November 26, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 17 SOUTH, RANGE 15 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributor and Source: Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. William T. Kendall.  J. M. Pyle and Family. Jim Erickson, 1998, 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998. Paul R. Krausman and Michael L. Morrison, 2003, Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted.

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking northeast, the Rincon Mountains and Santa Catalina Mountains

are in the background. WTK August 2005

 

The following are a few of the plants reported from this township that might be useful in landscaping and restoration projects. Trees and Large Shrubs: Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis subsp. arcuata), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Soaptree Yucca (Yucca elata var. elata), Desert Hackberry (Celtis pallida), Common Sotol (Dasylirion wheeleri), Longleaf Joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca), Wild Cotton (Gossypium thurberi), Chainfruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni),  Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) and Desert Honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi). Vines and Climbers: Pipevine Flower (Aristolochia watsoni). Shrubs and Large Grasses: Arizona Yucca (Yucca baccata var. brevifolia), Four-wing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Wright Sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta), Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Desert Christmas Cholla (Opuntia leptocaulis), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa), Arizona Cottontop (Digitaria californica), Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus), Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus) and Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri). Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents: Blackspine Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia macrocentra var. macrocentra), Mariola (Parthenium incanum), Parry Penstemon (Penstemon parryi), Cooper Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi), Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii), Bundle Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus), Desert Senna (Senna covesii), Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra), Mexican Gold Poppy (Eschscholzia californica subsp. mexicana), Bluedicks (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum), Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata), Hairyseed Bahia (Bahia absinthifolia), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa), Common Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta), Desert Holly (Acourtia nana), Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii) and Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella).

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in east-central Pima County in south-central Arizona. A portion of the community of Corona de Tucson is located within this township. This township is bounded on the north by the alignment for Andrada Road and on the west by the alignment for Wilmot Road. Portions of the University of Arizona Santa Rita Experimental Range and Wildlife Area and Coronado National Forest are located within this township. Historic quarry sites include the Jones Quarry.  Historic ranches include the Mount Fagan Ranch.

 

Landmarks: A northwestern portion of the Santa Rita Mountains is located in the southeast quarter of this township. Named washes include the Sycamore Canyon Wash.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,855 feet at the northwest corner to approximately 4.580 feet near the southeast corner in the foothills of the Santa Rita Mountains (1).

 

Physiographic Province: Portions of this township are located within the Sonoran Desert Section and Mexican Highland Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils (soils with mean annual temperatures of 59 degrees to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees to 22 degrees Centigrade) and 10 to 16 inches (25 to 41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Anthony-Sonoita Association (deep, arid soils on the alluvial fans and valley slopes), Continental-Sonoita-Tubac Association (deep, arid soils on uplands), White House-Bernardino-Caralampi Association (deep, semiarid soils on uplands) and the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire-Cellar Association (rock outcrops and very shallow, and shallow, semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills) (3).

 

Biotic Community: Portions of this township are located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation and the Scrub-Grassland (Semidesert Grassland) Regional Formation of the Grassland Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township Showing Adjacent Sections

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year.  

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 8 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyon bottoms and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds)

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson: Cactus Spoon, Common Sotol, Desert Spoon, Sotol, Spoon Flower, Spoon Plant, Wheeler Dasylirion, Wheeler Sotol (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 8 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 15 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and rocky and gravelly hillsides 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by bighorn sheep)

 

Yucca baccata J. Torrey var. brevifolia (H.W. Schott ex J. Torrey) L. Benson & R.A. Darrow (Yucca arizonica S.A. McKelvey, Yucca thornberi S.A. McKelvey): Arizona Yucca, Banana Yucca, Datil, Palma Criolla, Spanish Dagger, Thornber Yucca (terrestrial perennial evergreen herb, subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet high with a flowering stalk reaching to 5 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata: Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Aristolochiaceae: The Birthwort Family

 

Aristolochia watsoni E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Dutchman’s Pipevine, Hierba del Indio, Indian-root, Pipevine Flower, Raiz del Indio, Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe, Watson Indian Root (terrestrial perennial herbaceous vine; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 2,000 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle (terrestrial biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Conyza bonariensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist (Erigeron linifolius C.L. von Willldenow): Argentiinankoiransilmä, Asthma Weed, Asthmaweed, Flax-leaved Fleabane, Fleabane, Hairy Fleabane, Horseweed (terrestrial annual or biennial herb; within range reported from washes and river bottoms, floodplains, moist soils and disturbed areas 1,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray: Sticky Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Three-leaf Snakeweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 3,500 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 6? feet high); within range reported from sandy washes and streambeds 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Parthenium incanum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Crowded Rayweed, Mariola (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: Desert Chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, New Mexico Plumeseed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes and plains 200 to 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall (Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray, Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.J. Robinson & J.M. Greenman) J.R. Coleman: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high or more); within range reported from roadsides and along washes and streams below 6,000 feet elevation; useful in erosion control and as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata, Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann forma cristata): Crested Saguaro, Fan Top Saguaro, Fishtail Saguaro, Saguaro - Crested Form (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50 feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Coryphantha scheeri (F. Müehlenpfordt) L. Benson var. robustispina (H.W. Schott) L. Benson (Mammillaria robustispina H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann): Longtubercle Beehive Cactus, Devil’s Pincushion, Pima Pineapple Cactus, Scheer’s Strong-spined Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Mulee Pineapple (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, ridges, bajadas, slopes and flats. PERIPHERAL PLANT(S))

 

Echinocactus horizonthalonius C. Lemaire var. nicholii L. Benson: Bisnaga Manca Caballo, Bisnaga Meloncillo, Blue Barrel, Devilshead, Eagle’s Claw, Manco Mula, Meloncillo, Nichol’s Echinocactus, Nichol Turk’s-head Cactus, Nichol Woolly-headed Cactus, Turk’s Head (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mountains, ridges, hills, bajadas, slopes and flats below 3600 feet elevation. Unable to relocate the plants reported in order to verify this observation.)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Candy Barrelcactus - Crested Form, Crested Fishhook Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia sp.: Pricklypear Cactus (EXOTIC. observed growing in wash north of Corona de Tucson after having been dumped there)

 

Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida forma cristata: Crested Chain Cholla, Crested Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. laevis (T. Coulter) L. Benson (Opuntia laevis T. Coulter): Smooth Pricklypear, Tulip Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from canyons, cliff ledges, slopes and valleys 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia tetracantha J.W. Toumey (Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall): Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 7 fee high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Sclerocactus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.P. Taylor: Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes and flats 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation; includes Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson (Neolloydia erectocentra (T. Coulter) L. Benson var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson): Acuna Cactus, Bisnagitas, Red-spined Pineapple Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from ridges and bajadas 1,200 to 2,300 feet elevation) and Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. erectocentrus (Neolloydia erectocentra (T. Coulter) L. Benson var. erectocentra: Bisnagitas, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus, Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes and flats 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation. PERIPHERAL PLANT(S))

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Evolvulus alsinoides (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus var. angustifolius J. Torrey (Evolvulus alsinoides (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus var. acapulcensis (C.L. von Willdenow) S.J. van Ooststroom): Acapulco Evolvulus, Arizona Blue Eyes, Dio de Vibora, Slender Dwarf Morning-glory (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ipomoea purpurea (C. Linnaeus) A.W. Roth (Ipomoea hirsutula N.J. von Jacquin f.): Common Morning-glory, Entireleaf Morning-glory, Garden Morning-glory, Mexican Morning-glory, Tall Morning-glory, Woolly Morning-glory (terrestrial long lived annual herb or vine; within range reported from flats, roadsides, ditches, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Apodanthera undulata A. Gray: Melon Loco (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and washes 1,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Marah gilensis E.L. Greene: Big Root, Gila Manroot, Wild Cucumber (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Croton pottsii (J.F. Klotzsch) J. Müller Argoviensis var. pottsii (Croton corymbulosus G. Engelmann): Leatherweed, Leather Weed Croton (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by wildlife.)

 

Hoffmannseggia glauca (C.G. de Ortega) I.J. Eifert (Hoffmanseggia densiflora G. Bentham): Camote de Raton, Hog Potato, Indian Rushpea, Pignut, Sicklepod Rushpea (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from flats, sandy roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; roots provide food for many animals)

 

Lupinus sp.: Lupine

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh subsp. concinnus: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham var. sparsiflorus: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Desert Lupine, Mojave Lupine (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, flats, roadsides and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy streambeds and sandy soils below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: Chacate, Cosahui, Gray Rantany, White Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and plains below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham var. columbariae: California Sage, Chia (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes below 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia sp.: Blazingstar

 

Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial vine or woody climber; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats; useful as an ornamental 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon abutiloides (N.J. von Jacquin) C.A. Garcke ex N.L. Britton & W.M. Wilson: Berlandier Abutilon, Indian Mallow, Shrubby Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas and along washes; food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Arizona Powdered-skipper)

 

Gossypium thurberi A. Todaro: Algodoncillo, Desert Cotton, Thurber’s Cotton, Thurberia, Wild Cotton, Wild Desert Cotton (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 12 feet high); within range reported from canyons, gravelly and rocky slopes and along washes, streambeds and ditches 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Naked Hibiscus, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed sites below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Boerhavia sp.: Spiderling

 

Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Yellow Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats 1,500 to 7,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray subsp. primiveris (Oenothera primiveris A. Gray var. caulescens P.A. Munz): Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats below 4,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Eschscholzia californica L.K. von Chamisso subsp. mexicana (E.L. Greene) J.C. Clark (Eschscholtzia mexicana E.L. Greene): Amapola Amorilla,, Amopola del Campo, California Poppy, Desert Gold Poppy, Gold Poppy, Mexican Gold Poppy (terrestrial winter annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, ridge tops, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and roadsides below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach var. aristidoides: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and along washes and streambeds below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Bouteloua chondrosioides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Harvard Grama, Sprucetop Grama, Woolly-spiked Grama (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes and rocky flats 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills 1,800 to 7,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus); useful as an ornamental)

 

Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura (Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz): False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, hills, plains and flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus subsp. leporinum (J.H. Link) G. Arcangeli (Critesion murinum (C. Linnaeus) R.M. Love subsp. leporinum (J.H. Link) R.M. Love, Hordeum leporinum J.H. Link): Cebadilla Silvestre, Common Foxtail, Hare Barley, Leporinum Barley, Mouse Barley, Wild Barley (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 9,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Sporobolus contractus A.S. Hitchcock: Spike Dropseed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bluffs, rocky slopes, sand hills, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, along washes and floodplains 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex F.L. Scribner (Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey var. wrightii (W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner) F.W. Gould): Alkali Sacaton, Big Sacaton, Sacaton, Sacaton Grass, Wright Sacaton, Zacaton (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from plateaus, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, river banks, floodplains and bottomlands 2,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Eriogonum brachypodum J. Torrey & A. Gray (Eriogonum parryi A. Gray): Parry’s Buckwheat, Tecopa, Tecopa Skeleton Buckwheat, Tecopa Skeleton Weed, Yellow Buckwheat (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from about 1,500 feet elevation)

 

Rumex hymenosepalus J. Torrey: Canaigra, Canaigre Dock, Desert Rhubarb, Dock; Sorrel, Wild Rhubarb (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from flats, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or woody climber; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Resedaceae: The Mignonette Family

 

Oligomeris linifolia (M.H. Vahl) J.F. Macbride: Desert Cambess, Linearleaf Cambess, Lineleaf Whitepuff, Slender-leaf Cambess (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, dirt roads and along washes below 2,500 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and streambeds 1,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, arroyos, along ditches and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation. Poisonous)

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams 1,500 to 3,500 feet elevation; the fruit is eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Aloysia wrightii (A. Gray) A.A. Heller ex L. Abrams: Altamisa, Beebrush, Oreganillo, Vara Dulce, Wright Aloysia, Wright’s Beebrush, Wright Lippia (terrestrial perennial deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes and along washes 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions)

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

(based in part on a listing developed by J.M. Pyle and Family

and a general listing of animals reported from the Santa Rita Experimental Range)

 

 

BIRDS

 

Accipitridae: The Eagle, Hawk, Kite and Allies Family

 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte): Cooper’s Hawk, Galvilan Palomero (Hispanic), Galvilan Pollero (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds and mammals; nest is a platform of sticks located in trees)

 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot: Galvilan Pajerero (Hispanic), Sharp-shinned Hawk; Wishag (feeds on birds and small mammals; nest is a platform of twigs located in trees)

 

Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus): Aguila Real (Hispanic), Golden Eagle (feeds on birds, rabbits and larger rodents; nest is a bulky mass of sticks located on cliffs, ledges or in trees)

 

Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin): Buzzard, Buzzard Hawk, Chicken Hawk, Eastern Redtail, Gavilan Cola Roja (Hispanic), Hen Hawk, Mouse Hawk, Redtail, Red-tailed Buzzard, Red-tailed Hawk, Western Redtail (feeds on rodents and lizards; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs and in saguaros and trees)

 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte: Gavilan Chapulinero (Hispanic), Swainson’s Hawk (feeds on grasshoppers, locusts and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs or ground, or in bushes, tall cacti, trees and yuccas)

 

Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck): Aguililla Cinchada (Hispanic), Aguililla Roja (Hispanic), Harris’s Hawk (feeds on rodents, rabbits and birds; nest is a platform of sticks located in mesquites, small trees and yuccas)

 

Cardinalidae: The Bunting, Cardinal and Grosbeak Family

 

Cardinalis cardinalis (Linneaus) (Richmondena cardinalis (Linneaus)): Cardenal (Hispanic), Cardenal Rojo (Hispanic), Northern Cardinal, Sipuk (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of shredded bark and twigs located in a low shrubs or thickets)

 

Cardinalis sinuatus (Bonaparte) (Pyrrhuloxia sinuata (Bonaparte)): Bichpod (Tohono O’odham), Cardenal Gris, Cardinal Torito (Hispanic), Pyrrhuloxia (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds nests are neat cups located in thorny bushes)

 

Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus): Pepitero Pico Rojo (Hispanic), Rose-breasted Grosbeak (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds nests are frail flat saucers made of plant stems and twigs located in bushes and trees)

 

Cathartidae: The New World Vulture Family

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Coragyps atratus (Bechstein): Black Vulture (feed on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in caves, crevices in rock, on the ground in thickets and tree hollows)

 

Charadriidae: The Lapwing and Plover Family

 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus: Chiwi-Chuhch (Tohono O’odham), Killdeer, Tildio (Hispanic) (feeds on marine invertebrate and worms; eggs are laid in a scrape on bare ground in fields, pastures and shores)

 

Columbidae: The Dove and Pigeon Family

 

Columba fasciata Say: Band-tailed Pigeon, Blue Pigeon, Blue Rock, Paloma Pellotera (Hispanic), White-collard Pigeon (feeds on acorns, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are flat stick platforms located on branches and twigs of trees)

 

Columbina inca (Lesson) (Scardafella inca (Lesson)): Gugu (Tohono O’odham), Inca Dove, Tortola (Hispanic), Tortolita Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; saucer shaped nests are made of mixed vegetation and located in shrubs and low trees)

 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are crude stick platforms located in thickets and trees)

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

Corvidae: The Crow, Jay, Magpie and Raven Family

 

Aphelocoma ultramarina (Bonaparte): Arizona Jay, Gray-breasted Jay, Mexican Jay, Pajaro Pecho Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on acorns, berries, bird’s eggs and nestlings, insects, nuts and seeds; nests are bowls made of twigs and lined with hair located in trees)

 

Corvus corax Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees)

 

Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs)

 

Emberizidae: The Emberizid Family

 

Aimophila carpalis (Coues): Rufous-winged Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of woven course and fine grasses located low bushes and cacti, in young mesquite trees and on the ground)

 

Aimophila cassinii (Woodhouse): Cassin’s Sparrow, Gorrion Cassin (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are deep grass cups located on the ground and at the bases of bushes and cacti)

 

Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin): Gorrion Chapulinero (Hispanic), Grasshopper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located on the ground in grass)

 

Amphispiza bilineata (Cassin): Ba’ I-Chukulim (Tohono O’odham), Black-throated Sparrow, Desert Sparrow, Gorrion Garganta Negra (Hispanic), Zacatonaro Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose grassy cups located in cacti and shrubs)

 

Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger: Lark Bunting (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of grass and plant down located in  tussocks of grass on the ground and in  scrapes)

 

Melospiza melodia (Wilson): Gorrion Cantor (Hispanic), Song Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located in low bushes and on the ground)

 

Pipilo fuscus Swainson: Bichput (Tohono O’odham), Brown Towhee, Canyon Towhee, Hichput; Toqui Pinto (Hispanic), Vieja (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are large deep cups of grasses and rootlets located in bushes and low trees)

 

Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin): Vesper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects, seeds and small fruit; nests are grass lined cups located on the ground in grass and low vegetation)

 

Spizella breweri Cassin: Brewer’s Sparrow, Gorrion Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of grasses located in low conifers, sagebrush or on the ground)

 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster): Gambel’s Sparrow, Gorrion Copete Blanco (Hispanic), Gorrion Corona Blanca (Hispanic), Intermediate Sparrow, Nuttall’s Sparrow, Tomtol (Tohono O’odham), White-crown, White-crowned Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located in bushes or on the ground)

 

Falconidae: The Caracara and Falcon Family

 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus: Merlin, Pigeon Hawk (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests in cavities, cliff ledges, niches, tree tops and on the ground)

 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus: Cernicalo Americano (Hispanic), American Kestrel, Sisiki (Tohono O’odham), Sparrow Hawk (feeds on amphibians, birds, insects, reptiles, rodents and small birds; eggs are laid in holes in saguaros and trees and on cliffs)

 

Fringillidae: The Cardueline and Fringilline Finch Family

 

Carduelis tristis (Linnaeus) (Spinus tristis (Linnaeus)): American Goldfinch, Common Goldfinch, Pale Goldfinch (feeds on berries, buds, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are compact, felted cups made of bark shreds, grass and plant down located in the branch forks of bushes and trees)

 

Carpodacus mexicanus (Miller): House Finch, “Linnet”, Pinzon Mexicano (Hispanic) (feeds on buds, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are tightly woven, compact cups made of grasses located in bushes, cacti, trees and vines)

 

Hirundinidae: The Martin and Swallow Family

 

Progne subis (Linnaeus): Martin Azul (Hispanic), Purple Martin, Western Purple Martin (feeds on insects; nests made of feathers, grasses, leaves, mud and stalks located in holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Icteridae: The Blackbird, Oriole and Allies Family

 

Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler): Brewer’s Blackbird, Tordo Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on fruits, insects, seeds, small aquatic life; nests are bulky grass-lined cups made up of grasses and twigs, plastered with mud located on the ground or in low shrubs or trees)

 

Icterus cucullatus Swainson: Calandria (Hispanic), Calandria Copetona (Hispanic), Hooded Oriole, S-Oam Shashani (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are a long, hanging basket or woven pouch located under palm fronds, shrubs and yuccas)

 

Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin) (Cassidix mexicanus (Gmelin)): Boat-tailed Grackle, Chanate Cola Grande (Hispanic), Great-tailed Grackle, Zanate  (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of sticks, grasses, mud and sticks lined with grasses located in trees, bushes and marsh reeds)

 

Sturnella magna (Linnaeus): Alondra del Este (Hispanic), Eastern Meadowlark (feeds on small aquatic life, fruits, insects and seeds; nests are dome-shaped saucers made of grasses and herbs located under tufts of grass)

 

Laniidae: The Shrike Family

 

Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus: “Butcher Bird”, Loggerhead Shrike, Verdugo (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds, insects, lizards and small mammals; nests are made of feathers, rootlets and twigs located in bushes and trees)

 

Mimidae: The Catbird, Mockingbird and Thrasher Family

 

Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus): Cenzontle (Hispanic), Cenzontle Norteno (Hispanic), Mockingbird, Northern Mockingbird, Shug (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests bulky cups made of rootlets and twigs located near ground in thickets and dense trees)

 

Toxostoma curvirostre (Swainson): Palmer’s Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Comun (Hispanic), Cuitlacoche Pico Curvo (Hispanic), Curve-billed Thrasher, Kudwik (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests are cups made of twigs located in chollas and shrubs)

 

Odontiphoridae: The Quail Family

 

Callipepla squamata (Vigors): Blue Racer Quail, Blue Quail, Codorniz Escamosa (Hispanic), Cotton Top, Cottontop Quail, Mexican Quail, Scaled Partridge, Scaled Quail, Top-knot Quail (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; nest are hollows or depressions under shrubs)

 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel) (Lophortyx gambelii Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Gambel) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; eggs are laid in a ground scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti)

 

Parulidae: The Wood Warbler Family

 

Vermivora luciae (Cooper): Lucy’s Warbler, Verdin Lucy (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped and located in trees, under loose bark or in a hole)

 

Picidae: The Woodpecker and Wryneck Family

 

Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) (Colaptes cafer (Gmelin)): Carpintero Norteno (Hispanic), Common Flicker, Northern Flicker, Red-shafted Flicker, Yellow-shafted Flicker (feeds on ants and other insects, berries and fruit; nests are made in hollowed out holes in posts, saguaros, stumps and trees)

 

Melanerpes formicivorus (Swainson): Acorn Woodpecker, Ant-eating Woodpecker, California Woodpecker, Carpintero Encinero (Hispanic), Mearns’ Woodpecker (feeds on acorns, ants, fruit, insects and other invertebrates, nuts, seeds and wood-boring insects; eggs are laid in cavities in trees)

 

Melanerpes uropygialis (Baird) (Centurus uropygialus Baird): Carpintero del Desierto (Hispanic), Carpintero Gila (Hispanic), Gila Woodpecker, Hikiwigi (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit, honey and wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Picoides arizonae (Dendrocopos arizonae (Hargitt)): Arizona Woodpecker (feeds on wood boring insects; eggs are laid in cavities in dead branches in live trees)

 

Picoides scalaris (Wagler) (Dendrocopus scalaris (Wagler)): Cactus Woodpecker, Carpintero Listado (Hispanic), Chehegam (Tohono O’odham), Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Pajaro Carpintero (Hispanic) (feeds on wood boring insects and fruit; nests are made in hollowed out holes in agaves, cacti, posts and yuccas)

 

Ptilogonatidae: The Silky Flycatcher Family

 

Phainopepla nitens (Swainson): Capulinero (Hispanic), Capulinero Negro (Hispanic), Phainopepla (feeds on berries; insects and mistletoe; nests are shallow cups on the forks of limbs of trees)  

 

Strigidae: The Typical Owl Family

 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin): Buho (Hispanic), Great Horned Owl, Tecolote Cornudo (Hispanic), Tecolote Cuernudo (Hispanic) (feeds on birds and small mammals; nests are made out of the deserted nests of other birds located in crevices, potholes, trees, on bluffs, cliffs and on the ground)

 

Micrathene whitneyi (Cooper): Elf Owl, Kuhkwul (Tohono O’odham), Tecolote Enano (Hispanic), Tecolotito (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests in old woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Otus asio Linnaeus: Common Screech-owl, Eastern Screech-owl, Mexican Screech-owl, Saguaro Screech-owl, Screech Owl, Tecolotito Chillon (Hispanic), Western Screech-owl (feeds on insects and rodents; nests in tree cavities and woodpecker holes)

 

Sylviidae: The Gnatcatcher and Old World Warbler Family

 

Polioptila melanura (Lawrence): Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, Perlita del Desierto (Hispanic), Plumbeous Gnatcatcher, Pisita Cola Negra (Hispanic), Schuk Mookam Gisop (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on insects; nests are felted cups in forks of low shrubs)

 

Thraupidae: The Tanager Family

 

Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson): Louisiana Tanager, Piranga Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Western Tanager (feeds on berries, insects and small fruit; nests are shallow saucers of shredded bark, grasses, weed stalks and rootlets located on tree branches)           

 

Trochilidae: The Hummingbird Family

 

Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier and Mulsant): Black-chinned Hummingbird, Chuparosa (Hispanic), Colibri Barba Negra (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny cups of lichens and plant wool woven together with spider webs located in shrubs and trees)

 

Calypte anna (Lesson): Anna’s Hummingbird, Chuparosa Anna (Hispanic), Colibri Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny woven cups made of lichens and small twigs located in shrubs and trees)

 

Calypte costae (Bourcier): Chuparosa Costa (Hispanic), Costa’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are leaf-thatched and lichen woven cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Cynanthus latirostris Swainson: Broad-billed Hummingbird, Chuparosa Pico Ancho (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are loosely woven rough cups located on vertical branches)

 

Eugenes fulgens (Swainson): Admirable Hummingbird, Chuparosa Magnifica (Hispanic), Magnificent Hummingbird, Rivoli’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny cups made up of lichen and plant down located on horizontal branches in bushes and shrubs)

 

Selasphorus platycercus (Swainson): Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Chuparosa Cola Ancha (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny cups made up of lichen and plant down located in bushes and small trees)

 

Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin): Rufous Hummingbird, Wipismal (Tohono O’odham), Zumbador Rufo (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are lichen-covered cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Troglodytidae: The Wren Family

 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafresnaye): Cactus Wren, Hokkad (Tohono O’odham), Matraca del Desierto (Hispanic), Saltapared del Disierto (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are straw, spheroid located in cacti, yuccas and thorny bushes)

 

Turdidiae: The Thrush Family

 

Sialia mexicana Swainson: Ventura Azul (Hispanic), Western Bluebird (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders, and worms; nests are made of grass in holes in tress stubs and trees)

 

Turdus migratorius (Linnaeus): American Robin, Primavera (Hispanic), Robin (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are bowls lined with grasses, roots, small twigs and walled with mud located in the forks or on branches of trees)

 

Tyrannidae: The Tyrant Flycatcher Family

 

Sayornis nigricans (Swainson): Black Phoebe, Gihsupi (Tohono O’odham), Papamoscas Negro (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are thick cups of grasses, moss and mud lined with soft material including feathers and hair located in caves, on ledges and in the exposed roots of trees close to water)

 

Tyrannus verticalis Say: Arkansas Kingbird, Madrugador Avispero (Hispanic), Western Kingbird (feeds on flying insects; nests are bulky, neatly-lined saucers made up of grasses, twigs and wool lined with matted hair located in bushes and on horizontal branches of trees)

 

Tytonidae: The Barn Owl Family

 

Tyto alba (Scopoli): Barn Owl; Common Barn Owl, Lechuza (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and rodents; nests are on litter of disgorged fur pellets or bare surface located in hollow trees or other cavities)

 

Vireonidae: The Vireo Family

 

Vireo huttoni Cassin: Hutton’s Vireo, Stephen’s Vireo, Vireo Hutton (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are downy or mossy suspended cups lined with feathers and moss hanging from branches of shrubs and trees)

 

Vireo plumbeus (Wilson) (Vireo solitarius (Wilson)): Plumbeous Vireo, Solitary Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are neat baskets made from long fibers and grasses lined with soft material camouflaged with bark chips, catkins, leaves and lichen hanging from forked branches in bushes and trees)

 

 

INSECTS

 

Order Lepidoptera: Butterflies, Moths and Skippers

 

Hesperiidae: The Skipper Family

 

Hylephila phyleus: Fiery Skipper

 

Pyrgus communis (albescens): Checkered Skipper; White Common        Checkered-skipper

 

Lycaenidae: The Blue; Copper, and Hairstreak Family

 

Strymon melinus: Gray Hairstreak

 

Nymphalidae: The Brush-footed Butterfly Family

 

Agraulis vanillae: Gulf Fritillary

 

Danaus gilippus berenice: Queen Butterfly

 

Danaus plexippus: Monarch Butterfly

 

Libythaena bachmanii: Common Snout Butterfly

 

Limenitis archippus: Viceroy

 

Phyciodes tharos: Pearl Crescent

 

Precis coenia: Buckeye

 

Vanessa cardui (Cynthia cardui): Painted Lady

 

Papilionidae: The Swallowtail Family

               

Battus philenor: Green Swallowtail

 

Papilio polyxenes asterius: Eastern Black Swallowtail

 

Pieridae: The Sulfur Butterfly and White Family

 

Colias caesonia: Southern Dog Face

 

Colias Eurydice: California Dog Face

 

Phoebis sennae: Cloudless Sulfur

 

Sphingidae: The Sphinx Moth Family

 

Hyles lineata: White-lined Sphinx

 

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) subsp. scottii: Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats)

 

Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque): Black-tailed Deer,  Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic) (feeds on beans, branches, fruit, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurge; reported from desert foothills with scrub growth, thick growth along washes, forest edges and mountains )

 

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) subsp. couesi: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer (feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel; reported from mountains, canyons, forests, woodlands, meadows, scrub and desertscrub)

 

Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis concolor Linnaeus (Puma concolor): California Lion, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, El Leon (Hispanic), Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mountain Lion, Painter American Lion, Panther; Puma  (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bears, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupine, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer)

 

Leopardus pardalis subsp sonoriensis (Felis pardalis Linnaeus): Ocelot, Painted Leopard, Tigrillo (feeds on amphibians, birds, fish, insects, land crabs, small to medium-sized mammals and reptiles. EXTIRPATED from Township)

 

Lynx rufus (Schreber) (Felis rufus): Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat (feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes)

 

Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus baileyi Merriam (Perognathus baileyi Merriam) subsp. baileyi: Bailey’s Pocket Mouse, Raton de Bailey (Hispanic) (feeds on vegetation, and fruits and seeds of cactus, grass and other herbs; the nest is made in underground burrows)

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus Woodhouse (Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse): Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse (feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite; the nest is made in underground burrows)

 

Dipodomys ordii Woodhouse: Five-toed Kangaroo Rat, Ord’s Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera Ord (Hispanic) (feeds on cones, fruits, leaves, needles, seeds, grasshoppers and moths; the nest is made in sandy, rarely hard or gravelly, underground burrows)

 

Dipodomys spectabilis (Merriam); Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat, Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera (Hispanic) (feeds on grasses, green and succulent plants, insects rodents and seeds; nests are made up of chaff, stems and leaves of grass located in underground burrows in firm soils)

 

Perognathus amplus Osgood, Arizona Pocket Mouse (feeds on green plants, insects and seeds; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Perognathus flavus (Baird): Silky Pocket Mouse (feeds on seeds; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni (Mearns): Antelope Jack Rabbit (feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite)

 

Lepus californicus Gray: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti)

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula Hartley: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat (feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca; nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows)

 

Onychomys torridus (Coves): Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse (feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates; nests are located in underground burrows)

 

Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Bassariscus astutus (Lichenstein): Band-tailed Cat, Cacomistle, Civet Cat, Coon CatGato Minero (Hispanic), Miner’s Cat, Ringtail, Ring-tailed Cat (feeds on berries, birds, cactus fruits and other plants, carrion, crickets, eggs, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, small mammals, snakes and spiders)

 

Nasua narica (Merriam): Chula, Chulo, Coati (Indian), Coatimundi, El Gato Solo (Los Gatos en Familia), Pizote, White-nosed Coati (feeds on berries of juniper and manzanita, birds, eggs, fruit, insects and other invertebrates, prickly pear fruit, small mammals, tubers and worms)

 

Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman) (Citellus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman)): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel (feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus (Citellus tereticaudus (Baird)): Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo,  paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking young quail)

 

Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Peccari tajacu Linnaeus (Tayassu tajacu): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grass, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets)

 

Ursidae: The Bear Family

 

Ursus americanus (Baird) (Euarctos americanus (Pallus)): Black Bear, Oso Negro (feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fruit, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. EXTIRPATED from township)

 

 

REPTILES

 

Helodermatidae: The Beaded Lizard Family

 

Heloderma suspectum Cope: Gila Monster (feeds on invertebrates, lizards, mammals, snakes, and eggs of birds and reptiles; reported from canyons, woodlands, scrubs, bajadas, grasslands, desertscrubs, flats, washes, floodplains and mesquite bosques; venomous lizard)

 

Teiidae: The Whiptail and Allies Family

 

Aspidoscelis sonorae Lowe and Wright (Cnemidophorus “sonorae”): Sonoran Spotted Whiptail (feeds on centipedes, insects, other lizards, scorpions, spiders and termites; reported from woodlands and grasslands, on rocky slopes, desertscrubs and in riparian forests)

 

Testudinidae: The Land Tortoise Family

 

Gopherus agassizi Cooper (Sonoran Population): Sonoran Desert Tortoise (feeds on cacti, grass and herbs; reported from canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, sandy and gravelly flats, dunes, oases, washes and riverbanks)

 

Viperidae: The Pit Viper Family

 

If bitten by a rattlesnake remain calm, remove all jewelry (including watches), immobilize extremity,

keep at level below the heart, decrease total body activity, and transport to medical facility. Do not apply ice to bitten area, do not use an incision of any kind, do not use a tourniquet, do not administer drugs or alcohol, and do not use electric shock treatment (Tuscon Herpetological Society. 1995. Living with Rattlesnakes. Tuscon, Arizona, 8751-1531. BISON-M).

 

Crotalus atrox Baird and Girard: Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (feeds on bird’s eggs and young birds, frogs, gophers, lizards, mice, prairie dogs, rabbits, rats, squirrels  and toads; reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, forests, woodlands, rocky hillsides, scrubs, sandy flats, plains, desertscrubs, lowland areas, riparian areas, river bottoms and coastal plains; venomous snake)

 

Crotalus molossus Baird and Girard: Blacktail Rattlesnake, Black-tailed Rattlesnake (feeds on small mammals; reported from mountains, cliffs, rockslides, rocky slopes, rock outcrops, forests, woodlands, scrubs, grasslands and desertscrubs; venomous snake)

 

Crotalus scutulatus Kennicott: Mojave Rattlesnake (feeds on reptiles, kangaroo rats and other rodents; reported from lower mountains slopes, woodlands, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs and mesquite bosques; a venomous and extremely dangerous snake)

 

Crotalus tigris Kennicott: Tiger Rattlesnake (feeds on mice, rats, woodrats and other small mammals; reported from desert mountain ranges, canyons and rocky slopes; venomous snake)

 

 

 

Listing Footnotes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

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