April 17, 2008 Update

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP 14 SOUTH, RANGE 06 WEST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking northeast into the township, the Batamote Mountains and Pozo Redondo Mountains are in the background. William T. Kendall November 4, 2005

 

 

“To know the desert involves an acquaintance with all its aspects, and all its physical features,

as well as all of the animals and plants that have learned how to find in it a congenial place to live. The

most significant lesson that the desert dweller can learn from a familiarity with its plant and animal life is to

 regard himself not as an exile from some better place, but as a man at home in an environment to which his life can be adjusted without physical or intellectual loss.” Forest Shreve, The Cactus and

Its Home (Found in Discovering the Desert, by William G. McGinnies)

 

 

 

MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 

 

William T. Kendall *WTK (observation date, if shown)*

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*

 

Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85 (date of search for information on species)*

 

E. Lendell Cockrum, 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. This Inclusion is based on the general distribution maps and statements. *118 (distribution note, map - Figure Number and Page Number)*

 

 

 

SPECIES DISTRIBUTION LISTINGS

 

 

Species Distribution Listings are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. Species Distribution Listings are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered works in progress. The source(s) used for the inclusion of the species in a listing is highlighted in green *00* in the footnotes. Due to the lack of first hand knowledge, in the listing of animals, unless otherwise noted in the footnotes, species may be included based on general distribution maps and/or statements and not on an actual sight record. I recommend that we consider a species as being “confirmed” to a township or general listing area only after we have at least three recorded sightings, cited in the footnotes, with no more than one of those records being based on general distribution mapping for the species. Note that the Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85* may have several collections recorded for a species within any given township or listing area, and that the date shown in parentheses is a date of the search of their records and not a date of recorded sighting.  Note also that many of the individual species collection records found in SEINet include additional associated species.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by division, class, family and genus within their kingdoms. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat, the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed and footnotes. An attempt is being made to identify the range in mature (flowering/fruiting) heights reported for the plants. The habitat description is provided in order to help you visualize the types of natural habitats the species is found in and ones in which it might be planted back into in a landscape or restoration project. The range in elevation has been rounded off to the nearest 100 feet up, for the higher elevation or down, for the lower elevation. Species reported from within 0 to 100 feet as their lower elevation limit have been recorded as occurring “from sea level”. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, may be noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native plants are recommended for use in landscape and restoration projects. Many native species require little, if any, irrigation once established. Ideally restoration should include those plants that were native to the property prior to clearing. In order to determine what plants were native to the property you might try to locate photographs of the property prior to clearing or look for natural areas and remnant populations and plants adjacent to where the restoration is to take place. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density.

 

The use of native plants in landscape and restoration projects encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty and unique identity and heritage.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Questions, concerns, corrections and comments, including the reporting of unrecorded species and information relating to historical distributions, may be sent to the following address: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 86091, Tucson, Arizona 85754-6091, or E-mail to:KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. These listings are not meant to take the place of on-site surveys for species. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings. Attempts are made to keep the information contained in the Species Distribution Listings as accurate as possible, but Kendall Environmental Surveys disclaims any implied warranty or representation about its accuracy, completeness, or appropriateness for any particular purposes. Users of the information found in the listings assume full responsibility for their use of the information and understand that Kendall Environmental Surveys is not responsible or liable for any claim, loss, or damage resulting from its use.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling these plants and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Footnotes for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may be shown in red (*00*). Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Introduction

 

Township Notes

 

Conservation Related Organizations and Nurseries

 

Listing of Plants

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

Class Filicopsida: The Ferns

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

                                Class Insecta: The Insects

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Aves: The Birds

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP NOTES

 

 

LOCATION: This township is located in west-central Pima County in south-central Arizona. This township is bounded on the west by the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. A portion of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument is located in the south half of this township.

 

LANDMARKS: The northeastern portion of the Bates Mountains is located in this township. Named peaks include Lime Hill. Named canyons and passes include the eastern portion of Growler Canyon and Growler Pass. A portion of this township is located within the Valley of the Ajo. Named washes include the Cuerda de Lena and Kuakatch Wash.

 

ELEVATION: Elevations range from approximately 1,375 feet in Growler Canyon on the west township line to approximately 2,073 feet at an unnamed peak located north northeast of the southwest corner (1).

 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

SOILS: Soils have been described as being Hyperthermic (very hot) Arid Soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm)  mean annual precipitation) of the Gilman-Antho-Valencia Association (deep soils on floodplains and alluvial fans), Gunsight-Rillito-Harqua Association (deep, gravelly, calcareous soils on the upper slopes) and the Rock Outcrop-Lomitas-Cherioni Association (rock outcrop and very shallow, and shallow soils on low hills and mountains) (3).

 

BIOTIC COMMUNITY: This township is located within the Lower Colorado River Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Map Printed from TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township and Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS TOWNSHIP THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs (over 7 feet in height)

 

Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea - 5’ to 60’)

Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina - 2’ to 56’)

Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida - 40” to 40’)

Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota - 10’ to 33’)

Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens - 5’ to 33’)

Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla - 6’ to 26’)

Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla - 2½’ to 26’)

Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi - 5’ to 25’)

Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii - 40” to 25’)

Bitter Snakewood (Condalia globosa - 2’ to 20’)

Emory Crucifixion Thorn (Castela emoryi - 3’ to 15’)

Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida - 3’ to 15’)

Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens - 3’ to 13’)

Pencil Cholla (Cylindropuntia arbuscula - 3’ to 12’)

Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata - 20” to 12’)

Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni - 2’ to 11’)

Desert Broom (Baccharis sarothroides - 3’ to 10’)

LeConte Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus cylindraceus var. lecontei - 10” to 10’)

Colorado Buckhorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis - 44” to 9’)

Teddybear Cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii - 3’ to 9’)

Shrubby Limberbush (Jatropha cuneata - 2’ to 9’)

Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens - 3’ to 8’)

Emory Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus emoryi - 1’ to 8’)

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Drummond Clematis (Clematis drummondii - 10’ to 40’)

Yellow Twining Snapdragon (Neogaerrhinum filipes - 2’ to 3’)

 

 

Shrubs (2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Major Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major - 32” to 7’)

Canyon Ragweed (Ambrosia ambrosioides - 1’ to 7’)

White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa - 18” to 6’)

White Rantany (Krameria grayi - 1’ to 5’)

Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea - 1’ to 4’)

White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa - 7” to 40”)

 

 

Grasses

 

Arizona Brome (Bromus arizonicus - 8” to 60”)

Spike Pappusgrass (Enneapogon desvauxii - 4” to 20”)

 

 

Shrubs (under 2’), Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus - 1’ to 8’)

White Cheesebush (Hymenoclea salsola - 1’ to 7’)

Desert Lily (Hesperocallis undulata - 1’ to 6’)

Emory Globemallow (Sphaeralcea emoryi - 1’ to 5’)

Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii - 12” to 52”)

Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus - 10” to 40”)

Goodding Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii - 4” to 32”)

Goodding Mock Vervain (Glandularia gooddingii - 12” to 24”)

Arizona Lupine (Lupinus arizonicus - 8” to 24”)

Desert Chicory (Rafinesquia neomexicana - 6” to 24”)

Chia (Salvia columbariae var. columbariae - 4” to 24”)

Mojave Lupine (Lupinus sparsiflorus - 8” to 20”)

Pricklyleaf Dogweed (Thymophylla acerosa - 4” to 16”)

Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii var. acicularis - 6” to 15”)

Star Cloakfern (Notholaena standleyi - 2½” to 13”)

Sand Bells (Nama hispidum - 7” to 12”)

Desert Evening Primroase (Camissonia chamaenerioides 6” to 12”)

Cochise Scaly Cloakfern (Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis - 3” to 12”)

California Evening Primrose (Oenothera arizonica - 2” to 12”)

Yellow Desert Evening-primrose (Oenothera primiveris - 2” to 8”)

Parry’s Cloakfern (Cheilanthes parryi - 1½” to 8”)

Miniature Woollystar (Eriastrum diffusum - 1½” to 8”)

Annual Townsend Daisy (Townsendia annua - 1” to 3”)

 

 

 

 

CONSERVATION RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND NURSERIES

 

 

 

Arizona Department of Agriculture

http://www.azda.gov/

 

The Arizona Department of Agriculture enforces the sections of the Arizona Revised Statutes commonly referred to as the “Arizona Native Plant Law”. The Native Plant Law requires, in part, that anyone who is clearing land notify the State of Arizona in advance of the clearing. Some land owners involved in the clearing of land allow for nurseries and people who are interested in salvaging plants to do so prior to the clearing. The Arizona Department of Agriculture posts these notifications in their county offices. You may also contact the Arizona Department of Agriculture and, for a fee, be put on a mailing list of people receiving copies of the Notices of Intent to Clear Land.

 

Contact Information: Arizona Department of Agriculture, 1688 West Adams Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85007; 602-542-4373.

 

 

 

Arizona Native Plant Society

http://aznps.org/

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

 

LISTING OF SOURCES FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND SEEDS

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society maintains a listing of Native Plant and Seed Sources at: http://www.aznps.org/sources.html

 

 

Contact Information: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

 

Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.

 

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact Information: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759; 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact Information: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713; 520-791-9309.

 

 

 

Native Seeds/SEARCH

http://www.nativeseeds.org

 

The Native Seeds/SEARCH is a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to preserve the crop seeds that connect the Native American cultures to their lands. The mission of the Native Seeds/SEARCH is to conserve, distribute and document the adapted and diverse varieties of agricultural seeds, their wild relatives and the role these seeds play in the cultures of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico.

 

Contact Information: Native Seeds/SEARCH, 526 North Fourth Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85705; 520-622-5561, toll free at 866-622-5561, FAX 520-622-5561; e-mail:  info@nativeseeds.org

 

 

 

Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact Information: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo del Norte, Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415; Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234; e-mail:  russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson

 

The goal of Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson is to provide experienced care for injured and orphaned wild birds and mammals so that they can be released back into the wild. For assistance with an injured bird or mammal, please call 520-743-0217, briefly explain the situation, being sure to repeat your name and phone number before ending the call.

 

Contact Information: Lewis and Janet Miller, 3690 Hills of Gold, Tucson, Arizona 85745; 520-743-0217.

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

 

 

 

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

 

 

 

CLASS FILICOPSIDA: The FERNS

 

 

Family Pteridaceae: The Maidenhair Fern Family

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. cochisensis (5): Cochise Scaly Cloakfern

SYNONYMY: Notholaena cochisensis L.N. Goodding, Notholaena sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) C.A. Weatherby. COMMON NAMES: Cloak Fern, Cochise’s Cloak Fern, Cochise Scaly Cloakfern, Helechillo (Hispanic), Jimmyfern, Narrow Cloakfern, Scaly Star Fern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 12 inches in length) (6), the color of the foliage is olive green or green above and reddish-brown beneath with brown to reddish-brown stipes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; on boulders; flats; draws; along streams; in bouldery steam beds; along and in washes; banks, and riparian areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy and rocky soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,100 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph of species - Notholaena cochisensis), 46 (Notholaena sinuata (Lag.) Kaulf. var. cochisensis (Goodding) Weatherby), 51 (color photograph - Notholaena cochisensis), 63 (122007), 77, 80 (Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Apparently only the variety cochisensis is poisonous. The nature of the poison is unknown but it is excreted in the milk and is not destroyed by drying of the plant. Sheep are most susceptible, especially pregnant ewes, but goats and cattle may be poisoned. ... The danger is greatest from the middle of November through February when other forage is dry and the evergreen fern remains succulent and relatively palatable. ... Losses may be prevented by deferring infested ranges during the danger period or by feeding supplements.” See text for additional information.), 85 (122207), 122*

 

Cheilanthes parryi (D.C. Eaton) K. Domin: Parry’s Lipfern

SYNONYMY: Notholaena parryi D.C. Eaton. COMMON NAMES: Parry Cloak Fern, Parry’s Cloak Fern, Parry Lipfern, Parry’s Lipfern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 8 inches in length), the color of the stipes has been described as being dark brown or purplish-black, the foliage is gray-green or green above and brown beneath. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; rocky cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; at the bases of talus boulders; crevices in rocks; under bluffs; ledges; rock ridges; bouldery ridge tops; foothills; sandy hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery and rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; rocky draws; gulches; seeps; along streams; along creeks; along washes; in and around cobbly drainages; banks; terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 7.000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46, 51 (color photograph - Notholaena parryi), 63 (122207), 77, 85 (122207)*

 

Cheilanthes standleyi (see Notholaena standleyi) 

 

Notholaena cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis) 

 

Notholaena parryi (see Cheilanthes parryi) 

 

Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)  

 

Notholaena standleyi W.R. Maxon: Star Cloak Fern

SYNONYMY: Cheilanthes standleyi W.R. Maxon. COMMON NAMES: Cloak-fern, Standley Cloak Fern, Standley’s Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2½ to 13 inches in length with the star-shaped laminae being 1 to 4 inches in width), the color of the stipes has been described as being brown or reddish-brown, the foliage a shiny dark green above with a cream-white, gold, yellow or yellow-green waxy-looking glandular exudate below. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; summits of mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky cliffs; canyons; canyon walls; bouldery canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; buttes; rock ledges; foothills; hills; rocky hilltops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; shaded pockets; arroyos; gulches; creek beds; in sandy washes; drainages; on banks, and riparian areas in bouldery and rocky soils, occurring from 1,300 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, commonly growing in clumps. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 51 (color photograph), 58, 63 (122207), 85 (122207)*

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Hesperocallis undulata A. Gray (5): Desert Lily

COMMON NAMES: Ajo, Ajo Lily, Ajo Sylvestre, Desert Lily, Hesperocallis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height) (6), the basal rosette of leaves (8 to 20 inches in length) are bluish-green, the trumpet-shaped flowers (2½ inches in depth) are bluish-white or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional record: one for mid-January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; sandy hillsides; slopes; sand dunes; clayey plains; gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; valleys; sandy edges of river beds, and rocky and sandy washes in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy-loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 2,100 feet (one record for 6,900 feet) in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant. The flowers are pollinated by Hawk Moths. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph), 46 (This is one of the showiest of the Arizona desert wildflowers.), 63 (010808), 85 (010808), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Bromus arizonicus (C.L. Shear) G.L. Stebbins: Arizona Brome

SYNONYMY: Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott var. arizonicus C.L. Shear. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Brome. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (8 inches to 5 feet in height), the leaves are reportedly yellow-green, and the flowers burgundy, flowering generally takes place between early February and early September (additional records: two for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; summits of mountains; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ledges; ridges; meadows; foothills; hills; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; along streams; stream beds; creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; marshy areas; banks; sandbars; sandy benches; sandy flood plains; ditch banks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loamy soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 63 (051707), 80 (The Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. Species of the genus Bromus can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus. “Ergot contains poisonous alkaloids and other compounds that may cause chronic poisoning (gangrenous ergotism) in the extremities when consumed in small amounts, or convulsive poisoning when large amounts are eaten. Animals may be poisoned by feeding on mature, infected grain or hay. Livestock, especially cattle, and humans are susceptible. ... Pastures causing ergot poisoning should be mowed or the animals removed. Mildly poisoned animals will usually recover if removed from the infested pastures, kept quiet, and supplied with good feed and water. In Arizona, some losses may be expected on rangelands during wet years, but most losses have occurred from grazing pastures of Dallas Grass (Paspalum dilatatum).” See text for additional information.), 85 (122207)*

 

Bromus carinatus var. arizonicus (see Bromus arizonicus)

 

Enneapogon desvauxii N.A. Desvaux ex A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Nineawn Pappusgrass

COMMON NAMES: Feather Pappusgrass, Nineawn Pappusgrass, Spike Pappusgrass, Wright Pappusgrass, Zacate Ladera, Zacate Lobero. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial graminoid (a bunchgrass (clump grass) 4 to 20 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being gray-green or light green, the flowers grayish-green or purplish, flowering generally takes place in summer and fall between early August and late September (additional record: one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; plateaus; cliffs; sandy rims; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; along bases of cliffs; bouldery ledges; ridges, ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky, gravelly and clay hills; gravelly hilltops; rocky hillsides; knolls; rocky and gravelly slopes; bedrock and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; plains; debris fans at mouths of canyons; gravelly flats, along roadsides; rocky arroyo bottoms; gulches; along stream beds; rocky washes; drainages; depressions; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and rocky-gravelly silty soils, occurring from 900 to 7,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider using in a mix with other grasses when over-seeding. *5, 6, 16, 15, 33, 46, 58, 63 (122207), 77, 85 (122307), 105 (“This grass seems to be rather short-lived for a perennial. However, it is a prolific seeder and re-establishes rapidly and abundantly during seasons of good rainfall”)*

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Littleseed Muhly

COMMON NAMES: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Little-seed Muhly, Littleseed Muhly. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height/length), the color of the spikelets has been described as being purplish, flowering generally takes place between March and May (flowering records: two for late March, one for late April, one for early May, two for mid-May, one for mid-September and one for mid-December, plants in flower have reportedly been collected in all months except for June and July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky canyon walls; sandy and sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; along bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ledges, rocky ridges; margins of meadows; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava bluffs; lava slopes; along lava slides; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal plains; along railroad right-of-ways; sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; springs; along streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy tinajas; along gravelly-sandy banks; benches; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks (charcos); rocky margins of reservoirs; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas and disturbed areas in gravelly desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This grass sometimes forms dense mound-like colonies. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 33, 46, 63 (070207), 77, 85 (111407)*

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass

COMMON NAMES: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 14 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between November and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus; rocky ridges; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along streams; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet (one record at 7,880 feet) in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 58, 63 (040407), 68, 77, 85 (081507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

 

 

Family Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Gonolobus parvifolius (see Matelea parvifolia) 

 

Matelea parvifolia (J. Torrey) R.E. Woodson (5): Spearleaf

SYNONYMY: Gonolobus parvifolius J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Angle-pod, Anglepod, Littleleaf Matelea, Little Leaf Milk Vine, Milkweed Vine, Small-leaf Anglepod, Small-leaved Milkvine, Spearleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial shrub or vine (a twining vine 16 inches to 5 feet in length) (6), the color of the twining stems has been described as being gray-green or green, the flowers black, brownish-purple, green or dark purple, flowering generally takes place between late January and early December, the fruits are long, warty, green seed pods. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ridge tops; ridgelines; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; bouldery, cobbly and gravelly flats; rivers; in washes; along drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, cobbly and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Gonolobus parvifolius Torr.), 63 (052607), 77, 85 (081507)*

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King: Brownfoot

SYNONYMY: Perezia wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 to 52 inches in height, one plant was recorded as being 12 inches in height with a crown 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green (and holly-like), the flowers lavender, pink, pink-brown, pink-lavender, pinkish-purple, purple, white, white and pink or whitish-maroon, flowering generally takes place between early February and early July and sometimes in autumn between early September and early November (additional records: one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; crater walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; along ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky, stony-gravelly and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky plains; rocky flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; along arroyos; gullies; ravines; seeps; along creeks; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; rocky banks of streams; beaches; river basins; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky silty loam, sandy loam, silty-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (040507), 77, 85 (081507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) W.W. Payne: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles. COMMON NAMES: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Burr Sage, Bur-sage, Bursage, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura (Hispanic), Leaf Burr Ragweed, Nu Nu Ju Its  (Tohono O’odham), Tinkl (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the branches has been described as being reddish-brown with white hairs, the leaves dull gray-green or green, the flowers yellowish or yellowish-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: two for mid-January, one for early June, one for mid-June and one for mid-September), the fruits are burrs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; soil pockets in rocks; plains; coastal plains; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along seeping streams; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along sandy drainages; rocky and sandy banks; around water holes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria ambrosioides Cav.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #67), 85 (081507), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle: Weakleaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg. COMMON NAMES: Altamisa de Playa, Bur-sage, Bursage Ragweed, Bur-weed, Chi’ichivo (Yaqui), Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Istafiate (northern Sinaloa, Mexico), Slimleaf Bursage, Weak-leaf Burr-ragweed, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 5 feet in height and may be procumbent and up to 6 feet in width in higher elevations), the leaves are gray, the color of the flowers has been described as being white, yellow, yellow-brown or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early May and early December (additional record: one for late March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rock faces; foothills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; flats; valleys; roadsides; ravines; seeps; springs; along streams; at rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in drainages; swales; around ponds and lakes; banks; rocky benches; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; fence rows; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and rocky silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Franseria confertiflora (DC.) Rydb.), 58, 63 (041807), 68, 77, 85 (112907)*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne: Triangle Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Burrobush, Bur-sage, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Kokomak Segoi (Pima), Shegoi (Pima), Todshag (Papago), Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaved Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers greenish, greenish-yellow, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; dunes; sandy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; around seeping streams; runnels; river beds; along sandy washes; rocky banks of creeks; gravelly terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Triangleleaf Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria deltoidea Torr.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #68), 85 (081607), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne: Burrobush

SYNONYMY: Franseria dumosa A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Burro Bush, Burrobush, Burro Weed, Burro-weed, Burroweed, Bur Sage, Bur-sage, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bur-sage, White Bursage, White Burrobush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height, one low mound-shaped plant was reported to be 40 inches in width), the color of the branches has been described as being gray, tan or white, the leaves blue-green-gray, gray-green or white-tomentose, the flowers cream, cream-yellow, greenish, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-January, two for mid-May, one for mid-June, one for late June, four for late September, one for early October, one for mid-November, one for late November and two for mid-December), the fruits are spiny burs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; gravelly mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; amongst boulders; lava fields; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sand sheets; sandy valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; along sandy washes; banks of stream beds and washes; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than 100 years of age with an estimated average longevity of 35.7 years. This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). In the re-vegetation of disturbed sites more success may be achieved through the use of transplanted plants than from over-seeding. White Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria dumosa Gray), 63 (040907), 77, 85 (081707), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia salsola (see footnote 85 under Hymenoclea salsola) 

 

Aplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see footnote 46 under Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Desertbroom

COMMON NAMES: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Caasot Caocl (Seri), Desert Broom, Desert-broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush, Rosin-brush, Soosk Vaks “Wet Shoes” (Maricopa?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height, one plant 40 inches in height was described as being 40 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green or yellow-green, the flowers (dioecious) cream, rust, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-September and late February (additional records: one for mid-March, two for late March, two for mid-April, one for late April, one for mid-July, one for early August and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy plains; flats; valley floors; roadsides; along arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gullies; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; gravelly creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly and sandy washes; playas; along gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos and washes; beaches; flood plains; bottom lands; along drainage ditches; along canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 77, 85 (082007), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray: Coulter’s Brickellbush

SYNONYMY: Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri. COMMON NAMES: Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height), the color of the florets (rayless flowers) has been described as being cream, cream-maroon-purple, cream-purple, cream-yellow, green, greenish-yellow, purplish, purplish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-October (additional records: one for early November, one for mid-November, one for early December and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; rocky walls of ravines; springs; along stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainages; around waterholes; sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and silty loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color picture), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 65 (082007), 77, 85 (082007)*

 

Brickellia coulteri var. coulteri (see Brickellia coulteri) 

 

Chaenactis fremontii A. Gray: , Pincushion Flower

COMMON NAMES: Freemont Pincushion, Morning Bride, Morningbride, Pincushion Flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (5 to 16 inches in height, one plant was described as being 12 inches in height and 12 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being red, the leaves dark green, the disk flowers (no ray flowers) creamy-white, pinkish or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; talus slopes; ledges; hillsides; rocky; rocky-gravelly, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (122407), 85 (122407)*

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott: Steve’s Dustymaiden

COMMON NAMES: “Broad-leaved Chaenactis”, Desert Pincushion, Dusty Maiden, Dustymaiden, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Esteve’s Pincushion, “False Yarrow”, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dusty-maiden, Steve’s Dustymaiden. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the flowers (disk flowers only, no ray flowers) cream, cream-white, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-January and one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; bluffs; ridges; foothills; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; sandy hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; rocky and gravelly arroyos; along streams; along and in sandy washes; beaches; along terraces; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam, gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, and rocky clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070507), 77, 85 (also recorded as Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides Hook. & Arn. - 082107), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Chaenactis stevioides var. stevioides (see footnote 85 under Chaenactis stevioides) 

 

Dyssodia acerosa (see Thymophylla acerosa)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey [superfluous autonym], Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. phenicodonta (J. Blake) I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Brittle Bush, Brittle-bush, Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 6 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, silvery-gray or whitish, the ray flowers yellow or yellow-orange and the disk flowers brown-maroon, dark purple, orange-yellow or yellow, the flowers appear 6 to 12 inches beyond the end of the foliage, flowering generally takes place between early November and late May (additional records: two for late August, one for early September, two for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; flats; roadsides; springs; creeks; rocky and sandy washes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Plants with yellow ray flowers and dark purple disk flowers have historically been referred to as variety phenicodonta (Blake) Johnst. and has been observed growing with the typical plant which has yellow disk flowers. Brittle Bush is reportedly browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 85 (082107), 86 (color photograph), 91*

 

Encelia farinosa var. farinosa (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia farinosa var. phenicodonta (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Erigeron lobatus A. Nelson: Lobed Fleabane

COMMON NAMES: Desert Fleabane, Fleabane, Lobed Daisy, Lobed Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height), the color of the ray flower has been described as being blue, blue-lavender, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-pink, purple, white or white-purple with yellow disk flowers, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: one for early January, three for mid-January, two for early June, one for mid-June, two for late June, one for mid-July, one for mid-August, two for late August, three for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for late October, one for early November, two for mid-November, one for early December, one for mid-December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; crevices in canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-sandy and gravelly slopes; rock outcrops; lava flows; plains; flats; arroyos; seeps; springs; stream beds; along sandy washes; drainages; marshes; depressions; along edges of rivers; around water holes; rocky-sandy beaches; along ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, shaley, gravelly and sandy soils and sandy clay soils, occurring from 500 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 8, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (082207), 77, 85 (082207)*

 

Eriophyllum M. Lagasca y Segura: Woolly Sunflower

COMMON NAMES: Woolly Sunflower *63 (010708), 85*

 

Evax multicaulis (see Evax verna var. verna)

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque var. verna C.S. Rafinesque: Spring Pygmycudweed

SYNONYMY: Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 3 inches in length), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; hills; slopes; rocky, gravelly and loamy flats; valley floors; roadsides; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; margins of cienegas; depressions; swales; banks; benches; channel bars; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Evax multicaulis DC.), 58, 63 (122407), 77, 85 (122407)*

 

Filago arizonica (A. Gray) J. Holub: Arizona Cottonrose

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Filago, Arizona Fluffweed, Arizona Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height), flowering generally takes place between early March and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-February, two for late February, two for mid-May, one for mid-June and one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava fields; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; along sandy roadsides; along streams; river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; flood plains; around stock tanks (charcos), and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (052307), 77, 85 (082207)*

 

Filago californica (see Logfia californica)

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria confertiflora (see Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Gaillardia A.D. Fougeroux de Bondaroy: Blanketflower

COMMON NAMES: Blanketflower. *63 (091706), 85*

 

Haplopappus gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Haplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush

COMMON NAMES: Burro Brush, Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Ivdat (Pima), Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Burrobush, White Burro-bush, White Cheesebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub (1 to 7 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 3 feet in height and 2 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being creamish-green, dark green or yellow-green, the flowers cream, creamish-green, metallic gold, silvery, silvery-white, white or light yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late May, the fruit has silvery-white wings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; buttes; cinder cones; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky, cindery and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; along rocky and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gullies; gravelly-sandy ravines; stream beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; around ponds; rocky-gravelly banks; bouldery beaches; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam and loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. White Cheesebush may be useful in the re-vegetation of disturbed sites. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (070807), 85 (also recorded as Ambrosia salsola (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.L. Strother & B.G. Baldwin - 082307), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Logfia californica (T. Nuttall) J. Holub: California Cottonrose

SYNONYMY: Filago californica T. Nuttall. COMMON NAMES: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream-white, white or white-straw, flowering generally takes place between late February and late May (additional record: one record for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; rocky canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; bouldery outcrops; plains; sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; river beds; along rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; flood plains; bar ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Filago californica Nutt.), 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (082307)*

 

Machaeranthera arida B.L. Turner & J. Horne: Arid Tansyaster

SYNONYMY: Machaeranthera coulteri (A. Gray) B.L. Turner & J. Horne var. arida (B.L. Turner & J. Horne) B.L. Turner, Psilactis coulteri auct. p.p., non A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arid Spiny Daisy, Arid Tansyaster, Silver Lake Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being blue, lavender-blue, pink, purple, violet, white or yellow, the disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and early September (additional records: two for early October, one for mid-October, two for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides; crater walls; gypsum outcrops; dunes; blowout areas between dunes; sandy flats; coastal plains; roadsides; edges of seeps; springs; sandy-silty river beds; along and in sandy washes; banks of rivers; gravelly benches; around pools; flood plains, and disturbed areas in rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 8, 46 (Psilactis coulteri Gray), 63 (070807), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (082407)*

 

Machaeranthera coulteri var. arida (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & R.L. Hartman var. gooddingii: Goodding’s Tansyaster

SYNONYMY:, Haplopappus gooddingii (A. Nelson) P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. gooddingii A. Nelson. COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Ironplant, Gooding’s Aster, Goodding Tansyaster, Goodding’s Tansyaster, Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 32 inches in height), the ray and disk flowers are yellow, flowering (see footnote 46) generally takes place between mid-February and late May (flowering records: two for mid-February, one for late March, three for early April, four for mid-April, one for late April, three for early May and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; rock cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; gravelly flats; rocky roadsides; gullies; along gravelly washes; terraces, and disturbed areas in rocky and gravelly soils and gravelly-clayey loam soils, occurring from 1,400 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46 (shows the flowering period for the species (Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC.) as being from March to October - Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. var. gooddingii (A. Nels.) Blake) 63 (122607), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (012608)*

 

Malacothrix californica var. glabrata (see Malacothrix glabrata)

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray: Smooth Desertdandelion

SYNONYMY: Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton. COMMON NAMES: California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Desert-dandelion, Smooth Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height), the ray flowers are yellow (no disk flowers), flowering generally takes place between late February March and early June (additional record: one for early February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; at the edges of rivers; sandy bottom lands, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-sandy loam and gravelly loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Malacothrix californica var. glabrata), 46, 58, 63 (070807), 77, 85 (082507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray var. papposa: Manybristle Chinchweed

COMMON NAMES: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Fetid-marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 8 inches in height and 3 to 12 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being green or yellow, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-December (additional records: two for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; sandy ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand hills; sand dunes; sand hummocks; gravelly and gravelly-sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valleys; roadsides; arroyos; sandy bottoms of arroyos; sandy bottoms of ravines; along streams; along stream beds; sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; sandy baysides; depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly loam, silty loam and loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to (5,900) 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: The plant has been reported to be aromatic. This plant is a host of the Beet Leaf Hopper.  *5, 6, 15, 46 (sp.), 63 (122607), 85 (122607), 86 (color photograph of species)*

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Psilactis coulteri (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: New Mexico Plumeseed

COMMON NAMES: Desert Chicory, Desert-chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, Mexican Plumeseed, New Mexico Plumeseed, Plumeseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, white, white-pink, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knobs; ridges; ridge tops; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; sandy depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. It is often found growing through and supported by Triangleleaf Bursage and other small shrubs. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (120107), 77 (color photograph #22), 85 (120207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Stylocline T. Nuttall: Neststraw

COMMON NAME: Neststraw. *63 (122707), 85*

 

Thymophylla acerosa (A.P. de Candolle) J.L. Strother: Pricklyleaf Dogweed

SYNONYMY: Dyssodia acerosa A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Fetid Marigold, Needleleaf Dogweed, Prickly Dogweed, Prickly Fetid Marigold, Pricklyleaf Dogweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 16 inches in height with a round shape, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 16 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 28 inches in width). The color of the stems has been described as being pinkish-brown, the leaves bright green, dark green or yellow-green, the ray flowers orange-yellow or yellow, the disk flowers yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between late February and early November (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; hilltops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; prairies; flats; valleys; roadsides; rocky draws; along washes; drainages; terraces; fence lines, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from 900 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been reported to be sweet-scented. *5, 6. 15, 28 (color photograph, Dyssodia acerosa), 46 (Dyssodia acerosa DC.), 63 (122707), 77, 85 (122707), 86 (note, Dyssodia acerosa)*

 

Townsendia annua J.H. Beaman: Annual Townsend Daisy

COMMON NAME: Annual Townsend Daisy, Annual Townsend-daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 inches in height), the leaves are green, the ray flowers are white or white tinged with purple above and pink or purplish below, the disk flowers are orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and early October (flowering records: two for early March, one for mid-March, two for late March, eight for mid-April, one for late April, four for early May, four for mid-May, seven for late May, two for early June, one for late June, one for early August, two for late August, one for early September and two for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; sandy canyons; talus slopes; silty hills; gravelly-silty hilltops; rocky slopes; shale outcrops; sand dunes; sandy and loamy plains; sandy and loamy flats; along rivers; river beds; sandy-clay depressions, and along fence lines in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam, sandy-clayey loam, clayey loam and loam soils; sandy clay soils, and gravelly-silty and silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This low growing, wide spreading annual may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46 (Supplement, page 1072), 63 (122707), 85 (122707)*

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

msinckia intermedia (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia var. echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders: Common Fiddleneck

SYNONYMY: Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins. COMMON NAMES: Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: one for late January, two for late May and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps; along streams; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-loamy washes; sandy drainages; swales; sandy banks; rocky and gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; silty flood plains; edges of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 900 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46 (Amsinckia spp. - “The plants are very abundant on sandy or gravelly soil in western and southern Arizona, and are reported to make good spring forage while young. On the other hand it has been reported that horses, cattle, and swine eating the nutlets may develop cirrhosis of the liver.”), 58, 63 (041507), 68 (“The mature seeds have been demonstrated to cause hepatic cirrhosis, known as “hard liver disease” of cattle and swine., and the “walking disease” of horses. Sheep are either immune or highly resistant to the poison. The disease is common in the Pacific Northwest, but not in Arizona. This plant also may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 77 (color photograph labeled Amsinckia intermedia #7), 80 (This plant (Amsinckia intermedia and others) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Cattle, horses and swine may be poisoned by an unknown liver toxin from eating large amounts of the seeds of this desert annual. Also plants may cause nitrate poisoning.”), 85 (082607), 86, 101*

 

Cryptantha barbigea var. fergusonae (see Cryptantha intermedia)

 

Cryptantha intermedia (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Clearwater Cryptantha

SYNONYMY: Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene var. fergusonae J.F. Macbride. COMMON NAMES: Clearwater Catseye, Clearwater Cryptantha, Common Cryptantha. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-April (additional record: one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; along roadsides, and along sandy washes in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Cryptantha barbigera (Gray) Greene var. fergusonae Macbr.), 63 (122707), 85 (122707)*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. pilosa I.M. Johnston: Guadalupe Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the flowers are small and white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late April (additional record: one for early October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridge tops; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; lava fields; plains; flats; roadsides; around seeping streams; along streams; along and in rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; along banks of streams, and riparian areas in desert pavement and rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Wingnut Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Wing-fruited Forget-me-not, Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 14 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the flowers bright white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between late January and early June (additional record: one for late July), the winged fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rim rock; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ledges; rocky hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; boulder fields; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; rocky gullies; springs; along rivers; sandy river beds; along rocky-sandy and sandy washes; benches; sandy margins of reservoirs, and sandy riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and rocky silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene: Flatspine Stickseed

COMMON NAMES: Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Cupped Stickseed, Flatspine Stickseed, Hairy Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed, Western Sticktight. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height), the color of the plant has been described as being gray-green, the very small flowers blue or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; sandy and sandy-loamy mesas; plateaus; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; sandy ridges; ridge tops; wet meadows; hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky, stony, cindery, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; stony draws; ravines; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; clayey creek beds; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy, gravelly-sandy-silty and sandy washes; gravelly drainage bottoms; around lakes; clayey depressions; along gravelly banks; rocky terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; gravelly-sandy and sandy riparian areas; waste places, and rocky, gravelly and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, stony, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils; gravelly clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty, sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton, Lappula texana (Scheele) Britton var. coronata (Greene) Nels. & Macbr., Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene), 63 (111907), 85 (111907), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Pectocarya platycarpa (P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston) P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Comb Bur, Broad-wing Comb-bur, Stickweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; foothills; rocky, gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; lava fields; valley floors; along gravelly roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks; terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58 63 (041607), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

Pectocarya recurvata I.M. Johnston: Curvenut Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Arched Bomb-bur, Archnut Combbur, Arch-nutted Combbur, Curvenut Combseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 inches in height), the flowers are white or white with a yellow throat, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; sandy flats; roadsides; along sandy streams; along creeks; along creek beds; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainages; edges of washes; terraces; loamy bottom lands; sandy flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (071107), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. utahensis (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Western Tansymustard

COMMON NAMES: Aasam (Yaqui), Green Tansy Mustard, Huy Aasum (Yaqui), Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Tansy-mustard, Western Tansy-mustard, Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the feathery leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, greenish-yellow, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; sandy canyonsides; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rims of craters; cinder cones; ridges; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; sheltered rocky coves; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream beds; along rivers; along and in bouldery, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of creeks and rivers; sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-silty loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (071207), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Symptoms of poisoning are similar to the “blind staggers” disease caused by selenium, but the principle is unknown. Large quantities of the plant must be eaten for a considerably long time before symptoms appear. Consumption of toxic amounts is most likely to occur during the blossoming period in the spring. Poisoned cattle become partially or completely blind and wander aimlessly about until exhausted, or stand pushing against some solid object for hours. Animals lose their ability to use their tongue in swallowing and cannot eat or drink. They eventually die if neglected. As a result a popular term for the disease is “paralyzed tongue”. ... Analysis of plants in Arizona shows that tansy mustard also may accumulate toxic levels of nitrate. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested pastures during the spring-growth period, or by providing more desirable forage to reduce mustard consumption.” See text for additional information.), 85 (082707), 101 (note)*

 

Draba C. Linnaeus: Draba 

COMMON NAME: Draba. *63 (091706), 85*

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray: Wedgeleaf Draba

COMMON NAMES: Gasa, Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 5 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April (additional records: one for mid-May, one for late May, one for mid-July, one for mid-September, one for early December and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; soil pockets on shaded cliff walls; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; rocky and stony ledges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; along rocky, cindery and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; lava flows; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along arroyos; seeps, springs; arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gulches; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy, sandy and silty washes; along drainages; sandy and silty banks; silty sand bars; cobbly benches; loamy bottom lands; floodplains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, cobbly, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 8,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 16, 46, 63 (112007), 77, 85 (112107)*

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene: California Mustard

SYNONYMY: Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being purple, the flowers pinkish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava fields; plains; gravelly flats; rocky roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; along irrigation ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey-silty loam, sandy loam, clayey loam, silty-clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 300 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene), 63 (041907), 77, 80 (Thelypodium lasiophyllum is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “This annual mustard has been reported to accumulate toxic levels of nitrate.”), 85 (082707)*

 

Lepidium densiflorum H.A. Schrader: Common Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Common Pepperweed, Greenflower Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperwort, Peppergrass, Prairie Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (2½ to 24 inches in height), the older leaves are yellow-green, the flowers are cream or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and early September (flowering records: one for early February, one for mid-February, two for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April, one for early May, two for early June, two for mid-June, three for late June, one for early July, one for mid-July, one for late August and one for early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyonsides; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; meadows; along slopes; amongst rocks; gravelly plains; rocky flats; coastal plains; along roadsides; creek beds; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly washes; rocky terraces; flood plains; around gravelly-sandy stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loam soils; bouldery-gravelly-silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (122707), 85 (122707)*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Shaggyfruit Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Hairypod Pepperweed, Hispidcress, Pepper Grass, Peppergrass, Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 15 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late December and mid-May (additional records: one for late June, one for late August and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly-sandy-loamy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; along roadsides; along arroyos; arroyo bottoms; rocky chutes; around seeping streams; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along drainages; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of rivers and washes; channel bars; sandy beaches; benches; gravelly terraces; sandy, loamy and clayey bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; along gravelly-sandy and sandy edges of stock tanks; gravelly and sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam and loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty, sandy-silty and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (012808), 68, 77, 85 (012908)*

 

Lepidium thurberi E.O. Wooton: Thurber’s Pepperweed

COMMON NAMES: Thurber Peppergrass, Thurber Pepperweed, Thurber’s Pepperweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (10 to 24 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green or green, the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; canyons; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; amongst boulders; flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along gravelly and sandy roadsides; draws; river beds; in gravelly and sandy washes; edges of playas; banks; channel bars; benches; terraces; sandy-clayey bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,500 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (122707), 77, 85 (122707)*

 

Lesquerella tenella A. Nelson: Moapa Bladderpod

SYNONYMY: Physaria tenella (A. Nelson) S.L. O’Kane & I.A. Al-Shehbaz. COMMON NAMES: Bladderpod, Delicate Bladderpod, Moapa Bladderpod, Palmer Bean Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; chasms; rocky hills; gravelly slopes; alluvial slopes; sandy bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; rocky and sandy flats; valley floors; rocky roadsides; gulches; along ravines; springs; along sandy streams; along rivers; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along banks of washes; lakesides, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 900 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 34 (gen.), 48 (gen.), 63 (071307), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey (var. coulteri is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coulter’s Lyrepod

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter Lyrepod, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (16 to 40 inches in height, one plant was reported as being 16 inches in height with a crown 8 inches in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being brown-cream, brownish-green, brown-purple, greenish-ochre, straw or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late April (additional records: one for early September, one for late September, one for late November and two for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; flats; arroyos; rocky gullies; seeps; sandy river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along stony drainages; banks; mesquite bosques; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers have been reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 46 (Lyrocarpa coulteri Hook. & Harv. var. typica Rollins), 63 (052907), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri var. typica (see Lyrocarpa coulteri var. coulteri) 

 

Physaria tenella (see Lesquerella tenella)  

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

 

Burseraceae

 

Bursera microphylla A. Gray: Elephant Tree

COMMON NAMES: Copal, Elephant Bursera, Elephant Tree, Hop (Seri), Little Leaf Elephant Tree, Small-leaf Elephant Tree, Small-leaf Elephant-tree, Torote, Torote Colorado, Xoop (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial semisucculent deciduous shrub or tree (2½ to 26 feet in height), the trunk is thick and short with crooked rapidly tapering branches, the branches are gray to reddish-gray, exfoliating gray, yellow or yellow-brown papery bark, the leaf-bearing twigs are cherry-red, the leaves are green, the inconspicuous flowers are cream-white, cream-yellow or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between late June and early July, the fruits are reddish-brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; cliffs; cracks on cliff faces; rocky ledges; ridge crests; foothills; rocky hills, rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; flats; coastal plains; shell mantled beach ridges; rocky arroyos; rocky ravines; along and in washes; banks of washes; sandy strands; bottoms of tanks; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,300 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is frost sensitive. The common name “Elephant Tree” was given to this plant because of the resemblance of the stout, tapering branches to an elephant’s trunk. The leaves have an odor, similar to that of citrus, when crushed. The fruits are reportedly eaten by Gray Vireos and other birds. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 45, 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (071307), 85 (082907), 91*

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Saguaro

SYNONYMY: Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Giant Cactus, Giant Cereus, Ha Shun (Pima), Mashad (Tohono O’odham), “Pitahaya” (Spanish Conquistadors), Saguaro, Sahuaro. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent tree (5 to 60 feet in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter), the flowers are a waxy creamy-white, 2 to 3 inches across, opening at about 8 p.m. and closing at about 5 p.m. the next day, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for early September and one for early October), the ripe fruits split into 2 to 6 segments that curl back to reveal the red inner lining of the rinds which are sometimes mistakenly thought to be red flowers. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyon walls; ridges; ridgelines; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; stabilized dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; along and in river beds; in sandy washes, and flood plains in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from 100 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Saguaros are very slow to establish, a 5 year old plant may be no more than ¼ to ½ inch in height. The growth rate of Saguaros is extremely variable. William G. McGinnies in his book “Discovering the Desert” reports that a plant 36 inches in height may be from 20 to 50 years of age, he also presents a table of typical growth rates reporting the following: 4 inches - 8.0 years, 8 inches - 12.5 years, 16 inches - 19.1 years, 32 inches - 27.3 years, 3.3 feet - 30.3 years, 6.6 feet - 40.5 years, 10 feet - 47.5 years, 13 feet - 54 years, 16 feet - 60.0 years, 18 feet - 74.0 years. 20 feet - 83.0 years, 25 feet - 107.0 years, 30 feet - 131.0 years, and 35 feet - 157.0 years. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated saguaros is much faster. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument, was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other animals and birds feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 13 (color photographs, in habitat with associated species Plates C.2 and D.3), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 16, 18 (Carnegiea gigantea), 26 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 27 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 28 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 38 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 46 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus giganteus), 52 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 53 (Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 58, 63 (042207), 77 (color photograph #63), 85 (082907), 86 (color photograph, Cereus gigantea), 91 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose), 107, 119 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) B.&R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus greggii var. transmontanus (see Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) 

 

Cereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. coloradensis (L.D. Benson) D.J. Pinkava: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. coloradensis L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla, Colorado Desert Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (44 inches to 9 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 80 inches in height with a crown and 80 inches in width), the color of the spines has been described as being golden-yellow or yellow, the flowers bronze, bronze with red tips, chartreuse-yellow, golden-yellow, magenta, orange-yellow, pink, yellow tinged with pink, yellow with red tips or red throats or yellow-green with purple centers, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: two for late June, one for mid-July) the spiny fruits are brown or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery canyons; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky-gravelly and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; desert flats; along creek beds; along gravelly washes, and rocky benches in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,200 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow var. coloradensis L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27, 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (071407), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.)*

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) D.J. Pinkava: Buckhorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L.D. Benson, Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. ramosa R.H. Peebles. COMMON NAMES: Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (32 inches to 7 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 32 inches in height with a crown 72 inches in width, one plant was recorded as being 72 inches in height with a crown 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being grayish-blue-green, the flowers bronze-red, dark orange, brick-orange, magenta, dark pink, purple, brick-red, red-pinkish or dark yellow turning brown, flowering generally takes place between early March and early June (additional records: two for early January and two for early August), the spiny fruits are brown, gray or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; buttes; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; basins, and along gravelly-sandy washes in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann & Bigelow var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow) var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel. var. ramosa Peebles), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (053007), 77 (color photograph labeled Opuntia acanthocarpa #66), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia arbuscula (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Arizona Pencil Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 12 feet in height, one plant reported to be 5 feet in height had a crown 5 feet in width, one plant reported to be 6½ feet in height had a crown 8¼ feet in width, one plant reported to be 7 feet in height had a crown 5½ feet in width), the stems are blue-green, dull green or yellow-green, the flowers are dark bronze, brown, green-yellow, orange-yellow, red, terra cotta or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early April and early June (additional record: one for late July), the spineless fleshy fruits are green with a pink blush, green tinged with purple or red or yellow-green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hills; growing with grasses on rocky and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and silty flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; along arroyos; river beds; along gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; flood plains, and mesquite bosques in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruit is eaten by browsing animals including the Javelina (Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis). The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia arbuscula (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.), 15, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia arbuscula), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (112207), 91, 119 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.)*

 

Cylindropuntia bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Teddybear Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jumping Cactus, “Ball” Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cactus, Jumping Cholla, Silver Cholla, Teddybear Cactus, Teddy Bear Cholla, Teddy-bear Cholla, Teddybear Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (3 to 9 feet in height, one plant was reported to be just over 8 feet in height and 40 inches in width with 2 to 3 main trunks), the color of the stems has been described as being light green or bluish-green, the flowers chartreuse-yellow, cream tinged with rose, green-yellow, magenta, pink, yellow tinged with red-purple or white tinged with lavender, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for early September and one for early December), the nearly spineless fruits are greenish-yellow or yellow and fleshy when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and sandy mountainsides; canyons; cliffs; talus slopes; bluffs; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly and silty flats; basins; valleys; arroyos; along sandy washes; benches, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and silty loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This is the spiniest cholla cactus in Arizona. Thomas Kearney and Robert Peebles in their book Arizona Flora had this to say about the Teddybear Cholla: “The combination of barbed spines and densely armed, easily detached joints has earned profound respect for this formidable cholla.” Teddy-bear Chollas may live to be 60 or more years of age. The Teddybear Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Pack Rats (Neotoma sp.) use the joints of this plant in the construction of their nests. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia bigelovii (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 18, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia bigelovii), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 48, 63 (042507), 77 (color photograph #13), 85 (100107), 86 (color photograph), 91 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 119 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 8¼ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 6½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 10 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the stems are green or purple, the spines are golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are cream-yellow, pink, pink-purple, purple, purple-pink, rose-pink or yellow tinged with pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and mid-September (additional record: one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green or purple forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 800 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits are added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Chollas may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 15, 16 (sp.), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 52 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 53 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 63 (042607), 77, 85 (100407), 91 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 119 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus

COMMON NAMES: Engelmann’s Cactus, Engelmann Hedgehog, Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus, Strawberry Echinocereus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus, Torch Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 24 inches in height in clusters 2 to 3 feet in width made up of 5 to 60 stems), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green or green, the flowers magenta, magenta-pink, pink or purple, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: one for early February, one for mid-February, three for mid-June, one for mid-July and two for mid-October), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; talus slopes; rocky ridges; meadows; bouldery and rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sandy plains; gravelly flats; valleys; along washes, and banks of washes in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 700 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 18, 27, 28, 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 85 (100707)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. acicularis L. Benson: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus

COMMON NAMES: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Needle-spine Hedgehog, Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 15 inches in height and 1½ to 2½  inches in diameter in clusters of 5 to 25, or as many as 50 or more stems), the color of the flowers has been described as being magenta or purple, flowering generally takes place between early March to early May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for mid-July), the ripe fruits are purple or red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ledges; rocky ridges; rocky hills; rocky; gravelly and sandy hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly-sandy and sandy bajadas; on boulders and rocks; amongst rocks; sand dunes; plains; desert flats; basins; valleys, and along and in sandy washes in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 18 (sp.), 27 (color photograph), 28 (sp., color photograph of the species), 45 (sp., color photograph of the species), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (053107), 85 (100707), 119 (sp., Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Rümpler)*

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L.D. Benson: Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

SYNONYMY: Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L.D. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson. COMMON NAMES: Bundle Hedgehog, Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Bundle-spine Hedgehog, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 4 to 18 inches in height and 1½ to 3 inches in diameter in clusters of 1 to 30 stems), the flowers are lavender-pink, magenta, magenta-pink, magenta-purple, pink, pink-purple, purple or reddish-purple, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June (additional records: one for early October, one for mid-October, one for late October and one for early November), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky; gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; gravelly flats; valleys; along cobbly creeks; along washes; rocky and sandy banks, and flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruits are eaten by birds and other animals. *5, 6, 8, 12 (color photograph), 15, 16, 27 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (053107), 77 (color photograph #64), 85 (also recorded as Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D. Jackson) L Benson - 112307), 119 (sp. - Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler), WTK (November 2005, ?ID)*

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (see footnote 85 under Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. robustus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Ferocactus acanthodes var. lecontei (see Ferocactus cylindraceus var. lecontei)  

 

Ferocactus covillei (see Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus cylindraceus (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. lecontei (G. Engelmann) H. Bravo: LeConte’s Barrel Cactus

SYNONYMY: Ferocactus acanthodes (C. Lemaire) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. lecontei (G. Engelmann) G. Lindsay, Ferocactus lecontei (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, LeConte Barrel Cactus, LeConte’s Barrel Cactus, Spiny Barrel Cactus, Compass Plant. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (10 inches to 10 feet in height and to 12 inches in diameter), the stems are green, the spines are pink, red, red tipped with yellow or yellow, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early May and late June (additional records: one for mid-March, one for mid-July and six for late September), the ripe fruits are yellow. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyon walls, ridges; ridge tops; rocky and gravelly hills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, alluvial fans, bajadas, amongst boulders; plains; sandy flats, valleys; arroyos, and along washes in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, and gravelly loam and loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruits and seeds are eaten by birds, rodents, Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Javelina (Peccari tajacu), cactus beetles (including Moneilema gigas and others), jackrabbits, pack rats and Javelina (Peccari tajacu) feed on the plants. *5, 6, 12 (Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britton & Rose var. LeContei (Engelm.) Lindsay), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph of species - Ferocactus acanthodes, Ferocactus acanthodes Lemaire var. LeContei (Engelmann) Lindsay), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (Ferocactus lecontei (Engelm.) Britton & Rose), 63 (122907), 85 (122907), 86 (sp.), 91, 119 (Ferocactus lecontei (Engelm.) B.&R.)*

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt: Emory’s Barrel Cactus

SYNONYMY: Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory Barrel, Emory Barrel Cactus, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Nail-keg Barrel, Red-spined Barrel Cactus, Semxl (Seri?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and 12 to 40 inches in diameter), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, red or yellow sometimes with a broad pink or reddish center stripe, flowering generally takes place between early June and mid-September (additional records: one for late March, one for mid-April and one for early May), the fleshy fruits are bright yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky peaks; rocky-gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand dunes; plains; grassy flats; coastal plains; arroyos; along stream beds; wash margins, and sandy flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are fragrant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 63 (060107), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. emoryi - 100707), 91 (Ferocactus emoryi Britton & Rose), 119 (Ferocactus covillei B. & R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ferocactus emoryi var. emoryi (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus emoryi)  

 

Ferocactus lecontei (see Ferocactus cylindraceus var. lecontei)  

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Candy Barrelcactus

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrel Cactus, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fish-hook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter), the flowers are orange, orange-yellow, parchment, pinkish-red, red, red-orange, yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-October (additional records: one for early January, three for early March, five for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April and two for early June) the ripe fruits are yellow and may remain on the plant until the next flowering period. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery hills; hillsides; rocky and cobbly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly flats; arroyos; along washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Fishhook Barrel Cacti are very slow to establish. A 4 year old plant may be no more than 1½ inches in height and 2 inches in width, and an 8 year old plant may be no more that 4¼ inches in height and 4¾ inches in width. Fishhook Barrel Cacti may live to be over 130 years of age. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated barrel cacti is much faster. The fruits are eaten by animals and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph), 28, 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (042807), 77 (color photograph #10), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose 100707), 91, 119, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus wislizenii)

 

Lemaireocereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Mammillaria fasciculata (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. major (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia arbuscula (see Cylindropuntia arbuscula)

 

Opuntia bigelovii (see Cylindropuntia bigelovii)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg: Nightblooming Cereus

SYNONYMY: Cereus greggii G. Engelmann var. transmontanus G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Night-blooming Cereus, Arizona Queen-of-the-night, Chaparral Cactus, Deer-horn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina-de-la-noche. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ¼ to ½ inch in width), the large white flowers (2 to 5 inches in diameter and 6 to 8½ inches in length) open after dusk and last only one night, flowering generally takes place between late May and early July (additional records: one for early January, two for mid-March and one for early December) , the ripe fruits are orange red or bright red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; ridges; ridge crests; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; sand dunes; gravelly-sandy plains; gravelly flats; valleys; arroyos, and along sandy washes in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, and gravelly-sandy loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 800 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant. Plant with other desert shrubs and trees, such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), that will provide support and protection. Birds feed on the fruit and seeds. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph (Fig. 2.5), Cereus greggii Engelm. var. transmontanus Engelm.), 15, 16 (sp.), 27 (color photograph, sp. - Cereus greggii Engelmann), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp.), 48, 63 (042807), 77, 85 (122907), 86, 119 (sp.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Stenocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) F. Buxbaum: Organpipe Cactus

SYNONYMY: Cereus thurberi G. Engelmann, Lemaireocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Marismena, Mehuele, Organo, Organ Pipe Cactus, Organ-pipe Cactus, Organpipe Cactus, Pitahaya, Pitahaya Dulce (Sweet Cactus Fruit), Pitayo Dulce (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (stems 5 to 25 feet in height and 5 to 12 or more inches in width with 10 to 20 stems with larger specimens having 40 to 45 stems clustering to 6 to 18 feet in diameter), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellowish, the spines brownish, gray or black, the flowers (2½ to 3 inches in length and  1½ to 2½  inches in width) brownish-green, greenish-white, pale lavender, lavender with white margins, pink, purple, white or white with a pale pink center opening after sunset and closing the following morning, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and mid-June (additional records: one for early March, one for mid-April, one for mid-July and one for late July), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliff ledges; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; ridges; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sandy plains; flats; valleys; coastal bluffs; sandy and powdery coastal plains, and rocky benches in rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, gravelly, sandy and powdery soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is sensitive to frosts. It has been estimated that plants 10 to 15 feet in height may be between 50 and 75 years of age, The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. The flowers are pollinated by bats, including Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae), and bees. The ripe fruits are eaten by ants, bats, Coyotes (Canis latrans mearnsi), Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica). The candy, Pitahaya Dulce, is made by cooking the fruits of the Organ Pipe Cactus with those of Prickly Pear Cacti.*5, 6, 8, 12 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 13 (color photograph, in habitat with associated species Plate D.1), 18, 27 (color photograph and color photograph in habitat (p.93), Cereus thurberi), 28 (color photograph, Cereus thurberi), 45 (color photograph, Stenocereus thurberi), 46 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus thurberi), 53 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 63 (062307), 85 (101107), 91 (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Buxb.), 119 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) B. & R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Four-wing Saltbush

COMMON NAMES: Atahi’xp (Seri), Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Salt-bush, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Sha’ashkachk Iibatkam (Pima), Wngscale, Yup (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 4½ feet in height and 4½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height and 6½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers cream, green or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-September (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March, one for late March, one for early October, two for late October and one for late November), the four-winged fruits are green drying to pale brown or tan. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, rocky-sandy and sandy rims; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky hillsides; rocky and cindery slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; coastal dunes; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; seeps; around springs; stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; sandy river beds; along sandy washes; in drainages; swales; gravelly-sandy and sandy banks; gravel bars; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, clayey loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Four-wing Saltbush may be useful in controlling erosion. Antelope and deer browse this plant and birds and small rodents feed on the seeds. This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (110807), 77, 82, 85 (110807), 91 (“As a secondary or facultative absorber of selenium, Atriplex canescens can be mildly poisonous to livestock where selenium occurs in the soil.”), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish: Smallseed Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish var. hirtella P.E. Boissier, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. polycarpa, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. hirtella P.E. Boissier. COMMON NAMES: Desert Spurge, Golondrina, Koapa’im (Yaqui), Smallseed Sandmat, Small-seeded Sand Mat, Smallseed Spurge, Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2¼ inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pink, the herbage green or reddish, the flowers purple, flowering takes place early February and late December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rocky mounds; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; beach dunes; roadsides; arroyos; gravelly-sandy arroyo bottoms; around streams; rocky river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; swales; sand bars; along shores of lakes; sandy bottom lands; margins of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (101507), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (also recorded as Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. typica Wheeler - 101507), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Euphorbia polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)   

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. typica (see footnote 85 under Chamaesyce polycarpa)

 

Jatropha cuneata I.L. Wiggins & R.C. Rollins: Physicnut

COMMON NAMES: Leatherplant, Limber Bush, Limberbush, Matacora, Physicnut, Sange-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Shrubby Limberbush, Tecote Prieto, Torote Amarillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (cold and drought deciduous, semi-succulent) shrub (2 to 9 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pinkish, the leaves dark green, the small tubular flowers white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between July and September (flowering records: one for early January, one for mid-March and one for mid-August), the fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; sandy knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks in pockets of sand; sand dunes; gravelly plains; sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along and in cobbly-gravelly washes; rocky benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 2,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental; however, it may be killed or killed back to the ground in a severe freeze.. A clear or orange-red sap of the stems and blood-red sap of thee roots reportedly has a fragrance similar to that of citrus. The Shrubby Limberbush may live to be more 55 years of age. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 63 (042907), 80 (Species of the genus Jatropha are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Seeds of several species of Jatropha are toxic to humans and livestock but no poisoning has been reported from Arizona.”), 85 (120407), 91*

 

 

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley). OMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are gray-green or green, the fragrant flowers are cream yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the ripe fruits (twisted seed pods) are brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; basins; valleys; along arroyos; draws; ravines; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; banks of streams; sandy-loamy flood plains; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (“This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the cloths and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (“A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52, 53, 58, 63 (043007), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91*

 

Acacia greggii var. arizonica (see Acacia greggii var. greggii)  

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii: Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley. COMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Catclaw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are green or grey-green, the fragrant flowers are yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the fruits (twisted seed pods) are brownish-red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; rocky slopes; amongst boulders; flats; valleys; edges of arroyos; draws; ravines; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along sandy washes; drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, sp.), 15 (sp.), 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - “This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the clothes and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (sp. - “A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52 (sp.) 53, (sp.) 58, 63 (043007), 77 (sp.), 80 (The species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91 (sp.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cercidium floridum (see Parkinsonia florida)   

 

Cercidium microphyllum (see Parkinsonia microphylla)   

 

Dalea mollis G. Bentham: Hairy Prairie Clover

COMMON NAMES: : Hairy Prairie Clover, Hairy Prairie-clover, Hairy Prairieclover, Silk Dalea, Soft Dalea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2½ to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue-magenta, blue-violet and white, gray, magenta-blue, pink, pink-orange, purple or white with lavender or purple spots, flowering generally takes place between early January and mid-June (additional records: two for early July, two for mid-September, one for mid-October, one for early November and two for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; foothills; sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; lava flows; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo walls; springs, running streams; creeks; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; beaches; sandy shell mounds; riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-silty loam and clayey loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 46, 63 (072007), 85 (101807)*

 

TOWNSHIP and/or AREA LISTING: 12S-04W, 12S-06W, 13S-06W, 14S-06W, 16S-16E, CPNWR (P&Y), OPCNM, TON

 

Hosackia humilis (see Lotus salsuginosus var. brevivexillus) 

 

Hosackia tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene (var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil

SYNONYMY: (Hosackia humilis (E.L. Greene) L. Abrams). COMMON NAMES: Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch, Deer-vetch. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellow or white with red tips, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; foothills; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; flats; along arroyos; along creeks; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of rivers; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072107), 77, 85 (102007)*

 

Lotus strigosus (T. Nuttall) E.L. Greene var. tomentellus P.T. Isely: Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil

SYNONYMY: Hosackia tomentellus (E.L. Greene) L. Abrams, Lotus tomentellus E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: Annual Lotus, Desert Deer-vetch, Desert Deervetch, Desert Lotus, Greene’s Desert Deervetch, Hairy Deer Vetch, Hairy Lotus, Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 10 inches in length), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May (additional record: one for early September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; rocky and sandy-loamy canyon bottoms; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and rocky-gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks, lava fields; sand hills; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; roadsides; springs; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 300 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The foliage may appear to be somewhat succulent. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Lotus tomentellus Greene), 48 (gen.), 63 (060307), 77, 85 (102007)*

 

Lotus tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lupinus arizonicus (S. Watson) S. Watson: Arizona Lupine

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Lupine, Lupino, Zaah Coocta (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 2 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being pale blue, pink-purple, pale purple, reddish-purple or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; buttes; foothills; rocky hillsides; bajadas; boulder outcrops; sand dunes; plains; sandy flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; edges of rivers; lakes shores; beach crests; loamy flood plains, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam and loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (102007), 80 (Some, but not all, species of the genus Lupinus are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The lupines contain numerous poisonous alkaloids. They are mostly dangerous to sheep but cattle, goats, horses, hogs and deer have also been poisoned. The seeds and pods are most poisonous but both young and dried plants may be dangerous. However, not all species are poisonous and some may furnish moderately palatable and nutritious forage for sheep. ... Animals will seldom eat a toxic dose if desirable forage is available. Losses can generally be avoided by good range management to improve forage, by keeping animals away from dense lupine patches (particularly in late summer or on the trail), or by grazing with cattle.” See text for additional information.), 85 (102007)*

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham: Mojave Lupine

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Coulter’s Lupine, Desert Lupine, Lupine, Mojave Lupine. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 20 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers blue, blue-lavender, blue-lilac, purple, purplish-blue, violet or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late May (additional records: one for early September, one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; sandy ridges; foothills; hill tops; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; sandy flats; roadsides; along ravines; beside streams; rocky-sandy stream beds; along and in creek beds; river beds; along and in sandy washes; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils; sandy clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (072307), 77 (color photograph #81), 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “The lupines contain numerous poisonous alkaloids. They are mostly dangerous to sheep but cattle, goats, horses, hogs and deer have also been poisoned. The seeds and pods are most poisonous but both young and dried plants may be dangerous. However, not all species are poisonous and some may furnish moderately palatable and nutritious forage for sheep. ... Animals will seldom eat a toxic dose if desirable forage is available. Losses can generally be avoided by good range management to improve forage, by keeping animals away from dense lupine patches (particularly in late summer or on the trail), or by grazing with cattle.” See text for additional information.), 86 (color photograph), 85 (102007)*

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Desert Ironwood

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Ironwood, Comitin, Desert Iron Wood, Desert Ironwood, Ho Id Cam (Pima), Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo-de-hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height and about the same in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish-green, gray or gray-green, the flowers lavender, pink, pink-lavender, purplish, violet, white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for early January and one for early March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; rocky and sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; along bluffs; buttes; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; rocky and sandy arroyos; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of washes; benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). Hummingbirds including the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa spp.) and the Solitary Bee (Centris pallida) have been observed visiting the flowers. The seeds are an important food for the Desert Wood Rat (Neotoma lepida) and other desert animals. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102007), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson: Blue Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium floridum G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Blue Palo-verde, Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 40 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being blue-green, green, yellow or yellow-green, the leaves are blue-green, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for mid-August, two for early September, one for late September, one for early October, one for mid-October, two for late October and three for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky and sandy hills; bajadas; rocky slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; flats; valley bottoms; along roadsides; gravelly arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; seeps; stream beds; along rivers; along river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky and sandy banks of washes; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; fence rows; stock tanks; canal banks; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it has a very showy display of yellow flowers in March or April. The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents and used by Bruchid Beetles. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate S.2 - Cercidium floridum Bentham), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 46 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum Benth. ex Gray), 53 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 58, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey: Yellow Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Dipua, Foothill Palo Verde, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Littleleaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Little-leaf Palo Verde, Little-leaf Palo-verde, Littleleaf Palo Verde, Littleleaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Palo-verde, Paloverde, Yellow-Palo-verde, Yellow Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 26 feet in height), the bark is green or yellow-green, the leaves are green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; buttes; ledges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-silty bajadas; boulder fields; boulder and rock outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valley bottoms; rocky roadsides; arroyos; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; gravelly terraces; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Foothill Paloverde is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate T.1 - Cercidium microphyllum), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 46 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnston), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnst), 53 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnst.), 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnston), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey: Honey Mesquite

COMMON NAMES: Common Mesquite, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mizquitl (Aztec). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 30 feet in height), the leaves are yellow-green, the flowers are cream-yellow, greenish, greenish-yellow or light yellow, flowering generally takes place between late March and late June (additional records: one for early January, four for mid-July, one for late July and one for early August), the mature seed pods are straw colored. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; rocky ridges; hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; sandy railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; along rivers; river beds; along and in washes; along and in drainages; marsh land; margins of playas; waterholes; banks; beaches; bottom lands; flood plains stock tanks; reservoirs; along canals; riparian areas and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, maturity may be reached at three years of age, the Honey Mesquite may live to be 100 years in age. Established plants may reach. On windswept beaches this plant has been observed growing as a low, dense mat-forming shrub, growing 2 to 7 feet in height. The Costa’s hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers; this plant provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 26 (gen.), 28 (color photograph, 46 (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC.), 52 (color photograph), 53 (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), 63 (123007), 80 (The Western Honey Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora var. torreyana) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Heavy, long-continued consumption of pods and leaves of these common desert shrubs may cause rumen impaction and poisoning.”), 85 (010408), 91, 101 (color photograph)*

 

Prosopis juliflora var. velutina (see Prosopis velutina)  

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton: Velvet Mesquite

SYNONYMY: Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent. COMMON NAMES: Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 56 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 6½ feet in height with a canopy 6½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a canopy 16½ feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream-yellow, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late August (additional records: one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; rocky plains; gravelly flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; playa lake beds; banks of creeks; benches; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; around reservoirs; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than several hundred years of age. The Velvet Mesquite is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert water courses have been lost to fuel wood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields and commercial and residential development. The plant is a food source for quail, Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) and Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Coyotes (Canis latrans), Round-tailed Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus), Desert Cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and other wild animals feed on the seed pods. Velvet Mesquite is the host for a Drywood Termite (Incisitermes banksi). Bruchid Beetles feed on the fruits and seeds. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph - Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 48, 52 (color photograph), 53 (sp. - Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), 58, 63 (050107), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Heavy, long-continued consumption of pods and leaves of these common desert shrubs may cause rumen impaction and poisoning.”), 85 (102107), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Ocotillo

SYNONYMY: Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens G. Engelmann [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Albarda, Barda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candlewood, Coach-whip, Coachwhip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought and cold deciduous moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 5 to 100 wand-like stems branching from the base to 5 to 33 feet in height with a crown width of 5 to 10 feet), the stems are gray or gray and green, the leaves are green, the color of the flowers has been described as being coral-red, orange, red, red-orange, salmon or scarlet in 2 to 10 inch long clusters that appear at the tips of the stems, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for late June, two for early July, one for mid-July, one for early August, two for mid-September, one for late September, one for mid-October, two for late October, one for early November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; crags; canyon rims; rocky canyons; crevices in rocks; gravelly ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; gravelly and gravelly-sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; arroyos, and terraces in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older plants may be 150 to 200 years in age. This “vase-shaped” plant has been described by Benson and Darrow as being “one of the most distinctive shrubs in the Southwestern Deserts, and it is one of the plants giving outstanding character to the flora of the region”. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Butterflies, Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Finches, Orioles, Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), Solitary Bees, Syrphid Flies, Verdins, and Warblers have been observed visiting the flowers. The Ocotillo is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photographs Plate N), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (102207), 77 (color photograph #27), 85 (102207), 86 (color photograph), 91, 107, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens (Fouquieria splendens)

 

 

Family Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle ex W. Aiton (subsp. cicutarium is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Redstem Stork’s Bill

COMMON NAMES: Afilaree, Agujitas (Hispanic), Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfirerillo (Hispanic), Arete (Hispanic), Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heron-bill, Heronbill, Pikuku Jasi (Purépecha), Pin-clover, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill, Redstem Storksbill, Semuchi (Hispanic), Storksbill. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (prostrate to 24 inches in height/length), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, fuchsia, lavender, lavender-pink, magenta, magenta-rose, pink, pink-magenta, pinkish-violet, purple, purple-pink, rose-lavender or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-January to early August (additional records: one for late August, one for early September, two for late September, three for early October, one for early November and one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; plateaus; along and in canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; talus slopes; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; meadows; foothills; cinder cones; hills; hill tops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky, cindery and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; sandy roadsides; arroyos; seeps; springs; creek beds; sandy river beds; in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along and in drainages; swales; lake shores; loamy bottom lands; flood plains, mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; recently burned areas; riparian areas; waste areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and silty-clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay and clay soils, occurring from 100 to 9,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. The fruits are collected by Harvester Ants. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 30, 46, 58, 63 (010407), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Filaree is a valuable forage plant that furnishes good forage in both the green and dry state. However, plants occasionally develop high concentrations of nitrate that may cause loss of livestock. In Arizona, there have been several instances of heavy death loss in cattle showing typical symptoms of nitrate poisoning that have bee associated with high nitrate content in Filaree plants. ... Danger is highest during the flush period of growth. ... Control of Filaree is not generally desirable because of its forage value, therefore, animals may need to be moved to less dangerous pastures during the critical period.” See text for additional information.), 85 (010507), 86 (color photograph), 101 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene (var. bipinnatifida (J. Torrey) L. Constance is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Spotted Hideseed

COMMON NAMES: Common Eucrypta, Spotted Hideseed, Torrey Eucrypta. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 9 inches in height) the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, pale purple, white or white-blue, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; shaded bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly flats; roadsides; arroyos; springs; around seeping streams; along creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky-sandy and sandy washes; benches, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (072507), 77, 85 (102207)*

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray: Bristly Nama

SYNONYMY: Nama hispidum A. Gray var. mentzelii A. Brand, Nama hispidum A. Gray var. revolutum W.L. Jepson, Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Hohr-oohit (Seri), Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Roll-leaf, Rough Nama, Sand Bells, Sandbells. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 12 inches in height and to 16 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 10 inches in height and 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being pale green or white, the flowers blue, blue-purple, lavender, pink-purple, purple, purple-magenta; purple-white, rose, rose-magenta, violet, violet-blue and sometimes with a white throated corolla, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for late June, one for mid-July, one for late July, two for mid-August, one for mid-October, one for late October, one for early November and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; hills; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; sandy draws; ravines; along streams; along sandy stream beds; rocky-cobbly-sandy and sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; swales; edges of playas; silty banks; benches; terraces, sandy bottom lands; flood plains; margins of stock tanks; along ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This small annual forb may be useful as an ornamental*5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (112307), 77, 85 (112407)*

 

Nama hispidum var. mentzelii (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Nama hispidum var. revolutum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Nama hispidum var. spathulatum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Nama hispidum var. spathulatum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Phacelia rotundifolia J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Roundleaf Phacelia

COMMON NAMES: Roundleaf Phacelia, Round-leaved Phacelia, Round-leaf Scorpion-weed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 11 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early March and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliffs; rock walls; canyons; gorges; rocky and gravelly talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; ledges; cinder cones; hillsides; rocky slopes; along lava slides; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; roadsides; sandy terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (010508), 85 (010508)*

 

 

Family Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: White Ratany

COMMON NAMES: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height and to 5 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 2 feet in height with a crown 30 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-gray, the flowers lavender, magenta, maroon, pinkish-purple, purple or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June and between early September and late November (additional records: one for mid-August and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; gravelly-sandy hills; hill tops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly and sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valleys; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; benches; terraces; bottom lands; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,600 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. White Ratany is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (050307), 77, 85 (102407), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham (var. columbariae is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Chia

COMMON NAMES: California Chia, California Sage, Chia, Desert Chia, Desert Sage. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, bluish-purple or purple, flowering generally takes place between late January and early May (additional records: one for mid-June and one for mid-August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ridges; hills; hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; creek beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; rocky clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (072807), 77, 85 (102407), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia albicaulis (W.J Hooker) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Whitestem Blazingstar

COMMON NAMES: Small-flowered Blazingstar, Whitestem Blazingstar. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 24 inches in height), the stems are pink-tan or shiny white, the leaves are gray-green, the flowers are lemon-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional record: one for early January). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; gorges; buttes; rocky ridges; ridge tops; bouldery, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, stony-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, cindery-sandy and clayey slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; gulches; stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; boggy areas; lake shores; banks; sandy beaches; benches; rocky mesquite bosques; ditches; recently burned areas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, stony, stony-gravelly, cobbly-sandy, cindery, cindery-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; clay soils and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (010508), 77, 85 (010508)*

 

 

Family Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Paleface

COMMON NAMES: Naked Hibiscus, Pale Face, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub (10 to 40 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being yellowish-green, the flowers blue, bluish-purple, lavender, lavender-pink, pink, pink-lavender, pink-white, purple, white, white with a maroon center or whitish-pink with a maroon or rose colored center, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May and between late August and late December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountain tops; mesas; rock cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky coves; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gullies; ravines; along and in sandy washes, and rocky drainages in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant is browsed by animals. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, Plate M.1.), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (010608), 77 (color photograph #39), 85 (010608), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray: Emory’s Globemallow

SYNONYMY: Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. californica (S.B. Parish) L.H. Shinners, Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. variabilis (T.D. Cockerell) T.H. Kearney. COMMON NAMES: Emory Globemallow, Emory’s Globemallow, Globe Mallow, Mal de Ojo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, dark green, greenish or deep red, the leaves gray-green, dark green or greenish, the flowers brick-orange, lavender; orange, orange-pink, orange-red, peach-red, pink, pink-orange, pinkish-white, red, pale red-orange, rose-purple or salmon-orange, flowering can take place year round (flowering records for between late August and late June with the following additional records: one for mid-July, one for late July and one for early August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; meadows; ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sandy plains; silty flats; valleys; roadsides; arroyos; ravines; along streams; along and in sandy washes; edges of ponds; playas; banks; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-clayey loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (010608), 68, 77, 85 (010608), 101 (note)*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. californica (see Sphaeralcea emoryi) 

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. variabilis (see Sphaeralcea emoryi)

 

 

Family Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven: California Suncup

SYNONYMY: Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening Primrose, Mustard Evening-primrose, Sun-drops. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), the flowers are orange-yellow, white or bright yellow fading reddish, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June (additional records: one for late July and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; along canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky chutes; rocky and rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; creosote flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; draws; along creeks; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Oenothera leptocarpa Greene), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 58, 63 (062507), 77 (color photograph #46), 85 (101707)*

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven: Longcapsule Suncup

SYNONYMY: Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height), the color of the plants has been described as being reddish with stems being pink or red and leaves being either green with red spots or green tipped with red, purple or red, the flowers cream, pink, purple, white, white-cream, white-pink, whitish-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; cracks in rocks; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rock walls; gravelly flats; rocky draws; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; banks and cobbly edges of washes; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Oenothera chamaeneriodes Gray), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (073107), 77, 85 (102807)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. peeblesii (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven: Peebles’ Browneyes

SYNONYMY: Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. peeblesii P.A. Munz. COMMON NAMES: Browneyes, Peeble Browneyes, Peebles’ Browneyes. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being creamy, creamy-white, creamy-yellow, pink, white, white with pink spots or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between late December and early May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; sandy canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways, gravelly roadsides; sandy draws; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly depressions; along banks of drainages; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-clayey loam, clayey loam and loam soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46 (Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frém. var. peeblesii Munz), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (102807), 85 (102807)*

 

Eulobus californicus (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.L. Wagner: California Evening Primrose

SYNONYMY: Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.E. Klein, Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. arizonica P.A. Munz. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Primrose, California Evening Primrose, California Evening-primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height with stems 4 to 40 inches in length), the flowers are white (fading to a pale pink), flowering generally takes place between early February and early July. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky ridges; sand dunes; sandy and clayey flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; along sandy roadsides; along rivers; sandy river beds; washes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. The White-lined Sphinx Moth (Hyles lineata) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46 (Oenothera deltoides Torr. & Frém. var. arizonica Munz), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (010608), 85 (010608)*

 

Oenothera californica (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera californica subsp. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)   

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes (see Camissonia chamaenerioides) 

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. peeblesii (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. peeblesii)

 

Oenothera deltoides var. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)

 

Oenothera leptocarpa (see Camissonia californica)

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray: Desert Evening-primrose

COMMON NAMES: Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (prostrate, cespitose 2 to 8 inches in height), the basal rosette of leaves are green with purple blotches or greenish-gray, the flowers are cream, white or yellow fading to pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early May (additional records: one for mid-August and one for late August), the fruits are tear-drop shaped. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; silty hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand dunes; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; along draws; along creeks; creek beds; along sandy washes; swales; sandy banks; playas; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; bouldery-silty-clayey loam, gravelly loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 200 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers open in the evening and close the following morning. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 58, 63 (080207), 77, 85 (102807)*

 

 

Family Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Argemone C. Linnaeus: Pricklypoppy

COMMON NAMES: Pricklypoppy. *63 (032007), 85*

 

 

Family Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago C. Linnaeus: Plantain

COMMON NAMES: Indian-wheat, Plantain. *63 (032907), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Gilia bigelovii (see Linanthus bigelovii) 

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) H.L. Mason: Miniature Woollystar

COMMON NAMES: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 8 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, blue-lavender, blue with white throats, blue-yellow, lavender with dark purple stripes, light purple or pale white, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional record: one for mid-July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; buttes; sandy ridges; bouldery and rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; sandy arroyos; sandy river beds; along stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky-sandy and gravelly drainages; among clumps of grasses at the edges of arroyos; banks of rivers; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils, and gravelly-sandy clay soils, occurring from 700 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (060707), 77 (color photograph #49), 85 (102907)*

 

Gilia stellata A.A. Heller: Star Gilia

COMMON NAMES: Star Gilia, Star Gily-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb  (3 to 16 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue and yellow, blue with white throats, blue with yellow eyes, blue-lavender, blue-pink-lavender, lavender, lavender-pink, lavender with dark purple stripes, purple, pale violet, white or white-lavender, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; rocky cliffs; along canyons; canyon bottoms; gorges; sandy ridges; hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky; gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; sand hills; gravelly flats; valleys; rocky and gravelly roadsides; sandy arroyos; springs; stream beds; along creeks; sandy creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along and in gravelly drainages; banks of washes; gravelly benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam, clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy clay soils, occurring from 400 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are rank smelling. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46 (Supplement), 63 (050507), 77, 85 (102907)*

 

Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bigelow’s Linanthus

SYNONYMY: Gilia bigelovii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Bigelow Desert Trumpet, Bigelow Gilia, Bigelow Linanthus, Bigelow’s Linanthus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 9 inches in height), the color of the vespertine flowers has been described as being bluish, cream, cream-white, lavender-blue, mahogany-tinged cream or white and blue-lavender, flowering generally takes place between early February and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; cliffs; canyons; meadows; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; along cinder cones; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; lava fields; dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; around seeping streams; along streams; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (120407), 77, 85 (120507)*

 

 

Family Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Chorizanthe rigida (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Devil’s Spineflower

COMMON NAMES: Devil’s Spineflower, Devil’s Spiny-herb, Rigid Spineflower, Rigid Spiny Herb, Turk’s Rug. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 8 inches in height), the flowers are white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: one for early January and one for late July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; gravelly mesas; canyons; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly and sandy bajadas; lava flows; lava fields; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly plains; rocky, stony, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; along and in sandy washes; gravelly drainages, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery-rocky-gravelly, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (010708), 77, 85 (010708)*

 

Eriogonum thomasii J. Torrey: Thomas’ Buckwheat

COMMON NAMES: Thomas Buckwheat, Thomas’ Buckwheat, Thomas Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in height), the flowers are cream, cream-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-May (additional records: two for early January, one for early June, one for late June and one for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mountainsides; rocky and sandy mesas; rocky plateaus; rocky canyons; sides of canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; rocky ridges on rocky talus; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly-loamy and gravelly slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; lava fields; sand dunes; gravelly, sandy, sandy-silty and silty flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly drainages; sandy banks; lake shores; gravelly-sandy flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam and cobbly-gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080607), 85 (103107)*

 

 

Family Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Drummond’s Clematis

COMMON NAMES: Barbas de Chivato, Chiva’ato Himsita Saila (Yaqui - Brother of Goat’s Moustache), Drummond Clematis, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Pipe-stem, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous vine (10 to 40 feet in length), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish- green, the flowers cream or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late October (additional records: one for early January and two for early December, other flowering records: one for early March, one for mid-March, one for late March, one for late April, five for early May, four for mid-May, four for late May, one for early June, one for late June, one for mid-July, six for late July, four for mid-August, four for late August,  nine for early September, seven for mid-September, seven for late September, two for early October, four for mid-October and four for late October), the plumes on the fruit have been described as being purplish, silvery or white. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; gravelly-sandy arroyos; around salt springs; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainages; around ponds; around lakes; gravelly-sandy banks; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks (charcos); riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 800 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This woody vine may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (051407), 77, 80 (Species in the genus Clematis are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “These climbing, perennial forbs contain toxins that have been suspected of causing losses in other countries but none have been reported in the United States. Some species do cause dermatitis.”), 85 (120507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia globosa I.M. Johnston: Bitter Snakewood

COMMON NAMES: Bitter Condalia, Bitter Snakewood, Crucerilla, Hu’upa Keka’ala (Yaqui), Mangy Mesquite, Mesquite Mangy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height with a crown 5 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height with a crown 6 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 13 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-brown, green or yellow-green, the cup-shaped flowers (sepals, no petals) yellow or yellow-green, flowering may take place throughout the year (flowering records: one for mid-March, one for mid-April, one for early June, one for late August, one for late September, two for early October, two for late October, two for early December and one for late December), the color of the fruits has been described as being black, dark blue or purple-black. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; bajadas; sandy and sandy-silty plains; coastal slopes; coastal dunes; along gravelly and sandy arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; sandy-loamy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian area in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the branches are spine-tipped, the flowers are sweet scented. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph of Condalia globosa var. pubescens), 46, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (051307), 85 (110207), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Condalia lycioides var. canescens (see Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston: Lotebush

SYNONYMY: Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Buchthorn, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Oschuvapat (Pima), Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 13 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height with a crown 18 inches in width, one  was reported to be plant 7 feet in height with a crown 7 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 13 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being bluish, gray, gray-green, green or whitish (the twigs end in stout thorns), the leaves gray-green, green or yellow-green, the inconspicuous flowers cream, green, greenish-white, yellow-green or whitish-green, flowering generally takes place between early June and late November (additional records: one for late January, one for mid-March, one for late March and one for mid-April), the ripe fruits are black, blue-purple, dark blue o r purple. HABITAT: Within range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; along canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; sandy-silty plains; rocky and gravelly flats; rocky valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; ravines; bouldery ravine bottoms; springs; along streams; along rocky stream beds; along creeks; along creek beds; along gravelly and gravelly-sandy rivers; river beds; along and in rocky washes; drainages; rocky banks of creeks; sandy benches; terraces; bottom lands; mesquite bosques; along canals; riparian areas; fence rows, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and gravelly-clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are visited by orange-winged Spider Wasps. Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii), Band-tailed Pigeons (Columba fasciata), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds feed on the fruit. The plants numerous spines provide an impenetrable refuge for birds *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 28 (sp. color photograph of Ziziphus obtusifolia), 46, 58, 63 (111007), 77, 85 (111007), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Antirrhinum filipes (see Neogaerrhinum filipes) 

 

Neogaerrhinum filipes (A. Gray) W.H. Rothmaler: Filipes Snapdragon

SYNONYMY:  Antirrhinum filipes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Filipes Snapdragon, Yellow Twining Snapdragon, Yellow Twining-snapdragon. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (2 to 3 feet in length), the flowers are bright yellow and yellow with dark red spots, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; gorges; talus slopes; buttes; rocky meadows; gravelly hills; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; sandy plains; rocky and gravelly flats; gravelly roadsides; draws; washes; in rocky drainages; gravelly and sandy banks; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas often growing beneath or on shrubs in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46, 63 (080807), 85 (110307), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Simaroubaceae: The Quassia-wood Family

 

Castela emoryi (A. Gray) R.V. Moran & R.S. Felger: Crucifixion Thorn

SYNONYMY: Holacantha emoryi A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Cascara Amarga, Castela, Chaparro Amargosa, Corona de Cristo (Spanish), Crucifixion Thorn, Emory Crucifixion Thorn, Holacantha (Latin for allthorn), Rosario. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (leafless most of the year) shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height), the color of the stems and stout branches has been described as being blue-green, gray-green or dark green, the flowers cream-yellow, gray-green, greenish-yellow or rose-pink (salmon), flowering generally takes place between mid-April and early August (additional records: one for late September and one for mid-November), the persistent fruits are green changing to yellow, red, dark brown and finally black as they ripen. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; hills; slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; gravelly-silty plains; sandy flats; valleys; gravelly-silty valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy banks; margins of playas; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the branches are heavily armed with thorns,  the fruits remain on the plant for five to seven years. *5, 6, 8, 13, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Holacantha emoryi Gray), 48, 53 (Holacantha emoryi A. Gray), 63 (051507), 85 (111107), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Holacantha emoryi (see Castela emoryi) 

 

 

Family Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Lycium C. Linnaeus: Desert-thorn 

COMMON NAMES: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry. *63 (040207), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Physalis lobata (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Physalis lobata var. albiflora (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Quincula lobata (J. Torrey) C.S. Rafinesque: Chinese Lantern

SYNONYMY: Physalis lobata J. Torrey, Physalis lobata J. Torrey var. albiflora U.T. Waterfall. COMMON NAMES: Chinese Lantern, Ground Cherry, Purple Quincula, Purple Groundcherry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height), the leaves are dark green, the color of the flowers has been described as being blue-violet, deep lavender, magenta, purple, rose-pink or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; hills; hillsides; sandy bajadas; desert plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along roadsides; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; sandy, clay pan and silty playas; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph - Physalis lobata), 46 (Physalis lobata Torr.), 63 (010708), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Physalis are listed as being Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “It has been suspected that animals have been poisoned by eating large quantities of the tops and unripe fruits of these forbs.”), 85 (010708), 86 (color photograph - Physalis lobata)*

 

 

Family Urticaceae: The Nettle Family

 

Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton (var. hespera is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Rillita Pellitory

COMMON NAME: California Pellitory, Rillita Pellitory. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (7 to 10 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being pale green, the inconspicuous flowers green, white or white-green, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; shaded cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; shaded ledges; ridge tops; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; bases of boulders and rocks; shaded rocky niches; in cobble under ledges and shrubs; plains; arroyos; springs; along streams; creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-clay washes; cobbly-sandy drainages; swales; shaded banks of washes; bouldery edges of drainages; moist bottoms of stock tanks, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton var. californica B.D. Hinton, the California Pellitory has been described as being either annual or perennial, and Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton var. hespera has been described as a perennial. *5, 6, 15, 16, 58, 63 (Parietaria hespera Hinton var. hespera is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona - 81307), 85 (081307)*

 

Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton var. hespera: Rillita Pellitory

COMMON NAME: Rillita Pellitory. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (7 to 10 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being pale green, the inconspicuous flowers green, white or white-green, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; shaded cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; buttes; shaded ledges; ridge tops; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; bases of boulders and rocks; shaded rocky niches; in cobble under ledges and shrubs; plains; arroyos; springs; along streams; creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-clay washes; cobbly-sandy drainages; swales; shaded banks of washes; bouldery edges of drainages; moist bottoms of stock tanks, and riparian areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 58, 63 (081307), 85 (081307)*

 

 

Family Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig: Southwestern Mock Vervain

SYNONYMY: Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom. COMMON NAMES: Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Mock Vervain, Goodding Verbena, Goodding’s Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Mexican Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain, Sweet William, Verbena, Vervain. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers blue, sky blue, blue-lavender, bluish-purple, lavender, lavender-blue, lavender-purple, pink, pink-lavender, pink-purple, purple or purple-lavender, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-October (additional record: one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; talus hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; flats; sandy roadsides; gravelly arroyos; gulches; seeps; springs; along stream beds; creek beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy and silty banks of washes; around pools; cobbly benches; terraces; sandy bottom lands; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, pebbly and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly clayey loam and sandy loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 800 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet and Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom), 48 (gen.), 63 (081307), 77 (color photograph #53), 85 (081307)*

 

Verbena gooddingii (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

Verbena gooddingii var. nepetifolia (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

 

Family Viscaceae (Loranthaceae): The Christmas Mistletoe Family

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall: Mesquite Mistletoe

SYNONYMY: Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease. COMMON NAMES: American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite American Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter), the stems are green or yellow-green, the fragrant flowers are greenish-yellow, flowering generally takes place between late July and mid-May (additional records: one for early June, one record for late June and one record for early July), the fruits are orange, pink, red, red-orange or white. HABITAT: Partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite, commonly found growing on Acacia spp. (Acacia constricta, Whtitethorn Acacia; Acacia farnesiana, Sweet Acacia; Acacia greggii, Catclaw Acacia); Condalia spp. (Condalia globosa, Bitter Snakewood); Condalia warnockii, Kearney Snakewood); Larrea spp. (Larrea tridentata, Creosote Bush); Olneya spp. (Olneya tesota, Desert Ironwood); Parkinsonia spp. (Parkinsonia aculeata, Jerusalem Thorn; Parkinsonia florida, Blue Paloverde; Parkinsonia microphylla, Yellow Paloverde); Prosopis spp. (Prosopis glandulosa, Honey Mesquite; Prosopis pubescens, Screwbean Mesquite; Prosopis velutina, Velvet Mesquite), and Ziziphus spp.(Ziziphus obtusifolia, Lotebush), occurring from 500 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feeds on the berries and disperses the seeds to other host plants. Verdins nest in the stems. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (050607), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Phoradendron are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Cattle may be killed by browsing these parasitic forbs, but plants are unpalatable and poisoning is rare. Also children may be poisoned by eating the berries.”), 85 (111107), 97, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Phoradendron californicum var. distans (see Phoradendron californicum) 

 

 

Family Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Larrea divaricata subsp. tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata: Creosote Bush

SYNONYMY: Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger. COMMON NAMES: Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Creosote-bush, Creosotebush, Gobernadora, (erroneously called Greasewood), Guamis, Hediondilla (Little Bad Smeller). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height and about the same in width), the leaves are bright glossy green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-white, flowering takes place throughout the year with the peak blooming periods occurring in the spring, between March and April, and then again between November and December, the round fuzzy fruits are gray, reddish, white or rust. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; gravelly and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in well-drained bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older stems of the Creosote Bush may be 40 to 90 years of age. As the Creosote Bush ages the older central stems of the plant die off and new stems form at the outer edge of the crown. New stems are not created at the center of the plant. As the crown of the plant expands a “clonal ring”, made up of genetically identical individual shrublets, develops which continues the outward expansion of the ring eventually reaching several yards in diameter. It has been estimated that some of the older rings approach 11,700 years of age. Lac Scale insects (Tachardiella sp.) and Jackrabbits feed on this plant. Stem galls are produced by the Creosote Gall midge (Asphondylia sp.). The Creosote Bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting a Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelinas. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 28 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 46 (sp., Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville “An outstanding xerophyte and a very important element of the perennial desert flora in southern and western Arizona. ... Creosote-bush has a strong characteristic odor, especially noticeable when the foliage is wet. The plant is ordinarily not touched by livestock, although it is reported that sheep, especially pregnant ewes, have been killed by partaking of it. This plant is reported to cause dermatitis in exceptional persons who are allergic to it.”), 48, 63 (081407), 77 (color photograph #101), 80 (This species is listed under Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Early reports accusing this common desert shrub of being poisonous have been proven wrong.”), 85 (081407), 91, 101 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 107, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  ANIMALS FROM

COLLECTION AND FROM BEING DISTURBED OR KILLED

 

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

 

 

 

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

 

 

 

CLASS INSECTA: The INSECTS

 

 

 

ORDER COLEOPTERA: The BEETLES

 

 

Family Cicindelidae: The Tiger Beetle Family

 

Cicindela lemniscata: a Tiger Beetle

COMMON NAMES: a Tiger Beetle. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14*

 

 

 

ORDER LEPIDOPTERA: The BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS AND SKIPPERS

 

 

Family Hesperiidae: The Skipper Family

 

Erynnis funeralis (Scudder & Burgess): Funereal Duskywing Skipper

COMMON NAMES: Funereal Duskywing Skipper, Funereal Dusky Wing, Morning Brown, Streamlined Dusky Wing. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Staphylus ceos (W.H. Edwards): Golden-headed Scallopwing Skipper

COMMON NAMES: Ceos Skipper, Golden-headed Scallopwing Skipper, Golden-headed Sooty Wing, Red-head Sooty Wing. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (071206)*

 

 

Family Lycaenidae: The Blue, Copper and Hairstreak Family

 

Leptotes marina (Reakirt): Marine Blue Butterfly

COMMON NAMES: Marine Banded Blue, Marine Blue, Marine Blue Butterfly, Striped Blue. HABITS: Larvae feed on leadwort, sweet pea, vetch and wisteria. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (071206)*

 

 

Family Nymphalidae: The Brush-footed Butterfly Family

 

Cynthia cardui (see Vanessa cardui)

 

Danaus gilippus (P. Cramer) subsp. berenice: Queen Butterfly

COMMON NAME: Queen Butterfly. HABITS: Larvae feed on milkweed. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 60, 106 (sp. - 053006)*

 

Vanessa cardui (C. Linnaeus): Painted Lady Butterfly

SYNONYMY: Cynthia cardui (C. Linnaeus). COMMON NAMES: Cosmopolitan, Cosmopolite, Cynthia of the Thistle, Painted Beauty, Painted Lady, Painted Lady Butterfly, Thistle Butterfly, Thistle Cynthy. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (071006), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

 

Family Papilionidae: The Swallowtail Family

 

Battus philenor (C. Linnaeus): Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly

COMMON NAMES: Blue Swallowtail, Green Swallowtail, Pipevine Swallowtail, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly. HABITS: Larvae feed on Virginia Snakeroot and Dutchman’s Pipe (Aristolochia watsoni). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (071006), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

 

Family Pieridae: The Sulfur Butterfly and White Family

 

Anthocharis thoosa (S.H. Scudder): Sara Orangetip Butterfly

COMMON NAMES: Sara Orangetip Butterfly, Southwestern Orangetip. *8, 106 (053006)*

 

Eurema nicippe (Crammer): Sleepy Orange Buttlerfly

COMMON NAMES: Black-bordered Orange, Black-bordered Yellow, Nicippe, Nicippe Sulfur, Nicippe Yellow, Rambling Orange, Sleepy Orange, Sleepy Orange Buttlerfly, Sleepy Orange Sulfur, Sleepy Sulfur, Small Orange. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Nathalis iole Boisduval: Dainty Sulfur Butterfly

COMMON NAMES: Dainty Dwarf, Dainty Dwarf Sulfur, Dainty Sulfur, Dainty Sulfur Butterfly, Dwarf Yellow, Yellow Dwarf. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation. *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Phoebis sennae (C. Linnaeus): Cloudless Sulfur Butterfly

COMMON NAMES: Cloudless Giant Sulfur, Cloudless Sulfur, Cloudless Sulfur Butterfly, Common Sulfur, Giant Sulfur. HABITS: Larvae feed on members of the Pea Family. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *8, 14 (071106), 60, 106 (071106)*

 

 

 

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

 

 

 

CLASS AVES: The BIRDS

 

 

Family Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Geococcyx californianus (R.P. Lesson): Greater Roadrunner

COMMON NAMES: Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Roadrunner, Tadai. HABITS: Feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes. Nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Strigidae: The Typical Owl Family

 

Glaucidium brasilianum (J.F. Gmelin) (subsp. cactorum (V. Rossem) is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl

COMMON NAMES: Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl. HABITS: Feeds on amphibians, small birds, earthworms, frogs, insects, reptiles and small rodents. Nests are located in cavities and abandoned woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 84 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 0527-2806)*

 

 

 

CLASS MAMMALIA: The MAMMALS

 

 

Family Antilocapridae: The Pronghorn Family

 

Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis Goldman: Sonoran Pronghorn

COMMON NAMES: “Antelope”, Prong-horn, Pronghorn, Pronghorn Antelope, Prong-horned Antelope, Sonoran Pronghorn, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti including chain-fruit cholla, forbs, grasses, ocotillo and sagebrush. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (a marginal distribution record was identified near Cipriano Well in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument - 113006, 55 (sp. - Antilocapra americana Ord “Formerly widely distributed in grassland areas throughout the state; presently restricted to areas of favorable habitat.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052806), 106 (052806), 118 (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis Goldman - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 111, Page 255)*

 

 

Family Bovidae: The Cow, Sheep and Allies Family

 

Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana C.H. Merriam: Desert Bighorn Sheep

COMMON NAMES: Berrego Cimarron (Hispanic), Berrego Cimarron del Desierto (Hispanic), Bighorn, Bighorn Sheep, Desert Bighorn, Desert Bighorn Sheep, Mountain Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep. HABITS: The species feeds on agave, brittle bush, bursage, bush muhly, cacti, catclaw, cholla, coffeeberry, desert fluffgrass, desert ironwood, desert thorn, fairy duster, filaree, galleta, grama, jojoba, mesquite, mallow, Nevada joint fir, plantain, prickly-pear, ratany, ricegrass, saguaro, saltbush, threeawn and turpentine broom; young are dropped in small scraped out depressions located in protected places on inaccessible peaks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Ovis canadensis Shaw “Probably formerly statewide in mountainous or rocky situations; presently restricted to scattered low desert mountains.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - no records 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (072306), 118 (Ovis canadensis mexicana Merriam - Distribution: Probably formerly statewide in mountainous situations. Figure 112, Page 257)*

 

 

Family Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans subsp. mearnsi Merriam: Coyote

COMMON NAME: Coyote. HABITS: The species feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels. The young are born in dens that may be dug in the ground or located in caves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Canis latrans Say “Statewide (120 - 9,100 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Canis latrans mearnsi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 87, Page 217)*

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (J.C. von Schreber): Common Gray Fox

COMMON NAMES: Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats. Whelping usually takes place in burrows dug into the ground or in dens in rocks and cliffs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) “Statewide with the possible exception of the northeast portion (120 - 5,800 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (052906), 100, 106 (052906), 118 (Recorded as Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii Mearns - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 90, Page 222)*

 

Vulpes macrotis C.H. Merriam: Kit Fox

COMMON NAMES: Kit Fox, Zorra del Desierto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on berries, birds, cottontail rabbits, crickets, grasses, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, lizards and pocket mice. The young are born in dens in underground burrows that have been excavated in soft soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Vulpes velox (T. Say): The Swift Fox is generally considered a separate species by most authors. *14 (subspp. macrotis Merriam and neomexicanus Merriam - 050907), 55 (Vulpes macrotis Merriam “Widely distributed at lower elevations throughout the southern part of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (no records - 052906), (100), 106 (052906), 118 (Vulpes macrotis arispus Elliot - Distribution: Lower elevations in western and southern part of the state. Vulpes macrotis neomexicana Merriam - Distribution: Extreme southeastern Arizona. Figure 89, Page 220)*

 

Vulpes velox (see note under Vulpes macrotis) 

 

 

Family Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus subsp. crooki (Mearns): Mule Deer

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Deer, Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, beans, branches, fruits, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurges. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque) “Statewide, but not of uniform distribution (250 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus hemionus crooki (Mearns) - Distribution: Northeastern, central and southeastern part of the state. Figure 109, Page 252)*

 

Odocoileus virginianus subsp. couesi (E. Coues & Yarrow): Coues’ White-tailed Deer

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Desert Whitetail, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer, Whitetail Deer. HABITS: The species feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel. Young are generally dropped along ridges and hillsides. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) “Southeastern Arizona (1,200 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus virginianus couesi (Coues & Yarrow) - Distribution: Southern Arizona. Figure 110, Page 254)*

 

 

Family Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis rufus subsp. baileyi (see Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi)

 

Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi Merriam: Bobcat

SYNONYMY: Felis rufus (J.C. von Schreber) subsp. baileyi Elliot. COMMON NAMES: Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat. HABITS: The species feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes. Young are born in dens located in rocky caves, hollow logs and recesses. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Lynx rufus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 9,300 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lynx rufus baileyi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 106, Page 247)*

 

 

Family Geomyidae: The Pocket Gopher Family

 

Thomomys bottae subsp. comobabiensis Huey: Botta’s Pocket Gopher

COMMON NAMES: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher. HABITS: The species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers. Young are born in nests in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - several varieties listed - 051107), 55 (sp. - Thomomys bottae (Eydoux and Gervais) “Widely distributed throughout the state at all elevations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Thomomys bottae comobabiensis Huey - Distribution: Slopes of Comobabi Mountains, Pima County. Figure 46, Page 107)*

 

 

Family Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam: Rock Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Raton de Rocas de Bosla (Hispanic), Rock Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds. Burrows are dug in soil near to or under rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam “Widely distributed in rocky areas in the Colorado River valley, western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius), 85 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius (Merriam) - 051007), 118 (Chaetodipus intermedius intermedius Merriam - Distribution: Known from Mohave County southward and eastward, across most of the state to Cochise County. Figure 54, Page 141)*

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei (S.W. Woodhouse): Desert Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei S.W. Woodhouse). COMMON NAMES: Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite. The nest is made in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse “Widely distributed in desert and low grasslands of southern and western Arizona (120 - 5,200 feet.”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus), 85 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus (A.H. Howell) - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus (Woodhouse) - 051007), 118 (Perognathus penicillatus pricei Allen - Distribution: Known from south-central Arizona. Figure 53, Page 137)*

 

Dipodomys merriami subsp. merriami Mearns: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera Merriam (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on ants, green plant material and seeds of creosote bush, grama grass, mesquite, ocotillo and purselane. Nests are made in underground burrows often located under bushes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - 051007), 55 (“Widely distributed in western and southern parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns - Distribution: Occurs throughout most of the western and southern part of the state. Figure 56, Page 145)*

 

Dipodomys spectabilis subsp. perblandus Goldman: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat, Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on grasses, forbs, succulent plants, insects, rodents and seeds. Nests are made up of chaff, stems and leaves of grass located in underground burrows in firm soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys spectabilis perblandus Goldman - Distribution: Known from the grasslands of southern Pinal and Pima County. Figure 55, Page 143)*

 

Perognathus amplus subsp. taylori Goldman: Arizona Pocket Mouse

COMMON NAME: Arizona Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, insects and seeds. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Perognathus amplus Osgood “Locally common in desert areas on south-central, western and north-central parts of the state (500 - 5,100 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 118 (Perognathus amplus taylori Goldman.  Distribution: Known from south central Arizona. Figure 50, Page 129)*

 

Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius (see Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius)

 

Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei (see Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei) 

 

 

Family Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns: Antelope Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAME: Antelope Jack Rabbit. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite. Young are born in a nest that is usually located above ground. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus alleni (Mearns) “Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns - Distribution: Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state. Figure 31, Page 68)*

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (S.F. Baird): SYNONYMY: Desert Cottontail

COMMON NAME: Desert Cottontail. HABITS: Feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs. Young are born into nests lined with forbs, grasses and the female’s fur which are located on the ground and in brush piles, piles of rocks, and burrows abandoned by other animals. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird) “Common at elevations below 6,000 feet throughout the state), 65, 73, 85 (052906), 100, 106 (052906), 118 (Sylvilagus audubonii arizonae (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Widely distributed at elevations up to 6,000 feet in the western half of the state. Sylvilagus audubonii minor (Mearns) - Distribution: Known only from the southeastern part of the state. Sylvilagus audubonii warreni Nelson - Distribution: Known only from the northeastern part of the state. Figure 34, Page 74), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Lepus californicus subsp. eremicus J.A. Allen: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit”. HABITS: The species feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti. Young are born in nests located either above or below ground in forms that have been lined with breast hair, after birth the young are moved to separate nests and cared for individually by the female. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus californicus Gray “Statewide.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus californicus eremicus J.A. Allen - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 32, Page 69)*

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (S.F. Baird) subsp. arizonae: Desert Cottontail

COMMON NAME: Desert Cottontail. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs. Young are born into nests lined with forbs, grasses and the females fur which are located on the ground and in brush piles, piles of rocks, and burrows abandoned by other animals. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird) “Common at elevations below 6,000 feet throughout the state.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Sylvilagus audubonii arizonae (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Widely distributed at elevations up to 6,000 feet in the western half of the state. Figure 34, Page 74)*

 

 

Family Mephitidae: The Skunk Family

 

Mephitis macroura subsp. milleri (Mearns): Hooded Skunk

COMMON NAMES: Hooded Skunk, Zorrillo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on small birds, insects and other invertebrates, rodents and plant material; young are born in a dens located in burrows or among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - 050807), 55 (sp. - Mephitis macroura (Lichtenstein) “Southeastern part of the state (2,000 to 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - Distribution: South central and southeastern Arizona. Figure 101, Page 240) *

 

Spilogale gracilis Merriam: Western Spotted Skunk

SYNONYMY: Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Spotted Skunk, Western Spotted Skunk, Zorillo Pinto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on arachnids, berries, birds and bird eggs, carrion, fruits, insects, small mammals, scorpions and seeds. Dens are made in rock crevices and hollow logs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam is a synonym for Spilogale gracilis C. Linnaeus the Western Spotted Skunk. Spilogale putorius subsp. leucoparia is a synonym for Spilogale putorius C. Linnaeus the Eastern Spotted Skunk. 051107), 55 (Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus) “Probably statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65 (Spilogale putorius), 73 (Spilogale gracilis), 85 (Spilogale putorius - 051107), 100 (Spilogale gracilis), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Spilogale putorius gracilis Merriam - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 99, Page 237)*

 

Spilogale putorius (see footnotes 14, 55, 65 and 85 under Spilogale gracilis)

 

Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis (see Spilogale gracilis)

 

 

Family Molossidae: The Free-tailed Bat Family

 

Eumops perotis subsp. californicus (Merriam): Greater Western Mastiff Bat

COMMON NAMES: Bonnet Bat, Greater Western Bonneted Bat, Greater Mastiff Bat, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Mastiff Bat, Murcielago Mastiff (Hispanic), Western Mastiff Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on crickets, long-horned grasshoppers, moths and other small insects. Roosts in crevices and shallow caves in cliffs and rock walls at lower elevations. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Eumops perotis (Schinz) “Rare, in small colonies in rock crevices at lower elevations in the western and southern part of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (fam. - 053006), 118 (Eumops perotis californicus (Merriam) - Distribution: Probably throughout southern Arizona in the Lower Sonoran Life Zone. Figure 29, Page 65)*

 

 

Family Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula subsp. albigula Hartley: White-throated Wood Rat

COMMON NAMES: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca. Nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Neotoma albigula Hartley “Widely distributed at elevations below 7,000 feet throughout all of the state south of the Colorado River. (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Neotoma albigula albigula Hartley - Distribution: Occurs commonly south of the Mogollon Rim. Figure 76, Page 193)*

 

Onychomys torridus subsp. torridus (E. Coues): Southern Grasshopper Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. torridus - 020307), 55 (sp. - Onychomys torridus (Coues) “Widely distributed in the western and southern parts of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Onychomys torridus torridus (Coues) - Distribution: Southeastern quarter of the state. Figure 62, Page 161)*

 

Peromyscus eremicus (S.F. Baird) subsp. eremicus: Cactus Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Cactus Mouse, Raton de Cactaceas (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on flowers, small fruits, insects, green plant material and seeds. Nests are made within the abandoned burrows of other animals, clumps of cacti and among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Peromyscus eremicus (Baird) “Widely distributed in western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus eremicus eremicus (Baird) - Distribution: Almost all of the western and southern part of the state.  Figure 67, Page 171)*

 

Peromyscus maniculatus subsp. sonoriensis (Le Conte): Deer Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Deer Mouse, Raton Venado (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on bark, berries, bones, centipedes, earthworms, small fruits, fungi, insects, leaves, nuts and snails. Nests are built in buildings, underground burrows, rock crevices debris, in and under logs, and clumps of vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subspp. blandus (Osgood) and rufinus (Merriam) - 050907), 55 (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) “Statewide (120 - 11,400 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis (Le Conte) - Distribution: Grasslands at lower elevations throughout the state. Figure 69, Page 177)*

 

Reithrodontomys megalotis subsp. megalotis (S.F. Baird): Western Harvest Mouse

COMMON NAME: Western Harvest Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids, grasses, insects (larvae and adults) and seeds of grasses forbs and shrubs. Spherical nests are made of woven plant material and lined with plant fibers and can be located near the ground or above the ground in dense vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird) “Statewide (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 73 (sp.), 85 (053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (053006), 118 (Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis (Baird) - Distribution: At medium and low elevations statewide except extreme northeastern part of the state. Figure 64, Page 164)*

 

 

Family Mustelidae: The Weasel and Allies Family

 

Taxidea taxus (J.C. von Schreber): American Badger

COMMON NAMES: American Badger, Badger, Badger Tejon (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on ground dwelling birds and eggs, carrion, insects, rodents and snakes. Young are born in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. berlandieri Schreber - 050907), 55 (Taxidea taxus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053006), 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Taxidea taxus - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 98, Page 235)*

 

 

Family Phyllostomidae: The Leaf-nosed Bat Family

 

Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae (Martinez & Villa-R.): Southern Long-nosed Bat

SYNONYMY: Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni D.F. Hoffmeister, Leptonycteris sanborni (Saussure). COMMON NAMES: Lesser Long-nosed Bat, Little Long-nosed Bat, Mexican Long-nosed Bat, Murcielago de Sanborn (Hispanic), Sanborn’s Long-nosed Bat, Sanborn’s Southern Long-nosed Bat, Southern Long-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects, nectar, pollen and the nectar and soft-bodied fruits of agaves and cacti. Roosts are located in caves, rock crevices and mines. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: Long-nosed bats are pollinators of Agaves, Cardons, Organ Pipe Cacti and Saguaros. *8, 14 (Populations may be compromised by roost-site disturbance, loss of food sources and direct killing by humans. - 050907), 35 (This species is vulnerable to disturbances at roosting sites by cave explores.), 55 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure) “Locally common in moist caves. Known from Pinal, Pima, Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties.”), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (Leptonycteris sanborni), 100 (sp. - Leptonycteris curasoae), 106 (053006), 118 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (Saussure) - Distribution: Known only from the southeastern part of the state. Figure 9, Page 35)*

 

Leptonycteris nivalis (see footnote 55 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (see footnote 118 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Macrotus californicus S.F. Baird: California Leaf-nosed Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Leaf-nosed Bat, Leaf-nosed Bat, Leafnose Bat, Waterhouse’s Leaf-nosed Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, moths and other insects. Roosts are located in caves and abandoned mine tunnels. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from  the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 050907), 55 (Macrotus californicus Baird “Locally common in shallow caves, mine tunnels and under bridges. Occurs widely at lower elevations in the western and southern parts of the state.”), 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 92, 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Macrotus californicus Baird - Distribution: Known from lower elevations in the southern and western parts of the state. Figure 7, Page 32)*

 

 

Family Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Bassariscus astutus subsp. arizonensis Goldman: Ringtail

COMMON NAMES: Band-tailed Cat, Cacomistle, Civet Cat, Coon CatGato Minero (Hispanic), Miner’s Cat, Ringtail, Ringtail Cat, Ring-tailed Cat. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, birds, fruits, carrion, crickets, eggs, insects, lizards, small mammals, snakes and spiders. Nests are made of grass located in dens in underground burrows, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, cavities in logs, stumps and trees and man-made structures. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (050907), 55 (Bassariscus astutus (M.H. Lichenstein) “Statewide (120 - 6,500 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 051107), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053106), 118 (Bassariscus astutus arizonensis Goldman - Distribution: Statewide except extreme southeastern and southwestern parts. Figure 93, Page 227)*

 

 

Family Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman). COMMON NAMES: Harris’ Antelope Squirrel, Yuma Antelope Squirrel. HABITS: Feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds. Dens are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Citellus harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) “Southern and western parts of the state at elevations below 6,500 feet.”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus harrisii harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) - Distribution: Southern and western Arizona except for most of Yuma County. Citellus harrisii saxicola (Mearns) - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 38, Page 85)*

 

Citellus harrisii (see Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii harrisii (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii saxicola (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus tereticaudus (see Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (see footnote 118 under Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (see Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus S.F. Baird: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus tereticaudus S.F. Baird. COMMON NAME: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel HABITS: Feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo, paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking scavenging Gambel’s Quail chicks; nests are made of plant fibers and stems and located in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation. *14, 55 (Citellus tereticaudus Baird “Lower Sonoran Life-zone of the western part of the state (below 3,200 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (Merriam) - Distribution: Lower Sonoran Life Zone of southwestern Arizona. Figure 39, Page 90)*

 

Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say). COMMON NAMES: Ardilla Coluda (Hispanic), Rock Squirrel. HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, berries, small birds, chicks and eggs, carrion, insects, fruits, small mammals, nuts and seeds burrows. Nests are made of leaves, pine needles and plant fibers and located in dens in underground burrows between boulders, rock crevices and talus. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Citellus variegatus (Erxleben) “Statewide, especially at elevations below 6,000 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say) - Distribution: Statewide, especially common below 6000 feet. Figure 37, Page 82)*

 

 

Family Soricidae: The Shrew Fmaily

 

Notiosorex crawfordi subsp. crawfordi (E. Coues): Crawford’s Desert Shrew

COMMON NAMES: Crawford’s Desert Shrew, Crawford’s Gray Shrew, Desert Shrew, Gray Shrew, Musarana del Deseirto Crawford (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on centipedes, insects, lizards, small mice, scorpions, sowbugs and spiders. Nests are made of shredded bark and leaves and located in packrat dens or under dead agaves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues) “Locally common, widely distributed statewide at elevations below 6,000 feet, especially in riparian situations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 051107), 118 (Notiosorex crawfordi crawfordi (Coues) - Distribution: Probably occurs statewide at elevations below 6000 feet. Figure 5, Page 30)*

 

 

Family Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns): Collared Peccary

SYNONYMY: Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns), Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns). COMMON NAMES: Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, “Musk Hog”, Peccary. HABITS: The species feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fruits, fungi, grasses, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, roots, palm nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms. Javelina bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets and at night in burrows usually under the roots of trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu (Linnaeus) “Southeastern and central parts of the state (1,200 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp. - Pecari angulatus), 73 (sp. - Dicotyles tajacu), 85 (no records - 051207), 100 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu), 106 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu - 051107), 118 (Tayassu tajacu sonoriensis (Mearns) - Distribution: Southern part of the state. Figure 107, Page 249)*

 

Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

 

Family Ursidae: The Bear Family

 

Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (see Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps)

 

Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird): Black Bear

SYNONYMY: Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird). COMMON NAMES: American Black Bear, Black Bear, Cinnamon Bear, Oso Negro  (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fishes, fruits, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries, sprouts, small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. Shelter is taken in dense cover and they climb trees to escape danger. Nests are made of grasses leaves, mud and sticks located in a den. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Euarctos americanus (Pallas) “Formerly common throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now greatly reduced in numbers and distribution.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (includes a listing of subspecies and their distribution - 050907), 118 (Euarctos americanus amblyceps (Baird) - Distribution: Probably formerly occurred throughout the state, at least in mountainous areas. Figure 91, Page 224)*

 

Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord: Grizzly Bear

SYNONYMY: Ursus horribilus Ord. COMMON NAMES: (subspecies of Brown Bear), Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (Hispanic), Silvertip Bear. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, carrion, fishes (Bass, Salmon, Trout), fungi, grasses, insects (Army Cutworm moths), leaves, large (Bison, Black Bear, Caribou, Deer, Elk, Moose, Mountain Goats) and small (rodents) mammals, nuts (Whitebark Pine nuts), roots and sprouts. The Grizzly Bear beds down in depressions in thickets. Dens are excavated from under rocks or located in caves, crevices or hollow trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXTIRPATED from Arizona. The Grizzly Bear is Extinct in Arizona. The last confirmed kill was made on the slopes of Mount Baldy (Apache County) in the summer 1939). Grizzly Bears were exterminated by American immigrants because of the risks to humans and livestock. *14 (Ursus arctos subspp. horriaeus (Baird) and perturbans (Merriam) - 050907), 39 (Ursus horribilus), 40 (Ursus arctos - Grizzly Bears were historically present in the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson), 55 (Ursus horribilus Ord “Formerly throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now extinct in Arizona.”), 73 (Ursus horribilus), 85 (no records - 053106) 100 (Ursus arctos), 106 (Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord - 051207), 118 (Ursus horribilus - Distribution: Formerly statewide, now extinct in Arizona. Figure 92, Page 225)*

 

Ursus arctos (see footnotes 14 and 100 under Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

Ursus horribilus (see Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

 

Family Vespertilionidae: The Plain-nosed Bat Family

 

Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (see Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens)

 

Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen): Spotted Bat

COMMON NAMES: Death’s Head Bat, Jackass Bat, Murcielago Pinto (Hispanic), Pinto Bat, Spotted Bat. HABITS: Feeds on insects. Roosts in cracks and crevices in caves, cliffs and ledges, and under loose rock in rocky situations, possibly in close proximity to water. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This bat is rarely encountered. Riparian habitats seem to be important. *8, 14 (053007), 55 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) “Extremely rare; known from four specimens, Maricopa and Yuma counties.”), 73, 85 (no records - 072306), 92, 100, 106 (072306), 118 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Can be expected almost anywhere in the state although recorded from only four localities. Figure 23, Page 57)*

 

Myotis californicus (J.J. Audubon & Bachman) subsp. stephensi: California Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Bat, California Myotis, California Myotis Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids and insects. Roosts in crevices and cracks in cliffs and canyon walls, caves, mine shafts and man made shelters. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (sp. - Myotis californicus N. Miller), 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis californicus Audubon & Bachman “Locally common throughout the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis californicus stephensi Dalquest - Distribution: Northern and western part of the state. Figure 16, Page 45)*

 

Myotis velifer subsp. brevis Vaughan: Cave Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: Cave Bat, Cave Myotis, Cave Myotis Bat, Mexican Brown Bat, Murcielago de Cueva (Hispanic), Southwestern Cave Myotis. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects. Roosts in holes and pockets in caves, crevices, bridges, buildings, abandoned mine shafts, tunnels, and trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (Myotis velifer velifer J.A. Allen), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis velifer (J.A. Allen) “Locally abundant in summer months at lower elevations (below 5,000 feet) throughout the southern and western parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis velifer brevis Vaughan - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 11, Page 37)*

 

Myotis velifer velifer (see footnote 8 under Myotis velifer subsp. brevis)

 

Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen) subsp. hesperus: Western Pipistrelle Bat

COMMON NAMES: Canyon Bat, Flittermouse, Murcielago del Poniente (Hispanic), Western Pipistrelle, Western Pipistrelle Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects. Roosts in buildings, crevices in canyon walls, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, under rocks and in mine shafts. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This is the smallest of the western bats. *8 (sp. - Pipistrellus hesperus N. Miller), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen)), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Pipistrellus hesperus apus Elliot - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 19, Page 49)*

 

Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Miller): Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat

SYNONYMY: Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Frost). COMMON NAMES: Lump-nosed Bat, Mule-eared Bat, Murcielago de Townsend (Hispanic), Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat, Western Big-eared Bat, Western Long-eared Bat, Western Lump-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects; roosts on open ceilings in caves and rock shelters, and under bridges and in water diversion tunnels, abandoned mines, mine tunnels and buildings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat is a rather sedentary species that is extremely sensitive to human disturbance and the vandalism of roost caves. *14 (053007), 55 (sp. - Plecotus townsendii (Cooper) - “Locally common throughout the state at elevations above 5,000 feet; rare at lower elevations.”), 73, 85 (053106), 92, 100, 118 (Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens Miller - Distribution: Probably more or less state wide but more abundant in the Upper Sonoran and Transitional Life Zones. Figure 24, Page 58)*

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

I would like to thank Matthew B. Johnson for his review of several of the listings, his input into the layout, his numerous trips into the field to assist in the identification of species and above all for his continued support for this project. I would also like to thank Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator, and the Botanists of the University of Arizona Herbarium for years of assistance with plant identifications. I would also like to thank Neva Connolly, Julia Fonseca and Bill Singleton with the Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District for being willing and able to present the listings on the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan website.

 

 

 

 

FOOTNOTES and REFERENCES

for the Species Distribution Listings compiled for Arizona

 

 

(1) General Mapping:

 

Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

 

National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

 

                Kino Peak, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

 

Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

www.maps4u.com

 

(2) Physiographic Province Mapping:

 

Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Soils Mapping:

 

Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Biotic Communities Mapping and Definitions

 

Ecological formations used in the listings follow those presented in the mapping for the Biotic Communities of the Southwest.

 

Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. Revised June 1983. Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

 

Brown, David E., Charles H. Lowe and Charles P. Pase. June 1980. A Digitized Systematic Classification for Ecosystems with an Illustrated Summary of the Natural Vegetation of North America, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 (5) Nomenclature:

 

for Plants:

 

Generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

The International Plant Names Index (2004, 2005) 

Published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org [accessed 2004, 2005, 2006]

 

National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

for Vertebrate Animals:

 

Generally follows that presented by Charles H. Lowe. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona and E. Lendell Cockrum. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

for Invertebrate Animals:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

(6) Growth Habits of Plants:

 

Generally coincides with that presented by the National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

               

Common names identified in the USDA NRCS database have been printed in bold lettering: A few of the plants were not provided with a common name in the USDA NRCS database and additional resources were used, including:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. *8*

 

Sunset Western Garden Book Kathleen N. Brenzel, 2001, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California. *18*

 

(7) Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

 

(8) Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Amphibians: 2002. Bufo microscaphus, Arizona Toad; 2005. Bufo retiformis, Sonoran Green Toad; 2001. Eleutherodactylus augusti subsp. cactorum, Western Barking Frog; 2003. Gastrophryne olivacea, Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad; 2002. Hyla arenicolor, Canyon Treefrog; 2003. Pternohyla fodiens, Lowland Burrowing Treefrog; 2001. Rana chiricahuensis, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, and 2001. Rana yavapaiensis, Lowland Leopard Frog.

Arachnids: 2004. Albiorix anophthalmus, a cave obligate Pseudoscorpion.

Birds: 2003. Accipiter gentilis, American Goshawk; 2003. Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow; 2002. Aimophila ruficeps subsp. rupicola: Yuma Rufous-crowned Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus savannarum subsp. ammolequs, Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow; 2001. Anthus spragueii, Sprgaue’s Pipit; 2002. Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle; 2000. Asturina nitida, Northern Grey Hawk; 2001. Athene cunicularia subsp. hypugaea, Western Burrowing Owl; 2001. Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk; 2001. Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk; 2005. Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-hawk; 2003. Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara; 2002. Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher; 2001. Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher; 2002. Coccyzus americanus subsp. occidentalis, Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo; 2001-08-27. Colinus virginianus subsp. ridgwayi, Masked Bobwhite; 2002. Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-duck; 2001. Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-duck; 2002. Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink; 2002. Egretta thula, Snowy Egret; 2002. Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite; 2003 Empidonax fulvifrons subsp. pygmaeus, Northern Buff-breasted Flycatcher; 2003. Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher; 2002. Empidonax traillii subsp. extimus, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher; 1998. Falco peregrinus subsp. anatum, American Peregrine Falcon; 2001. Glaucidium brasilianum subsp. cactorum, Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl; 2002. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle; 2004. Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike; 2005. Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl; 2002. Pandion haliaetus, Osprey; 2002. Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis; 2002. Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher; 2001. Rallus longirostris P. Boddaert subsp. yumanensis, Yuma Clapper Rail; 2002. Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart; 2005. Strix occidentalis subsp. lucida, Mexican Spotted Owl; 2001. Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon; 2003. Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird, and 2002. Vireo bellii subsp. arizonae, Arizona Bell’s Vireo.

Dicots: 2000. Abutilon parishii, Pima Indian Mallow; 2004. Ammoselinum giganteum, Sand Parsley; 2003. Amoreuxia gonzalezii, Saiya; 2003. Amsonia kearneyana, Kearney’s Blue Star; 2004. Arenaria aberrans, Mt. Dellenbaugh Sandwort; 1995. Aster potosinus, Lemmon’s Aster; 2004. Berberis harrisoniana, Kofa Barberry; 2000. Boerhavia megaptera, Tucson Mountain Spiderling; 2004. Bursera fagaroides, Torch Wood Copal; 2003. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, Chiltepin; 2005. Castela emoryi, Crucifixion Thorn; 2004. Cirsium mohavense, Mohave Thistle; 2001. Cleome multicaulis, Playa Spider Plant; 2001. Colubrina californica, California Snakewood; 2001. Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina, Pima Pineapple Cactus; 2005. Coryphantha scheeri var. valida, Slender Needle Corycactus; 2004. Croton wigginsii, Dune Croton; 2005. Cryptantha ganderi, Gander’s Cryptantha; 2001. Dalea tentaculoides, Gentry Indigo Bush; 2005. Desmanthus covillei, Coville Bundleflower; 2004. Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii, Nichol Turk’s Head Cactus; 2005. Echinocactus polycephalus, Cotton-top Cactus; 2005. Echinocereus fasciculatus, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus; 2003. Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus, Arizona Hedgehog Cactus; 2004. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis, Acuna Cactus; 2003. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus; 2001. Erigeron arisolius, Arid Throne Fleabane; 2003. Eriogonum capillare, San Carlos Wild-buckwheat; 2005. Eriogonum ericifolium var. ericifolium, Heathleaf Wild-buckwheat; 2004. Euphorbia gracillima, Mexican Broomspurge; 2005. Euphorbia platysperma, Dune Spurge; 2005. Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus. California Barrel Cactus; 2001. Graptopetalum bartramii, Bartram Stonecrop; 2000. Hackelia ursina, Chihuahuan Stickseed; 2000. Hedeoma dentata, Mock-pennyroyal; 2000. Hermannia pauciflora, Sparseleaf Hermannia; 2001. Heterotheca rutteri, Huachuca Golden Aster; 2005. Ibervillea tenuisecta, Texas Globe Berry; 2000. Ipomoea tenuiloba, Trumpet Morning-glory; 2003. Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva, Huachuca Water Umbel; 2000. Lupinus huachucanus, Huachuca Mountain Lupine; 2004. Mammillaria mainiae, Counter Clockwise Fishhook Cactus; 2004. Matelea cordifolia, Sonoran Milkweed Vine; 2006. Passiflora arizonica, Arizona Passionflower; 2003. Pectis imberbis, Beardless Chinch Weed; 2005. Peniocereus striatus, Dahlia Rooted Cereus; 2004. Penstemon superbus, Superb Beardtongue; 2005. Perityle ajoensis, Ajo Rock Daisy; 2005. Petalonyx linearis, Longleaf Sandpaper-plant; 2004. Pholisma sonorae, Sand Food; 2004. Plagiobothrys pringlei, Pringle Popcorn-flower; 2005. Rhus kearneyi, Kearney Sumac; 2005. Stenocereus thurberi, Organ Pipe Cactus; 2005. Stephanomeria schottii, Schott Wire Lettuce; 2004. Stevia lemmonii, Lemmon’s Stevia; 2004. Tragia laciniata, Sonoran Noseburn; 2004. Tumamoca macdougalii, Tumamoc Globeberry; 2005. Vauquelinia californica subsp. sonorensis, Sonoran Mountain Rosewood, and 2004. Viola umbraticola, Shade Violet.

Ferns: 1997. Cheilanthes pringlei, Pringle Lip Fern and 2003. Notholaena lemmonii, Lemmon Cloak Fern.

Fishes: 2002. Agosia chrysogaster, Longfin Dace; 2002. Catostomus clarki, Desert Sucker; 2002. Catostomus insignis, Sonora Sucker; 2001. Cyprinodon eremus, Quitobaquito Pupfish; 2001. Cyprinodon macularius, Desert Pupfish; 2002. Gila intermedia, Gila Chub; 2002. Gila robusta, Roundtail Chub; 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. occidentalis, Gila Topminnow, and 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. sonorensis, Yaqui Topminnow. 

Gastropods: 2003. Tryonia quitobaquitae, Quitobaquito Tryonia.

Insects: 2001. Agathymus aryxna, Arizona Giant Skipper; 2001. Agathymus polingi, Poling’s Giant Skipper; 2004. Anthocharis cethura, Desert Orangetip; 2001. Calephelis rawsoni subsp. arizonensis, Arizona Metalmark; 2002. Heterelmis stephani, Stephan’s Heterelmis Riffle Beetle; 2001. Limenitis archippus subsp. obsoleta, Obsolete Viceroy Butterfly, and 2001. and Neophasia terlootii, Chiricahua Pine White.

Mammals: 2002. Antrozous pallidus, Pallid Bat; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. mexicana, Chihuahuan Pronghorn Antelope; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope; 2004. Bassariscus astutus, Ringtail; 2003. Choeronycteris mexicana, Mexican Long-tongued Bat; 2004. Eptesicus fuscus, Big Brown Bat; 2003. Euderma maculatum, Spotted Bat; 2002. Eumops perotis subsp. californicus, Greater Western Bonneted Bat; 2003. Eumops underwoodi, Underwood’s Mastiff Bat; 2004. Herpailurus yaguarondi, Jaguarundi; 2004. Lasionycteris noctivagans, Silver-haired Bat; 2003. Lasiurus blossevillii, Western Red Bat; 2004. Lasiurus cinereus, Hoary Bat; 2004. Leopardus pardalis subsp sonoriensis, Ocelot; 2003. Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae, Lesser Long-nosed Bat; 2002. Lontra canadensis subsp. sonora, Southwestern River Otter; 2001. Macrotus californicus, California Leaf-nosed Bat; 2003. Myotis auriculus, Southwestern Myotis; 2004. Myotis californicus, California Myotis; 2003. Myotis occultus, Fringed Myotis; 2003. Myotis yumanensis, Yuma Myotis; 2003. Nyctinomops femorosacca, Pocketed Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Nyctinomops macrotis, Big Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Myotis thysanodes, Fringed Myotis; 2002. Myotis velifer, Cave Myotis; 2004. Panthera onca, Jaguar; 2004. Pipistrellus hesperus, Western Pipistrelle; 2006. Puma concolor, Mountain Lion; 2005. Sciurus arizonensis, Arizona Gray Squirrel; 2003. Sigmodon ochrognathus, Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat, and 2004. Tadarida brasiliensis, Brazilian Free-tailed Bat.

Monocots: 2005. Agave x ajoensis, Ajo Agave; 2003. Agave murpheyi, Hohokam Agave; 1994. Agave parviflora subsp. parviflora, Santa Cruz Striped Agave; 2005. Agave schottii var. treleasei, Trelease Agave; 2005. Agave utahensis var. kaibabensis, Kaibab Agave; 2005. Allium bigelovii, Bigelow Onion; 1999. Allium gooddingii, Goodding Onion; 2005. Allium parishii, Parish Onion; 2004. Carex chihuahuensis, Chihuahuan Sedge; 2000. Carex ultra, Arizona Giant Sedge; 2004. Cathestecum erectum, False Grama; 2004. Hexalectris revoluta, Chisos Coral-root; 2005. Hexalectris spicata, Crested Coral Root; 2001. Lilium parryi, Lemon Lily; 2005. Listera convallarioides, Broadleaf Twayblade; 2000. Muhlenbergia xerophila, Weeping Muhly, and 2005. Schiedeella arizonica, Fallen Ladies’-tresses.

Reptiles: 2001. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. stictogrammus, Giant Spotted Whiptail; 2003. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus, Redback Whiptail; 2002. Chionactis occipitalis subsp. klauberi, Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake; 2003. Chionactis palarostris subsp. organica, Organ Pipe Shovel-nosed Snake; 2001. Crotalus lepidus subsp. klauberi, Banded Rock Rattlesnake; 2001. Gopherus agassizi, Desert Tortoise; 2002. Heloderma suspectum subsp. cinctum, Banded Gila Monster; 2002. Heterodon nasicus subsp. kennerlyi, Mexican Hog-nosed Snake; 2005. Kinosternon sonoriense, subsp. longifemorale, Sonoyta Mud Turtle; 2003. Lichanura trivirgata subsp. gracia, Desert Rosy Boa; 2003. Phrynosoma mcallii, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard; 2005. Sauromalus ater, Common Chuckwalla; 2001. Thamnophis eques subsp. megalops, Mexican Garter Snake; 2003. Uma rufopunctata, Yuma Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, and 2003. Xantusia arizonae, Arizona Night Lizard.

 

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(104) Lehr, J. Harry. 1978. A Catalogue of the Flora of Arizona, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona. Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona.

 

(105) Humphrey, Robert H., Albert L. Brown and A.C. Everson. April 1956. Bulletin 243, Common Arizona Range Grasses, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(106) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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(107) McGinnies, William G. 1981. Discovering the Desert, Legacy of the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

 (108) Dodge, Natt N. 1964. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument / Arizona, Natural History Handbook Series, No. 6, Washington, D.C.

 

(109) Grow Native! Don’t Plant a Pest, A Guide to Invasive Landscape Plants and Their Native Alternatives - Southeastern Arizona. Arizona Native Plant Society.

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(110) United States fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Field Office, Endangered and Threatened Species of Arizona - Summer 1991.

 

(111) California Register of Big Trees

http://www.ufei.org/BigTrees/index.html

 

(112) Kitt Peak Handouts: Common Trees and Shrubs on Kitt Peak; Common Birds of Kitt Peak; Common Mammals of Kitt Peak, and Common Reptiles and Amphibians of Kitt Peak.

 

(113) Halbedel, E. June 2005. The Birds of Kitt Peak, Revised 3rd Edition.

 

(114) Nearctica.com, Inc. 1999, The Natural World of North America.

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(115) Wildflowers of Tucson, Arizona

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(116) Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison, Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003: 59 - 67.

 

(117) Medina, Alvin L., Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Rage, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003: 141 - 148.

 

(118) Cockrum, E. Lendell. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

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(120) Duncan, Russell B. Two Rare Plants and the Warm Season Flora of a Unique Habitat in Pima County, Arizona: The Pantano Formation, Claystone Member Deposits, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Autumn 2003: 7-14.

 

(121) Reichhardt, Karen. Triteliopsis palmeri - Blue Sand Lily, an Elusive Plant of the Sand Dunes, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Volume 30 Number 2, October 2006: 10-11.

 

(122) Kaiser, Jack. Common Ferns of Southern Arizona, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Volume 18 Number 2, Spring 1994: 5-12.

 

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(HR) Historical Record (possibly without author and/or observation date)

 

(TC) Tucson Citizen (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

 

(ADS) Arizona Daily Star (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

(AHS) Arizona Historical Society

 

(ANN) Anonymous

 

(JFW) John F. Wiens

 

(MBJ) Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum

 

(RGM) G. Meades

 

(WTK) William T. Kendall  

 

 

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