111, Page 255)*

 

 

Family Bovidae: The Cow, Sheep and Allies Family

 

Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana C.H. Merriam: Desert Bighorn Sheep

COMMON NAMES: Berrego Cimarron (Hispanic), Berrego Cimarron del Desierto (Hispanic), Bighorn, Bighorn Sheep, Desert Bighorn, Desert Bighorn Sheep, Mountain Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep. HABITS: The species feeds on agave, brittle bush, bursage, bush muhly, cacti, catclaw, cholla, coffeeberry, desert fluffgrass, desert ironwood, desert thorn, fairy duster, filaree, galleta, grama, jojoba, mesquite, mallow, Nevada joint fir, plantain, prickly-pear, ratany, ricegrass, saguaro, saltbush, threeawn and turpentine broom; young are dropped in small scraped out depressions located in protected places on inaccessible peaks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Ovis canadensis Shaw “Probably formerly statewide in mountainous or rocky situations; presently restricted to scattered low desert mountains.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - no records 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (072306), 118 (Ovis canadensis mexicana Merriam - Distribution: Probably formerly statewide in mountainous situations. Figure 112, Page 257)*

 

 

Family Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans subsp. mearnsi Merriam: Coyote

COMMON NAME: Coyote. HABITS: The species feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels. The young are born in dens that may be dug in the ground or located in caves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Canis latrans Say “Statewide (120 - 9,100 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Canis latrans mearnsi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 87, Page 217)*

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (J.C. von Schreber): Common Gray Fox

COMMON NAMES: Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats. Whelping usually takes place in burrows dug into the ground or in dens in rocks and cliffs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) “Statewide with the possible exception of the northeast portion (120 - 5,800 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (052906), 100, 106 (052906), 118 (Recorded as Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii Mearns - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 90, Page 222)*

 

Vulpes macrotis C.H. Merriam: Kit Fox

COMMON NAMES: Kit Fox, Zorra del Desierto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on berries, birds, cottontail rabbits, crickets, grasses, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, lizards and pocket mice. The young are born in dens in underground burrows that have been excavated in soft soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Vulpes velox (T. Say): The Swift Fox is generally considered a separate species by most authors. *14 (subspp. macrotis Merriam and neomexicanus Merriam - 050907), 55 (Vulpes macrotis Merriam “Widely distributed at lower elevations throughout the southern part of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (no records - 052906), (100), 106 (052906), 118 (Vulpes macrotis arispus Elliot - Distribution: Lower elevations in western and southern part of the state. Vulpes macrotis neomexicana Merriam - Distribution: Extreme southeastern Arizona. Figure 89, Page 220)*

 

Vulpes velox (see note under Vulpes macrotis) 

 

 

Family Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus subsp. crooki (Mearns): Mule Deer

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Deer, Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, beans, branches, fruits, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurges. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque) “Statewide, but not of uniform distribution (250 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus hemionus crooki (Mearns) - Distribution: Northeastern, central and southeastern part of the state. Figure 109, Page 252)*

 

Odocoileus virginianus subsp. couesi (E. Coues & Yarrow): Coues’ White-tailed Deer

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Desert Whitetail, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer, Whitetail Deer. HABITS: The species feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel. Young are generally dropped along ridges and hillsides. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) “Southeastern Arizona (1,200 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus virginianus couesi (Coues & Yarrow) - Distribution: Southern Arizona. Figure 110, Page 254)*

 

 

Family Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis rufus subsp. baileyi (see Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi)

 

Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi Merriam: Bobcat

SYNONYMY: Felis rufus (J.C. von Schreber) subsp. baileyi Elliot. COMMON NAMES: Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat. HABITS: The species feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes. Young are born in dens located in rocky caves, hollow logs and recesses. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Lynx rufus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 9,300 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lynx rufus baileyi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 106, Page 247)*

 

 

Family Geomyidae: The Pocket Gopher Family

 

Thomomys bottae subsp. comobabiensis Huey: Botta’s Pocket Gopher

COMMON NAMES: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher. HABITS: The species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers. Young are born in nests in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - several varieties listed - 051107), 55 (sp. - Thomomys bottae (Eydoux and Gervais) “Widely distributed throughout the state at all elevations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Thomomys bottae comobabiensis Huey - Distribution: Slopes of Comobabi Mountains, Pima County. Figure 46, Page 107)*

 

 

Family Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam: Rock Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Raton de Rocas de Bosla (Hispanic), Rock Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds. Burrows are dug in soil near to or under rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam “Widely distributed in rocky areas in the Colorado River valley, western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius), 85 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius (Merriam) - 051007), 118 (Chaetodipus intermedius intermedius Merriam - Distribution: Known from Mohave County southward and eastward, across most of the state to Cochise County. Figure 54, Page 141)*

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei (S.W. Woodhouse): Desert Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei S.W. Woodhouse). COMMON NAMES: Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite. The nest is made in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse “Widely distributed in desert and low grasslands of southern and western Arizona (120 - 5,200 feet.”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus), 85 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus (A.H. Howell) - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus (Woodhouse) - 051007), 118 (Perognathus penicillatus pricei Allen - Distribution: Known from south-central Arizona. Figure 53, Page 137)*

 

Dipodomys merriami subsp. merriami Mearns: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera Merriam (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on ants, green plant material and seeds of creosote bush, grama grass, mesquite, ocotillo and purselane. Nests are made in underground burrows often located under bushes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - 051007), 55 (“Widely distributed in western and southern parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns - Distribution: Occurs throughout most of the western and southern part of the state. Figure 56, Page 145)*

 

Dipodomys spectabilis subsp. perblandus Goldman: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat, Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on grasses, forbs, succulent plants, insects, rodents and seeds. Nests are made up of chaff, stems and leaves of grass located in underground burrows in firm soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys spectabilis perblandus Goldman - Distribution: Known from the grasslands of southern Pinal and Pima County. Figure 55, Page 143)*

 

Perognathus amplus subsp. taylori Goldman: Arizona Pocket Mouse

COMMON NAME: Arizona Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, insects and seeds. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Perognathus amplus Osgood “Locally common in desert areas on south-central, western and north-central parts of the state (500 - 5,100 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 118 (Perognathus amplus taylori Goldman.  Distribution: Known from south central Arizona. Figure 50, Page 129)*

 

Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius (see Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius)

 

Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei (see Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei) 

 

 

Family Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns: Antelope Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAME: Antelope Jack Rabbit. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite. Young are born in a nest that is usually located above ground. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus alleni (Mearns) “Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns - Distribution: Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state. Figure 31, Page 68)*

 

Lepus californicus subsp. eremicus J.A. Allen: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit”. HABITS: The species feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti. Young are born in nests located either above or below ground in forms that have been lined with breast hair, after birth the young are moved to separate nests and cared for individually by the female. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus californicus Gray “Statewide.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus californicus eremicus J.A. Allen - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 32, Page 69)*

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (S.F. Baird) subsp. arizonae: Desert Cottontail

COMMON NAME: Desert Cottontail. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs. Young are born into nests lined with forbs, grasses and the females fur which are located on the ground and in brush piles, piles of rocks, and burrows abandoned by other animals. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird) “Common at elevations below 6,000 feet throughout the state.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Sylvilagus audubonii arizonae (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Widely distributed at elevations up to 6,000 feet in the western half of the state. Figure 34, Page 74)*

 

 

Family Mephitidae: The Skunk Family

 

Mephitis macroura subsp. milleri (Mearns): Hooded Skunk

COMMON NAMES: Hooded Skunk, Zorrillo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on small birds, insects and other invertebrates, rodents and plant material; young are born in a dens located in burrows or among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - 050807), 55 (sp. - Mephitis macroura (Lichtenstein) “Southeastern part of the state (2,000 to 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - Distribution: South central and southeastern Arizona. Figure 101, Page 240) *

 

Spilogale gracilis Merriam: Western Spotted Skunk

SYNONYMY: Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Spotted Skunk, Western Spotted Skunk, Zorillo Pinto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on arachnids, berries, birds and bird eggs, carrion, fruits, insects, small mammals, scorpions and seeds. Dens are made in rock crevices and hollow logs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam is a synonym for Spilogale gracilis C. Linnaeus the Western Spotted Skunk. Spilogale putorius subsp. leucoparia is a synonym for Spilogale putorius C. Linnaeus the Eastern Spotted Skunk. 051107), 55 (Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus) “Probably statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65 (Spilogale putorius), 73 (Spilogale gracilis), 85 (Spilogale putorius - 051107), 100 (Spilogale gracilis), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Spilogale putorius gracilis Merriam - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 99, Page 237)*

 

Spilogale putorius (see footnotes 14, 55, 65 and 85 under Spilogale gracilis)

 

Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis (see Spilogale gracilis)

 

 

Family Molossidae: The Free-tailed Bat Family

 

Eumops perotis subsp. californicus (Merriam): Greater Western Mastiff Bat

COMMON NAMES: Bonnet Bat, Greater Western Bonneted Bat, Greater Mastiff Bat, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Mastiff Bat, Murcielago Mastiff (Hispanic), Western Mastiff Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on crickets, long-horned grasshoppers, moths and other small insects. Roosts in crevices and shallow caves in cliffs and rock walls at lower elevations. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Eumops perotis (Schinz) “Rare, in small colonies in rock crevices at lower elevations in the western and southern part of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (fam. - 053006), 118 (Eumops perotis californicus (Merriam) - Distribution: Probably throughout southern Arizona in the Lower Sonoran Life Zone. Figure 29, Page 65)*

 

 

Family Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula subsp. albigula Hartley: White-throated Wood Rat

COMMON NAMES: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca. Nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Neotoma albigula Hartley “Widely distributed at elevations below 7,000 feet throughout all of the state south of the Colorado River. (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Neotoma albigula albigula Hartley - Distribution: Occurs commonly south of the Mogollon Rim. Figure 76, Page 193)*

 

Onychomys torridus subsp. torridus (E. Coues): Southern Grasshopper Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. torridus - 020307), 55 (sp. - Onychomys torridus (Coues) “Widely distributed in the western and southern parts of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Onychomys torridus torridus (Coues) - Distribution: Southeastern quarter of the state. Figure 62, Page 161)*

 

Peromyscus eremicus (S.F. Baird) subsp. eremicus: Cactus Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Cactus Mouse, Raton de Cactaceas (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on flowers, small fruits, insects, green plant material and seeds. Nests are made within the abandoned burrows of other animals, clumps of cacti and among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Peromyscus eremicus (Baird) “Widely distributed in western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus eremicus eremicus (Baird) - Distribution: Almost all of the western and southern part of the state.  Figure 67, Page 171)*

 

Peromyscus maniculatus subsp. sonoriensis (Le Conte): Deer Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Deer Mouse, Raton Venado (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on bark, berries, bones, centipedes, earthworms, small fruits, fungi, insects, leaves, nuts and snails. Nests are built in buildings, underground burrows, rock crevices debris, in and under logs, and clumps of vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subspp. blandus (Osgood) and rufinus (Merriam) - 050907), 55 (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) “Statewide (120 - 11,400 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis (Le Conte) - Distribution: Grasslands at lower elevations throughout the state. Figure 69, Page 177)*

 

Reithrodontomys megalotis subsp. megalotis (S.F. Baird): Western Harvest Mouse

COMMON NAME: Western Harvest Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids, grasses, insects (larvae and adults) and seeds of grasses forbs and shrubs. Spherical nests are made of woven plant material and lined with plant fibers and can be located near the ground or above the ground in dense vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird) “Statewide (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 73 (sp.), 85 (053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (053006), 118 (Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis (Baird) - Distribution: At medium and low elevations statewide except extreme northeastern part of the state. Figure 64, Page 164)*

 

 

Family Mustelidae: The Weasel and Allies Family

 

Taxidea taxus (J.C. von Schreber): American Badger

COMMON NAMES: American Badger, Badger, Badger Tejon (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on ground dwelling birds and eggs, carrion, insects, rodents and snakes. Young are born in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. berlandieri Schreber - 050907), 55 (Taxidea taxus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053006), 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Taxidea taxus - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 98, Page 235)*

 

 

Family Phyllostomidae: The Leaf-nosed Bat Family

 

Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae (Martinez & Villa-R.): Southern Long-nosed Bat

SYNONYMY: Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni D.F. Hoffmeister, Leptonycteris sanborni (Saussure). COMMON NAMES: Lesser Long-nosed Bat, Little Long-nosed Bat, Mexican Long-nosed Bat, Murcielago de Sanborn (Hispanic), Sanborn’s Long-nosed Bat, Sanborn’s Southern Long-nosed Bat, Southern Long-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects, nectar, pollen and the nectar and soft-bodied fruits of agaves and cacti. Roosts are located in caves, rock crevices and mines. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: Long-nosed bats are pollinators of Agaves, Cardons, Organ Pipe Cacti and Saguaros. *8, 14 (Populations may be compromised by roost-site disturbance, loss of food sources and direct killing by humans. - 050907), 35 (This species is vulnerable to disturbances at roosting sites by cave explores.), 55 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure) “Locally common in moist caves. Known from Pinal, Pima, Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties.”), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (Leptonycteris sanborni), 100 (sp. - Leptonycteris curasoae), 106 (053006), 118 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (Saussure) - Distribution: Known only from the southeastern part of the state. Figure 9, Page 35)*

 

Leptonycteris nivalis (see footnote 55 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (see footnote 118 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Macrotus californicus S.F. Baird: California Leaf-nosed Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Leaf-nosed Bat, Leaf-nosed Bat, Leafnose Bat, Waterhouse’s Leaf-nosed Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, moths and other insects. Roosts are located in caves and abandoned mine tunnels. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from  the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 050907), 55 (Macrotus californicus Baird “Locally common in shallow caves, mine tunnels and under bridges. Occurs widely at lower elevations in the western and southern parts of the state.”), 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 92, 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Macrotus californicus Baird - Distribution: Known from lower elevations in the southern and western parts of the state. Figure 7, Page 32)*

 

 

Family Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Bassariscus astutus subsp. arizonensis Goldman: Ringtail

COMMON NAMES: Band-tailed Cat, Cacomistle, Civet Cat, Coon CatGato Minero (Hispanic), Miner’s Cat, Ringtail, Ringtail Cat, Ring-tailed Cat. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, birds, fruits, carrion, crickets, eggs, insects, lizards, small mammals, snakes and spiders. Nests are made of grass located in dens in underground burrows, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, cavities in logs, stumps and trees and man-made structures. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (050907), 55 (Bassariscus astutus (M.H. Lichenstein) “Statewide (120 - 6,500 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 051107), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053106), 118 (Bassariscus astutus arizonensis Goldman - Distribution: Statewide except extreme southeastern and southwestern parts. Figure 93, Page 227)*

 

 

Family Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman). COMMON NAMES: Harris’ Antelope Squirrel, Yuma Antelope Squirrel. HABITS: Feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds. Dens are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Citellus harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) “Southern and western parts of the state at elevations below 6,500 feet.”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus harrisii harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) - Distribution: Southern and western Arizona except for most of Yuma County. Citellus harrisii saxicola (Mearns) - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 38, Page 85)*

 

Citellus harrisii (see Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii harrisii (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii saxicola (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus tereticaudus (see Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (see footnote 118 under Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (see Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus S.F. Baird: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus tereticaudus S.F. Baird. COMMON NAME: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel HABITS: Feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo, paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking scavenging Gambel’s Quail chicks; nests are made of plant fibers and stems and located in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation. *14, 55 (Citellus tereticaudus Baird “Lower Sonoran Life-zone of the western part of the state (below 3,200 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (Merriam) - Distribution: Lower Sonoran Life Zone of southwestern Arizona. Figure 39, Page 90)*

 

Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say). COMMON NAMES: Ardilla Coluda (Hispanic), Rock Squirrel. HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, berries, small birds, chicks and eggs, carrion, insects, fruits, small mammals, nuts and seeds burrows. Nests are made of leaves, pine needles and plant fibers and located in dens in underground burrows between boulders, rock crevices and talus. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Citellus variegatus (Erxleben) “Statewide, especially at elevations below 6,000 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say) - Distribution: Statewide, especially common below 6000 feet. Figure 37, Page 82)*

 

 

Family Soricidae: The Shrew Fmaily

 

Notiosorex crawfordi subsp. crawfordi (E. Coues): Crawford’s Desert Shrew

COMMON NAMES: Crawford’s Desert Shrew, Crawford’s Gray Shrew, Desert Shrew, Gray Shrew, Musarana del Deseirto Crawford (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on centipedes, insects, lizards, small mice, scorpions, sowbugs and spiders. Nests are made of shredded bark and leaves and located in packrat dens or under dead agaves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues) “Locally common, widely distributed statewide at elevations below 6,000 feet, especially in riparian situations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 051107), 118 (Notiosorex crawfordi crawfordi (Coues) - Distribution: Probably occurs statewide at elevations below 6000 feet. Figure 5, Page 30)*

 

 

Family Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns): Collared Peccary

SYNONYMY: Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns), Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns). COMMON NAMES: Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, “Musk Hog”, Peccary. HABITS: The species feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fruits, fungi, grasses, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, roots, palm nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms. Javelina bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets and at night in burrows usually under the roots of trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu (Linnaeus) “Southeastern and central parts of the state (1,200 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp. - Pecari angulatus), 73 (sp. - Dicotyles tajacu), 85 (no records - 051207), 100 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu), 106 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu - 051107), 118 (Tayassu tajacu sonoriensis (Mearns) - Distribution: Southern part of the state. Figure 107, Page 249)*

 

Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

 

Family Ursidae: The Bear Family

 

Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (see Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps)

 

Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird): Black Bear

SYNONYMY: Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird). COMMON NAMES: American Black Bear, Black Bear, Cinnamon Bear, Oso Negro  (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fishes, fruits, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries, sprouts, small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. Shelter is taken in dense cover and they climb trees to escape danger. Nests are made of grasses leaves, mud and sticks located in a den. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Euarctos americanus (Pallas) “Formerly common throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now greatly reduced in numbers and distribution.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (includes a listing of subspecies and their distribution - 050907), 118 (Euarctos americanus amblyceps (Baird) - Distribution: Probably formerly occurred throughout the state, at least in mountainous areas. Figure 91, Page 224)*

 

Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord: Grizzly Bear

SYNONYMY: Ursus horribilus Ord. COMMON NAMES: (subspecies of Brown Bear), Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (Hispanic), Silvertip Bear. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, carrion, fishes (Bass, Salmon, Trout), fungi, grasses, insects (Army Cutworm moths), leaves, large (Bison, Black Bear, Caribou, Deer, Elk, Moose, Mountain Goats) and small (rodents) mammals, nuts (Whitebark Pine nuts), roots and sprouts. The Grizzly Bear beds down in depressions in thickets. Dens are excavated from under rocks or located in caves, crevices or hollow trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXTIRPATED from Arizona. The Grizzly Bear is Extinct in Arizona. The last confirmed kill was made on the slopes of Mount Baldy (Apache County) in the summer 1939). Grizzly Bears were exterminated by American immigrants because of the risks to humans and livestock. *14 (Ursus arctos subspp. horriaeus (Baird) and perturbans (Merriam) - 050907), 39 (Ursus horribilus), 40 (Ursus arctos - Grizzly Bears were historically present in the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson), 55 (Ursus horribilus Ord “Formerly throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now extinct in Arizona.”), 73 (Ursus horribilus), 85 (no records - 053106) 100 (Ursus arctos), 106 (Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord - 051207), 118 (Ursus horribilus - Distribution: Formerly statewide, now extinct in Arizona. Figure 92, Page 225)*

 

Ursus arctos (see footnotes 14 and 100 under Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

Ursus horribilus (see Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

 

Family Vespertilionidae: The Plain-nosed Bat Family

 

Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (see Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens)

 

Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen): Spotted Bat

COMMON NAMES: Death’s Head Bat, Jackass Bat, Murcielago Pinto (Hispanic), Pinto Bat, Spotted Bat. HABITS: Feeds on insects. Roosts in cracks and crevices in caves, cliffs and ledges, and under loose rock in rocky situations, possibly in close proximity to water. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This bat is rarely encountered. Riparian habitats seem to be important. *8, 14 (053007), 55 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) “Extremely rare; known from four specimens, Maricopa and Yuma counties.”), 73, 85 (no records - 072306), 92, 100, 106 (072306), 118 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Can be expected almost anywhere in the state although recorded from only four localities. Figure 23, Page 57)*

 

Myotis californicus (J.J. Audubon & Bachman) subsp. stephensi: California Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Bat, California Myotis, California Myotis Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids and insects. Roosts in crevices and cracks in cliffs and canyon walls, caves, mine shafts and man made shelters. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (sp. - Myotis californicus N. Miller), 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis californicus Audubon & Bachman “Locally common throughout the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis californicus stephensi Dalquest - Distribution: Northern and western part of the state. Figure 16, Page 45)*

 

Myotis velifer subsp. brevis Vaughan: Cave Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: Cave Bat, Cave Myotis, Cave Myotis Bat, Mexican Brown Bat, Murcielago de Cueva (Hispanic), Southwestern Cave Myotis. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects. Roosts in holes and pockets in caves, crevices, bridges, buildings, abandoned mine shafts, tunnels, and trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (Myotis velifer velifer J.A. Allen), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis velifer (J.A. Allen) “Locally abundant in summer months at lower elevations (below 5,000 feet) throughout the southern and western parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis velifer brevis Vaughan - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 11, Page 37)*

 

Myotis velifer velifer (see footnote 8 under Myotis velifer subsp. brevis)

 

Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen) subsp. hesperus: Western Pipistrelle Bat

COMMON NAMES: Canyon Bat, Flittermouse, Murcielago del Poniente (Hispanic), Western Pipistrelle, Western Pipistrelle Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects. Roosts in buildings, crevices in canyon walls, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, under rocks and in mine shafts. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This is the smallest of the western bats. *8 (sp. - Pipistrellus hesperus N. Miller), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen)), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Pipistrellus hesperus apus Elliot - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 19, Page 49)*

 

Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Miller): Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat

SYNONYMY: Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Frost). COMMON NAMES: Lump-nosed Bat, Mule-eared Bat, Murcielago de Townsend (Hispanic), Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat, Western Big-eared Bat, Western Long-eared Bat, Western Lump-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects; roosts on open ceilings in caves and rock shelters, and under bridges and in water diversion tunnels, abandoned mines, mine tunnels and buildings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat is a rather sedentary species that is extremely sensitive to human disturbance and the vandalism of roost caves. *14 (053007), 55 (sp. - Plecotus townsendii (Cooper) - “Locally common throughout the state at elevations above 5,000 feet; rare at lower elevations.”), 73, 85 (053106), 92, 100, 118 (Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens Miller - Distribution: Probably more or less state wide but more abundant in the Upper Sonoran and Transitional Life Zones. Figure 24, Page 58)*

 

 

 

CLASS OSTEICHTHYES: The BONY FISHES

 

 

Family Cyprinodontidae: The Killfish Family

 

Cyprinodon macularius (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Desert Pupfish

COMMON NAMES: Desert Pupfish, Quitobaquito Desert Pupfish. HABITS: Feeds on algae, detritus, insects and aquatic plants. Eggs are laid randomly (within an area defended by the male). HABITAT: Lives in the shallow water of springs, small streams and marshes, backwaters and slow moving parts of creeks and small streams and lakes. NOTES: Subspecies macularis is EXTIRPATED from Arizona and from most of its natural range. *8, 14 (072306), 35, 55 (sp.), 61, 67, 73 (sp.), 106 (fam. with a listing of gen. and sp. - 072306)*

 

 

 

CLASS REPTILIA: The REPTILES

 

 

Family Colubridae: The Colubrid Family

 

Phyllorhynchus browni (L.H. Stejneger) subsp. lucidus: Maricopa Leafnose Snake

COMMON NAMES: Maricopa Leafnose Snake, Maricopa Leaf-nosed Snake, Saddled Leaf-nosed Snake. HABITS: Takes shelter by burrowing into sand and loose soil. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (sp.), 37 (sp.), 55, (sp.) 73 (sp.), 87, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

 

Family Testudinidae: The Land Tortoise Family

 

Gopherus agassizi (J.G. Cooper) - Sonoran Population (also spelled Gopherus agassizii): Sonoran Desert Tortoise

COMMON NAMES: Desert Tortoise, Sonoran Desert Tortoise. HABITS: Feeds on cacti, forbs, grasses, Slender Janusia and other plants and plant materials. Takes shelter in underground burrows, caliche caves located along washes and crevices. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 106 (060306)*

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

I would like to thank Matthew B. Johnson for his review of several of the listings, his input into the layout, his numerous trips into the field to assist in the identification of species and above all for his continued support for this project. I would also like to thank Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator, and the Botanists of the University of Arizona Herbarium for years of assistance with plant identifications. I would also like to thank Neva Connolly, Julia Fonseca and Bill Singleton with the Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District for being willing and able to present the listings on the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan website.

 

 

 

 

FOOTNOTES and REFERENCES

for the Species Distribution Listings compiled for Arizona

 

 

(1) General Mapping:

 

Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

 

National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

 

Ajo, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

 

Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

www.maps4u.com

 

(2) Physiographic Province Mapping:

 

Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Soils Mapping:

 

Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Biotic Communities Mapping and Definitions

 

Ecological formations used in the listings follow those presented in the mapping for the Biotic Communities of the Southwest.

 

Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. Revised June 1983. Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

 

Brown, David E., Charles H. Lowe and Charles P. Pase. June 1980. A Digitized Systematic Classification for Ecosystems with an Illustrated Summary of the Natural Vegetation of North America, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 (5) Nomenclature:

 

for Plants:

 

Generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

The International Plant Names Index (2004, 2005) 

Published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org [accessed 2004, 2005, 2006]

 

National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

for Vertebrate Animals:

 

Generally follows that presented by Charles H. Lowe. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona and E. Lendell Cockrum. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

for Invertebrate Animals:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

(6) Growth Habits of Plants:

 

Generally coincides with that presented by the National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

               

Common names identified in the USDA NRCS database have been printed in bold lettering: A few of the plants were not provided with a common name in the USDA NRCS database and additional resources were used, including:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. *8*

 

Sunset Western Garden Book Kathleen N. Brenzel, 2001, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California. *18*

 

(7) Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

 

(8) Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Amphibians: 2002. Bufo microscaphus, Arizona Toad; 2005. Bufo retiformis, Sonoran Green Toad; 2001. Eleutherodactylus augusti subsp. cactorum, Western Barking Frog; 2003. Gastrophryne olivacea, Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad; 2002. Hyla arenicolor, Canyon Treefrog; 2003. Pternohyla fodiens, Lowland Burrowing Treefrog; 2001. Rana chiricahuensis, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, and 2001. Rana yavapaiensis, Lowland Leopard Frog.

Arachnids: 2004. Albiorix anophthalmus, a cave obligate Pseudoscorpion.

Birds: 2003. Accipiter gentilis, American Goshawk; 2003. Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow; 2002. Aimophila ruficeps subsp. rupicola: Yuma Rufous-crowned Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus savannarum subsp. ammolequs, Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow; 2001. Anthus spragueii, Sprgaue’s Pipit; 2002. Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle; 2000. Asturina nitida, Northern Grey Hawk; 2001. Athene cunicularia subsp. hypugaea, Western Burrowing Owl; 2001. Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk; 2001. Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk; 2005. Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-hawk; 2003. Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara; 2002. Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher; 2001. Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher; 2002. Coccyzus americanus subsp. occidentalis, Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo; 2001-08-27. Colinus virginianus subsp. ridgwayi, Masked Bobwhite; 2002. Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-duck; 2001. Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-duck; 2002. Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink; 2002. Egretta thula, Snowy Egret; 2002. Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite; 2003 Empidonax fulvifrons subsp. pygmaeus, Northern Buff-breasted Flycatcher; 2003. Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher; 2002. Empidonax traillii subsp. extimus, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher; 1998. Falco peregrinus subsp. anatum, American Peregrine Falcon; 2001. Glaucidium brasilianum subsp. cactorum, Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl; 2002. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle; 2004. Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike; 2005. Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl; 2002. Pandion haliaetus, Osprey; 2002. Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis; 2002. Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher; 2001. Rallus longirostris P. Boddaert subsp. yumanensis, Yuma Clapper Rail; 2002. Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart; 2005. Strix occidentalis subsp. lucida, Mexican Spotted Owl; 2001. Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon; 2003. Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird, and 2002. Vireo bellii subsp. arizonae, Arizona Bell’s Vireo.

Dicots: 2000. Abutilon parishii, Pima Indian Mallow; 2004. Ammoselinum giganteum, Sand Parsley; 2003. Amoreuxia gonzalezii, Saiya; 2003. Amsonia kearneyana, Kearney’s Blue Star; 2004. Arenaria aberrans, Mt. Dellenbaugh Sandwort; 1995. Aster potosinus, Lemmon’s Aster; 2004. Berberis harrisoniana, Kofa Barberry; 2000. Boerhavia megaptera, Tucson Mountain Spiderling; 2004. Bursera fagaroides, Torch Wood Copal; 2003. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, Chiltepin; 2005. Castela emoryi, Crucifixion Thorn; 2004. Cirsium mohavense, Mohave Thistle; 2001. Cleome multicaulis, Playa Spider Plant; 2001. Colubrina californica, California Snakewood; 2001. Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina, Pima Pineapple Cactus; 2005. Coryphantha scheeri var. valida, Slender Needle Corycactus; 2004. Croton wigginsii, Dune Croton; 2005. Cryptantha ganderi, Gander’s Cryptantha; 2001. Dalea tentaculoides, Gentry Indigo Bush; 2005. Desmanthus covillei, Coville Bundleflower; 2004. Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii, Nichol Turk’s Head Cactus; 2005. Echinocactus polycephalus, Cotton-top Cactus; 2005. Echinocereus fasciculatus, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus; 2003. Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus, Arizona Hedgehog Cactus; 2004. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis, Acuna Cactus; 2003. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus; 2001. Erigeron arisolius, Arid Throne Fleabane; 2003. Eriogonum capillare, San Carlos Wild-buckwheat; 2005. Eriogonum ericifolium var. ericifolium, Heathleaf Wild-buckwheat; 2004. Euphorbia gracillima, Mexican Broomspurge; 2005. Euphorbia platysperma, Dune Spurge; 2005. Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus. California Barrel Cactus; 2001. Graptopetalum bartramii, Bartram Stonecrop; 2000. Hackelia ursina, Chihuahuan Stickseed; 2000. Hedeoma dentata, Mock-pennyroyal; 2000. Hermannia pauciflora, Sparseleaf Hermannia; 2001. Heterotheca rutteri, Huachuca Golden Aster; 2005. Ibervillea tenuisecta, Texas Globe Berry; 2000. Ipomoea tenuiloba, Trumpet Morning-glory; 2003. Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva, Huachuca Water Umbel; 2000. Lupinus huachucanus, Huachuca Mountain Lupine; 2004. Mammillaria mainiae, Counter Clockwise Fishhook Cactus; 2004. Matelea cordifolia, Sonoran Milkweed Vine; 2006. Passiflora arizonica, Arizona Passionflower; 2003. Pectis imberbis, Beardless Chinch Weed; 2005. Peniocereus striatus, Dahlia Rooted Cereus; 2004. Penstemon superbus, Superb Beardtongue; 2005. Perityle ajoensis, Ajo Rock Daisy; 2005. Petalonyx linearis, Longleaf Sandpaper-plant; 2004. Pholisma sonorae, Sand Food; 2004. Plagiobothrys pringlei, Pringle Popcorn-flower; 2005. Rhus kearneyi, Kearney Sumac; 2005. Stenocereus thurberi, Organ Pipe Cactus; 2005. Stephanomeria schottii, Schott Wire Lettuce; 2004. Stevia lemmonii, Lemmon’s Stevia; 2004. Tragia laciniata, Sonoran Noseburn; 2004. Tumamoca macdougalii, Tumamoc Globeberry; 2005. Vauquelinia californica subsp. sonorensis, Sonoran Mountain Rosewood, and 2004. Viola umbraticola, Shade Violet.

Ferns: 1997. Cheilanthes pringlei, Pringle Lip Fern and 2003. Notholaena lemmonii, Lemmon Cloak Fern.

Fishes: 2002. Agosia chrysogaster, Longfin Dace; 2002. Catostomus clarki, Desert Sucker; 2002. Catostomus insignis, Sonora Sucker; 2001. Cyprinodon eremus, Quitobaquito Pupfish; 2001. Cyprinodon macularius, Desert Pupfish; 2002. Gila intermedia, Gila Chub; 2002. Gila robusta, Roundtail Chub; 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. occidentalis, Gila Topminnow, and 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. sonorensis, Yaqui Topminnow. 

Gastropods: 2003. Tryonia quitobaquitae, Quitobaquito Tryonia.

Insects: 2001. Agathymus aryxna, Arizona Giant Skipper; 2001. Agathymus polingi, Poling’s Giant Skipper; 2004. Anthocharis cethura, Desert Orangetip; 2001. Calephelis rawsoni subsp. arizonensis, Arizona Metalmark; 2002. Heterelmis stephani, Stephan’s Heterelmis Riffle Beetle; 2001. Limenitis archippus subsp. obsoleta, Obsolete Viceroy Butterfly, and 2001. and Neophasia terlootii, Chiricahua Pine White.

Mammals: 2002. Antrozous pallidus, Pallid Bat; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. mexicana, Chihuahuan Pronghorn Antelope; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope; 2004. Bassariscus astutus, Ringtail; 2003. Choeronycteris mexicana, Mexican Long-tongued Bat; 2004. Eptesicus fuscus, Big Brown Bat; 2003. Euderma maculatum, Spotted Bat; 2002. Eumops perotis subsp. californicus, Greater Western Bonneted Bat; 2003. Eumops underwoodi, Underwood’s Mastiff Bat; 2004. Herpailurus yaguarondi, Jaguarundi; 2004. Lasionycteris noctivagans, Silver-haired Bat; 2003. Lasiurus blossevillii, Western Red Bat; 2004. Lasiurus cinereus, Hoary Bat; 2004. Leopardus pardalis subsp sonoriensis, Ocelot; 2003. Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae, Lesser Long-nosed Bat; 2002. Lontra canadensis subsp. sonora, Southwestern River Otter; 2001. Macrotus californicus, California Leaf-nosed Bat; 2003. Myotis auriculus, Southwestern Myotis; 2004. Myotis californicus, California Myotis; 2003. Myotis occultus, Fringed Myotis; 2003. Myotis yumanensis, Yuma Myotis; 2003. Nyctinomops femorosacca, Pocketed Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Nyctinomops macrotis, Big Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Myotis thysanodes, Fringed Myotis; 2002. Myotis velifer, Cave Myotis; 2004. Panthera onca, Jaguar; 2004. Pipistrellus hesperus, Western Pipistrelle; 2006. Puma concolor, Mountain Lion; 2005. Sciurus arizonensis, Arizona Gray Squirrel; 2003. Sigmodon ochrognathus, Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat, and 2004. Tadarida brasiliensis, Brazilian Free-tailed Bat.

Monocots: 2005. Agave x ajoensis, Ajo Agave; 2003. Agave murpheyi, Hohokam Agave; 1994. Agave parviflora subsp. parviflora, Santa Cruz Striped Agave; 2005. Agave schottii var. treleasei, Trelease Agave; 2005. Agave utahensis var. kaibabensis, Kaibab Agave; 2005. Allium bigelovii, Bigelow Onion; 1999. Allium gooddingii, Goodding Onion; 2005. Allium parishii, Parish Onion; 2004. Carex chihuahuensis, Chihuahuan Sedge; 2000. Carex ultra, Arizona Giant Sedge; 2004. Cathestecum erectum, False Grama; 2004. Hexalectris revoluta, Chisos Coral-root; 2005. Hexalectris spicata, Crested Coral Root; 2001. Lilium parryi, Lemon Lily; 2005. Listera convallarioides, Broadleaf Twayblade; 2000. Muhlenbergia xerophila, Weeping Muhly, and 2005. Schiedeella arizonica, Fallen Ladies’-tresses.

Reptiles: 2001. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. stictogrammus, Giant Spotted Whiptail; 2003. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus, Redback Whiptail; 2002. Chionactis occipitalis subsp. klauberi, Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake; 2003. Chionactis palarostris subsp. organica, Organ Pipe Shovel-nosed Snake; 2001. Crotalus lepidus subsp. klauberi, Banded Rock Rattlesnake; 2001. Gopherus agassizi, Desert Tortoise; 2002. Heloderma suspectum subsp. cinctum, Banded Gila Monster; 2002. Heterodon nasicus subsp. kennerlyi, Mexican Hog-nosed Snake; 2005. Kinosternon sonoriense, subsp. longifemorale, Sonoyta Mud Turtle; 2003. Lichanura trivirgata subsp. gracia, Desert Rosy Boa; 2003. Phrynosoma mcallii, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard; 2005. Sauromalus ater, Common Chuckwalla; 2001. Thamnophis eques subsp. megalops, Mexican Garter Snake; 2003. Uma rufopunctata, Yuma Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, and 2003. Xantusia arizonae, Arizona Night Lizard.

 

(9) Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

 

(10) Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Migratory Pollinators Program, Spring 2003 Update, Table 3. Plants Visited by Hummingbirds in Sonora

http://desertmuseum.org/pollination/table_3.html

 

(11) Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(12) Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(13) Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(14) Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

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(15) Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987. Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 50-95, 1987.

 

(16) Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono, Vol.32, No.4, pp. 225-252, 20 December 1985.

 

(17) Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

 

(18) Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

 

(19) Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

 

(20) Bull, John and John Farrand, Jr. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds:  Eastern Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

 

(21) Catalogue of New World Grasses

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(22) Chambers, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field Guide.

 

(23) Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

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(24) Checklist of Plants, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, August 2005.

 

(25) Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA.

 

(26) Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California.

 

(27) Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

 

(28) Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A Field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

 

(29) Erickson, Jim. 1998. 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998.

 

(30) Especies con Usos No Maderables en Bosques de Encino, Pino y Pino-Encino en los Estados de Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco, Michoacan, Guerrero y Oaxaca.

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(31) Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(32) Florida Nature

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http://www.floridanature.org/copyright.asp

 

(33) Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(34) Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistletoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

 

(35) Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

 

(36) The Hermannia Pages: American Species

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(37) Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

 

(38) Hodge, Carle. 1991. All About Saguaros, Arizona Highways Magazine, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, Arizona.

 

(39) Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

 

(40) Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

 

(41) Howery, Larry D. and Gina Ramos. Arizona’s Invasive Weeds, The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension Service and United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

 

(42) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) on-line database:

 http://www.itis.usda.gov.

 

(43) The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005 and 2005, published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org

 

(44) Jepson Flora Project

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http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

 

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(46) Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

 

(47) Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison. 2003. Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

 

(48) Landscaping with Native Arizona Plants. 1973. Natural Vegetation Committee, Arizona Chapter, Soil Conservation Society of America, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(49) Las Cienegas National Conservation Area - Records and Reports.

 

(50) Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

 

(51) Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

 

(52) Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

 

(53) Little, Elbert L., Jr. December 1950. Southwestern Trees - A Guide to the Native Species of New Mexico and Arizona, Agriculture Handbook No. 9, United State Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25 D.C.

 

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(55) Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(56) Maus, Kathryn. October 12, 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, The West Branch Flora, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

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(59) Medina, Alvin L. 2003. Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 141 thru 148.

 

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(65) Olin, George. 1975. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Popular Series No. 8, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

 

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(67) Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

(68) Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(69) Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

(70) Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

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(71) Pima County Parks and Recreation Department, Cienega Creek Natural Preserve Bird Checklist, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(72) Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

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(73) Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

 

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(75) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Reports and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(76) Richmond, D.L. and M.L. Richardson. January 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Natural Resource Conservation Districts in Mohave County, General Soil and Interpretations, Mohave County, Arizona and General Soil Map Mohave County, Arizona.

 

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Department of Entomology, Forbes 410, PO Box 2100: (36), Tucson, Arizona 85721-0036; 520-621-1151; FAX: 520-621-1150

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(96) University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web

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(97) Venomous Creatures of the Southwest, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum and the Arizona Poison Control System. University of Arizona, Poison and Drug Information Center, College of Pharmacy, Tucson 1-800-222-1222, and the Samaritan Regional Poison Center, Good Samaritan Medical Center - Phoenix and the Arizona Department of Health Services - Emergency Medical Services Division.

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(118) Cockrum, E. Lendell. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

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(HR) Historical Record (possibly without author and/or observation date)

 

(TC) Tucson Citizen (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

 

(ADS) Arizona Daily Star (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

(AHS) Arizona Historical Society

 

(ANN) Anonymous

 

(JFW) John F. Wiens

 

(MBJ) Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum

 

(RGM) G. Meades

 

(WTK) William T. Kendall  

 

 

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