September 17, 2006

 

 

 

A Supplement to the Listing for

 

TOWNSHIP 14 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking southeast toward Tumamoc Hill. WTK June 2006

 

 

 

VEGETATION GROUPS OF THE DESERT LABORATORY DOMAIN

 

 

This listing has been developed using the original list of individual species as they appeared under the headings and in the order presented by J.J. Thornber, A.M., Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station, 1909, in the Vegetation Groups of the Desert Laboratory Domain in Volney M. Spalding’s, 1909, The Distribution and Movements of Desert Plants, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 113: Pages 103-112. The indented text includes the species description developed for use in the Species Distribution Listing for Township Listing for Township 14 South, Range 13 East, Pima County, Arizona. The area described by J.J. Thornber includes portions of Sections 9, 10, 11, 14, 15 and 16. Portions of Tumamoc Hill are located in Sections 10 and 15. The Santa Cruz River flowed from south to north through Sections 11 and 14.

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information:

 

Dr. Charles Mason, Phil Jenkins and Becky Van Devender at the University of Arizona Herbarium assisted with the updating of the nomenclature, and along with the notes of Janice E. Bowers greatly simplified the preparation of this listing. Tony Burgess provided the copy of the Vegetation Groups of the Desert Laboratory that made this listing possible.

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Major and secondary poisonous range plants as reported by Schmutz, Freeman and Reed 1968 (*80*) are noted “... has/have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968)” in red lettering). Footnotes (*00*) for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may also be shown in red. Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Vegetation Groups of the Desert Laboratory Domain

 

I. Tumamoc Hill

 

                Trees

                Shrubs

                Woody Climbers

                Dwarf Shrubs

                Half-Shrubs

                Perennial Herbs

                Biennial Herbs

                Annual Herbs

                                Winter Annuals

                                Summer Annuals

 

II. Mesa-like Mountain Slopes

 

                Trees

                Shrubs

                Dwarf Shrubs

                Half-Shrubs

                Perennial Herbs

                Biennial Herbs

                Annual Herbs

                                Ling-Lived Annuals

                                Winter Annuals

                                Summer Annuals

 

III. Santa Cruz River Flood-Plain

 

                Trees

                Shrubs

                Woody Climbers

                Half-Shrubs

                Perennial Herbs

                Biennial Herbs

                Annual Herbs

                                Long-lived Annuals

                                Winter Annuals

                                Summer Annuals

 

IV.           Santa Cruz River and Irrigation Ditches

 

                Perennial Herbs

                Algae

 

Miscellaneous Introduced Species

 

                Shrubs

                Half-Shrubs

                Perennial Herbs

Annual Herbs

                Long-Lived Annuals

                Winter Annuals

 

The Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington by Forest Shreve

 

Acknowledgements

 

Listing Footnotes and References

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map Showing the Approximated Boundary of the Listing Area

 

The listing area is roughly bounded by St. Mary’s Road on the north, Starr Pass Boulevard on the

south, Santa Cruz River on the east and Greasewood Road on the west. Study areas were created to observe

 the changes that take place in vegetation over long periods of time. These study areas were

mapped in 1906, showing the location of every perennial plant.

 

 

 

The following is an abridgment of

 

Publication No. 113, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1909

 

VEGETATION GROUPS OF THE DESERT LABORATORY DOMAIN

 

Prepared by request and Contributed by J. J. Thornber, A. M.,

Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station

 

 

The following list includes as nearly as possible the plants growing on Tumamoc Hill, the fenced area of the mesa-like mountain slopes lying to the west, and the Santa Cruz flood-plain between Tumamoc Hill and the Santa Cruz River on the east, together with the hydrophytic species growing in the Santa Cruz River and adjacent irrigation ditches. For convenience the areas noted above have been designated as follows: (I) Tumamoc Hill; (II) Mesa-like mountain slopes; (III) Santa Cruz flood-plain; (IV) Santa Cruz River and irrigation ditches.

 

The species of each of the above areas have been arranged alphabetically under the following vegetation forms: (1) trees, (2) shrubs; (3) woody climbers; (4) dwarf shrubs; (5) half-shrubs; (6) perennial herbs; (7) biennial herbs; (8) annual herbs including (a) long-lived annuals; (b) winter annuals; (c) summer annuals. The occurrence of a species in any quantity in an area other than the one of which it is characteristic is shown by a Roman numeral indicating the area over which its secondary distributions obtains. Besides the four groups of plants corresponding to the four areas above noted it is thought desirable to include a fifth composed of miscellaneous introduced species which have become established here by virtue of certain inherent qualities or characters. These exotic species are limited almost wholly to area III, though a few occur in I and II.

 

 

TABLE II - Showing the Various Species from Standpoints of Habitat and Vegetation Form

 

Tumamoc               Mesa-like               Santa Cruz             Santa Cruz             Introduced            Total

                    Hill                      Mt. Slopes             Flood Plain            River & Irrig.           Species

                      I.                             II.                             III.                             IV.                  

 

Vegetation

    Form

 

Trees            2                              2                               11                               -                            -                           15

 

Shrubs       16                            10                               10                               -                            3                          39

 

Woody

Twiners       2                               -                                  3                               -                            -                             5

 

Dwarf

Shrubs       13                              4                                 -                                -                            -                           17

 

Half

Shrubs       21                              7                                 3                               -                            1                          32

 

Perennial

Herbs         38                            24                               33                               7                           6                       108

 

Biennial

Herbs          1                               1                                 1                               -                            -                             3

 

Annual

Herbs:

                   

  Lng-lvd     -                                9                               28                               -                          20                          57

  Winter     38                             46                               16                               -                          22                       122

  Summer    7                              25                               12                               -                            -                           44

 

Algae           -                               -                                  -                                7                           -                             7

 

Total         138                          128                             117                             14                         52                         449       

 

 

The following brief summary will be interesting to the botanist from the standpoints of taxonomy, and phytogeography:

 

Number of plant families                                                                     68

Number of genera                                                                                269

Number of genera common to both hemispheres                           126

Number of genera native to North and South America                 58

Number of southwestern genera                                                       39

Number of Introduced genera                                                            22

Number of species                                                                               449

Number of southwestern species                                                      264

 

 

 

The Santa Cruz River below Sentinel Peak. This picture was reportedly taken in 1904.

 

Photograph reproduced from the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona Wildlife Views, May 1990, Page 9.  This photograph was made courtesy of the Arizona Historical Society.

 

 

Listing Notes

 

*              = Names preceded by an asterisk denote bulbous, tuberous, or fleshy-rooted plants as shown in the

                   Thornber listing.

 

#              = Plants growing in alkaline situations as shown in the Thornber listing.

 

The roman numeral at the end of certain lines indicates an additional area on which the species thus marked occurs as shown in the Thornber listing.

 

 

The script beneath the individual species is the script used in the Species Distribution Listing for

Township 14 South, Range 13 East Pima County, Arizona.

 

 

 

 

I. Tumamoc Hill

 

 

TREES

 

Cereus giganteus Engelm.

     = Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann) (5): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (9 to 50  feet or more in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges, foothills, rocky and gravelly hills, rocky hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 600 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26, 27, 28, 38, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla Torr.

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree), Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, rocky and gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and gravelly flats, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

 

SHRUBS

 

Acacia constricta Benth. (II)

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous (drought and cold) shrub or tree (2 to 18 feet in height and to 18 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be fragrant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 68, 77, 80, 89, 91*

 

Celtis pallida Torr. (II)

 

Celtis ehrenbergiana  (J.F. Klotzsch) F.M. Liebmann (Celtis pallida J. Torrey): Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Desert Hackberry is a larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), provides a nesting site for the White-wing Dove (Zenaida asiatica) and cover for many birds. The fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 58, 89, 91*

 

Echinocactus wislizeni Engelm. (II)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26 (gen.), 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 89 (recorded as Echinocactus wislizeni), 91*

 

Fouquieria splendens Engelm.

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial deciduous drought and cold) moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 6 to 100 stems 6 to 33 feet in height and 5 to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, rocky and stony slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly and sandy plains, gravelly flats and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers and is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

Hyptis emoryi Torr.

     = Mesophaerum emoryi (Torr.) Kuntze

 

Hyptis emoryi J. Torrey: Bee Sage, Desert Lavender, Lavender, Salvia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 15 feet in height and 3 to 8 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, among boulders and along sandy washes, occurring, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Native bees and hummingbirds visit the flowers and the seeds provide food for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, but is sensitive to frosts. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 77, 89, 91*

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (Torr.) Muell. Arg.

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Matacora, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous semi-succulent shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, hills, rocky hillsides, foothills, bajadas, dry plains and along washes, sandy arroyos, floodplains, riparian areas and rocky soils, occurring from 100 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland  and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 48, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 89, 91*

 

Lippia wrightii Gray

 

Aloysia wrightii (A. Gray) A.A. Heller ex L. Abrams (Lippia wrightii A. Gray ex J. Torrey): Altamisa, Beebrush, Oreganillo, Vara Dulce, Wright Aloysia, Wright’s Beebrush, Wright Lippia (terrestrial perennial deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub (3 to 6½ feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 46, 58, 77, 91, 89*

 

Lycium berlandieri Dunal

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, alluvial plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46*

 

Lycium fremontii Gray

 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray: Frémont’s Desert-thorn, Frémont Lycium, Frémont Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and alluvial plains, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 77, 89 (recorded as Lycium fremontii and Lycium fremontii var. gracilipes)*

 

Opuntia arizonica Griffiths

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superflouous autonym]): Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 5 feet in height and 8 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, and valleys and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Opuntia arizonica, Opuntia blackiana and Opuntia toumeyi), 91*

 

Opuntia blaceana Rose

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superflouous autonym]): Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 5 feet in height and 8 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, and valleys and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Opuntia arizonica, Opuntia blackeana and Opuntia toumeyi), 91*

 

 

Opuntia discata Griffiths

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 4 to 5 feet in height and 10 feet or more in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, along washes, gullies and arroyos and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental.  *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Opuntia discata), 91*

 

Opuntia leptocaulis DC.

 

Cylindropuntia  leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle): Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height and width); within the range for this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos, bottomlands and floodplains, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

Opuntia toumeyi Rose

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superflouous autonym]): Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 5 feet in height and 8 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, and valleys and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Opuntia arizonica, Opuntia blackiana and Opuntia toumeyi), 91*

 

Opuntia versicolor Engelm.

 

Cylindropuntia  versicolor (G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter): Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia versicolor (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89*

 

Simmondsia californica Nutt.

 

Simmondsia chinensis (J.H. Link) C.K. Schneider (Simmondsia californica T. Nuttall): Coffee Berry, Coffee Bush, Deernut, Goat Nut, Goatnut, Gray Box Bush, Jojoba, Pignut, Quinine Plant, Sheepnut, Wild Hazel (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet in height and 6 or more feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly hillsides, bajadas, alluvial fans and along washes and runnels, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grasslands and desertscrub ecological formations) Jojoba is an  important browse plant for wildlife including deer and Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant is useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

 

WOODY CLIMBERS

 

Janusia gracilis Gray

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or vine (18 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, rocky canyons, canyon bottoms, rocky hills, gravelly ridges, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among rocks, volcanic plugs, gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and canyons, gravelly flats, along perennial streams, sandy washes and creeks, rocky stream beds and banks, gullies, rocky arroyo bottoms, flood plains, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky clay loam and clay loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Slender Janusia is a food plant of the Sonoran Desert Tortoise. (Gopherus agassizi) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are yellow and the fruit wings are reddish. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (090206), 77, 85 (090206), 89*

 

Nissolia schottii (Torr.) Gray

 

Nissolia schottii (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Schott’s Yellowhood (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

 

DWARF SHRUBS

 

Aplopappus laricifolia Gray

     = Chrysoma laricifolia (Gray) Greene

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Aplopappus laricifolia)*

 

Ayenia microphylla Gray

 

Ayenia microphylla A. Gray: Ayenia, Dense Ayenia, Littleleaf Ayenia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, dry rocky slopes, gravelly flats and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Cactus grahamii (Engelm.) Kuntze

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Fishhook Pincushion, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 27 (sp.), 28, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86 (sp.), 89 (recorded as Cactus grahamii)*

 

Calliandra eriophylla Benth.

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham (Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla [superfluous autonym]): Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 4 feet in height and 4 to 5 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Fairyduster is browsed by wildlife and is highly palatable to Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 63 (082406), 58, 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

Carlowrightia arizonica Gray

 

Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Carlowrightia, Arizona Wrightwort, Lemilla, Rama de Toro, Wrightwort (terrestrial annual or perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been range reported from rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Hermannia pauciflora Wats.

 

Hermannia pauciflora S. Watson: Burstwort, Few-flowered Hermannia, Hierba del Soldado, Santa Catalina Burstwort, Sparseleaf Hermannia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, dry rocky slopes, rocky hillsides, rocky outcrops, rock crevices, pockets of soil, alluvial fans, riparian areas and rocky soils, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 13, 16, 46, 77, 85, 89*

 

Hibiscus coulteri Harvey

 

Hibiscus coulteri W.H. Harvey ex A. Gray: Coulter Hibiscus, Desert Rosemallow, Pelotazo (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Hibiscus denudatus Benth. (II)

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Naked Hibiscus, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 89*

 

Krameria canescens Gray

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, dry plains, gravelly flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 89 (recorded as Krameria canescens)*

 

Krameria glandulosa Rose

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Krameria glandulosa)*

 

Phoradendron californicum Nutt. (II)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter); partial parasite commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp., occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations)  The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants and Verdins nest in the stems. The fragrant flowers attract insects. This plant is reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89, 97*

 

Polygala macradenia Gray

 

Polygala macradenia A. Gray: Glandleaf Milkwort, Milkwort (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, ridges and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 77, 89*

 

Siphonoglossa longiflora (Torr.) Gray

 

Siphonoglossa longiflora (J. Torrey) A. Gray (Justicia longii R.A. Hilsenbeck): Long-flowered Justicia, Longflowered Tubetongue, Tubetongue, Siphonoglossa, White Needle Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, springs, along washes, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 4,700 feet tin elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife and has flowers that are fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 85, 89*

 

 

HALF-SHRUBS

 

Abutilon incanum (Link) Sweet

 

Abutilon incanum (J.H. Link) R. Sweet: Hoary Abutilon, Hoary Indian Mallow, Indian Mallow, Pelotazo, Pelotazo Chico, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly plains and along arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 89, 91*

 

Abutilon lemmoni Wats.

 

Abutilon abutiloides (N.J. von Jacquin) C.A. Garcke ex N.L. Britton & W.M. Wilson [Abutilon californicum G. Bentham sensu Kearney and Peebles, Arizona Flora]: Berlandier Abutilon, Indian Mallow, Shrubby Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas and along washes, occurring between 2,000 and 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Shrubby Indian Mallow is a food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Arizona Powdered-skipper (Systaceae zampa). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 77, 89 (recorded as Abutilon lemmoni)*

 

Arabis eremophila Greene

 

Arabis perennans S. Watson (Arabis eremophila E.L. Greene, Boechera perennans (S. Watson) W.A. Weber: Perennial Rockcress, Rock Cress, Stiff-arm Rock Cress (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain slopes, rocky canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock crevices and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (062606),  77, 89*

 

Boerhavia scandens L.

 

Boerhavia scandens C. Linnaeus (Commicarpus scandens (C. Linnaeus) P.C. Standley): Bush Spiderling, Climbing Wartclub, Miona, Pega-polla (terrestrial perennial subshrub or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Brickellia coulteri Gray

     = Coleosanthus coulteri (Gray) Kuntze

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray (Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri): Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along washes and streambeds, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Cassia covesii Gray (II)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, sandy river bottoms and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cove Cassia is a larval food plant for the Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae) and Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 68, 77, 82, 89*

 

Dalea parryi T. & G.

     = Parosela parryi (T. & G.) Heller

 

Marina parryi (J. Torrey & A. Gray) R.C. Barneby (Dalea parryi J. Torrey & A. Gray): Parry Dalea, Parry Indigo Pea, Parry Marina, Parry’s False Prairie-clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 or more feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and roadsides, occurring from 2,200 to 4,700 feet in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 77, 89*

 

Ditaxis sp.

 

Argythamnia sp.: Silverbush *89*

 

Dyssodia porophylloides Gray

 

Adenophyllum porophylloides (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia porophylloides A. Gray): San Felipe Adenophyllum, San Felipe Dogweed, San Felipe Dyssodia, San Felipe Fetid Marigold (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 15, 46, 77, 89*

 

Encelia farinosa Gray

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 86, 89, 91*

 

Franseria deltoidea Torr. (II)

     = Gaertneria deltoidea (Torr.) Kuntze

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (12 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, runnels and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant acts as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 77, 91*

 

Galium stellatum Kellogg

 

Galium stellatum A. Kellogg (var. eremicum (M.L. Hilend & J.T. Howell) F. Ehrendorfer is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Desert Bedstraw, Starry Bedstraw (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or  subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides, canyons, rock crevices, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 77, 89*

 

Haplophyton cimicidium (Pav.) A. DC.

 

Haplophyton crooksii (L. Benson) L. Benson (Haplophyton cimcidium auct. non A.L. de Candolle [misapplied], Haplophyton cimcidium A.L. de Candolle var. crooksii L. Benson): Actimpatli, Atempatli, Arizona Cockroach Plant, Cockroachplant, Crooks Cockroachplant, Hierba-de-la-cucuracha (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders and rocks, flood plains and riparian areas, occurring from 1,900 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the yellow flowers open in the evening and close in the early morning, this plant is slow growing and may be drought deciduous, it may be useful when planted with succulents in a rock garden. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (082806), 77, 85 (082806), 89, MBJ*

 

Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth. (II)

 

Pleuraphis mutica S.B. Buckley (Hilaria mutica (S.B. Buckley) G. Bentham): Tobosa, Tobosagrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and sandy slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and sandy flats, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant can be a host of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 48, 77, 80, 89, 105*

 

Menodora scabra Gray (II)

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit, Yellow Menodora (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Rough Menodora is an important browse plant for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48, 63 (062706), 77, 86, 89*

 

Parthenium incanum H.B.K.

 

Parthenium incanum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Crowded Rayweed, Mariola (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Porophyllum gracile Benth. (II)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Senecio lemmonii Gray

 

Senecio lemmonii A. Gray: Groundsel; Lemmon Butterweed, Lemmon Groundsel, Lemmon’s Ragwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain slopes, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Sphaeralcea pedata Torr. (II)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Sphaeralcea pedata)*

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora (Torr) A. Nelson (II)

     = Ptiloria pauciflora (Torr.) Raf.

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson (Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson var. pauciflora): Brownplume Wirelettuce, Desert Straw, Small-flowered Wirelettuce (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy plains, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Trixis californica Kellogg

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg (Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]): American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89, 91*

 

 

PERENNIAL HERBS

 

Abutilon crispum (L.) Medic.

 

Herissantia crispa (C. Linnaeus) G.K. Brizicky (Gayoides crispum (C. Linnaeus) J.K. Small): Bladdermallow, Curly Abutilon, False Indian Mallow, Netvein Herissantia (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb, vine or subshrub (to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Bladdermallow is a food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Erichson’s White-skipper (Heliopetes domicella). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Abutilon crispum)*

 

Allionia incarnata L. (II)

     = Wedellia incarnata (L.) Kuntze var. (unrecorded)

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 inches in height and with stems 6 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, sandy plains, along washes, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravely and sandy soils, occurring from below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 86, 89*

 

*Allium reticulatum Don. (II)

 

Allium macropetalum P.A. Rydberg: Arizona Onion, Cebollin, Desert Onion, Largeflower Onion, Large-petal Onion, Wild Onion (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, among rocks, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and heavy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Allium reticulatum)*

 

Andropogon contortus L.

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Andropogon contortus), 105*

 

Andropogon torreyanus Steud. (II)

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo, Zacatón (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Andropogon torreyanus), 105*

 

*Anemone sphenophylla Poepp.

 

Anemone tuberosa P.A. Rydberg var. tuberosa: Desert Anemone, Desert Thimbleweed, Desert Windflower, Tuber Anemone, Windflower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, among rocks and flats, occurring from 2,100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 58, 80 (gen.), 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Anemone sphenophylla)*

 

Aristida divergens Vasey (II)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass, Zacate Arana (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, hills, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Aristida divergens and Aristida scheidiana)*

 

Aristida humboldtiana Trin. & Rupr. (II)

 

Aristida divaricata F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Wildenow: Poverty Threeawn (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky hills and slopes, occurring from 2,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 30, 33, 46, 89 (recorded as Aristida humboldtiana), 105*

 

Aristida purpurea Nutt. (II)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 48, 58, 89*

 

Aristida scheidiana Trin. & Rupr. (II)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass, Zacate Arana (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, hills, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Aristida divergens and Aristida scheidiana)*

 

 

Bouteloua bromoides (H.B.K.) Lag.

 

Bouteloua repens (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill (Bouteloua filiformis (E.P. Fournier) D. Griffiths): Navajta Rastrera, Large Mesquite Grama, Slender Grama, Zacate Sabanilla (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, rocky and dry gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Bouteloua bromoides), 105*

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Avenilla (Hispanic), Banderilla (Hispanic), Banderita (Hispanic), Grama del Cerro (Hispanic), Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama, Uitsaku Juatarhu (Purépecha) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (15 to 30 inches in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills, occurring from 1,800 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 82, 89, 105*

 

*Brodiea capitata Benth. (II)

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 30 inches in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Brodiea capitata)*

 

*Calochortus kennedyi Porter

 

Calochortus kennedyi T.C. Porter: Desert Mariposa, Desert Mariposa Lily, Desert Mariposa Tulip, Mariposa Lily, Red Mariposa Lily (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas and flats, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 89*

 

Cassia bauhinioides Gray

 

Senna bauhinioides (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia bauhinioides A. Gray): Bauhinia Senna, Shrubby Senna, Twinleaf Senna, Two-leaf Desert Senna, Two-leaved Senna (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, roadsides, along washes, sandy river bottoms and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86, 89*

 

Cheilanthes myriophylla Desv.

 

Cheilanthes wootonii W.R. Maxon: Beaded Lipfern, Wooton Lace Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 15½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, crevices on rocky slopes, ledges and among boulders, occurring from 3,000 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and grassland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Cheilanthes myriophylla)*

 

Cheilanthes wrightii Hook.

 

Cheilanthes wrightii W.J. Hooker: Wright Lipfern, Wright’s Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2 to 8½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, crevices on cliffs and rocky slopes, ledges, talus slopes, soil pockets on rocky outcrops, among rocks and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51, 58, 77, 89*

 

Cottea pappophoroides Kunth

 

Cottea pappophoroides K.S. Kunth:  Cotta Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

*Delphinium scaposum Greene

 

Delphinium scaposum E.L. Greene: Bare-stem Larkspur, Espuelita, Low Larkspur, Naked Delphinium, Tall Mountain Larkspur, Tcoro’si, Wild Delphinium (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Ditaxis humilis (Engelm. & Gray) Pax.

 

Argythamnia neomexicana J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis neomexicana (J. Müller Argoviensis) F.X. Heller): Ditaxis, New Mexico Ditaxis, New Mexico Silverbush, New Mexico Wild Mercury (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Ditaxis humilis)*

 

Euphorbia capitellata Engelm.

 

Chamaesyce capitellata (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia capitellata G. Engelmann): Golondrinia, Head Euphorbia, Head Sandmat, Head Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Euphorbia pediculifera Engelm.

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley (Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann): Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 58, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Hilaria cenchroides H.B.K. var. longifolia Vasey

 

Hilaria belangeri (E.G. von Steudel) G.V. Nash var. belangeri: Common Curlymesquite, Creeping Curly-mesquite, Curly Mesquite Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (to 1 foot in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 89 (recorded as Hilaria cenchroides var. longifolia), 105*

 

Maximowiczia tripartita Cogn. var. tenuisecta Wats.

 

Tumamoca macdougalii J.N. Rose: Globeberry, MacDougal Tumamoc Globeberry, Tumamoc Globeberry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (to 5 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, hillsides, bajadas, slopes, among rocks, gravelly flats, valleys, coastal plains, mesquite bosques, along sandy washes, gullies, arroyos, stream terraces and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub regional formations) The flowers are pollinated by moths, cardinals and thrashers; Gambel Quail (Callipepla gambelii) and Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) feed on the fruits and seeds and Javelinas (Peccari tajacu) feed on the tuberous roots. *5, 6, 8, 9, 16, 46, 77, 85, 89 (recorded as Maximowiczia tripartita var. tenuisecta), 91*

 

Metastelma arizonicum Gray

 

Cynanchum arizonicum (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Metastelma arizonicum A. Gray): Arizona Smallwort, Arizona Swallow-wort, Milkweed Vine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (DC.) Trin.

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Littleseed Muhly (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Nicotiana trigonophylla Dunal (III)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche (a Punch), Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (Little Tobacco) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89*

 

Notholaena hookeri D.C. Eaton

 

Notholaena standleyi W.R. Maxon (Cheilanthes standleyi W.R. Maxon): Standley Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2½ to 13 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, crevices on cliffs, rocky slopes and in shaded areas among boulders and rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51, 58, 89 (recorded as Notholaena hookeri)*

 

Notholaena sinuata (Sw.) Kaulf.

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. cochisensis (Notholaena cochisensis L.N. Goodding, Notholaena sinuata (O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) C.A. Weatherby): Cloak Fern, Cochise’s Cloak Fern, Cochise Scaly Cloakfern, Helechillo, Jimmyfern, Narrow Cloakfern, Scaly Star Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 11½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky ledges, on boulders and among rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51, 77, 80, 89 (recorded as Notholaena sinuata)*

 

Pellaea wrightiana Hook.

 

Pellaea truncata L.N. Goodding (Pellaea longimucronata W.J. Hooker): Spiny Cliffbrake (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 4½ to 16½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from crevices on cliffs and rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 (to 8,000?) feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 51, 77, 89 (recorded as Pellaea wrightiana)*

 

Penstemon wrightii Hook.

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Pichelitos, Varita de San Jose, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 1 to 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been range reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) and Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 57, 58, 77, 80, 86, 89 (recorded as Penstemon wrightii)*

 

Perezia wrightii Gray

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

*Physalis fendleri Gray

 

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. fendleri (A. Gray) A.J. Cronquist (Physalis fendleri A. Gray, Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. cordifolia (A. Gray) U.T. Waterfall): Heartleaf Groundcherry, Ivyleaf Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, among rocks and plains, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and grassland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 80 (gen.), 89*

 

*Talinum lineare H.B.K.

 

Phemeranthus aurantiacus (G. Engelmann) Kiger (Talinum angustissimum (A. Gray) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley, Talinum aurantiacum G. Engelmann): Flame Flower, Orange Flame Flower, Talinum, Yellow Flame Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 14 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky outcrops, plains, flats, streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 2,200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Talinum lineare)*

 

Thelypodium sp

 

Thelypodium sp.: Thelypody (terrestrial annual or perennial herb) *89*

 

Triodia mutica (Torr.) Benth.

 

Tridens muticus (J. Torrey) G.V. Nash var. muticus: Slim Tridens, Tridente (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 77, 89 (recorded as Triodia mutica), 105*

 

Verbena ciliata Benth.

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain, Verbena (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry rocky slopes, roadsides and along streambeds and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 89 (recorded as Verbena ciliata)*

 

Vicia hassei Wats.

 

Vicia ludoviciana T. Nuttall (Vicia exigua T. Nuttall, Vicia ludoviciana T. Nuttall subsp. ludoviciana [superfluous autonym]): Louisiana Vetch, Slender Vetch, Slim Vetch, Vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms, ridge tops, foothills, hills, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock outcrops, basins, along washes and streambeds and sandy, gravelly and rocky loam soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (082406), 77, 85, 80 (gen.), 89 (recorded as Vicia hassei)*

 

 

BIENNIAL HERBS

 

Aristida sp. (II)

 

Aristida sp.: Threeawn *89*

 

 

ANNUAL HERBS

 

Winter Annuals

 

Amsinckia intermedia F. & M.  (II)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 2½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Bowlesia lobata R. & P. (II)

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Bowlesia lobata)*

 

Calycoseris wrightii Gray (II)

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Cupfruit, White Tackstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hillsides, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Cryptanthe barbigera (Gray) Greene (II)

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Cryptanthe intermedia (Gray) Greene (II)

 

Cryptantha nevadensis A. Nelson & G.G. Kennedy: Nevada Cat’s-eye, Nevada Cryptantha, Nevada Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 89 (recorded as Cryptanthe intermedia)*

 

Cryptanthe pterocarya (Gray) Greene

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Wing-fruited Forget-me-not, Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Daucus pusillus Michx. (II)

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Ellisia torreyi Gray

            = Eucrypta torreyi (Gray) Heller

 

Eucrypta micrantha (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Dainty Desert Hideseed, Peluda, Smallflower Eucrypta, Small-flowered Eucrypta (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Ellisia torreyi)*

 

Erodium texanum Gray (II)

 

Erodium texanum A. Gray: Alfilerilla, Desert Stork’s Bill, False Filaree, Large-flowered Stork’s Bill, Texas Stork’s Bill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, prairies, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Eulobus californicus Nutt.

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene): California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening-primrose (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Evax caulescens Gray var. (unrecorded) (II)

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque var. verna C.S. Rafinesque (Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle): Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 89 (recorded as Evax caulescens)*

 

Filago californica Nutt. (II)

 

Filago californica T. Nuttall: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Galium proliferum Gray

 

Galium proliferum A. Gray: Bedstraw, Desert Bedstraw, Great Basin Bedstraw, Limestone Bedstraw, Spreading Bedstraw (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ledges, rocky banks, among boulders, flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Gilia bigelovii Gray

     = Linanthus bigelovii (Gray) Greene

 

Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Gilia bigelovii A. Gray): Bigelow Gilia, Bigelow’s Linanthus (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Gilia glutinosa (Benth.) Gray

 

Gilia stellata A.A. Heller: Star Gilia, Star Gily-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, canyons, rocky and sandy slopes, hills, gravelly hillsides, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, rocky and gravelly roadsides, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 77, 89 (recorded as Gilia glutinosa)*

 

Gilia inconspicua (Sm.) Dougl. var. sinuata Gray (II)

 

Gilia sinuata D. Douglas ex G. Bentham: Bare-base Gilia, Cinder Gilia, Gilia, Gily-flower, Rosy Gilia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 89 (recorded as Gilia inconspicua var. sinuata)*

 

Harpagonella palmeri Gray

 

Harpagonella palmeri A. Gray: Arizona Harpagonella, Arizona Grapplinghook, Grappling Hook, Palmer Grapplinghook (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, benches and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Linum lewisii Pursh

 

Linum lewisii F.T. Pursh (var. lewisii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Linum perenne C. Linnaeus subsp. lewisii (F.T. Pursh) O.E. Hulten): Blue Flax, Lewis Flax, Prairie Flax, Western Blue Flax (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats and roadsides, occurring from 2,400 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Lupinus leptophyllus Benth.

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Desert Lupine, Mojave Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 89 (recorded as Lupinus leptophyllus)*

 

Malacothrix clevelandii Gray

 

Malacothrix clevelandii A. Gray: Annual Malacothrix, Cleveland’s Desertdandelion, Cleveland Yellow Saucers, Yellow Saucers (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and streams, occurring from 2,500 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Malacothrix coulteri Gray (II)

 

Malacothrix coulteri A. Gray: Coulter Desertdandelion, Snakes Head (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 86, 89*

 

Malacothrix glabrata (D.C. Eaton) Gray

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray (Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton): California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, washes and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Malacothrix sonchoides (Nutt.) T. & G. (II)

 

Malacothrix sonchoides (T. Nuttall) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Sowthistle Desertdandelion, Yellow Saucers (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, sandy washes and along rivers, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

Mentzelia aspera L.

 

Mentzelia aspera C. Linnaeus: Tropical Blazingstar, Tropical Stickleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky outcrops, flats, limestone quarries, draws, along streams, mesquite bosques, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 85 (050906), 89*

 

Microseris lindleyi (DC.) Gray (II)

 

Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray (Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Uropappus lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) T. Nuttall, Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall): Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs, Starpoint (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides, sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Nemacladus ramosissimus Nutt. (II)

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson var. orientalis R. McVaugh: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77 (sp.), 89 (recorded as Nemacladus ramosissimus)*

 

Nemophila arizonica Jones

 

Pholistoma auritum (J. Lindley) N. Lilja (var. arizonicum (W. Jones) L. Constance is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Arizona Fiestaflower, Arizona Pholistoma, Blue Fiesta Flower, Sticky Waterleaf (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and along washes, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 77, 89 (recorded as Nemophila arizonica)*

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes Gray (II)

     = Sphaerostigma chamaeneriodes (Gray) Small

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray): Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 77, 89*

 

Parietaria debilis Forst. f.

 

Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton (var. hespera is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Rillita Pellitory (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, recesses beneath boulders and rocks, gravelly and sandy washes and riparian woodlands, occurring from 800 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 58, 89 (recorded as Parietaria debilis)*

 

Phacelia distans Benth.

 

Phacelia distans G. Bentham (Phacelia distans G. Bentham var. australis A. Brand): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Phacelia, Distant Phacelia, Fern-leaf Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild Heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Plantago ignota Morris (II)

 

Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin (Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin var. gnaphaloides (T. Nuttall) A. Gray, Plantago purshii J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes): Bristle Bract Plantain, Hierba del Pastor (Hispanic), Indian Wheat, Pastora, Pursh Indian Wheat, Pursh Plantain, Woolly Plantain (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 28, 30, 48 (gen..), 56, 57, 58, 63 (080806), 77, 89 (recorded as Plantago ignota), 101*

 

Plantago virginica L.

 

Plantago rhodosperma J. Decaisne.: Redseed Plantain (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and along streams, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 48 (gen.), 77, 89 (recorded as Plantago virginica)*

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana Gray (II)

     = Nemoseris neomexicana (Gray) Greene

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: Desert-hicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, New Mexico Plumeseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes and plains, occurring from 200 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Silene antirrhina L.

 

Silene antirrhina C. Linnaeus: Catchfly, Desert Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Silene (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and waste places, occurring below 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Spermolepis echinata (Nutt.) Heller (II)

 

Spermolepis echinata (T. Nuttall ex A.P. de Condolle) A.A. Heller: Beggar’s Lice, Bristly Scaleseed, Scaleseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Streptanthus arizonicus Wats.

 

Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex A. Gray subsp. arizonicus (S. Watson) A.R. Kruckeberg, J.E. Rodman & R.D. Worthington (Streptanthus arizonicus S. Watson): Arizona Jewel Flower, Arizona Twist Flower, Lyreleaf Jewelflower, Lyreleaf Twistflower, Lyre-leaved Twistflower, Silver Bells (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3½ feet in height in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 86, 89*

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes Hook.

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker (Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker var. elegans (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) B.L. Robinson; Thysanocarpus amplectens E.L. Greene): Lace Pod, Lacepod, Sand Fringepod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, meadows, flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

 

Summer Annuals

 

Anoda thurberi Gray

 

Anoda pentaschista A. Gray: Field Anoda (terrestrial summer annual herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, fields, roadsides, along washes, cienegas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 57, 77, 89 (recorded as Anoda thurberi)*

 

Boerhavia intermedia Jones

 

Boerhavia intermedia W. Jones: Fivewing Spiderling, Five-winged Ringstem, Mochi, Spreading Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, damp soil in floodplains, along washes and streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 89*

 

Boerhavia megaptera Standley

 

Boerhavia megaptera P.C. Standley: Tucson Mountain Spiderling, Winged Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,300 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Euphorbia florida Engelm. (II)

 

Chamaesyce florida (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia florida G. Engelmann): Chiricahua Mountain Sandmat, Florida Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial summer annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Lathyrus pusillus Ell.

 

Lathyrus pusillus S. Elliott: Low Pea, Low Pea Vine, Singletary Pea, Singletary Vetchling, Tiny Pea, Tiny Pea Vine (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, occurring between 2,300 to 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC? *5, 6, 48 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 89*

 

Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv. (II)

     = Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. mucronata (A. Michaux) R. Nowack (Leptochloa mucronata (A. Michaux) H.B. Kunth): Desparramo Rojo, Mucronate Sprangletop, Slendergrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, dry rocky slopes, roadsides, along sandy washes and streams, ditch banks, tanks and moist disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 89 (recorded as Leptochloa filiformis)*

 

Setaria grisebachii Fourn.

     = Chaetochloa grisebachii (Fourn.) Scribn.

 

Setaria grisebachii E.P. Fournier: Grisebach’s Bristlegrass, Ola de Zorra (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, pockets of soil in rocky outcrops, flats, along washes and streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

 

 

 

II. Mesa-Like Mountain Slopes

 

 

TREES

 

Cercidium torreyanum (Wats.) Sargent

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree) (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; has a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Cercidium torreyanum), 91*

 

Olneya tesota Gray

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Comitin, Arizona Ironwood, Desert Ironwood, Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 30 feet in height and 15 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, rocky canyons, rocky foothills, hills, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, floodplains and along washes, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; the trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and the seeds are an important food of desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 89, 91*

 

 

SHRUBS

 

Adelia neomexicana (Gray) Kuntze

 

Forestiera shrevei P.C. Standley (Forestera phillyreoides (G. Bentham) J. Torrey): Desert Olive, Desert-olive Forestiera, Forestiera, Palo de Tucublate, Shreve Desert Olive, Tanglebrush, Tanglebush, Wild Olive, Twinberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous to nearly evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 25 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 30, 46, 52, 53, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Adelia neomexicana)*

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (Torr.) Gray

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial cold deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyon bottoms and along gravelly and sandy washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds, the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 57, 58, 77, 89, 91*

 

Atriplex sp.

 

Atriplex sp.: Saltbush *89*

 

Baccharis emoryi Gray (I)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along gravelly and sandy washes, along streams, streambeds, floodplains, bottomlands and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Baccharis emoryi)*

 

Condalia lycioides (Gray) Weberbauer (III)

     = Zizyphus lycioides Gray

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or small tree (3 to 13 feet in height); within range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii), Band-tailed Pigeons (Columba fasciata), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds feed on the fruit. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Condalia lycioides), 91*

 

Ephedra trifurca Torr. (I)

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 15 feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is valuable in binding soils. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89, 91*

 

Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville (I)

     = Covillea tridentata (DC.) Vail

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 12 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, dry rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats and heavy and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Creosote bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base, the branches will provide support its’ roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelina. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 80, 89, 91, 101*

 

Opuntia fulgida Engelm.

 

Cylindropuntia  fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann): Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 89, 91*

 

Opuntia spinosior (Engelm.) Toumey

 

Cylindropuntia  spinosior (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey): Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (8 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to over 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia spinosior (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Yucca elata (Engelm.)

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann (Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata [superfluous autonym], Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. utahensis (S.A. McKelvey) J.L. Reveal, Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. verdiensis (S.A. McKelvey) J.L. Reveal, Yucca utahensis S.A. McKelvey, Yucca verdiensis S.A. McKelvey): Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet, Whipple Yucca (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (6 to 30 feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in diameter with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, sandy plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and in sandy and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The chopped stems of the plant serve as emergency food for cattle during periods of drought, cattle feed on the young flower stalks. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; the growth rate on wild growing plants is about 1 inch each year with many of the older plants reaching 200 to 300 years of age. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 89*

 

 

DWARF SHRUBS

 

Cereus greggii Engelm.

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann var. transmontanus G. Engelmann): Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ½ inch in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The seeds are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when planted with other desert shrubs and trees such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 63 (060806), 77, 86, 89 (sp.)*

 

Coldenia canescens DC. (I)

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Candolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Candolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, dry mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, dirt roads and rocky and calcareous soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation; useful as an ornamental in the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) F. Seitz

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz: Fendler Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 1½ to 10 inches in height either single or in clusters of up to 5 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, along arroyos and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 6,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and grassland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 89*

 

Zinnia grandiflora Nutt. (I)

     = Crassina grandiflora (Nutt.) Kuntze

 

Zinnia grandiflora T. Nuttall: Desert Zinnia, Little Golden Zinnia, Plains Zinnia, Prairie Zinnia, Rocky Mountain Zinnia, Texas Zinnia, Wild Zinnia, Zacate Pastor (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, hilltops and hillsides, dry gravelly and sandy slopes, alluvial terraces, dry plains, roadsides, washes, arroyo bottoms, disturbed areas and gravelly clay, gravelly loam, sandy, silty and clay loam soils, occurring from 2,400 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 85 (052006), 86, 89*

 

Some botanists believe that this Zinnia may have been incorrectly recorded and that the following species is the one that was observed:

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 12 inches in height and to 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky hills and rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, ridge tops, terraces, gravelly bajadas, sandy alluvial fans, gravelly flats, roadsides, valley bottoms, floodplains, riparian areas and gravelly silt/loam soils, occurring from 1,5000 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 85 (052006)*

 

 

HALF-SHRUBS

 

Baccharis wrightii Gray

 

Baccharis brachyphylla A. Gray: Shortleaf Baccharis, Short-leaved Baccharis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, washes, floodplains and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Baccharis wrightii)*

 

Bebbia juncea (Benth.) Greene

 

Bebbia juncea (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene: Chuckwalla Delight, Junco, Sweetbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 89*

 

Bigelowia hartweggii Gray (I & III)

     = Isocoma hartwegii (Gray) Greene

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 40 inches in height and 18 to 40 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, draws, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89 (recorded as Bigelowia hartweggii)*

 

Muhlenbergia porteri Scribner (I & III)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bakú (Tarahumara), Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Liendrilla Amacollada (Hispanic), Mesquitegrass, Telaraña (Hispanic), Zacate Aparejo (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (12 to 44 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89, 105*

 

Panicum saccharatum Buckl. (I)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Panicum saccharatum), 105*

 

Perezia nana Gray

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Riddellia cooperi Gray

     = Psilostrophe cooperi (Gray) Greene

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height and 8 to 20 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 77, 80, 86, 89 (recorded as Riddellia cooperi)*

 

 

PERENNIAL HERBS

 

Allionia incarnata L. (I)

     = Wedellia incarnata (L.) Kuntze var. (unrecorded)

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 inches in height and with stems 6 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, sandy plains, along washes, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravely and sandy soils, occurring from below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 86, 89*

 

Aplopappus australis Greene

     = Eriocarpum australe Greene

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida (Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle, Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake), Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake): Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus Yellow Spiny Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 14 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (083006), 77, 80, 86, 89  (recorded as Aplopappus australis)*

 

*Apodanthera undulata Gray

 

Apodanthera undulata A. Gray: Melon Loco (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (leaves to 12 inches in height creeping to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, sand dunes and washes, occurring from 1,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

*Aristolochia sp.

 

Aristolochia watsoni E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Dutchman’s Pipe, Dutchman’s Pipevine, Hierba del Indio, Indian-root, Pipevine Flower, Raiz del Indio, Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe, Watson Indian Root (terrestrial perennial deciduous (?) forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Bahia absinthifolia Benth. (I)

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 89*

 

Baileya multiradiata Harv. & Gray

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Cloth-of-gold, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89*

 

Bouteloua rothrockii Vasey

 

Bouteloua rothrockii G. Vasey (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. rothrockii (G. Vasey) F.W. Gould): Navajita Liebrero, Rothrock’s Grama (terrestrial perennial graminoid (10 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 2,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89, 105*

 

Bouteloua trifida Thurb. (I)

 

Bouteloua trifida G. Thurber: China, Navajita, Navajita Roja, Red Grama, Three-awn Grama (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky and sandy slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 77, 89*

 

*Cucurbita digitata Gray

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (trailing stems reaching 3 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, hills, sandy benches, dry plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gulches, sandy washes, floodplains, waste places and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 68, 89*

 

Dalea pogonathera Gray

     Parosela pogonathera (Gray) Vail

 

Dalea pogonathera A. Gray: Bearded Dalea, Bearded Prairie Clover, Herba del Corazon, Heirba del Corazo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, soil pockets on rocky outcrops and flats, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Euphorbia sp.

 

            Euphorbia sp.: Sandmat, Spurge *89*

 

Euphorbia albomarginata T. & G. (III)

 

Chamaesyce albomarginata (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.K. Small (Euphorbia albomarginata J. Torrey & A. Gray): Golondrina, Rattlesnake Weed, White Margin Euphorbia, Whitemargin Sandmat, White Margin Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to ½ inch in height and 10 to 21 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 89*

 

Franseria tenuifolia Gray (III)

     = Gaertneria tenuifolia (Gray) Kuntze

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and rocky soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (083006), 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Franseria tenuifolia)*

 

Greenella arizonica Gray

 

Gutierrezia arizonica (A. Gray) M.A. Lane (Greenella arizonica A. Gray): Arizona Snakeweed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in  elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Hymenatherum hartwegii Gray

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.L Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Five-needle Fetid Marigold, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 8 inches in height and width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky plains, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur (Nathalis iole) and may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 16, 18, 28, 46, 58, 77, 82, 86, 89 (recorded as Hymenatherum hartwegii)*

 

*Martynia altheaefolia Benth.  (I)

 

Proboscidea althaeifolia (G. Bentham) J. Decaisne (Proboscidea arenaria (G. Engelmann) J. Decaisne): Cuernitos, Desert Devil’s-claw, Desert Unicorn-plant, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-horn, Elephant Tusks, Gato, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Roundbrack Devil’s Claw, Sand Devil’s Claw, Torito, Una de Gato (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height and 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, sandy washes and sandy soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Martynia altheaefolia)*

 

Pappophorum wrightii Wats.

 

Enneapogon desvauxii A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Feather Pappusgrass, Nineawn Pappusgrass, Spike Pappusgrass, Wright Pappusgrass, Zacate Ladera, Zacate Lobero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Pappophorum wrightii), 105*

 

Physalis lobata Torr. (III)

     = Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf.

 

Quincula lobata (J. Torrey) C.S. Rafinesque (Physalis lobata J. Torrey, Physalis lobata J. Torrey var. albiflora U.T. Waterfall): Chinese Lantern, Purple Quincula, Purple Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, desert plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 57, 77, 80 (gen. - Physalis), 86, 89*

 

Sida diffusa H.B.K.

 

Sida abutifolia P. Miller (Sida filicaulis J. Torrey & A. Gray, Sida procumbens E.J. Schwartz): Spreading Fanpetals, Spreading Sida (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly and sandy flats, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Sida diffusa)*

 

Sida hastata A. St. Hil.

 

Rhynchosida physocalyx (A. Gray) P.A. Fryxell (Sida physocalyx A. Gray): Buffpetal, Spearleaf Sida, Tuberous Rhynchosida (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, gravelly bajadas, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Sida hastata)*

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray var. flexuosus Thurb.

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Covered-spike Dropseed, Sand Dropseed, Zacate de Arena (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, meadows, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, swales, roadsides, along washes, arroyos, draws, riverbeds, disturbed areas and moist and gravelly clay and sandy loam soils, occurring below 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 77, 85, 89 (recorded as Sporobolus cryptandrus var. flexuosus), 105*

 

*Tetraclea coulteri Gray

 

Tetraclea coulteri A. Gray: Coulter Tetraclea, Coulter’s Wrinklefruit (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Tragia ramosa Torr.

 

Tragia ramosa J. Torrey (Tragia nepetifolia A.J. Cavanilles var. leptophylla (J. Torrey) L.H. Shinners, Tragia nepetifolia A.J. Cavanilles var. ramosa (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis, Traiga stylaris J. Müller Argoviensis): Branched Noseburn, Branched Tragia, Catnip Noseburn, Netleaf Noseburn, Noseburn, Ortiguilla (Hispanic), Ranuriki (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (6 to 14 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hills, rocky and gravelly hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, along streams and washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 15, 16, 30, 46, 63 (081706), 85 (050906), 89*

 

Triodia pulchella H.B.K. (I)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (3 to 6 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring  below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Triodia pulchella), 105*

 

 

BIENNIAL HERBS

 

Argemone intermedia Sweet

 

Argemone polyanthemos (F.K. Fedde) G.B. Ownby (Argemone intermedia auct. non R. Sweet [misapplied]): Annual Pricklepoppy, Bluestem Pricklepoppy, Bluestem Prickly Poppy, Crested Pricklypoppy, Pricklypoppy, Thistle Poppy, White Prickly Poppy (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (to 3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, plains, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 46, 48, 68, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

 

ANNUAL HERBS

 

Long-Lived Annuals

 

Aplopappus gracilis (Nutt.) Gray

 

Machaeranthera gracilis (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners (Aplopappus/Haplopappus gracilis (T. Nuttall) A. Gray): Goldenweed, Slender Goldenweed, Yellow Daisy, Yellow Spiny Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, dry plains and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Aster tanacetifolius H.B.K. (I)

     = Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (H.B.K.) Nees.

 

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck (Aster tanacetifolius K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Tahoka Daisy, Tansyleaf Spine Aster, Tansyleaf Tansyaster (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 80, 86, 89*

 

Atriplex elegans Dietr.

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 26 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 68, 89*

 

Atriplex texana Wats. (III)

     Atriplex tuberculata (Torr.) Coulter

 

Atriplex texana S. Watson: Texas Saltbush (terrestrial annual forb/herb) This species is not known to occur in Arizona. It is not known which species was observed. This species was misidentified. *63 (061006), 89, 95 (*5, 6, 63 (061306), 89, 95 (Personal Communication 052206)*

 

Eriogonum abertianum Torr. (I)

 

Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey (Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey var. abertianum [superfluous autonym], Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey var. cyclosepalum (E.L. Greene) F.R. Fosberg): Abert’s Buckwheat, Abert Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, foothills, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Eriogonum deflexum Torr.

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey (var. deflexum is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg, Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. turbinatum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal): Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places, disturbed areas and rocky soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

Eriogonum trichopodium Torr.

 

Eriogonum trichopes J. Torrey (var. trichopes is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Little Desert Buckwheat, Little Deserttrumpet, Little Trumpet, Yellow Trumpet (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Eriogonum trichopodium)*

 

Eriogonum nidularium Coville (?)

 

Eriogonum nidularium F.V. Coville: Birdnest Buckwheat, Nidular Buckwheat, Whisk Broom (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats and washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 89*

 

Iva ambrosiifolia Gray (I)

 

Hedosyne ambrosifolia (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Iva ambrosiifolia A. Gray): Marsh Elder, Ragged Marshelder, Rag Sumpweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, along washes and streams and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 57, 89*

 

 

Winter Annuals

 

Actinolepis lanosa Gray (III)

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray): White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 1½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Actinolepis lanosa)*

 

Amsinckia tessellata Gray

 

Amsinckia tessellata A. Gray: Bristly Fiddleneck, Checker Fiddleneck, Checkered Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Tessellate Fiddle Neck, Western Fiddleneck (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, bajadas, gravelly flats, along sandy washes, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 80, 89*

 

Astragalus nuttallianus DC. (I)

 

Astragalus nuttallianus A.P. de Candolle: Locoweed, Nuttall Locoweed, Nuttall Milkvetch, Smallflowered Milkvetch (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (6 inches to 3½ feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, dry plains, gravelly flats, river bottoms, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 68, 89*

 

Baeria gracilis (DC.) Gray (III)

 

Lasthenia californica A.P. de Candolle ex J. Lindley (Baeria chrysostoma F.E. von Fischer &C.A. Mey, Lasthenia chrysostoma (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) E.L. Greene): California Goldfields, Goldfield (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (083106), 77, 89 (recorded as Baeria gracilis)*

 

Calandrinia menziesii (Hook.) T. & G.

 

Calandrinia ciliata (L.H. Ruiz & J.A. Pavon) A.P. de Candolle (Calandrinia ciliata (L.H. Ruiz & J.A. Pavon) A.P. de Candolle var. menziesii (W.J. Hooker) J.F. Macbride): Desert Rock Purslane, Fringed Redmaids, Red Maids, Rock Purslane (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hills, plains, gravelly flats, seeps, along washes, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083106), 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Calandrinia menziesii), 101*

 

Calyptridium monandrum Nutt.

 

Cistanthe monandra (T. Nuttall) M.A. Hershkovitz (Calyptridium monandrum T. Nuttall): Common Pussypaws, Sand Cress (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridgetops, sandy bajadas, slopes, plains, gravelly and sandy flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Chaenactis carphoclinia Gray

 

Chaenactis carphoclinia A. Gray (var. carphoclinia is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Broadleaved Chaenactis, False Yarrow, Pebble False-yarrow, Pebble Pincushion, Pincushion Flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains and along washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (062606), 77, 89*

 

Chaenactis stevioides H. & A.

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott (Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott var. stevioides): Broad-leaved Chaenactis, Desert Pincushion, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dustymaiden (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu Torr. (I)

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey var. brevicornu: Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Chorizanthe rigida (Torr.) T. & G.

 

Chorizanthe rigida (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Devil’s Spineflower, Devil’s Spiny-herb, Rigid Spineflower, Rigid Spiny Herb, Turk’s Rug (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 89*

 

Cryptanthe angustifolia (Torr.) Greene

 

Cryptantha angustifolia (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Bristlelobe Cryptantha, Cat’s-eye Panamint, Desert Cryptantha, Narrow-leaf Cryptantha, Narrow-leaved Forget-me-not, Narrow-leaved Nievitas, Narrow-leaved Popcorn Flower, Panamint Cryptantha, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Draba platycarpa T. & G.

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray var. cuneifolia: Gasa, Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, seeps and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46 (sp.), 89 (recorded as Draba platycarpa)*

 

Eremiastrum bellioides Gray

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and sandy slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Eremiastrum bellioides)*

 

Eremocarya micrantha (Torr.) Greene

 

Cryptantha micrantha (J. Torrey) I.M. Johnston (var. micrantha is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Eremocarya micrantha (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene): Dwarf Cryptantha, Purpleroot Pick-me-not, Purple-rooted Nievitas, Redroot Cat’s-eye, Redroot Cryptantha (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy mesas, hillsides, foothills, gravelly slopes, flats, sand dunes, sandy benches, along washes and creeks, floodplains, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 300 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Eriogonum angulosum Benth.

 

Eriogonum maculatum A.A. Heller: Anglestem Buckwheat, Angle-stemmed Buckwheat, Spotted Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 89 (recorded as Eriogonum angulosum)*

 

Eschscholtzia mexicana Greene (I)

 

Eschscholzia californica L.K. von Chamisso subsp. mexicana (E.L. Greene) J.C. Clark (Eschscholtzia mexicana E.L. Greene): Amapola, Amorilla, Amopola del Campo (Poppy of the Countryside), California Poppy, Desert Gold Poppy, Gold Poppy, Mexican Gold Poppy (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridge tops, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 63 (083106), 77, 86, 89*

 

Festuca octoflora Walt. var. hirtella Piper (I)

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) J.T. Henrard (Festuca octoflora T. Walter var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) C.V. Piper ex A.S. Hitchcock): Eight-flowered Fescue, Fescua, Hairy Sixweeks Fescue, Sixweeks Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 57, 77, 89*

 

Gaillardia arizonica Gray

 

Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Blanketflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, plains, sandy flats and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 89*

 

Gilia filifolia Nutt. var. diffusa Gray (I)

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) F. Mason: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Gilia filifolia var. diffusa and Gilia floccosa)*

 

Gilia floccosa Gray (I)

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) F. Mason: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Gilia filifolia var. diffusa and Gilia floccosa)*

 

Gila longiflora (Torr.) Don

 

Ipomopsis longiflora (J. Torrey) V. Grant: Blue Gilia, Blue Starflower, Flaxflowered Ipomopsis, Pale Trumpets, White-flowered Gilia, White-flowered Ipomopsis (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and limestone and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Moths feed on the nectar. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (082406), 86, 77, 89*

 

Hosackia brachycarpa Benth. (I)

     = Lotus humistratus Greene

 

Lotus humistratus E.L. Greene: Foothill Deervetch, Hill Deervetch, Hill Lotus, Foothill Deervetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 inches in height and 4 to 18 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Hosackia brachycarpa)*

 

Hosackia humilis (Greene) Abrams

     = Lotus salsuginosus Greene

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene (var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Hosackia humilis)*

 

Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene var. occidentalis (Wats.) Ryd. (I)

     = Lappula occidentalis (Wats.) Greene

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis (Lappula redowski auct. non (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene [misapplied], Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. desertorum (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis (S. Watson) P.A. Rydberg, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. redowskii E.D. Hatch et all): Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Flatspine Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89, 101*

 

Lappula texana (Scheelle) Greene

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) H.H. Higgins (Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) M.E. Jones, Lappula texana (G.H. Scheelle) N.L. Britton, Lappula texana (G.H. Scheelle) N.L. Britton var. coronata (E.L. Greene) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride): Bluebur, Cupped Stickseed, Flatspine Stickseed, Hairy Stickseed, Western Sticktight (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt. (I)

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Hairypod Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed sites, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89*

 

Lesquerella gordonii (Gray) Wats.

 

Lesquerella gordonii (A. Gray) S. Watson: Arizona Bladderpod Mustard, Beanpod, Bladderpod Mustard, Gordon’s Bladderpod, Yellow Bladderpod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 inches to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, dry plains, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

Loeflinga pusilla Curran

 

Loeflingia squarrosa T. Nuttall: Spreading Pygmyleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Loeflinga pusilla)*

 

Lupinus concinnus Agardh

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh subsp. concinnus: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 89 (sp.)*

 

Malvastrum exile Gray (III)

 

Eremalche exilis (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Malvastrum exile A. Gray): Five Spot, White Mallow (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains and mesas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl. (I)

 

Mentzelia albicaulis (D. Douglas ex W.J Hooker) D. Douglas ex J. Torrey & A. Gray: Small-flowered Blazingstar, Whitestem Blazingstar (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 89*

 

Oenothera caespitosa Nutt.

     = Pachylophus caespitosus (Nutt.) Raimann

 

Oenothera caespitosa T. Nuttall: Fragrant Evening-primrose, Large White Desert Primrose, Rock Rose, Sand Lily, Stemless Evening-primrose, Tufted Evening-primrose, White Stemless Evening-primrose, White Evening-primrose, White-tufted Evening Primrose (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (8 to 12 inches in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes clearings in forests, roadsides and floodplains, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 89*

 

Oenothera scapoidea Nutt. var. clavaeformis (Torr.) Wats.

     = Chylisma scapoidea clavaeformis (Torr.) Small

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. clavaeformis (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont, Oenothera scapoidea T. Nuttall var. clavaeformis (J. Torrey) J.K. Small): Brown-eyed Primrose, Browneyes, Clavate-fruited Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 89 (recorded as Oenothera scapoidea var. clavaeformis)*

 

Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth. var. palmeri Gray

 

Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & L.R. Heckard subsp. exserta (Orthocarpus purpurascens G. Bentham var. palmeri A. Gray): Common Owl’s Clover, Escobita (Little Broom), Exserted Indian Paintbrush, Mohave Owl Clover, Owl’s Clover (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 80, 86, 89*

 

Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. (I)

 

Pectocarya platycarpa P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Combbur, Broad-wing Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Pectocarya linearis)*

 

Pectocarya penicillata (H. & A.) A. DC. (I)

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Pectocarya penicillata)*

 

Phacelia arizonica Gray

 

Phacelia arizonica A. Gray (Phacelia popei J. Torrey & A. Gray var. arizonica (A. Gray) J.W. Voss: Arizona Phacelia, Arizona Scorpion-weed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, flats and valleys, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Phacelia crenulata Torr. (I)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Caterpillar Weed, Cleftleaf Wildheliotrope, Common Phacelia, Desert Heliotrope, Scalloped Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 80, 89*

 

Plagiobothrys arizonicus Greene

 

Plagiobothrys arizonicus (A. Gray) E.L. Greene ex A. Gray: Arizona Popcornflower, Bloodweed, Blood Weed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, among rocks, washes, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Plagiobothrys pringlei Greene

 

Plagiobothrys pringlei E.L. Greene: Pringle Popcorn-flower, Pringle’s Popcornflower, Popcorn Flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (stems 4 to 16 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, sandy mesas, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, muddy and sandy flats, roadsides, along washes and streams, floodplains and moist, sandy and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,200  to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Plantago fastigiata Morris (I)

 

Plantago ovata P. Forsskal (Plantago fastigiata J. Morris, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood): Blond Psyllium, Desert Indianwheat, Fleaseed, Fleawort, Indian Wheat, Psyllium (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 77, 89*

 

Salvia columbariae Benth.

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham (var. columbariae is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): California Chia, California Sage, Chia, Desert Chia, Desert Sage (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 77, 86, 89*

 

Stephanomeria exigua Nutt. (I & III)

     = Ptiloria exigua (Nutt.) Greene

 

Stephanomeria exigua T. Nuttall: Annual Mitra, Small Stephanomeria, Small Wirelettuce (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, plains, dunes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,400 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

Stylocline micropoides Gray

 

Stylocline micropoides A. Gray: Desert Neststraw, Woollyhead Fambract, Woollyhead Neststraw (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 77, 89*

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (H. & A.) Greene (I)

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene (Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene): California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 77, 89*

 

 

Summer Annuals

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (Torr.) Wats.

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Bledo, Fringed Amaranth, Fringed Pigweed, Quelite, Quelitillo, Toothed Amaranth (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, sandy flats and sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 68, 89*

 

Aristida americana (Kunth) Griseb.

 

Aristida adscensionis C. Linnaeus: Sixweeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Three-awn Grass, Zacate Cola de Zorra, Zacate Tres Barbas (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Aristida americana), 105*

 

Boerhavia pterocarpa Wats. (III)

 

Boerhavia pterocarpa S. Watson: Apache Pass Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, roadsides, flood plains and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 57, 63 (090806), 85 (090806), 89*

 

Boerhavia thornberi Jones

 

Boerhavia erecta C. Linnaeus: Erect Spiderling, Five Winged Spiderling, Hamip Caacöl  (Seri), Mochi, Spiderling (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, soil pockets in rocky outcrops, alluvial fans, rocky bottomland, valley plains and bottoms, roadsides, along sandy washes, rocky arroyos and stream beds, flood plains, riparian areas, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (081206), 85 (090806), 89 (recorded as Boerhavia thornberi)*

 

Boerhavia watsoni Stanley (III)

 

Boerhavia coulteri (W.J. Hooker f.) S. Watson: Coulter’s Spiderling, Mochi (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 2½ feet in height and 1 to 5 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky and gravelly slopes, dry plains, sandy flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Boerhavia watsoni)*

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (Kunth) Griseb.

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Pasto Cabra (Hispanic), Six-weeks Needle Grama, Tochite (Hispanic), Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes and streambeds, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89, 105*

 

Boutloua polystachya (Benth.) Torr.

 

Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. barbata [superfluous autonym]): Navajita Annual, Sixweeks Grama, Zacate Liebrero (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Boutloua polystachya), 105*

 

Cladothrix languinosa Nutt. (III)

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 18 inches in height, up to 5 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Cladothrix languinosa)*

 

Cuscuta sp.

 

Cuscuta sp.: Dodder *89*

 

Euphorbia sp.

 

Euphorbia sp.: Sandmat or Spurge *89*

 

Euphorbia sp.

 

Euphorbia sp.: Sandmat or Spurge *89*

 

Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm.

 

Chamaesyce glyptosperma (G. Engelmann) J.K. Small (Euphorbia glyptosperma G. Engelmann): Corrugate-seeded Spurge, Ribseed Sandmat, Ridgeseed Euphorbia, Ridgeseed Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons, hills, slopes, flats, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 85, 86 (gen.), 89, 101*

 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers.

 

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia (C.H. Persoon) J.K. Small subsp. serpyllifolia (Euphorbia serpyllifolia C.H. Persoon): Thymeleaf Euphorbia, Thymeleaf Spurge, Thymeleaf Sandmat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Euphorbia serrula Engelm.

 

Chamaesyce serrula (G. Engelmann) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley (Euphorbia serrula G. Engelmann): Sawtooth Euphorbia, Sawtooth Sandmat, Sawtooth Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats and gravelly roadsides, occurring from 2,400 to 8,000 feet in elevation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Euphorbia setiloba Engelm. 

 

Chamaesyce setiloba (G. Engelmann ex J. Torrey) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish (Euphorbia setiloba G. Engelmann): Bristlelobe Sandmat, Bristlelobe Spurge, Golondrina, Fringed Spurge, Yuma Sandmat, Yuma Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 57, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Kallstroemia brachystylis Vail (III)

 

Kallstroemia californica (S. Watson) A.M. Vail: California Caltrop, Little Summer Poppy, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 89 (recordered as Kallstroemia brachystylis)*

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora Torr. 

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height and to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, open plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 89*

 

Mollugo cerviana (L.) Seringe

 

Mollugo cerviana (C. Linnaeus) N.C. Seringe: Threadstem Carpetweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, occurring from about 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 77, 89*

 

Mollugo verticillata L.

 

Mollugo verticillata C. Linnaeus: Carpet-weed, Green Carpetweed, Espuelita, Indian-chickweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky outcrops, ridge tops, slopes, flats, road sides and disturbed areas, occurring from about 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Panicum sp.

 

Panicum sp.: Panic Grass *89*

 

Panicum arizonicum Scribn. & Merrill

 

Urochloa arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) O. Morrone & F.O. Zuloaga (Brachiaria arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) S.T. Blake, Panicum arizonicum F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill): Arizona Panicgrass, Arizona Panicum, Arizona Signalgrass, Piojillo de Arizona (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy flats, roadsides, ephemeral seeps and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

Panicum hirticaulum Presl

 

Panicum hirticaule J.S. Presl: Mexican Panicgrass, Roughstalk Witchgrass, Witchgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides, seeps, along sandy washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 58, 80 (gen.) , 89 (recorded as Panicum hirticaulum)*

 

Pectis papposa Gray

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, streambeds and washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host of the Beet Leaf Hopper. *5, 6, 16, 46, 57, 77, 89*

 

Pectis prostrata Cav. 

 

Pectis prostrata A.J. Cavanilles: Creeping Pectis, Spreading Chinchweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from dry slopes, sandy plains, along streams and damp sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland ecological formation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 89*

 

Trianthema portulacastrum L. (III)

 

Trianthema portulacastrum C. Linnaeus: Black Pigweed, Desert Horsepurslane, Desert Purslane, Giant Pigweed, Horse Purslane, Phak Bia Hin, Pigweed, Purslane, Verdolaga Blanca, Verdolaga Rastrera (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89*

 

 

 

 

III. Santa Cruz Flood-Plain

 

 

TREES

 

Acacia greggii Gray (II)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Acacia, Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg’s Acacia, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (5 to 25 feet in height and 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89, 91*

 

Celtis mississippiensis Bosc var. reticulata (Torr.) Sargent

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugar-berry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 53 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The fruit is eaten by wildlife;. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the leaves turn yellow in the fall. The Netleaf Hackberry has been EXTIRPATED from this township. One tree was observed in a residential fenceline in the Barrio Hollywood/Menlo Park area just west of the Santa Cruz River in the 1990+, but could not be relocated in 2005. One small plant was observed in the fenceline on the south side of the rugby pitch in Barrio Anita in 2005. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 89 (recorded as Celtis mississippiensis var. reticulata)*

 

Fraxinus velutina Torr. 

 

Fraxinus velutina J. Torrey (Fraxinus pennsylvanica C.D. Marsh var. velutina (J. Torrey) G.N. Miller): Arizona Ash, Desert Ash, Fresno (Hispanic), Smooth Ash, Toumey Ash, Velvet Ash (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (30 to 40 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from reported from mountains, moist canyons, along washes, streams, creeks and rivers, around pools and moist soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. The Velvet Ash has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 30, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 89*

 

Juglans major (Torr.) Heller

 

Juglans major (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Arizona Black Walnut, Arizona Walnut, Nogal (Hispanic), Nogal Cimarrón (Hispanic), Nogal Encarcelado (Hispanic), Nogal Silvestre (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (30 to 50 feet high and to 50 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, along creeks, streams and rivers and moist, rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,300 feet in elevation (1,930 and 2,050 feet in elevation at remnant sites in Marana in areas where additional water has been made available from the irrigation of crops) in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Arizona Walnut is useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. The Arizona Walnut has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 30, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 89*

 

Populus fremontii Wats. 

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent Populus fremontii S. Watson var. arizonica (C.S. Sargent) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. toumeyi C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Arizona Cottonwood, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet in height and 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and streams, cienegas, bottomlands, water holes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. Consider planting male trees if the “cotton” produced by female trees is objectionable. The leaves are colorful in autumn. The Fremont Cottonwood has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 89*

 

Prosopis odorata Torr. & Frem.

 

Prosopis pubescens G. Bentham: Fremont Screwbean, Screwbean, Screwbean Mesquite, Screwpod Mesquite, Tornillo (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (7 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys, bottomlands, floodplains, seeps, along streams, rivers, ponds and water holes, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Screwbean Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Screwbean Mesquite has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 91, 89 (recorded as Prosopis odorata)*

 

Prosopis velutina Wooton (II)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 56 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert watercourses has been lost to fuelwood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53 (sp.), 56, 57, 58, 63 (083106), 68, 77, 80, 89, 91*

 

Salix sp.

 

Salix sp.: Willow  *89*

 

Salix nigra Marsh. 

 

Salix gooddingii J. Ball (Salix gooddingii J. Ball  var. variabilis J. Ball, Salix nigra H. Marshall var. vallicola W.R. Dudley): Dudley Willow, Goodding Black Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Western Black Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and streams, cienegas, lakeshores, floodplains and wet soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The bark is eaten by beavers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. This plant is important in stream-bank protection. The Goodding Willow has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 52, 53, 58, 77, 89*

 

Sambucus mexicana Presl

 

Sambucus nigra C. Linnaeus subsp. canadensis (C. Linnaeus) R. Bolli (Sambucus caerulea C.F. Rafinesque var. mexicana (C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle) L.D. Benson, Sambucus mexicana C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle): Alcanfor (Hispanic), American Elderberry, Arizona Blue Elder, Arizona Elder, Blueberry Elder, Arizona Elder, Azumate (en Mich), Azumatl (en Mich), Coyapa (Chiapas), Common Elderberry, Desert Elderberry, Elder, Elderberry, Flor de Sauco (Hispanic), Guarico (Hispanic), Ita tindo (Yuku en Oax), Ita tindoo (yaa Mixteco en Oax), Joday llochic (Tepehuano en Nayarit), Kondembasi (Tarasco), Má' Ma Joo (Hispanic), Mexican Elder, Mexican Elderberry, Ne Ho (en Oax), New Mexico Blueberry Elder, Ocoquihui (Chiapas), S'auco (Zoque-popoluca en Veracruz), Sauce (Hispanic), Sauce Chico (Hispanic), Sauco (Hispanic), Sauco Grande (Hispanic), Sauzo Tapiro (Hispanic), Tapiro (Hispanic), Tapiro Sauco (Hispanic), Toxem o Toxeem (Mixe en Oax), Toxiwua (en Michoacán) (terrestrial perennial evergreen (drought deciduous) shrub or tree (7 to 36 feet in height and 8 to 20 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy washes, creeks, streams, watercourses, ditches, cienegas, floodplains and wet areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers, the fruits are eaten by birds and the foliage is browsed by deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Desert Elderberry has been EXTIRPATED from this township. One tree was seen in a residential fence line in Barrio Anita in May 2005, and one plant was reported as an adventive to wet, disturbed ground at the University of Arizona Desert Laboratory 1984. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 30, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Sapindus drummondii H. & A. 

 

Sapindus saponaria C. Linnaeus var. drummondii (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) L. Benson (Sapindus drummondii W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott): Amole, Amolio, Arbolillo, Cherioni, Guayul, Jaboncillo, Matamuchacho, Ojo de Loro, Palo Blanco, Soapberry, Tehuistle, Tzatzupa, Western Soapberry, Wild Chinaberry, Wild China-tree (terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (7 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, plains, along washes and streams, floodplains and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Western Soapberry has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 46, 52, 53, 58, 80, 89, 91*

 

 

SHRUBS

 

#Atriplex canescens (Pursh) James

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 77, 82, 89, 91*

 

#Atriplex polycarpa (Torr.) Wats.

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: All-scale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush, Littleleaf Saltbush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, valley bottoms, along washes, floodplains, playa margins and alkaline and non-alkaline soils, occurring from 400 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cattle Saltbush is a very important browse plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26 (gen.), 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 77, 89, 91*

 

Baccharis viscosa (R. & P.) Kuntze

     = Baccharis glutinosa Pers.

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate (Hispanic), Bachomo (Hispanic), Baldag Shi (Hispanic), Batamote (Hispanic), Broom Baccharis, Chamiso (Hispanic), Chamiso del Rio (Hispanic), Chilca, Cucamoarisha (Cora), Cuerepillo (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Ro (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Tee (Hispanic), False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote (Hispanic), Guatarote (Hispanic), Hierba del Pasmo (Hispanic), Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla (Hispanic), Jara Mexicana (Hispanic), Jaral (Hispanic), Jarilla (Hispanic), Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten (Hispanic), Tu Ta’ Vi (Hispanic), Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (32 inches  to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes, streams and streambeds, rivers and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is useful in controlling watercourse erosion and slowing stream flow and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 30, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Baccharis viscosa)*

 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

 

Cephalanthus occidentalis C. Linnaeus (Cephalanthus occidentalis C. Linnaeus var. californicus G. Bentham):  Button Willow, Common Button Bush, Common Cottonbush, Globe Flower, Honeyballs, Snowball (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or  tree (3 to 20 feet in height and width); within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and rocky streambeds, around lakes and wet soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers attract butterflies. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 28, 46, 52, 80, 89*

 

Condalia spathulata Gray (I)

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston [Condalia spathulata A. Gray sensu Kearney & Peebles “Arizona Flora”]: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial deciduous (though considered evergreen except during periods of severe drought) shrub (5 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,600 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Condalia spathulata), 91*

 

Koeberlinia spinosa Zucc.

 

Koeberlinia spinosa J.G. Zuccarini: Abrojo, Allthorn, Corona de Cristo, Crown of Thorns, Crucifixion-thorn, Junco (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, rocky slopes, sandy and gravelly plains, gravelly flats, banks of washes and along arroyos, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 46, 53, 56, 57, 77, 89, 91*

 

Lycium andersonii Gray var. wrightii Gray

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. wrightii A. Gray: Water Jacket, Wright Desert Thorn, Wright Lycium (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland an desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 46, 89*

 

*Lycium fremontii Gray var. gracilipes Gray

 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray: Frémont’s Desert-thorn, Frémont Lycium, Frémont Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and alluvial plains, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 46, 48, 56, 57, 77, 89 (recorded as recorded as Lycium fremontii and Lycium fremontii var. gracilipes)*

 

Lycium torreyi Gray (II)

 

Lycium torreyi A. Gray: Squaw Thorn, Squawthorn, Torrey Desert Thorn, Torrey Lycium, Torrey Thornbush, Torrey Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial flats, along washes, river bottoms and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 46, 89*

 

Pluchea sericea Nutt.

 

Pluchea sericea (T. Nuttall) F.V. Coville (Tessaria sericea (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners): Arrowweed, Arrowweed Pluchea, Arrowwood, Marsh Fleabane (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, rivers and ditches, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae), it is browsed by deer and may be useful as an ornamental. Arrowweed has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 28, 46, 48, 89*

 

 

WOODY CLIMBERS

 

Clematis ligustifolia Nutt.

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine, subshrub or woody climber (10 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 89 (recorded as Clematis ligustifolia)*

 

Psedera vitacea (Knerr) Greene

 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (C. Linnaeus) J.E. Planchon (Parthenocissus inserta (A.J. Kerner) K. Fritsch, Parthenocissus vitacea (E.B. Knerr) A.S. Hitchcock - considered by some authors to be the western species of Parthenocissus): American Ivy, Boston Ivy, False Virginia Creeper, Hiedra, Japanese Ivy, Parra, Redtwig Creeper, Thicket Creeper, Virginia Creeper, Woodbine (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, roadsides, along streams and creeks, streambeds, bog-like areas, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 2,600 to 8,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The blue fruits are eaten by birds and small animals, The Virginia Creeper is useful in controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; the leaves turn gold, crimson and burgundy in the fall. The Thicket Creeper has been EXTIRPATED from this township. The berries (and probably the leaves) of this plant are reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 46, 89 (recorded as Psedera vitacea), 97*

 

Vitis arizonica Engelm.

 

Vitis arizonica G. Engelmann: Arizona Grape, Canyon Grape, Parra Cimarrona (Hispanic), Parra del Monte (Hispanic), U´li (Hispanic), Uva de Monte (Hispanic), Uva Silvestre (Hispanic), Vid (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and along streams, creeks and watercourses, occurring from 2,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Birds feed on the berries. Canyon Grape is useful in controlling erosion along creeks. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Canyon Grape has been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18 (gen.), 26, 28, 30, 46, 48, 58, 89*

 

 

HALF-SHRUBS

 

Acacia filiculoides (Cav.) Trelease

 

Acacia angustissima (P. Miller) C.E. Kuntze: Barbus de Chivo, Cantemo, Fern Acacia, Guajillo, Palo de Pulque (Hispanic), Prairie Acacia, Siraku K’amataraku (Purépecha), Timbe (Hispanic), Timben (Hispanic), Timbre (Hispanic), Whiteball Acacia (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and washes, occurring from 2,200 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Prairie Acacia is believed to have been EXTIRPATED from this township. Quail feed on the seeds of this plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the leaves are fernlike. *5, 6, 13, 28, 30, 46, 48, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Acacia filiculoides), 91*

 

#Suaeda moquinii (Torr.) Greene

     = Dondia torreyana Wats.

 

Suaeda moquinii (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene (Suaeda nigra (Rafenesque) J.F. MacBride, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson var. ramosissima (P.C. Standley) P.A. Munz): Bush Seepweed, Desert Seepweed, Inkweed, Iodineweed, Mojave Seablite, Quelite Salado, Torrey Sea-blite (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, alkali flats, floodplains and coastal salt marshes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 46, 56, 57, 89*

 

#Suaeda suffrutescens Wats.

     = Dondia suffrutescens (Wats.) Heller

 

Suaeda suffrutescens S. Watson: Desert Seepweed, Shrubby Seepweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, floodplains and alkaline soils, occurring from 3,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 46, 89*

 

 

PERENNIAL HERBS

 

Asclepias galioides H.B.K.

 

Asclepias subverticillata (A. Gray) A.M. Vail (Asclepias galioides auct. non K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland & Kunth [misapplied]): Horsetail Milkweed, Poison Milkweed, Western Whorled Milkweed, Whorled Milkweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, pastures and hay fields, occurring from 2,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 68, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Aster hebecladus DC.

 

Symphyotrichum falcatum (J. Lindley) G.L. Nesom var. crassulum P.A. Rydberg (Aster commutatus (J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. crassulus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake, Aster falcatus J. Lindley var. crassulus (P.A. Rydberg) A.J. Cronquist): Cluster Aster, Prairie Daisy, White Aster, White Heath Aster, White Prairie Aster, White Prairie Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, clearings, roadsides and moist soils adjacent to riparian areas, occurring from 5,000 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and grassland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 80, 85, 89 (recorded as Aster hebecladus)*

 

Aster spinosus Benth.

     = Leucosyris spinosa (Benth.) Greene

 

Chloracantha spinosa (G. Bentham) G.L. Nesom (Aster spinosus G. Bentham): Spiny Aster, Spiny Chloracantha, Mexican Devil-weed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb. subshrub or shrub (2 to 9 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, along ditches, river bottoms, disturbed areas and moist and saline soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 68, 89, 91*

 

Boerhavia viscosa Lag. var. oligadena Heimerl.

 

Boerhavia coccinea P. Miller: Indian Boerhaavia, Red Spiderling, Scarlet Spiderling, Wine-fower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (stems trailing 1 to 6 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Boerhavia viscosa var. oligadena)*

 

Chamaesaracha coronopus (Dunal) Gray

 

Chamaesaracha coronopus (M.F. Dunal) A. Gray: Green False Nightshade, Greenleaf Five Eyes, Small Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 10 inches in height and 18 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, disturbed areas and damp or dry soils, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 68, 89*

 

*Cyperus esculentus L.

 

Cyperus esculentus C. Linnaeus var. esculentus: Bebollin, Chufa, Cebollin (Hispanic), Chufa Flatsedge, Coquillo (Hispanic), Coquillo Amarillo (Hispanic), Northern Nut Grass, Sai´ (Hispanic), Yellow Nut Grass, Yellow Nut Sedge, Zacate (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from road sides, along washes, marshes, stream banks, stock tanks, disturbed areas and wet grounds, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30 (sp.), 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

*Datura metaloides DC.

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, sandy roadsides, arroyos, along ditches, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). This plant is poisonous. *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 77, 80, 86, 89*

 

#Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene

 

Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene (Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene var. stricta (J. Torrey) A.A. Beetle, Distichlis stricta (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene): Coastal Saltgrass, Desert Saltgrass, Inland Saltgrass, Marsh Spikegrass, Saltgrass, Seashore Saltgrass, Spicate Saltgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, alkali flats, streambeds and wet, moist and alkaline soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33, 46, 48, 68, 89, 101, 105*

 

Elymus triticoides Buckley

 

Leymus triticoides (S.B. Buckley) R.K. Pilger (Elymus triticoides S.B. Buckley): Beardless Lyme Grass, Beardless Wildrye, Creeping Wildrye (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, open woods, rocky slopes, hillsides, dry washes, along creeks and sandy soils, occurring from 3,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 58, 89*

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (DC.) Gray

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray: Broomweed, Little-head Sankeweed, Resinweed, Sticky Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Three-leaf Snakeweed, Turpentineweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, stony plains, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 3,500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (083006), 68, 77, 80, 89*

 

Helenium thurberi Gray

 

Helenium thurberi A. Gray: Thurber’s Sneezeweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from marshy places along streams, streambeds and creeks, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 89*

 

*Hoffmannseggia stricta Benth.  (II)

 

Hoffmannseggia glauca (C.G. de Ortega) I.J. Eifert (Hoffmanseggia densiflora G. Bentham): Camote de Raton (Mouse’s Sweet Potato), Hog Potato, Indian Rushpea, Pignut, Sicklepod Rushpea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, sandy roadsides, ditchbanks, along washes, waste places and alkaline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 57, 68, 77, 86, 89 (recorded as Hoffmannseggia stricta), 101*

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni Gray

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Maurandia antirrhiniflora (Poir.) Willd.

 

Maurandella antirrhiniflora (F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow) W.H. Rothmaler (Maurandya antirrhiniflora F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow): Blue Snapdragon Vine, Little Snapdragon Vine, Roving Sailor, Snapdragon Maurandya, Snapdragon Vine, Twining Snapdragon, Vine Blue Snapdragon, Violet Twining, Violet Twining Snapdragon (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (7 to 8 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rock walls, flats, along washes, streambeds, watercourses and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Panicum obtusum H.B.K.

 

Panicum obtusum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Grapevine Mesquite, Vine Mesquite, Vine Mesquite Grass, Wiregrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (8 to 32 inches in length, with runners up to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from swales, pastures, mud flats, rocky drainages and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is useful in binding soils and controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 33, 46, 48, 57, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 89, 105*

 

Pappophorum apertum Munro (II)

 

Pappophorum vaginatum S.B. Buckley (Pappophorum apertum W. Munro ex F. Lamson-Scribner, Pappophorum mucronulatum auct. non C.G. Nees von Esenbeck): Mucronulate Pappusgrass, Pappusgrass, Whiplash Pappusgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, ridge tops, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 2,200 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 77, 89, 105*

 

Philibertella cynanchoides (Gray) Vail

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. cynanchoides (Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. cynanchoides): Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Twinevine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (8 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains and along washes, arroyos and streams, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Philibertella cynanchoides)*

 

Philibertella hartegii Vail var. heterophylla (Engelm.) Vail

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (8 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 15, 46, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Philibertella hartegii var. heterophylla)*

 

Physalis longifolia Nutt.

 

Physalis longifolia T. Nuttall var. longifolia (Physalis virginiana P. Miller var. sonorae (J. Torrey) U.T. Waterfall):  Longleaf Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland ecological formation) *5, 6, 46 (sp.), 58, 80 (gen.), 89, 101*

 

Ruellia clandestina L. (II)

 

Ruellia nudiflora (G. Engelmann & A. Gray) I. Urban var. nudiflora: Common Wild Petunia, Longneck Ruellia, Oregano de China, Ruellia, Violet Ruellia, Violet Wild Petunia, Wild Petunia (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, swales, flats, banks of arroyos, along rocky and sandy washes, along streams and on floodplains usually among rocks, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 77, 85, 89 (recorded as Ruellia clandestina)*

 

*Rumex berlandieri Meisner

 

Rumex chrysocarpus G.G. Moris (Rumex berlandieri C.D. Meisner): Amamatla (terrestrial perennial forb/herb) EXOTIC. This plant was most likely misidentified; this plant is not known to occur in Arizona. It has not been reported from Arizona except for the reported occurrence in the 1909 J.J. Thornber Listing for Tumamoc Hill. *5, 6, 63 (061306), 89, 95 (Rumex romossa Remey ex A. Gray Personal Communication 052206)*

 

*Rumex hymenosepalus Torr. (II)

 

*Rumex hymenosepalus J. Torrey: Canaigra, Canaigre Dock, Desert Rhubarb, Dock; Sorrel, Wild Rhubarb (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds, stagnant pools, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 80, 89*

 

Setaria composita H.B.K. (II)

     = Chaetochloa composita (H.B.K.) Scribn.

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89 (recorded as Setaria composita), 105*

 

Sida lepidota Gray var. sagittaefolia Gray

 

Malvella lepidota (A. Gray) P.A. Fryxell (Sida lepidota A. Gray): Scurfy Mallow, Scurfy Sida (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and playa margins, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 89 (recorded as Sida lepidota var. sagittaefolia)*

 

Solanum douglasii Dunal

 

Solanum douglasii M.F. Dunal: Douglas Nightshade, Greenspot Nightshade (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, dry rocky slopes, among rocks and along watercourses, occurring from 1,500 to 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (II)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bullnettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, roadsides, sandy washes, cienegas, ditch banks, bottomlands, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). The green fruit have been reported as being poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 97, 101*

 

Solidago canadensis L. var. arizonica Gray

 

Solidago velutina A.P. de Condolle (Solidago canadensis C. Linnaeus var. arizonica A. Gray, Solidago sparsiflora A. Gray): Sparse Goldenrod, Threenerve Goldenrod, Velvety Foothills Goldenrod (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, hills, meadows, roadsides, springs and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and scrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28 (sp. - Solidago canadensis), 46 (gen. / recorded as Solidago altissima), 58, 80, 89*

 

Sphaeralcea cuspidata (Gray) Britton (II)

 

Sphaeralcea angustifolia (A.J. Cavannilles) G. Don (Sphaeralcea angustifolia (A.J. Cavannilles) G. Don var. cuspidata A. Gray, Sphaeralcea cuspidata (A. Gray) N.L. Britton): Copper Globemallow, Cordón (Hispanic), Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Hierba del Negro (Hispanic), Narrowleaf Globemallow, Narrow-leaved Desert Mallow, Tlixihitl (Nahuatl), Vara de San José (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or  subshrub (to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, along washes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 30, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 89*

 

Sporobolus wrightii Munro

 

Sporobolus wrightii W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner (Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey var. wrightii (W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner) F.W. Gould): Alkali Sacaton, Big Sacaton, Giant Sacaton, Sacaton, Sacaton Grass, Wright Sacaton, Zacaton (terrestrial perennial graminoid (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, among rocks, flats, roadsides, along gravelly washes, arroyos, creeks and rivers, bosques, floodplains, bottomlands, cienegas, riparian areas and rocky loam and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 85, 89, 105*

 

Teucrium canadense L. var. angustatum Gray

 

Teucrium canadense C. Linnaeus var. canadense (Teucrium canadense C. Linnaeus var. angustatum A. Gray): American Germander, Canada Germander, Germander, Hairy Germander, Wood Sage (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from meadows, along streams and river bottoms, riparian areas and moist areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 85 (051606), 89*

 

Teucrium cubense L.

 

Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin var. densum (Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin subsp. depressum (J.K. Small) McClintock & C.C. Epling): Combleaf Germander, Small Coast Germander, Small Coastal Germander (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and sandy washes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16 (sp.), 46, 63 (082406), 77, 89*

 

Trichloris fasiculata Fourn. (II)

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz (Chloris elegans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Barbas de Indio (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra, Feather Fingergrass, Plumerito (Hispanic), Showy Chloris, Verdillo (Hispanic), Zacate de Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Zacate Lagunero (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds, ditches, swales, waste places, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Chloris elegans and Trichloris fasiculata)*

 

Verbena canescens H.B.K.

 

Verbena canescens K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Gray Verbena (terrestrial perennial forb/herb) EXOTIC. This plant was most likely misidentified; this plant is not known to occur in Arizona. It has not been reported from Arizona except for the reported occurrence in the 1909 J.J. Thornber Listing for Tumamoc Hill. *5, 6, 63 (061306), 89, 95 (Personal Communication 052206)*

 

 

BIENNIAL HERBS

 

Mentzelia wrightii Gray (II)

 

Mentzelia albescens (J. Gillies ex G.A. Arnott) A.H. Grisebach (Mentzelia pumila (T. Nuttall) J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. reverchoni I. Urban & E.F. Gilg, Nuttallia wrightii E.L. Greene, Touterea wrightii P.A. Rydberg): Wright Blazingstar (terrestrial biennial herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from floodplains, occurring from 2,300 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. This plant was most likely misidentified; this plant is not known to occur in Arizona. It has not been reported from Arizona except for the reported occurrence in the 1909 J.J. Thornber Listing for Tumamoc Hill. Unable to locate this species in either BONAP or the NRCS Plants Database. *18 (gen.), 48 (gen.), 63 (052206), 85 (061306 - no record), 89 (recorded as Mentzelia wrightii), 95 (Personal Communication 061406)*

 

Janice E. Bowers in her June, 21, 1989, notes thought that there is a possibility that the plant identified as Mentzelia wrightii may have been the following:

 

Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray var. multiflora (Mentzelia pumila T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray var. multiflora (T. Nuttall) I. Urban & E.F. Gilg): Adonis Blazingstar, Adonis Stickleaf, Blazingstar, Desert Blazingstar, Desert Mentzelia, Manyflowered Mentzelia (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 95 (Personal Communication 061406)*

 

 

ANNUAL HERBS

 

 

Long-Lived Annual Herbs

 

Ambrosia aptera DC.

 

Ambrosia trifida C. Linnaeus var. texana G.H. Scheele (Ambrosia aptera A.P. de Condolle): Blood Ragweed, Blood Weed, Giant Ragweed, Great Ragweed, Texan Great Ragweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (to 10+ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, bottom lands, waste places and moist soils, occurring from 2,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89, 101*

 

Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. 

     = Anoda lavaterioides Medic.

 

Anoda cristata (C. Linnaeus) D.F. von Schlechtendal: Alache (Hispanic), Altea (Hispanic), Amapolita Morada (Hispanic), Anoda Weed, Crested Anoda, Huinarillo (Hispanic), Itsucua Tsipata (Purépecha), Malva (Hispanic), Malva Chica (Hispanic), Malva Morada (Hispanic), Malvavisco (Hispanic), Requesón (Hispanic), Rewé (Hispanic), Reweque (Hispanic), Sinianoda, Snowcup, Spurred Anoda, Tsitsiki Uekutini (Purépecha), Violeta (Hispanic), Violeta de Campo (Hispanic), Violeta del País (Hispanic), Violetilla, Wild Cotton, Yiwa Tio (Mixteco) (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 42 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from moist meadows, roadsides, along washes and streams and ditches, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 3,500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 30, 46, 58, 68, 89, 101*

 

Aster exilis Ell.

 

Symphyotrichum divaricatum (T. Nuttall) G.L. Nesom (Aster exilis S. Elliott, Aster subulatus A. Michaux var. ligulatus L.H. Shinners): Annual Saltmarsh Aster, Slender Aster, Slim Aster, Southern Annual Saltmarsh Aster (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and ditches, edges of ponds and stock tanks, riparian areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Aster incanus (Lindl.) Gray

     = Machaeranthera incana (Lindl.) Gray

 

Machaeranthera canescens (F.T. Pursh) A. Gray subsp. canescens var. incana (J. Lindley) A. Gray (Aster tephrodes (A. Gray) J. Blake, Machaeranthera tephrodes (A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Machaeranthera incana (J. Lindley) E.L. Greene): Cutleaf Goldenweed, Hoary Aster, Hoary Tansyaster, Purple Aster (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes, floodplains and alluvial soils, occurring from 150 to 8,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 80, 89 (recorded as Aster incanus)*

 

#Aster parviflorus Gray

     = Machaeranthera parviflora Gray

 

Machaeranthera parviflora A. Gray (Aster parvulus J. Blake): Smallflower Tansyaster, Small-flowered Spiny Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and plains, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 80, 89 (recorded as Aster parviflorus)*

 

#Atriplex sp.

 

Atriplex sp.: Saltbush *89*

 

Atriplex bracteosa Wats.

     = Obione bracteata Dur. & Hilg.

 

Atriplex serana A. Nelson: This plant does not occur in Arizona *89 (recorded as Atriplex bracteosa) , 95 (Personal Communication 052206)*

 

Chenopodium fremontii Wats.

 

Chenopodium fremontii S. Watson: Fremont’s Goosefoot (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, openings in forests, ravines, gravelly flats and floodplains, occurring from 2,500 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 89*

 

Chenopodium leptophyllum Nutt.

 

Chenopodium leptophyllum (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) T. Nuttall ex S. Watson (Chenopodium album C. Linnaeus var. leptophyllum C.H. Moquin-Tandon): Narrowleaf Goosefoot, Narrowleaf Lambsquarters, Narrowleaved Goosefoot, Slimleaf Goosefoot, Slimleaf Lambsquarters (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, roadsides, along washes, river terraces, dry creek and river beds, around lakes, riparian areas, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 68, 80 (sp. - Chenopodium album), 85 (051406), 89*

 

Conyza coulteri Gray (II)

 

Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom (Conyza coulteri A. Gray): Conyza, Coulter Conyza, Coulter Marshtail (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, plains, washes, river bottoms, floodplains, moist soils, adjacent to riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Cuscuta salina Engelm.

 

Cuscuta salina G. Engelmann var. salina: Golden Thread, Saltmarsh Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Allenrolfea spp., Atriplex spp., Bassia spp., Cressa spp., Haplopappus spp., Nitrophila spp., Salicornia spp., Salsola spp., Suaeda spp., Xanthium spp., occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 89*

 

Cyperus ferax Rich.

 

Cyperus odoratus C. Linnaeus: Fragrant Flatsedge, Large Head Flat Sedge, Rusty Flat Sedge (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from stream banks and wet soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89 (recorded as Cyperus ferax)*

 

Eclipta alba (L.) Haussk.

 

Eclipta prostrata (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus (Eclipta alba (C. Linnaeus) J.C. Hasskarl: Eclipta, False Daisy, White Eclipta, White Heads, Yerba de Tago, Yerba de Tajo (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 89*

 

Erigeron divergens T. & G.

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 86, 89*

 

Euphorbia preslii Guss.

 

Chamaesyce nutans (M. Lagasca y Segura) J.K. Small (Euphorbia preslii G. Gussone): Eyebane (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from floodplains, occurring from 2,300 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 89*

 

Helianthus annuus L.

 

Helianthus annuus C. Linnaeus: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Isoauringonkukka, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Wild Artichoke, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, creeks, ditch banks, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Helianthus petiolaris Nutt.

 

Helianthus petiolaris T. Nuttall: Girasol, Narrowleaf Sunflower, Pikkuauringonkukka, Plains Sunflower, Prairie Sunflower, Sand Sunflower, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, slopes, dunes, sandy hummocks, plains, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, riverbeds, riparian areas, floodplains, disturbed areas and gravelly clay, cinder and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 77, 85, 89*

 

Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby

 

Heterotheca psammophila R. Wagenknecht (Heterotheca subaxillaris (J.B. de Lamarck) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby sensu T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles): Camphorweed, Golden Aster, Gordolobo, Telegraph Plant (terrestrial forb/herb (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, sandy washes, ditches, floodplains, disturbed areas and moist or dry sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Lepidium thurberi Wooton

 

Lepidium thurberi E.O. Wooton: Thurber Peppergrass, Thurber’s Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Leptochloa imbricata Thurb.

 

Leptochloa fusca (C. Linnaeus) K.S. Kunth subsp. uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase (Leptochloa uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase): Mexican Sprangletop (terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along streams, ditch banks and moist waste places, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Leptochloa imbricata), 101*

 

Martynia sp.

 

Martynia sp. *89*

 

Nama hispidus Gray

     = Conanthus hispidus (Gray) Heller

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Hohr-oohit (Seri), Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Roll-leaf, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 12 inches in height and to 16 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, lava flows, bajadas, alluvial terraces, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, dunes, sand hummocks, sandy draws, roadsides, along sandy streambeds, washes and dry river bottoms, floodplains, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and rocky cobble, sandy, sandy loam and loamy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This small annual forb may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been described as being lavender, purple, violet-blue and sometimes with a white throated corolla. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (091606), 77, 85 (091606), 89*

 

Parthenice mollis Gray

 

Parthenice mollis A. Gray: Annual Monsterwort (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 3,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 89*

 

Petunia parviflora Juss.

 

Calibrachoa parviflora (A.L. de Jussieu) W.G. D’Arcy (Petunia parviflora A.L. de Jussieu): Seaside Petunia, Wild Petunia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, cienegas and wet, moist, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Portulaca retusa Engelm. (II)

 

Portulaca oleracea C. Linnaeus (Portulaca retusa G. Engelmann by E.D. Hatch et al): Common Purslane, Little Hogweed, Pursley, Pusley, Roughseed Purslane, Verdolaga, Verdolagas, Western Pulsey, Wild Portulaca (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height and 6 inches to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, clearings in forests, meadows, bajadas, plains, flats, streambeds, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 4,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 57, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Samolus floribundus H.B.K.

 

Samolus valerandi C. Linnaeus var. parviflorus (C.S. Rafinesque) O.E. Hultén (Samolus floribundus K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth, Samolus parviflorus C.S. Rafinesque): False Water Pimpernell, Pineland Pimpernell, Seaside Brookweed, Small-flowered Samolus, Seaside Brookweed, Smallflower Water Pimpernell, Thinleaf Brookweed, Water Brookweed, Water Pimpernel, Water-pimpernell (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from springs and wet soil along streams, sandy banks of rivers and riparian areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) Believed to be EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 46, 85 (052006), 89*

 

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) B. & H.

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 86, 89*

 

#Wislizenia refracta Engelm.

 

Wislizenia refracta G. Engelmann subsp. refracta (Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson): Jackass Clover, Spectacle Fruit, Spectacle Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, streambeds and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 28, 46, 89*

 

 

Winter Annuals

 

Androsace occidentalis Pursh

 

Androsace occidentalis F.T. Pursh: Rock Jasmine, Western Rockjasmine (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, ephemeral seeps and along washes and streams, streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 89*

 

Bromus carinatus H. & A. var. arizonicus Shear

 

Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott: Arizona Brome, Basiawari (Hispanic), Basicuáare (Hispanic), Bromo de California (Hispanic), California Brome, Camaloti (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Masiyague (Hispanic), Mountain Brome, Pipillo (Hispanic), Pipilo (Hispanic), Tigrillo (Hispanic), Tupikua (Purépecha), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bromo (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial graminoid (16 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, moist meadows, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, near ponds and damp soils, occurring from 2,200 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89 (recorded as Bromus carinatus var. arizonicus), 101*

 

Corydalis aurea Wild. var. occidentalis Engelm.

     Caprioides montanum (Engelm.) Britton

 

Corydalis curvisiliqua G. Engelmann subsp. occidentalis (G. Engelmann ex A. Gray) W.A. Weber (Corydalis aurea C.L. von Willdenow subsp. occidentalis (G. Engelmann ex A. Gray) G.B. Ownbey): Curvepod Corydalis, Curvepod Fumewort, Golden Corydalis, Golden Smoke, Scrambled Eggs (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, rock slides, gravelly hillsides, flats, roadsides, along washes, creek bottoms and streambeds, tailings and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 28 (sp. - Corydalis aurea), 46, 68 (sp. - Corydalis aurea), 80 (sp. - Corydalis aurea), 86 (sp. - Corydalis aurea), 89*

 

Hordeum pusillum Nutt.

 

Hordeum pusillum T. Nuttall: Little Barley, Mouse Barley (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from ridge tops, gravelly flats, swales, roadsides, seeps, along washes, streambeds, stock tanks, waste places, disturbed areas and damp soils occurring in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Lepidium sp.

 

Lepidium sp.: Pepperwort *89*

 

Monolepis nuttalliana (R. & S.) Wats.

 

Monolepis nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) E.L. Greene: Annual Povertyweed, Monolepis, Nutall Monolepis, Nuttall’s Povertyweed, Papago Spinach, Patata, Patota, Patote, Poverty Weed, Suolasavikka (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 8 inches in height and/or 3 to 15 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, alkaline depressions, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89*

 

Myosurus minimus L.

 

Myosurus minimus C. Linnaeus: Little Mousetail, Mousetail, Tiny Mousetail (terrestrial annual forb/herb: within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, streams, vernal pools, around stock tanks and lakes and wet soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 89*

 

#Oligomeris glaucescens Camb. (II)

 

Oligomeris linifolia (M.H. Vahl) J.F. Macbride: Desert Cambess, Linearleaf Cambess, Lineleaf Whitepuff, Oligomeris, Slender-leaf Cambess (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, gravelly bajadas, lava flows, sand dunes, sandy plains, gravelly and sandy flats, sandy roadsides, seeps, springs, along streams and washes, playas, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and dry and moist soils, desert pavement, sandy, sandy clay, sandy silty, silty clay and gravelly loam soils and saline soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 63 (090306), 77, 85 (090306), 89 (recorded as Oligomeris glaucescens)*

 

Phalaris caroliniana Walt.

 

Phalaris caroliniana T. Walter: Carolina Canarygrass, Southern Canarygrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (10 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along washes, streambeds, ditch banks and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 89*

 

Platystemon californicus Benth.

 

Platystemon californicus G. Bentham: California Creamcups, Cream Cup, Creamcups (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, hillsides, bajadas, flats, along washes, streams and moist soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 86, 89*

 

Poa bigelovii Vasey & Scribn.

 

Poa bigelovii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner: Bigelow’s Bluegrass, Zacate Azule Nativo (terrestrial annual or biennial graminoid (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bluegrasses (Poa sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 58, 77, 80, 89*

 

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.

 

Polypogon monspeliensis (C. Linnaeus) R.L. Desfontaines: Annual Beardgrass, Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass, Rabbit-foot Grass, Rabbitfoot Polypogon (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, streambeds, ditches, cienegas, waste places and wet, moist and damp soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Sisymbrium canescens Nutt. (I & II)

     = Sophia pinnata (Walt.) Howell

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Green Tansy Mustard, Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Western Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Sisymbrium canescens), 101*

 

Sisymbrium incisum Engelm.

     = Sophia incisa (Engelm.) Greene

 

Descurainia incana (J.J. Bernhardi ex F.E. von Fischer & C.A. von Meyer) R.D. Dorn subsp. incisa (G. Engelmann) J.T. Kartesz & K.N. Gandhi (Descurainia incisa (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton, Sisymbrium incisum G. Engelmann): Mountain Tansymustard (terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, floodplains and clay soils, occurring from 2,300 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 85 (051806), 89*

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (Wats.) Gray

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (S. Watson) A. Gray: Coulter’s Globemallow (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 60 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly and sandy flats and roadsides, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 86, 89*

 

Veronica peregrina L.

 

Veronica peregrina C. Linnaeus (subsp. xalapensis (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.W. Pennell is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Hairy Purslane Speedwell, Jalapa Speedwell, Necklace Speedwell, Necklace Weed, Neckweed, Purselane Speedwell (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, seeps, along streams and washes, around tanks and lakes and wet and damp soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89, 101*

 

 

Summer Annuals

 

Amaranthus palmeri Wats. 

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height, sometimes taller to 15 feet); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock  (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Chloris elegans H.B.K. (II)

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz (Chloris elegans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Barbas de Indio (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra, Feather Fingergrass, Plumerito (Hispanic), Showy Chloris, Verdillo (Hispanic), Zacate de Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Zacate Lagunero (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds, ditches, swales, waste places, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89 (recorded as Chloris elegans and Trichloris fasiculata)*

 

Cyperus aristatus Rottb.

     = Cyperus inflexus Muhl.

 

Cyperus squarrosus C. Linnaeus: (Cyperus aristatus C.F. Rottboll). Awned Cyperus, Awned Flat Sedge, Bearded Flatsedge, Dwarf Sedge, Umbrella Sedge (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes and wet and moist ground, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 89*

 

Eragrostis neomexicana Vasey (II)

 

Eragrostis mexicana (J.W. Hornemann) J.H. Link subsp. mexicana (Eragrostis neomexicana G. Vasey): Mexican Lovegrass, New Mexican Lovegrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp, rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 4,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and grassland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 33, 46, 89*

 

Eragrostis pilosa L. Beauv. (II)

 

Eragrostis pilosa (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: India Lovegrass, Indian Lovegrass (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 89*

 

Eriochloa punctata (L.) W. Hamilt.

 

Eriochloa punctata (C. Linnaeus) W. Hamilton This species is not known to occur in Arizona *89, 95 (Personal Communication 052206)*

 

Ipomoea coccinea L.

     = Quamoclit coccinea L.

 

Ipomoea coccinea C. Linnaeus: Red Morning-glory, Redstar, Scarlet Creeper, Scarlet Morning-glory, Star Glory (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (3 to 7 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hillsides, rocky slopes and along streams and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 89, 101*

 

Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.

 

Ipomoea hederacea (C. Linnaeus) N.J. von Jacquin (Ipomoea desertorum H.D. House, Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f.): Blue Morning-glory, Desert Morning-glory, Ivyleaf Morning-glory, Mexican Morningglory, Morning Glory, Trompillo Morado (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (to 20 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the forest and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 56, 57, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Leptochloa filiformis (Lamb.) Beauv. var. not recorded

     = Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. mucronata (A. Michaux) R. Nowack (Leptochloa mucronata (A. Michaux) H.B. Kunth): Desparramo Rojo, Mucronate Sprangletop, Slendergrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, dry rocky slopes, roadsides, along sandy washes and streams, ditch banks, tanks and moist disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 89 (recorded as Leptochloa filiformis)*

 

Leptochloa viscida (Scribner) Beal

 

Leptochloa viscida (F.L. Scribner) W.J. Beal: Sticky Sprangletop, Zacate Salado Pagajoso (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, swales, bottomlands and waste places, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 56, 57, 89*

 

Panicum fuscum Sw.

 

Urochloa fasciculata (O. Swartz) R. Webster (Brachiaria fasciculata (O. Swartz) L.R. Parodi, Panicum fasciculatum O. Swartz var. reticulatum (J. Torrey) W.J. Beal): Browntop Panicum, Browntop Signalgrass, Fieldgrass (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, along washes and disturbed areas in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 56, 57, 68, 89 (recorded as Panicum fuscum)*

 

Physalis angulata L. var. linkiana (Nees.) Gray

 

Physalis angulata C. Linnaeus var. linkiana (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Gray. Possibly Physalis linkiana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck. This species is not known to occur in Arizona *89, 95 (Personal Communication 052206)*

 

 

 

 

IV. Santa Cruz River and Irrigation Ditches

 

 

PERENNIAL HERS

 

Agrostis verticillata Vill.

 

Polypogon viridis (A. Gouan) M.A. Breistroffer (Agrostis semiverticillata (P. Forsskal) C.F. Christensen): Beardless Rabbitsfoot Grass, Cola de Ardilla (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Cola de Zorrillo (Hispanic), Water Bent, Water Bentgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, along streams, streambeds, lake shores and wet and damp soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30, 33, 46, 89 (recorded as Agrostis verticillata)*

 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.

 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides C. Linnaeus f.: Cut Leaf Pennywort, Floating Marshpennywort, Floating Water-pennywort, Hydrocotyle, Ombligo de Puerco (Hispanic), Water Pennywort (aquatic perennial forb/herb (½ to 14 inches in height)f this species it has been reported from slow streams, still, fresh water, stock tanks, ponds, lakes and occasionally creeping on mud in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 30, 46, 58, 89*

 

Oenothera rosea Ait.

     Hartmannia rosea (Ait.) Don

 

Oenothera rosea C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle ex W. Aiton: Amapola de Campo (Hispanic), Arnica (Hispanic), Cáncer Lisa (Hispanic), Clamería (Hispanic), Evening Primrose, Hierba Cólica (Hispanic), Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Hierba del Orín (Hispanic), Hierba Para la Diarrea (Hispanic), Lindo Atardecer (Hispanic), Manuelita (Hispanic), Oo li' Lo Tii (Hispanic), Platillo (Hispanic), Rose Evening-primrose, Rose Sundrops, Sinvergüenza (Hispanic), Tapacola (Hispanic), Tarapeni (Hispanic), Trskuan Bey (Zapoteca), Xukuhi Atakurhikuri (Purépecha), Yerba Cólico (Hispanic), Yerba del Golpe (Hispanic), Zapotillo (Hispanic), Zapotito (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from creeks, river bottoms, cienegas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland and grassland ecological formations) The Rose Evening-primrose is believed to have been EXTIRPATED from this township. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 30, 46, 58, 89*

 

Paspalum distichum L.

 

Paspalum distichum C. Linnaeus: Jointgrass, Ft. Thompsongrass, Knotgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (8 to 24 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from cienegas, shallow water, moist ground along streams and ditches and moist sandy or mucky soils, occurring from 300 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 33, 46, 58, 89*

 

Potamogeton pusillus L.

 

Potamogeton pusillus C. Linnaeus subsp. pusillus: Small Pondweed (aquatic perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sluggish streams, irrigation ditches, ponds, lakes and tanks in the wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Britton & Rusby

     = Rorippa nasturtium (L.) Rusby

 

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (C. Linnaeus) A. Hayek (Nasturtium officinale R. Brown, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (C. Linnaeus) H. Schinz & H. Thellung): Pepper Leaf, True Watercress, Watercress, White Water-cress (semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, stream margins, creeks, brooks, cienegas and ponds, occurring from 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 86, 89 (recorded as Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum)*

 

Zannichellia palustris L.

 

Zannichellia palustris C. Linnaeus: Common Poolmat, Horned Pondweed, Horned Poolmat (aquatic perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, creeks, slow streams, rivers, marshes, ditches, cienegas, ponds, lakes and irrigation ditches, occurring in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 89*

 

 

 

ALGAE

 

Cladophora sp.

 

Cladophora sp.: a Green Algae (aquatic branched filamentous (attached or free-floating) green algae: reported from fresh and salt water habitats) *74, 89*

 

Closterium sp.

 

Closterium sp.: a Green Algae (aquatic solitary (free-floating) green algae: reported from fresh water habitats) *89*

 

Hydrodictyon sp.

 

Hydrodictyon sp.: a Green Algae, Water Net (aquatic net-forming green algae: reported from fresh water habitats) *74, 89*

 

Oedogonium sp.

 

Oedogonium sp.: a Green Algae (aquatic filamentous (attached or free-floating) green algae; reported from fresh water habitats) *74, 89*

 

Penium sp.

 

Penium sp.: a Green Algae, Blanket Weed (aquatic green algae; reported from fresh water habitats) *89*

 

Spirogyra sp.

 

Spirogyra sp.: a Green Algae (aquatic unbranched filamentous free-floating green algae; reported from fresh water habitats) *74, 89*

 

Vaucheria sp.

 

Vaucheria sp.: Water Felt (aquatic branched filamentous yellow-green algae; reported from fresh and salt water habitats) *74, 89*  

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous Introduced Species

 

 

SHRUBS

 

Arundo donax L.

 

Arundo donax C. Linnaeus: Caña (Hispanic), Caña de Castilla (Hispanic), Caña Hueca (Hispanic), Cañaveral (Hispanic), Canuto (Hispanic), Carricillo (Hispanic), Carrizo (Hispanic), Carrizo de la Selva (Hispanic), Giant Cane, Giant Reed, Gubaguih (Hispanic), Halal (Hispanic), Pakaab (Hispanic),  Tarro (Hispanic), Tekhalal (Hispanic) (terrestrial graminoid, subshrub or shrub (6 to 23 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps and along creeks, streams and irrigation ditches, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 18, 22, 30, 33, 46, 56, 77, 89, 109*

 

Nicotiana glauca Graham

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 26 feet in height and to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along streambeds and washes, ditch banks, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). This plant is reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 97*

 

Poinciana pulcherrima Sw. var. flava

 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. Linnaeus) O. Swartz forma flava (O. Degener) H. St. John (Poinciana pulcherrima C. Linnaeus var. flava F.T. Hubbard & A. Rehder): Dwarf Poinciana, Flower Fence, Pride-of-Barbados, Red Bird of Paradise (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from floodplains, occurring from 2,300 to 2,400 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. The fruit is poisonous. *5, 6, 18, 26, 63 (060506), 89 (recorded as Poinciana pulcherrima var. flava)*

 

 

HALF-SHRUBS

 

Marrubium vulgare L.

 

Marrubium vulgare C. Linnaeus: Horehound, K'ameri (Purépecha), Malcubio (Hispanic), Malva del Sapo (Hispanic), Malvarrubina (Hispanic), Manrrubio (Hispanic), Manrubio Blanco (Hispanic), Marribieu (Purépecha), Marrubio (Hispanic), Mastranto (Hispanic), Mata Ceniza (Hispanic), Rouwaka (Tarahumara), Vitsacua (Purépecha), Vitzacua (Purépecha) White Horehound (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (9 to40 inches in height and 12 to 18 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, stock tanks, goat and sheep bed grounds and corrals, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 30, 46, 58, 68, 89, 101*

 

 

PERENNIAL HERBS

 

Convolvulus arvensis L.

 

Convolvulus arvensis C. Linnaeus: Bindweed, Common Bindweed, Creeping Jenny, European Bindweed, Field Bindweed, Morning-glory, Orchard Morning-glory, Perennial Morning-glory, Possession Vine, Possession Weed, Wild Morning-glory (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (1 to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 89, 101*

 

Cynodon dactylon L.

     = Capriola dactylon (l.) Kuntze

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Acabacahuiztle (Hispanic), Acacahuitzli (Nahuatl), Bermudagrass, Bramilla (Hispanic), Canzuuc (Maya), Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Gallitos (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Grama de la Costa (Hispanic), Gramilla (Hispanic), Grana (Hispanic), Guix-biguiñi (Zapoteco), Lan-suuk (Maya), Pasto Bermuda (Hispanic), Pasto Estrella (Hispanic), Pata de Gallo (Hispanic), Pata de Perdiz (Hispanic), Pata de Pollo (Hispanic), Tsakam Toom (Hispanic), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bermuda (Hispanic), Zacate Borrego (Hispanic), Zacate Chino (Hispanic), Zacate del Conejo (Hispanic), Zacate Inglés (Hispanic), Zacate Pilillo (Hispanic), Zaruue (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (low-growing sodgrass); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes and banks of washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 22, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 80, 89, 101, 105, 109*

 

Malva parviflora L.

 

Malva parviflora C. Linnaeus: Cheese Weed, Cheeseweed Mallow, Little Mallow, Malva, Small-flowered Malva, Small-whorl Mallow (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Plantago major L.

 

Plantago major C. Linnaeus: Anten (Hispanic), Antena (Hispanic), Broadleaf Plantain, Common Plantain, Cancerina (Hispanic), Chile de Pato (Hispanic), Dianten (Hispanic), Diasten (Hispanic), Dooryard Plantain, Great Plantain, Hierba del Manzo (Hispanic), Hoja de Lanten (Hispanic), Hojas de Lantes (Hispanic), Lanté (Hispanic), Lantén (Hispanic), Lanter (Hispanic), Lengua de Vaca (Hispanic), Lenteja (Hispanic), Lentem (Hispanic), Llanté (Hispanic), Llantel (Hispanic), Llanten (Hispanic), Mucilago (Hispanic), Planten (Hispanic), Rippleseed Plantain, Roró (Tarahumara), Sabila (Hispanic), Valeriana (Hispanic), Whiteman’s Foot, Yantén (Hispanic), Yures Xukuri (Purépecha) (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (basal leaves with the flowering stems 4 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys, roadsides, cienegas, moist soils along streams, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and grassland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 30, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (081906), 68, 89, 101*

 

*Rumex crispus L.

 

Rumex crispus C. Linnaeus: Curly Dock, Curly Leaf Dock, Eviloriva (Tarahumara), Indian Tobacco, Ketamba Aukasiri (Purépecha), Lengua de Vaca (Hispanic), Sour Dock, Yellow Dock (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, ditches, along streams and streambeds, cienegas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 28, 30, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, low-lying areas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 6,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101, 105*

 

 

ANNUAL HERBS

 

 

Long-Lived Annual Herbs

 

Amaranthus blitoides Wats.

 

Amaranthus albus C. Linnaeus (Amaranthus graecizans auct. non C. Linnaeus, Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson): Cochino, Prostrate Amaranth, Prostrate Pigweed, Quelite Manchado, Stiff Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed Amaranth, Tumble Pigweed, White Amaranth, White Pigweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 89 (recorded as Amaranthus blitoides and Amaranthus graecizans), 101*

 

Amaranthus graecizans L.

 

Amaranthus albus C. Linnaeus (Amaranthus graecizans auct. non C. Linnaeus, Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson): Cochino, Prostrate Amaranth, Prostrate Pigweed, Quelite Manchado, Stiff Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed Amaranth, Tumble Pigweed, White Amaranth, White Pigweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 89 (recorded as Amaranthus blitoides and Amaranthus graecizans), 101*

 

Chenopodium album L.

 

Chenopodium album C. Linnaeus: Baconweed, Chou Grass, Common Lambsquarters, Farinello Comune, Fathen, Fat Hen, Forst Bite, Lambsquarters, Mealweed, Netseed Lambsquarters, Pigweed, Pitseed Goosefoot, White Goosefoot, White Pigweed, Wild Spinach (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from disturbed areas, occurring below 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

Chenopodium murale L.

 

Chenopodium murale C. Linnaeus: Chual, Chuana Soap, Cuhal, Goosefoot, Green Fat Hen, Green Goosefoot, Lamb’s Quarters, Nettleleaf Goosefoot, Nettle Leaved Fat Hen, Rauniosavikka, Round Leaved Fat Hen, Sowbane, Swinebane, Wall Goosefoot, Wheat bush (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. 

     = Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) Dulac.

 

Digitaria sanguinalis (C. Linnaeus) J.A. Scopoli: Common Crabgrass, Crabgrass, Hairy Crabgrass, Large Crabgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, washes, stream beds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 2,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 58, 68, 89, 101*

 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

 

Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link var. zonale (G. Gussone) L.H. Dewey, Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link, Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link var. zonale (G. Gussone) K.M. Wiegand): Junglegrass, Jungle Rice, Jungle Ricegrass, Leopard Grass, Watergrass, Zacate Pinto, Zacate Rayado, Zacate Tigre (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, swales, streambeds, ditch banks, muddy shores, disturbed areas and moist, damp and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link var. zonale (Guss.) Dewey

 

Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link): Arroz del Monte (Hispanic), Junglegrass, Jungle Rice, Jungle Ricegrass, Leopard Grass, Watergrass, Zacate Pinto, Zacate Rayado, Zacate Tigre (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, swales, streambeds, ditch banks, muddy shores, disturbed areas and moist, damp and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.

 

Echinochloa crus-galli (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois var. crus-galli): Barnyardgrass, Grama Morada (Hispanic), Japanese Millet, Pasto Alemán (Hispanic), Pasto Mijillo (Hispanic) Zacate de Agua (Hispanic), Zacate de Corral (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 50 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from swales, ditch banks, cienegas, waste places and disturbed areas moist or marshy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 30, 33, 46, 58, 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

Eragrostis megastachya (Koeler) Link

     = Eragrostis major Host

 

Eragrostis cilianensis (C. Allioni) F. Vignolo-Lutati ex E.E. Janchen (Eragrostis megastachya (G.L. Koeler) J.H. Link: Amoresco (Hispanic), Candygrass, Lovegrass, Stinkgrass, Stinking Lovegrass, Strong-scented Lovegrass, Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Borreguero (Hispanic), Zacate de Amor Hediondo (Hispanic), Zacate Estepario (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, stream beds, bottomlands, waste places, disturbed areas and damp and gravelly soils; occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Erigeron canadensis L.

     = Leptilon canadense (L.) Britton

 

Conyza canadensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist var. canadensis (Erigeron canadensis C. Linnaeus): Blood Stanch, Canada Fleabane, Canadian Fleabane, Canadian Horseweed, Horsetail Conyza, Horseweed, Mare’s Tail (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (3 inches to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste land, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101 (sp.)*

 

Gaura parviflora Dougl.

 

Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann (Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. glabra P.A. Munz, Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. lachnocarpa C.A. Weatherby): Butterfly Weed, Downy Gaura, Lizard Tail, Lizardtail Gaura, Small-flowered Gaura, Tall Gaura, Velvet Leaf Gaura, Velvet Leaved Gaura, Velvetweed, Velvety Gaura, Willow Gaura (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth.

 

Ipomoea purpurea (C. Linnaeus) A.W. Roth (Ipomoea hirsutula N.J. von Jacquin f.): Bejuco (Hispanic), Common Morning-glory, Entireleaf Morning-glory, Garden Morning-glory, Manto (Hispanic), Mexican Morning-glory, Platu Kak' Araku' (Purépecha), Quiebra Platos (Hispanic), Tall Morning-glory, Woolly Morning-glory (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (3 to 13 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, ditches, along washes waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 3,600 to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 30, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 86, 89, 101*

 

Panicum capillare L.

 

Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus (Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus var. occidentale P.A. Rydberg): Common Witchgrass, Old Witch Grass (a tumbleweed), Ticklegrass, Tumble Panic, Witches Hair, Witchgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, sandy plains, roadsides, open ground,  along washes and streams, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

Polygonum aviculare L. var. littorale (Link) Koch

     = Polygonum littorale Link

 

Polygonum aviculare C. Linnaeus: Prostrate Knotweed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain meadows, gravelly flats, roadsides, shorelines, around tanks and lakes, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 80, 89 (recorded as Polygonum aviculare var. littorale), 101*

 

Polygonum lapathifolium L.

 

Polygonum lapathifolium C. Linnaeus: Curltop Smartweed, Curlytop Buckwheat, Curlytop Knotweed, Ladysthumb, Pale Smartweed, Willow Smartweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, cienegas, tanks and wet and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 58, 80, 89, 101*

 

Portulaca oleracea L.

 

Portulaca oleracea C. Linnaeus (Portulaca retusa G. Engelmann by E.D. Hatch et al): Chamó (Tarahumara), Chamokó (Hispanic), Common Purslane, Little Hogweed, Pursley, Pusley, Roughseed Purslane, Sa´luchi (Tarahumara), Verdolaga (Hispanic), Verdolagas (Hispanic), Verdolaguilla (Hispanic), Western Pulsey, Wild Portulaca, Xakua Tsirakua (Purépecha), Yiwa Xiquitú (Hispanic), (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in height and 2 inches to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, clearings in forests, meadows, bajadas, plains, flats, streambeds, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 4,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18, 28, 30, 46, 57, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Sonchus asper (L.) All.

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill (Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill subsp. asper [superfluous autonym]): Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, ditch banks, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 30, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Sonchus oleraceus L.

 

Sonchus oleraceus C. Linnaeus: Achicoria (Hispanic), Achicoria Dulce (Hispanic), Annual Sowthistle, Borraja (Hispanic), Borrajilla (Hispanic), Cardo (Hispanic), Cerraja (Hispanic), Chicalotillo (Hispanic), Chicoria (Hispanic), Chicoria (Purépecha), Colewort, Common Sowthistle, Diente de León (Hispanic), Endivia (Hispanic), Grespino Commune (Hispanic), Hare’s Lettuce, Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Kaalivalvatti (Hispanic), Lechuguilla (Hispanic), Matalí Morado (Hispanic), Milk Thistle, Mitihuaraca (Hispanic), Muela de Caballo (Hispanic), Smooth Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Tlamatsalin (Michoacán), Tskutsuk Chekamiti (Purépecha) (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, ditch banks, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 30, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Tribulus terrestris L.

 

Tribulus terrestris C. Linnaeus: Abojo de Flor Amarilla, Bullhead, Burnut, Cadillo, Caltrop, Goathead, Ground Bur-nut, Mexican Sandbur, Puncture Vine, Puncturevine, Tackweed, Texas Sandbur, Toboso, Torito, Torrito (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height and 6 inches to 8 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Xanthium commune Britton

 

Xanthium strumarium C. Linnaeus var. canadense (P. Miller) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Xanthium canadense P. Miller, Xanthium commune N.L. Britton, Xanthium saccharatum C.F. Wallroth): Abrojo, Cadillo (Hispanic), Cadillos (Hispanic), Chayotillo (Hispanic), Canada Cocleburr, Clotbur, Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur, Rough Cocklebur (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along ditches and washes, floodplains, streambeds, adjacent to wetland areas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist flooded soils, occurring from 100 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. If ingested, the spiny burs may cause the death of young animals. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 28, 30, 46, 56, 57, 58, 63 (081706), 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

 

Winter Annuals

 

Anthemis cotula L.

 

Anthemis cotula C. Linnaeus: Dillweed, Dog’s Chamomile, Dog Daisy, Dog Fennel, Manzanilla, Manzanilla Cimarrona, Mather, Mayweed, Mayweed Chamomile, Stinking Chamomile, Stinking Mayweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant *5, 6, 46, 80, 89, 101*

 

Avena fatua L.

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Flaxgrass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat (terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, roadsides, along washes, low-lying areas and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,250 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Brassica nigra (L.) Koch

 

Brassica nigra (C. Linnaeus) W.D. Koch: Black Mustard, Short-pod Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 15, 46, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Bromus maximus Desf. var. gussoni  Parl.

 

Bromus diandrus A.W. Roth (Bromus rigidus A.W. Roth): Ripgut Brome, Ripgut Grass (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,800 to 2,900 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 33, 46, 77, 80, 89 (recorded as Bromus maximus var. gussoni), 101*

 

Bromus rubens L.

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 105*

 

Bromus unioloides H.B.K.

 

Bromus catharticus M.H. Vahl (Bromus unioloides K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth, Bromus willdenowii K.S. Kunth): Rescue Brome, Rescuegrass, Schraders-grass (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, ditch banks, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000+ feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89, 101*

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.

     = Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. Linnaeus) F.K. Medikus: Bosa de Pastor, Paniquesillo, Shepherd’s Purse (terrestrial annual forb/herb 3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, disturbed areas and waste places, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86, 89, 101*

 

Centaurea melitensis L.

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along ditch banks and washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 41, 46, 56, 57, 68, 77, 89, 101*

 

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér.

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Agujitas (Hispanic), Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfirerillo (Hispanic), Arete (Hispanic), Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heronbill, Pikuku Jasi (Purépecha), Pin-clover, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill, Semuchi (Hispanic), Storksbill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 24 inches or more in height or length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gravelly and sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500+ feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 30, 46, 57, 58, 77, 80, 86, 89, 101*

 

Festuca myuros L.

 

Vulpia myuros (C. Linnaeus) C.C. Gmelin (Festuca myuros C. Linnaeus): Foxtail Fescue, Hair Sixweeksgrass, Rat-tail Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (10 to 25 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and disturbed areas in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 77, 89, 101*

 

Gilia chamissonis Greene

 

Gilia achilleifolia G. Bentham subsp. multicaulis (G. Bentham) V. Grant & A.D. Grant (Gilia multicaulis G. Bentham): Blue Gilia, California Gilia, Many-stemmed California Gilia, Many-stemmed Gilia, Gily-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky or sandy soil) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 89 (recorded as Gilia chamissonis)*

 

Hemizonia fitchii Gray

     = Centromadia fitchii (Gray) Greene

 

Hemizonia pungens (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Common Spikeweed, Common Tarweed, Smooth Tarplant, Spikeweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and marshy areas, occurring from 2,300 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 89 (recorded as Hemizonia fitchii), 101*

 

Hemizonia wrightii Gray

     = Deinandra wrightii (Gray) Greene

 

Hemizonia kelloggii E.L. Greene (Hemizonia wrightii A. Gray): Kellogg’s Tarweed, Tarweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,400 to 2,600 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 77, 89*

 

Hordeum murinum L.

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus: Barley, Mouse Barley, Wild Barley (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 33, 46, 89*

 

Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench

 

Lamarckia aurea (C. Linnaeus) C. Moench: Goldentop, Goldentop Grass (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky canyons, rocky hillsides, slopes, roadsides, sandy washes, along streams, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 77, 89*

 

Lolium temulentum L.

 

Lolium temulentum C. Linnaeus: Darnel, Darnel Ryegrass, Poison Darnel (terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, among boulders, roadsides, ditch banks and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 33, 46, 80, 85 (051806), 89*

 

Matthiola bicornis (Sibth.) DC.

 

Matthiola longipetala (E.P. Ventenat) A.P. de Candolle (Matthiola bicornis (J. Sibthorp & J.E. Smith) A.P. de Candolle, Matthiola longipetala (E.P. Ventenat) A.P. de Candolle subsp. bicornis J. Sibthorp & J.E. Smith): Evening Scented Stock, Evening Stock, Night Scented Stock, Night Stock (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, along rivers, ponds and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,400 to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 63 (083006), 77, 89*

 

Matricaria suaveolens (Pursh) Buchenau

     = Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter

 

Matricaria discoidea A.P. de Condolle (Matricaria matricarioides (C.F. Lessing) T.C. Porter, Matricaria suaveolens (F.T. Pursh) F.G. Buchenau): Disc Mayweed, False Chamomile, Manzanilla, Pineapple Weed, Rayless Chamomile (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, river bottoms, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 46, 77, 89, 101*

 

Medicago hispida Gaertn.

     = Medicago denticulata Wild.

 

Medicago polymorpha C. Linnaeus (Medicago hispida J. Gaertner, Medicago polymorpha C. Linnaeus var. vulgaris (G. Bentham) L.H. Shinners): Burclover, California Bur Clover, Carretilla (Hispanic), Medic, Uirhijpiku Sapichu (Purépecha) (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or vine (to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, cienegas and moist soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 28, 30, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 89*

 

Melilotus indicus (L.) All.

 

Melilotus indicus (C. Linnaeus) J. Allioni: Alfalfilla, Annual Yellow Sweetclover, Sour Clover (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, creeks, cienegas, ditches, ponds, waste places and moist disturbed areas, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 57, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 89*

 

Poa annua L.

 

Poa annua C. Linnaeus: Annual Bluegrass, Dwarf Meadowgrass, Low Speargrass, Walkgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, streambeds, ditch banks, cienegas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and damp soils, occurring from 500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Bluegrasses (Poa sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18, 33, 46, 58, 68, 80, 89, 101*

 

Silene gallica L.

 

Silene gallica C. Linnaeus: Alfinetes da Terra, Calabacilla, Common Catchfly, English Catchfly, Flor Roxa, Forked Catchfly, French Silene, Gunpowder Weed, Ranskankohokki, Small Catchfly, Small-flowered Catchfly, Windmill Pink (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountainsides, flats, disturbed areas and moist rich soils, occurring from 2,300 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 46, 85, 89*

 

 

 

 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

 

 

 

 

An early history of the Desert Laboratory retyped in its entirety from:

 

 

The Desert Laboratory

 

of the

 

Carnegie Institution

 

of Washington

 

 

 

=============

 

 

 

Forest Shreve

 

 

 

=============

 

 

 

Reprinted from Progressive Arizona and the Great Southwest

 

 

(Pages 3 through 12)

 

 

(this booklet was not dated; however, judging from the material presented it dates from

around 1930. Forest Shreve died in 1950 at the age of 72*)

 

 

 

                Some of the earliest and most important steps in civilization were taken in the deserts of Asia and Africa, thousands of years ago. Now, in this twentieth century, we find ourselves in the desert again, trying to learn how to adjust ourselves to its conditions, how to make possible a life which shall be rich and fruitful even if it is not like the life of our forefathers, and how to make the desert feed and clothe and shelter us, at the same time that its broad vistas, rugged mountains, unique plants, and matchless coloring afford us some of the inspiration which life requires.

 

In the days of Babylon, Nineveh and Carthage, man was the slave of the desert, for it controlled his life. The people of European ancestry who are now entering the deserts of the Southwest are armed with resources and knowledge and with the distinctly modern habit of investigating their surroundings and giving a rational and organized basis to their experience.  The possibilities of the newer desert civilization are large. If its material advantages can be realized, at the same time that it preserves some of the traditions of the old desert civilization and of the old Southwest, there should be a bright future for the American Desert. Far-seeing men, interested in the desert country, aware of its potentiality, but fully realizing the necessity of knowing it better, are the ones responsible for the existence of the Desert Laboratory. One of the earliest projects presented to the Carnegie Institution of Washington was for the establishment of such a laboratory, primarily for the investigation of plant life of the arid regions. The suggestion resulted in the appointment of an advisory board, charged with the selection of the best location and the outlining of plans for work. The members of the board were Dr. D. T. MacDougal, then Assistant director of the New York botanical Garden, and Mr. F. V. Coville, Chief Botanist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. These men, already familiar with the whole arid region, made a further examination of promising localities, and selected the Tucson region as the best place for the Desert Laboratory, not because it is the most desert spot to be found, but because it has the richest and most diversified vegetation of any area in the arid part of the United States, and also because of the varied types of country that are easily accessible from Tucson in every direction.

 

In 1903 the first building was erected, two miles west of Tucson on the slopes of Tumamoc Hill, and Dr. W. A. Cannon was appointed Resident Investigator. Two years later the Carnegie Institution organized a Department of Botanical Research, placed Dr. D. T. MacDougal at its head, and made Tucson the headquarters of the department. In 1906 the laboratory was enlarged and a staff of workers was brought together. In 1928 the growth of the biological work  of the Carnegie Institution in the western states led to the formation of the Division of Plant Biology, of which the Desert Laboratory is one of the centers of operation.

 

At the time of the establishment of the Laboratory, a tract of over 800 acres of hill and plain surrounding the buildings was acquired by purchase and lease. This area has been effectively fenced since 1907, and the long period without disturbance has brought the plant life back to virgin desert conditions such as one can find only in the most remote and ungrazed parts of Arizona. The grounds of the Laboratory have been of great importance for its work, giving a chance for continued observation of the growth, seasonal habits and reproduction of the plants, a handy source of living material, and an opportunity for conducting instrumental and experimental work under outdoor conditions without danger of interference. The location of the Laboratory buildings, 335 feet above the valley of the Santa Cruz River, places them in the midst of the hill type vegetation, which is particularly rich and diversified on the heavy clay soil of Tumamoc Hill and other basaltic hills in the vicinity. The location of the Laboratory also gives the workers freedom from interruption, clean air, and an inspiring view of the valley and surrounding mountains.

 

During the past twenty years eleven investigators have worked at the Desert Laboratory for long periods, over forty men an women have worked from two to twelve months, and several hundred scientists from home and abroad have made short visits, to secure some particular plant or animal material for study elsewhere, to prepare exhibits for museums, to secure data, to consult with members of the staff, or merely to see and examine the unique plants in their natural setting.

 

 

In the patio of the Desert Laboratory the natural vegetation has been preserved

 ands supplemented with plants for study and experimentation.

 

The results of work done at the Desert Laboratory have been printed as publications of the Carnegie Institution, and as articles in a number of scientific journals. Up to the present time about 355 books and articles have appeared describing work done there. Many other papers have been based on material supplied by the Laboratory or on work done elsewhere by members of the staff. Four splendidly illustrated volumes describing all of the members of the cactus family were prepared by Britton and Rose, on the initiative of Dr. MacDougal, and financed and published by the Carnegie Institution.

 

                The aim of the work at the Desert Laboratory has been to learn as much as possible about the natural behavior of plants, the character and fluctuations of the conditions of climate and soil, and the relation of the latter phenomena to the former. The desert Environment has been studied, particularly with reference to rainfall, evaporation and the moisture of the soil. Work on the physiology of plants has been chiefly concerned with their relations to water supply and water loss, and with the influences exerted on both succulent and non-succulent plants by conditions of scanty and irregular water supply. Field work and laboratory experimentation have gone hand in hand in an effort to learn the process which enable plants to persist under the extreme conditions of the desert. Each of the investigators who has worked at the Desert Laboratory has contributed a few lines to the growing picture which will one day enable us to understand the character and the limitations of desert life.

 

It has often been remarked that the finest bits of desert in the Tucson Region seem like some immense botanical garden. The impression comes from the widely dissimilar plants that may be found growing together. The giant saguaro, the green-barked palo verde, the thorny ocotillo, the graceful creosote bush, the shining cholla, the acacia, the barrel cactus, a dozen of other types, are mingled with each other in matchless landscape effects. These plants, which are so unlike in appearance, in structure, in the seasonal habits, and in their physiological behavior, are nevertheless growing together on the same soil in the same climate. To what extent these plants have developed identical behavior in spite of their different appearance? Are the spots identical in which they grow, even if they look alike? Are there any other soils or other climates in which some of the members of this group would not be found? What are some of the ways in which these plants have worked out different solutions to the same problems? A good deal has been learned that would help to answer these questions, but the answers are by no means yet complete.

 

                An interesting example of the way in which the same problem may have more than one solution is to be found in the comparison of cacti with other desert plants which are perennial, but not succulent, and still others which are short lived. Each of these groups has a different method of securing enough water to maintain life, to grow and to produce seeds. The cacti have root systems which are widely extended through the uppermost layers of soil. Very soon after a heavy rain their absorbing roots become active, and in a few days they take from the ground an amount of water which will last them as many weeks. The larger cacti contain a great deal of water all the time, varying from 70 to 90% of their weight. They secure their water quickly at times when it is abundant and lose it slowly, at a rate which depends on the heat, dryness, sunshine and wind. The trees and shrubs, such as mesquite, palo verde, acacia and creosote bush (often improperly called “greasewood”) all have a limited amount of water in them at any time. Their roots penetrate the soils to a depth of 6 to 3o feet. They are able to secure some of the water in the upper layers of the soil, but in the dry seasons they depend on the water which has penetrated to deeper levels. Unlike the cactus they must secure from the soil each day an amount of water very closely equal to what they have lost on that day. It has been found that night is very important for the non-succulent plants. In the cool, dark hours they lose much less water than in the daytime, and this gives them a chance to catch up. The third group of short-lived plants are not really desert plants at all so far as their structural features are concerned. Their appearance is confined to the rainy seasons and it is only their seeds which have to withstand the dry periods. Many of the short-lived plants every resemblance to the plants of moist regions, but nevertheless they are able to live in the desert alongside the cactus and the mesquite.

 

There is surely no plant in all Arizona which attracts more attention than the state flower, the sahuaro. It is a weird surprise to the newcomer and a cherished symbol of home to the Arizonian.  Along with other kinds of massive cacti found in Mexico, it has many interesting features of structure and behavior. The commonest botanical question asked in Arizona is, “how old are the biggest sahuaros?” The answer to this is based on indirect evidence, through a study of its rate of growth at different heights, for there are no annual rings to count. It takes from 15 to 25 years for them to reach a height of one foot, unless they are given some extra water. They grow very slowly at first, and then speed up to a growth of three to four inches per year in the best localities. The age of the very large ones is between 150 and 175 years. The showy white flowers of the sahuaro appear in may, forming a crown at the top of the trunk and at the tip of each branch. The juicy red fruits come to maturity in June, just as the dryest time of the year, and the pulp and seeds are eagerly sought by birds. The fruits and the woody skeleton are the only parts of the sahuaro that are useful to man, for it contains extremely little starch, sugar or other substance of value.

 

Another striking plant of the desert is the ocotillo, which looks like a cluster of loosely held wands, beset with thorns. After every rainy period it bears leaves, which are large and thin as compared with other desert leaves, and are destined to turn yellow and fall as soon as the soil begins to dry out. There may be half a dozen crops of leaves on the ocotillo in a single year, but its flowers are born only once, in the early spring. The brilliant scarlet racemes, appearing on the ends of the branches, are among the showiest flowers of the desert. Just because it has thorns, the ocotillo is often supposed to be a cactus, but is not.

 

Among the various pieces of field work that have been carried out at the Desert Laboratory in past years has been investigations of the root systems of a number of the larger perennials, studies of the changes which resulted from the recession of the Salton Sea, in southern California, the study of the distribution of plants in relation to the physical texture of the soil, and the investigation of the relation between the vertical differences of vegetation and of climatic conditions on mountains. Visits have been made from the Laboratory to the deserts of Egypt, Algeria, South Africa and Australia, for the comparative study  of desert plants and conditions.

 

 

Looking eastward over the grounds of the Desert Laboratory toward Tucson

and Tumamoc Hill. The Laboratory buildings are located on the north slope of the hill.

 

The investigation of environmental conditions is of fundamental importance for all research in the physiology and ecology of plants and animals. It is not only desirable to know the average conditions of rainfall, temperature, humidity, etc., but also to know the extreme conditions, for it is under them that the plant and animal life is subjected to the greatest risks.  Ever since the establishment of the Laboratory, continuous records have been kept of the most important climatic factors, and for shorter periods data have been secured on light, soil moisture, soil temperature and other conditions. For Tucson the average rainfall from 1868 to 1925 was 11.70 in. Since 1905 the annual rainfall at the Laboratory has been about 1 in. greater than it has been in Tucson. Over half of the precipitation falls in July, August and September. Since 1908 there have been six times when there was no rain at all for ninety days or more, the longest of these periods extending from January 11th to June 1st, 1910. The most extreme temperatures that have been recorded in the past 25 years are a maximum of 112 degrees and a minimum of 6 degrees. Greater extremes can be secured by using improperly exposed thermometers, or by taking observations in special localities.

 

Several small areas have been laid out on the grounds of the Desert Laboratory for observing the changes that take place in the vegetation over long periods. Accurate maps of these areas were made in 1906, showing the location of every perennial plant. After twenty-three years without disturbance the plant populations of some of these areas has greatly increased. On two areas located on the slopes of Tumamoc Hill there has been little change in the population. In all cases there are many of the plants of 1906 which are now gone, which is even true of the most long-lived ones like the sahuaro and the palo verde. Certain species of plants are now to be found in some of the areas which were not represented there in 1906. The continued studies of these areas will determine the average length of life of the plants, and will give a vivid picture of the ceaseless changes in nature.

 

                A great deal of importance for the study of desert plants attaches to the dry hot period which extends from late March or early April to the commencement of the summer rains about the second week in July. This is a period of dry soil, lengthening days, almost continuous sunshine, and increasing heat. The condition of the soil at this season, the movement and loss of water by plants, and the mechanism by which plants secure water and control its loss, are all features which have been given considerable attention and are now one of the uppermost groups of problems at the Laboratory.

 

 

A special type of rain gauge has been devised for securing records of

precipitation in remote localities. A film of heavy oil protects the water from

evaporation until its volume is measured.

 

                Almost immediately after the first heavy rain of the mid-summer there is a striking transformation of the desert. The lean cacti become turgid, the trees begin active growth, the dormant shrubs come into leaf, herbaceous annuals spring up in great abundance, and the insect life is increased a thousand fold. The physiological phenomena which accompany the rapid change in the behavior of the perennials at this time have been studied very little, and are one of the promising fields for future work.

 

                 One of the striking things about the ephemeral plants which appear after each of the rainy seasons is that the group appearing in the later winter and those growing in the summer are entirely distinct. The seeds of the winter ephemerals lie in the moist soil of summer without germinating, and the seeds of the summer plants do the same in the winter. This is known to be due to a difference in the temperature required for germination in the two groups, but the reasons for such a great difference in temperature response have not been investigated.

 

                The energies of the men who have worked at the Desert Laboratory have been wholly devoted to research, leaving them no time for education work, and no opportunity to help in the popularization of the knowledge that they have acquired about the plants of the arid regions. The effort is being made to attack the fundamental problems, and to pursue them consecutively, so that the work of the Laboratory can be of some help in swelling the great fund of knowledge about the environment of man, and of some use to those who are directly concerned with the practical problems of the plant industries.

 

* McGinnies, William G. 1981. Discovering the Desert. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. Page 7. William McGinnies also shows an entry in the Bibliography for this book for Forest Shreve, 1926. The Desert Laboratory, Progressive Arizona 3(4): 10-11, 40. that may relate to this booklet.

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

I would like to thank Matthew B. Johnson for his review of several of the listings, his input into the layout, his numerous trips into the field to assist in the identification of species and above all for his continued support for this project. I would also like to thank Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator, and the Botanists of the University of Arizona Herbarium for years of assistance with plant identifications. I would also like to thank Neva Connolly, Julia Fonseca and Bill Singleton with the Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District for being willing and able to present the listings in the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan website.

 

 

 

Species Distribution Listings

FOOTNOTES and REFERENCES

 

 

(1) General Mapping:

 

Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

 

National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                                Tucson, Arizona7.5 Minute Topographic Map 1983    

                                Cat Mountain, Arizona7.5 Minute Topographic Map 1968         

 

Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

www.maps4u.com

 

(2) Physiographic Province Mapping:

 

Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Soils Mapping:

 

Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Biotic Communities Mapping and Definitions

 

Ecological formations used in the listings follow those presented in the mapping for the Biotic Communities of the Southwest.

 

Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. Revised June 1983. Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

 

Brown, David E., Charles H. Lowe and Charles P. Pase. June 1980. A Digitized Systematic Classification for Ecosystems with an Illustrated Summary of the Natural Vegetation of North America, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 (5) Nomenclature:

 

for Plants:

 

Generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

The International Plant Names Index (2004, 2005) 

Published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org [accessed 2004, 2005, 2006]

 

National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

for Vertebrate Animals:

 

Generally follows that presented by Charles H. Lowe. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

for Invertebrate Animals:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

(6) Growth Habits of Plants:

 

Generally coincides with that presented by the National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

               

Common names identified in the USDA NRCS database have been printed in bold lettering: A few of the plants were not provided with a common name in the USDA NRCS database and additional resources were used, including:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. *8*

 

Sunset Western Garden Book Kathleen N. Brenzel, 2001, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California. *18*

 

 

(7) Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

 

(8) Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Amphibians: 2002. Bufo microscaphus, Arizona Toad; 2005. Bufo retiformis, Sonoran Green Toad; 2001. Eleutherodactylus augusti subsp. cactorum, Western Barking Frog; 2003. Gastrophryne olivacea, Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad; 2002. Hyla arenicolor, Canyon Treefrog; 2003. Pternohyla fodiens, Lowland Burrowing Treefrog; 2001. Rana chiricahuensis, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, and 2001. Rana yavapaiensis, Lowland Leopard Frog.

Arachnids: 2004. Albiorix anophthalmus, a cave obligate Pseudoscorpion.

Birds: 2003. Accipiter gentilis, American Goshawk; 2002. Aimophila ruficeps subsp. rupicola: Yuma Rufous-crowned Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus savannarum subsp. ammolequs, Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow; 2001. Anthus spragueii, Sprgaue’s Pipit; 2002. Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle; 2000. Asturina nitida, Northern Grey Hawk; 2001. Athene cunicularia subsp. hypugaea, Western Burrowing Owl; 2001. Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk; 2001. Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk; 2005. Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-hawk; 2003. Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara; 2002. Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher; 2001. Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher; 2002. Coccyzus americanus subsp. occidentalis, Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo; 2002. Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-duck; 2001. Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-duck; 2002. Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink; 2002. Egretta thula, Snowy Egret; 2002. Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite; 2003 Empidonax fulvifrons subsp. pygmaeus, Northern Buff-breasted Flycatcher; 2003. Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher; 2002. Empidonax traillii subsp. extimus, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher; 1998. Falco peregrinus subsp. anatum, American Peregrine Falcon; 2001. Glaucidium brasilianum subsp. cactorum, Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl; 2002. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle; 2004. Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike; 2005. Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl; 2002. Pandion haliaetus, Osprey; 2002. Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis; 2002. Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher; 2001. Rallus longirostris P. Boddaert subsp. yumanensis, Yuma Clapper Rail; 2002. Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart; 2005. Strix occidentalis subsp. lucida, Mexican Spotted Owl; 2001. Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon; 2003. Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird, and 2002. Vireo bellii subsp. arizonae, Arizona Bell’s Vireo.

Dicots: 2000. Abutilon parishii, Pima Indian Mallow; 2004. Ammoselinum giganteum, Sand Parsley; 2003. Amoreuxia gonzalezii, Saiya; 2004. Arenaria aberrans, Mt. Dellenbaugh Sandwort; 1995. Aster potosinus, Lemmon’s Aster; 2004. Berberis harrisoniana, Kofa Barberry; 2000. Boerhavia megaptera, Tucson Mountain Spiderling; 2004. Bursera fagaroides, Torch Wood Copal; 2003. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, Chiltepin; 2005. Castela emoryi, Crucifixion Thorn; 2004. Cirsium mohavense, Mohave Thistle; 2001. Cleome multicaulis, Playa Spider Plant; 2001. Colubrina californica, California Snakewood; 2001. Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina, Pima Pineapple Cactus; 2005. Coryphantha scheeri var. valida, Slender Needle Corycactus; 2004. Croton wigginsii, Dune Croton; 2005. Cryptantha ganderi, Gander’s Cryptantha; 2005. Desmanthus covillei, Coville Bundleflower; 2004. Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii, Nichol Turk’s Head Cactus; 2005. Echinocactus polycephalus, Cotton-top Cactus; 2005. Echinocereus fasciculatus, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus; 2003. Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus, Arizona Hedgehog Cactus; 2004. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis, Acuna Cactus; 2003. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus; 2001. Erigeron arisolius, Arid Throne Fleabane; 2003. Eriogonum capillare, San Carlos Wild-buckwheat; 2005. Eriogonum ericifolium var. ericifolium, Heathleaf Wild-buckwheat; 2004. Euphorbia gracillima, Mexican Broomspurge; 2005. Euphorbia platysperma, Dune Spurge; 2005. Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus. California Barrel Cactus; 2001. Graptopetalum bartramii, Bartram Stonecrop; 2000. Hackelia ursina, Chihuahuan Stickseed; 2000. Hedeoma dentata, Mock-pennyroyal; 2000. Hermannia pauciflora, Sparseleaf Hermannia; 2001. Heterotheca rutteri, Huachuca Golden Aster; 2005. Ibervillea tenuisecta, Texas Globe Berry; 2000. Ipomoea tenuiloba, Trumpet Morning-glory; 2003. Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva, Huachuca Water Umbel; 2000. Lupinus huachucanus, Huachuca Mountain Lupine; 2004. Mammillaria mainiae, Counter Clockwise Fishhook Cactus; 2004. Matelea cordifolia, Sonoran Milkweed Vine; 2003. Pectis imberbis, Beardless Chinch Weed; 2005. Peniocereus striatus, Dahlia Rooted Cereus; 2004. Penstemon superbus, Superb Beardtongue; 2005. Perityle ajoensis, Ajo Rock Daisy; 2005. Petalonyx linearis, Longleaf Sandpaper-plant; 2004. Pholisma sonorae, Sand Food; 2004. Plagiobothrys pringlei, Pringle Popcorn-flower; 2005. Rhus kearneyi, Kearney Sumac; 2005. Stenocereus thurberi, Organ Pipe Cactus; 2005. Stephanomeria schottii, Schott Wire Lettuce; 2004. Stevia lemmonii, Lemmon’s Stevia; 2004. Tragia laciniata, Sonoran Noseburn; 2004. Tumamoca macdougalii, Tumamoc Globeberry; 2005. Vauquelinia californica subsp. sonorensis, Sonoran Mountain Rosewood, and 2004. Viola umbraticola, Shade Violet.

Ferns: 2003. 1997. Cheilanthes pringlei, Pringle Lip Fern and Notholaena lemmonii, Lemmon Cloak Fern.

Fishes: 2002. Agosia chrysogaster, Longfin Dace; 2002. Catostomus clarki, Desert Sucker; 2002. Catostomus insignis, Sonora Sucker; 2001. Cyprinodon eremus, Quitobaquito Pupfish; 2001. Cyprinodon macularius, Desert Pupfish; 2002. Gila intermedia, Gila Chub; 2002. Gila robusta, Roundtail Chub; 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. occidentalis, Gila Topminnow, and 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. sonorensis, Yaqui Topminnow. 

Gastropods: 2003. Tryonia quitobaquitae, Quitobaquito Tryonia.

Insects: 2001. Agathymus aryxna, Arizona Giant Skipper; 2001. Agathymus polingi, Poling’s Giant Skipper; 2004. Anthocharis cethura, Desert Orangetip; 2001. Calephelis rawsoni subsp. arizonensis, Arizona Metalmark; 2002. Heterelmis stephani, Stephan’s Heterelmis Riffle Beetle; 2001. Limenitis archippus subsp. obsoleta, Obsolete Viceroy Butterfly, and 2001. and Neophasia terlootii, Chiricahua Pine White.

Mammals: 2002. Antrozous pallidus, Pallid Bat; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. mexicana, Chihuahuan Pronghorn Antelope; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope; 2004. Bassariscus astutus, Ringtail; 2003. Choeronycteris mexicana, Mexican Long-tongued Bat; 2004. Eptesicus fuscus, Big Brown Bat; 2003. Euderma maculatum, Spotted Bat; 2002. Eumops perotis subsp. californicus, Greater Western Bonneted Bat; 2003. Eumops underwoodi, Underwood’s Mastiff Bat; 2004. Herpailurus yaguarondi, Jaguarundi; 2004. Lasionycteris noctivagans, Silver-haired Bat; 2003. Lasiurus blossevillii, Western Red Bat; 2004. Lasiurus cinereus, Hoary Bat; 2004. Leopardus pardalis subsp sonoriensis, Ocelot; 2003. Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae, Lesser Long-nosed Bat; 2002. Lontra canadensis subsp. sonora, Southwestern River Otter; 2001. Macrotus californicus, California Leaf-nosed Bat; 2003. Myotis auriculus, Southwestern Myotis; 2004. Myotis californicus, California Myotis; 2003. Myotis occultus, Fringed Myotis; 2003. Myotis yumanensis, Yuma Myotis; 2003. Nyctinomops femorosacca, Pocketed Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Nyctinomops macrotis, Big Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Myotis thysanodes, Fringed Myotis; 2002. Myotis velifer, Cave Myotis; 2004. Panthera onca, Jaguar; 2004. Pipistrellus hesperus, Western Pipistrelle; 2006. Puma concolor, Mountain Lion; 2005. Sciurus arizonensis, Arizona Gray Squirrel; 2003. Sigmodon ochrognathus, Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat, and 2004. Tadarida brasiliensis, Brazilian Free-tailed Bat.

Monocots: 2005. Agave x ajoensis, Ajo Agave; 2003. Agave murpheyi, Hohokam Agave; 1994. Agave parviflora subsp. parviflora, Santa Cruz Striped Agave; 2005. Agave schottii var. treleasei, Trelease Agave; 2005. Agave utahensis var. kaibabensis, Kaibab Agave; 2005. Allium bigelovii, Bigelow Onion; 1999. Allium gooddingii, Goodding Onion; 2005. Allium parishii, Parish Onion; 2004. Carex chihuahuensis, Chihuahuan Sedge; 2000. Carex ultra, Arizona Giant Sedge; 2004. Cathestecum erectum, False Grama; 2004. Hexalectris revoluta, Chisos Coral-root; 2005. Hexalectris spicata, Crested Coral Root; 2001. Lilium parryi, Lemon Lily; 2005. Listera convallarioides, Broadleaf Twayblade; 2000. Muhlenbergia xerophila, Weeping Muhly, and 2005. Schiedeella arizonica, Fallen Ladies’-tresses.

Reptiles: 2001. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. stictogrammus, Giant Spotted Whiptail; 2003. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus, Redback Whiptail; 2002. Chionactis occipitalis subsp. klauberi, Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake; 2003. Chionactis palarostris subsp. organica, Organ Pipe Shovel-nosed Snake; 2001. Crotalus lepidus subsp. klauberi, Banded Rock Rattlesnake; 2001. Gopherus agassizi, Desert Tortoise; 2002. Heloderma suspectum subsp. cinctum, Banded Gila Monster; 2002. Heterodon nasicus subsp. kennerlyi, Mexican Hog-nosed Snake; 2005. Kinosternon sonoriense, subsp. longifemorale, Sonoyta Mud Turtle; 2003. Lichanura trivirgata subsp. gracia, Desert Rosy Boa; 2003. Phrynosoma mcallii, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard; 2005. Sauromalus ater, Common Chuckwalla; 2001. Thamnophis eques subsp. megalops, Mexican Garter Snake; 2003. Uma rufopunctata, Yuma Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, and 2003. Xantusia arizonae, Arizona Night Lizard.

 

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(ADS)     Arizona Daily Star.

 

(JFW)     John F. Wiens.

 

(MBJ)     Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum.

 

(WTK)   William T. Kendall.