September 19, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 16 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributor and Source of Information: William T. Kendall.

 

 

KES Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping, restoration, or revegetation projects. Disjunct species, outliers and populations on the edge of the main population are noted as being a PERIPHERAL POPULATION. Landscaped plants are not included in the lists unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

The use of local native vegetation is recommended for landscape, restoration and revegetation projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants. Species distribution information is shared with the Heritage Data Management System of the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

 

KES Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in east-central Pima County in south-central Arizona. Portions of the City of Tucson and Town of Sahuarita are located within this township. This township is bounded on the north by the alignment for Old Vail Connection Road, on the south by the alignment for Mineral Hill and Andrada Roads and on the east by the alignment for Wilmot Road.

 

Landmarks: Named rivers include the Santa Cruz River (cuts across the southwest corner). This township is located in the Santa Cruz Valley.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,575 feet at the northwest corner to approximately 2,860 feet at the southeast corner (1).

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking north northeast, the Santa Catalina Mountains are in the background. Some of the plants observed in the area included Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Chain-fruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida  var. fulgida), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri), Cooper Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa), Burroweed (Isocoma tenuisecta), Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus), Lacy Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida), Woody Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens), Hairyseed Bahia (Bahia absinthifolia) and Desert Holly (Acourtia nana). WTK September 2005

 

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Continental-Sonoita-Tubac Association (deep, arid soils on uplands) and the Rillino-Latene-Cave Association (deep to very shallow, calcareous soils on uplands) (3).

 

Biotic community: This township is located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation and associated Wetlands. (4)

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township with Adjacent Sections

 

 

Plant Propagation Note

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer. Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

PLANTS

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 8 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyon bottoms and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Apiaceae: The Carrot Family

(Umbelliferae: The Parsley Family)

 

Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose var. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter (Lilaeopsis recurva A.W. Hill, Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose subsp. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter): Cienega False Rush, Cienega Water Umbel, Huachuca Water Umbel, Schaffner’s Grasswort (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from wet ground near perennial seeps, springs, streams, rivers, cienegas, marshy wetlands and in shallow water; once occurred in the Santa Cruz River Valley near Tucson)

 

Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from canyons and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Gutierrezia sp.: Snakeweed

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, draws and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida (Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Condolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake), Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Condolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake): Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Condolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Condolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and dirt roads below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas below 4,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Coryphantha scheeri (F. Müehlenpfordt) L. Benson var. robustispina (H.W. Schott) L. Benson (Mammillaria robustispina H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann): Longtubercle Beehive Cactus, Devil’s Pincushion, Pima Pineapple Cactus, Scheer’s Strong-spined Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Cory Cactus, Stout-needled Mulee Pineapple (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, ridges, bajadas, slopes and flats)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia microdasys (J.G. Lehmann) L.K. Pfeiffer (Cactus microdasys J.G. Lehmann, Opuntia macrocalyx D. Griffiths): Angel’s-wings, Bunny Ears, Bunny Ears Pricklypear, Cegador, Nopal Cegador, Polka Dot Cactus, Prickly Pear, Rabbit Ears (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Caprifoliaceae: The Honeysuckle Family

 

Sambucus nigra C. Linnaeus subsp. canadensis (C. Linnaeus) R. Bolli (Sambucus caerulea C.F. Rafinesque var. mexicana (C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle) L.D. Benson, Sambucus mexicana C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle): American Elderberry, Arizona Blue Elder, Blueberry Elder, Arizona Elder, Common Elderberry, Desert Elderberry, Elder, Elderberry, Mexican Elder, Mexican Elderberry, Sauco, Tapiro, Tapiro Sauco (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub, shrub or tree (to 36 feet high); within range reported from washes, floodplains, creeks, streams, watercourses, ditches, cienegas and wet areas 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; foliage is browsed by deer, fruits are eaten by birds)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas below 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Convolvulus arvensis C. Linnaeus: Bindweed, Common Bindweed, Creeping Jenny, European Bindweed, Field Bindweed, Morning-glory, Orchard Morning-glory, Perennial Morning-glory, Possession Vine, Possession Weed, Wild Morning-glory (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from rocky slopes and disturbed areas below 8,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Ipomoea sp.: Morning-glory

 

Ipomoea purpurea (C. Linnaeus) A.W. Roth (Ipomoea hirsutula N.J. von Jacquin f.): Common Morning-glory, Entireleaf Morning-glory, Garden Morning-glory, Mexican Morning-glory, Tall Morning-glory, Woolly Morning-glory (terrestrial long lived annual herb or vine; within range reported from flats, roadsides, ditches, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cuscutaceae: The Dodder Family

 

Cuscuta sp.: Dodder (terrestrial perennial herbaceous vine; parasite observed on Palmer Pigweed)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Naked Hibiscus, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sida abutifolia P. Miller (Sida filicaulis J. Torrey & A. Gray, Sida procumbens E.J. Schwartz): Spreading Fanpetals, Spreading Sida (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly and sandy flats 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sphaeralcea sp.: Globemallow

 

Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Boerhavia sp.: Spiderling

 

Pedaliaceae: The Sesame Family

(Martyniaceae: The Unicorn-plant Family)

 

Proboscidea althaeifolia (G. Bentham) J. Decaisne (Proboscidea arenaria (G. Engelmann) J. Decaisne): Cuernitos, Desert Devil’s-claw, Desert Unicorn-plant, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-horn, Elephant Tusks, Gato, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Roundbrack Devil’s Claw, Sand Devil’s Claw, Torito, Una de Gato (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Arundo donax C. Linnaeus: Carrizo, Giant Cane, Giant Reed (terrestrial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 23 feet high); within range reported from seeps and along creeks, streams and irrigation ditches. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes and streambeds below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura (Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz): False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, hills, plains and flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Muhlenbergia rigens (G. Bentham) A.S. Hitchcock: Deer Grass, Deergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, meadows, flats and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, moist soil, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or woody climber; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche, Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation; flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available)

 

Physalis sp. Groundcherry

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Catclaw Acacia and Velvet Mesquite, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions)

 

 

ANIMALS

 

BIRDS

 

Cathartidae: New World Vultures

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Columbidae: Doves and Pigeons

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

Corvidae: Crows, Jays, Magpies and Ravens

 

Corvus corax Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees)

 

Cuculidae: Anis, Cuckoos and Roadrunners

 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs)

 

MAMMALS

 

Castoridae: Beaver

 

Castor canadensis Kuhle: American Beaver; Beaver; Beaver Castor (Hispanic) (found in aquatic habitats including creeks, streams, rivers, marshes, cienegas, ponds and lakes; feeds on bark, branches, buds, leaves or needles and twigs of alder, aspen, birch, cattail, cottonwood, maple, mesquite, tamarix and willow, and the roots of pond lilies and other tuberous plants; beaver dams help reduce erosion and provide habitat for other animals including otters and waterfowl; beavers have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the permanent streams in Arizona, their historical distribution in Pima County is unknown.)

 

Leporidae: Hares and Rabbits

 

Lepus alleni (Mearns): Antelope Jack Rabbit (feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite)

 

Mustelidae: Skunks, Weasels and Allies

 

Lontra canadensis (Schreber) (Lutra canadensis (Schreber)): Arizona Otter, Arizona River Otter, Nearctic River Otter, Northern river Otter, Pah-hua-pe’na (Tewa), River Otter, Southwestern River Otter (feeds on amphibians, crustaceans, fish, large aquatic insects, small mammals, aquatic plants and turtles; found in permanently flowing water of streams and rivers and lakes, ponds, including beaver ponds, marshes, cienegas with overhanging bank vegetation and haul-out and slide sites for access, and establishing dens in banks; river otters have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the larger permanent river systems in Arizona, their historical presence in Pima County is unknown)

 

Ursidae: Bears

 

Ursus arctos (Linnaeus): Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (feeds on berries, carrion, fish, fungi, insects, leaves, mammals, roots and sprouts; reported from the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson. EXTIRPATED from Arizona)

 

 

Listing Notes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

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*Chamber, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field guide,

*Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

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*The Collection, Volume 4 Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003

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*Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA

*Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California

*Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

*Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

*Florida Nature

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*Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Depatment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistltoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

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*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

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*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

*Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

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*Jepson Flora Project

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http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

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*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

*Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/herb/TUCSONS/tucsonsA-C.html

*Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve.

*Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

*School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

*Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

*Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Texas Native Shrubs

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/indexscientific.htm

*Thornber, J.J. 1909. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station.

*Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

www.maps4u.com

*Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

*Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

*United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Web Site

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

*University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

*Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

*Walters, James W. A Guide to Forest Insect and Disease Management pf Southwestern Conifers, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

*Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,  New York.

*Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, Robert Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West, Pioneer of Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming.