November 25, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 18 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributor and Source: William T. Kendall. Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet). Special Status Species Reports - Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System. Jim Erickson, 1998, 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998. Paul R. Krausman and Michael L. Morrison, 2003, Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted.

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking to the north into the township. WTK August 2005

 

The following are a few of the plants reported from this township that might be useful in landscaping and restoration projects. Trees and Large Shrubs: Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Soaptree Yucca (Yucca elata var. elata), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Desert Hackberry (Celtis pallida), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Desert Cotton (Gossypium thurberi), Chainfruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni). Shrubs and Large Grasses:  Four-wing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Limberbush (Jatropha cardiophylla), Santa Rita Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia santa-rita), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus), Desert Christmas Cholla (Opuntia leptocaulis), Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa), Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta), California Trixis (Trixis californica), Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri) and Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla). Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents: Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra), Bundle Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus), Arizona Rainbow Cactus (Echinocereus rigidissimus), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa), Woody Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens), Common Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta), Hairyseed Bahia (Bahia absinthifolia), Desert Holly (Acourtia nana), Southwestern Mock Vervain (Glandularia gooddingii), Leatherweed (Croton pottsii), Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii) and Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella).

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in southeastern Pima County in south-central Arizona. Portions of the community of Green Valley, Town of Sahuarita and San Ignacio de la Canoa Land Grant are located in this township. A portion of the University of Arizona Santa Rita Experimental Range and Wildlife Area is located within this township. Named mining sites include the Twin Buttes Mine. Named wells include the Amado Well.

 

Landmarks: This township is located in the Santa Cruz Valley. The Santa Cruz River flows south to north through the eastern half of this township. Named washes include the Demetrie Wash and Sawmill Canyon Wash. The mouth of Florida Canyon is located in the southeast quarter.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,780 feet on the north townships line at the Santa Cruz River and at the northeast corner to approximately 3,527 feet at an unnamed hill located southeast of the northwest corner. (1).

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils (soils with mean annual temperatures of 59 degrees to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees to 22 degrees Centigrade) and 10 to 16 inches (25 to 41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Continental-Sonoita-Tubac Association (deep, arid soils on uplands) and the White House-Bernardino-Caralampi Association (deep, semiarid soils on uplands) (3).

 

Biotic Community: Portions of this township are located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation and the Scrub-Grassland (Semidesert Grassland) Regional Formation of the Grassland Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township Showing Adjacent Sections

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata (5): Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height) (6); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus lancea C. Linnaeus f.: African Sumac, Karee, Karree, Sauce Africano, Willow Rhus (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 20-30 feet high); within range reported from washes. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat, unable to locate in BONAP or NRCS Plants Database)

 

Apiaceae: The Carrot Family

(Umbelliferae: The Parsley Family)

 

Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose var. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter (Lilaeopsis recurva A.W. Hill, Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose subsp. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter): Cienega False Rush, Cienega Water Umbel, Huachuca Water Umbel, Schaffner’s Grasswort (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from wet ground near perennial seeps, springs, streams, rivers, cienegas, marshy wetlands and in shallow water; once occurred in the Santa Cruz River Valley near Tucson)

 

Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from canyons and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Gutierrezia sp.: Snakeweed

 

Heterotheca psammophila R. Wagenknecht (Heterotheca subaxillaris (J.B. de Lamarck) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby sensu T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles): Camphorweed, Golden Aster, Gordolobo, Telegraph Plant (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditches, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck (Aster tanacetifolius K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Tahoka Daisy, Tansyleaf Spine Aster, Tansyleaf Tansyaster (terrestrial long lived annual or biennial herb; within range reported from flats and roadsides 1,000 to 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Condolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Condolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and dirt roads below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental. PERIPHERAL PLANT(S))

 

Coryphantha scheeri (F. Müehlenpfordt) L. Benson var. robustispina (H.W. Schott) L. Benson (Mammillaria robustispina H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann): Longtubercle Beehive Cactus, Devil’s Pincushion, Pima Pineapple Cactus, Scheer’s Strong-spined Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Mulee Pineapple (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, ridges, bajadas, slopes and flats)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus rigidissimus (G. Engelmann) F.A. Haage f. (Echinocereus pectinatus (M.J. Scheidweiler) G. Engelmann var. rigidissimus (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rumpler): Arizona Rainbow Cactus, Rainbow Echinocereus, Rainbow Hedgehog, Rainbow Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 1 foot); within range reported from mountains, hills, grasslands and flats 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt (Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Red-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) J.N. Rose (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) L. Benson: Blue Blade, Dollar Cactus, Duraznilla, Nopal Morado, Purple Pricklypear, Red Blade Pricklypear, Santa Rita Cactus, Santa Rita Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 5 feet high); within range reported from canyons, ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and valleys 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia tetracantha J.W. Toumey (Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall): Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 7 fee high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Evolvulus arizonicus A. Gray: Arizona Blue-eyes, Evolvulus, Wild Dwarf Morning-glory, Wild Morning-glory (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, flats and along washes 3,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Croton pottsii (J.F. Klotzsch) J. Müller Argoviensis var. pottsii (Croton corymbulosus G. Engelmann): Leatherweed, Leather Weed Croton (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Matacora, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains and along washes and arroyos 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by wildlife.)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental. PERIPHERAL PLANT(S))

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet)

 

Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia sp.: Blazingstar

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Gossypium thurberi A. Todaro: Algodoncillo, Desert Cotton, Thurber’s Cotton, Thurberia, Wild Cotton, Wild Desert Cotton (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 12 feet high); within range reported from canyons, gravelly and rocky slopes and along washes, streambeds and ditches 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Najadaceae: The Waternymph Family

 

Najas marina C. Linnaeus (Najas major C. Linnaeus): Holly-leaf Water Naiad, Holly-leaf Waternymph, Holly-leaved Water Nymph, Spiny Naiad (aquatic annual herb; ponds and lakes 2,500 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Boerhavia sp.: Spiderling

 

Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Yellow Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats 1,500 to 7,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes and streambeds below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. barbata): Navajita Annual, Sixweeks Grama, Zacate Liebrero (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua rothrockii G. Vasey (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. rothrockii (G. Vasey) F.W. Gould): Navajita Liebrero, Rothrock’s Grama (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura (Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz): False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, hills, plains and flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Muhlenbergia rigens (G. Bentham) A.S. Hitchcock: Deer Grass, Deergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, meadows, flats and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, moist soil, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Sporobolus contractus A.S. Hitchcock: Spike Dropseed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bluffs, rocky slopes, sand hills, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, along washes and floodplains 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or woody climber; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, arroyos, along ditches and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation. Poisonous)

 

Lycium sp.: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium exsertum A. Gray: Arizona Desert-thorn, Desert Thorn, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and alluvial outwash plains 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche, Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation; flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tamaricaceae: Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix chinensis João de Loureiro (Tamarix pentandra P. Simon von Pallas): Fivestamen Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 20 feet high); within range reported from mountains, moist plains, stream and river banks, irrigation ditches, floodplains, moist soil and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (7 to 17 feet high); within range reported from rivers, creeks, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, marshy areas, reservoirs and tanks. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, roadsides and along washes and streambeds below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia,  commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

(based in part on a general listing of animals reported from the Santa Rita Experimental Range)

 

BIRDS

 

Columbidae: The Dove and Pigeon Family

 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are crude stick platforms located in thickets and trees)

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus) subsp. occidentalis: California Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Pajaro Vaquero Pico Amarillo (Hispanic), Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Yellow-billed Cuckoo (feeds on ants, beetles, berries, bird’s eggs, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, dragonflies, flies, frogs, fruit, grasshoppers, katydids, lizards, moths, spiders and wasps; nests are a frail stick or twig platform or saucer lined with leaves located in low bushes and small trees)

 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs)

 

Emberizidae: The Emberizid Family

 

Aimophila carpalis (Coues): Rufous-winged Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of woven course and fine grasses located low bushes and cacti, in young mesquite trees and on the ground)

 

Odontiphoridae: The Quail Family

 

Callipepla squamata (Vigors): Blue Racer Quail, Blue Quail, Codorniz Escamosa (Hispanic), Cotton Top, Cottontop Quail, Mexican Quail, Scaled Partridge, Scaled Quail, Top-knot Quail (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; nest are hollows or depressions under shrubs)

 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel) (Lophortyx gambelii Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Gambel) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; eggs are laid in a ground scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti)

 

Scolopacidae: The Curlew, Sandpiper and Allies Family

 

Calidris melanotos Vieillot: Pectoral Sandpiper (feeds on insects; nests are scrapes and grassy hollows located on the tundra; seen in Arizona during winter migration)

 

Trochilidae: The Hummingbird Family

 

Calypte costae (Bourcier): Chuparosa Costa (Hispanic), Costa’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are leaf-thatched and lichen woven cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Castoridae: The Beaver Family

 

Castor canadensis Kuhle: American Beaver; Beaver; Beaver Castor (Hispanic) (found in aquatic habitats including creeks, streams, rivers, marshes, cienegas, ponds and lakes; feeds on bark, branches, buds, leaves or needles and twigs of alder, aspen, birch, cattail, cottonwood, maple, mesquite, tamarix and willow, and the roots of pond lilies and other tuberous plants; beaver dams help reduce erosion and provide habitat for other animals including otters and waterfowl; beavers have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the permanent streams in Arizona, their historical distribution in Pima County is unknown.)

 

Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque): Black-tailed Deer,  Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic) (feeds on beans, branches, fruit, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurge; reported from desert foothills with scrub growth, thick growth along washes, forest edges and mountains )

 

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) subsp. couesi: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer (feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel; reported from mountains, canyons, forests, woodlands, meadows, scrub and desertscrub)

 

Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis concolor Linnaeus (Puma concolor): California Lion, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, El Leon (Hispanic), Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mountain Lion, Painter American Lion, Panther; Puma  (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bears, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupine, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer)

 

Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus baileyi Merriam (Perognathus baileyi Merriam) subsp. baileyi: Bailey’s Pocket Mouse, Raton de Bailey (Hispanic) (feeds on vegetation, and fruits and seeds of cactus, grass and other herbs; the nest is made in underground burrows)

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus Woodhouse (Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse): Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse (feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite; the nest is made in underground burrows)

 

Dipodomys spectabilis (Merriam); Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat, Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera (Hispanic) (feeds on grasses, green and succulent plants, insects rodents and seeds; nests are made up of chaff, stems and leaves of grass located in underground burrows in firm soils)

 

Perognathus amplus Osgood, Arizona Pocket Mouse (feeds on green plants, insects and seeds; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Perognathus flavus (Baird): Silky Pocket Mouse (feeds on seeds; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni (Mearns): Antelope Jack Rabbit (feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite)

 

Lepus californicus Gray: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti)

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula Hartley: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat (feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca; nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows)

 

Onychomys torridus (Coves): Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse (feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Reithrodontomys fulvescens (Benson): Fulvous Harvest Mouse (feeds on insects and other invertebrates and seeds)

 

Mustelidae: The Skunk, Weasel and Allies Family

 

Lontra canadensis (Schreber) (Lutra canadensis (Schreber)): Arizona Otter, Nearctic River Otter, Northern river Otter, Pah-hua-pe’na (Tewa), River Otter, Southwestern River Otter (feeds on crayfish, crustaceans, fish, frogs, large aquatic insects, mice and turtles; found in permanently flowing water of streams and rivers and lakes, ponds, including beaver ponds, marshes, cienegas with overhanging bank vegetation and haul-out and slide sites for access, and establishing dens in banks; river otters have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the larger permanent river systems in Arizona, their historical presence in Pima County is unknown)

 

Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Nasua narica (Merriam): Chula, Chulo, Coati (Indian), Coatimundi, El Gato Solo (Los Gatos en Familia), Pizote, White-nosed Coati (feeds on berries of juniper and manzanita, birds, eggs, fruit, insects and other invertebrates, prickly pear fruit, small mammals, tubers and worms)

 

Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman) (Citellus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman)): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel (feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus (Citellus tereticaudus (Baird)): Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo,  paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking young quail)

 

Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Peccari tajacu Linnaeus (Tayassu tajacu): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grass, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets)

 

Ursidae: The Bear Family

 

Ursus arctos (Linnaeus): Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (feeds on berries, carrion, fish, fungi, insects, leaves, mammals, roots and sprouts; reported from the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson. EXTIRPATED from Arizona)

 

 

REPTILES

 

Teiidae: The Whiptail and Allies Family

 

Aspidoscelis sonorae Lowe and Wright (Cnemidophorus “sonorae”): Sonoran Spotted Whiptail (feeds on centipedes, insects, other lizards, scorpions, spiders and termites; reported from woodlands and grasslands, on rocky slopes, desertscrubs and in riparian forests)

 

Viperidae: The Pit Viper Family

 

If bitten by a rattlesnake remain calm, remove all jewelry (including watches), immobilize extremity,

keep at level below the heart, decrease total body activity, and transport to medical facility. Do not apply ice to bitten area, do not use an incision of any kind, do not use a tourniquet, do not administer drugs or alcohol, and do not use electric shock treatment (Tuscon Herpetological Society. 1995. Living with Rattlesnakes. Tuscon, Arizona, 8751-1531. BISON-M).

 

Crotalus atrox Baird and Girard: Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (feeds on bird’s eggs and young birds, frogs, gophers, lizards, mice, prairie dogs, rabbits, rats, squirrels  and toads; reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, forests, woodlands, rocky hillsides, scrubs, sandy flats, plains, desertscrubs, lowland areas, riparian areas, river bottoms and coastal plains; venomous snake)

 

Crotalus molossus Baird and Girard: Blacktail Rattlesnake, Black-tailed Rattlesnake (feeds on small mammals; reported from mountains, cliffs, rockslides, rocky slopes, rock outcrops, forests, woodlands, scrubs, grasslands and desertscrubs; venomous snake)

 

Crotalus scutulatus Kennicott: Mojave Rattlesnake (feeds on reptiles, kangaroo rats and other rodents; reported from lower mountains slopes, woodlands, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs and mesquite bosques; a venomous and extremely dangerous snake)

 

 

 

Listing Footnotes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA