September 21, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 13 SOUTH, RANGE 15 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information: Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. William T. Kendall. Special Status Species Reports - Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System.

 

 

KES Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping, restoration, or revegetation projects. Disjunct species, outliers and populations on the edge of the main population are noted as being a PERIPHERAL POPULATION. Landscaped plants are not included in the lists unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

The use of local native vegetation is recommended for landscape, restoration and revegetation projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants. Species distribution information is shared with the Heritage Data Management System of the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

 

KES Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in east-central Pima County in south-central Arizona. The township is bounded on the south by the alignment Grant Road and on the east by the alignment for Melpomene Way. Portions of this township are located within the City of Tucson and Coronado National Forest - Pusch Ridge Wilderness Area.

 

Landmarks: A southern portion of the Santa Catalina Mountains is located in the northern portion of this township with much of the township located in the foothills. Named peaks and ridges include Mt. Miguel, Thimble Peak (5,323 feet) and Saddleback Ridge. Named canyons include Bear Canyon, Bird Canyon, Breakfast Canyon, Esperero Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Sabino Canyon and Ventana Canyon. Named springs include the Barrel Spring and Gibbon Springs. Named creeks, washes and lakes include the Aqua Caliente Wash, Bear Creek, Esperero Wash, Pantano Wash, Sabino Creek, Tanque Verde Creek, Ventana Canyon Wash and Sabino Lake.

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking northeast into the Santa Catalina Mountains. Some of the plants observed in the area included Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Staghorn Cholla (Opuntia versicolor), Desert Hackberry (Celtis pallida), Longleaf Jointfir (Ephedra trifurca), Chain-fruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Hartweg Twinevine (Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa) and Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii). WTK August 2005

 

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,450 feet in the Tanque Verde Creek on the west township line to approximately 5,408 feet at a point on the east township line west of Gibbon Mountain (1).

 

Physiographic Province: Portions of this township are located within the Sonoran Desert and Mexican Highland Sections of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Mohave-Tres Hermanos- Anway Association (deep, arid soils on the valley plains), Pinaleno-Nickel-Palos Verdes Association (deep, arid, gravelly soils on deeply dissected uplands) and the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire-Cellar Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills) (3).

 

Biotic Community: Portions of this township are located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation, Semidesert Grassland of the Grassland Formation and the Madrean Evergreen Woodland of the Woodland Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township with Adjacent Sections

 

 

Plant Propagation Note

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer. Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

PLANTS

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Ruellia nudiflora (G. Engelmann & A. Gray) I. Urban var. nudiflora (5): Common Wild Petunia, Longneck Ruellia, Oregano de China, Ruellia, Violet Ruellia, Violet Wild Petunia, Wild Petunia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, banks of washes and on floodplains usually among rocks 2,500 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave americana C. Linnaeus: Agave, American Agave, American Aloe, American Century Plant, Galime, L’gok, Maguey, Maguey Amarillo (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (to 6 feet high with a flowering stem reaching 15 to 40 feet in height); within range reported from slopes, flats and along washes. EXOTIC)

 

Agave chrysantha R.H. Peebles: Agave, Apache Trail Agave, Golden-flowered Agave, Goldenflower Century Plant (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 3 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 23 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and outcrops 3,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agave deserti G. Engelmann subsp. simplex H.S. Gentry: INCORRECTLY RECORDED for this Township  in the 7/29/05 and 9/18/05 updates.

 

Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson: Cactus Spoon, Common Sotol, Desert Spoon, Sotol, Spoon Flower, Spoon Plant, Wheeler Dasylirion, Wheeler Sotol (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 8 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 15 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and rocky and gravelly hillsides 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by bighorn sheep)

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata: Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus lancea C. Linnaeus f.: African Sumac, Karee, Karree, Sauce Africano, Willow Rhus (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 20-30 feet high); within range reported from washes. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat, unable to locate in BONAP or NRCS Plants Database)

 

Apiaceae: The Carrot Family

(Umbelliferae: The Parsley Family)

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from canyons and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray): White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate, Bachomo, Baldag Shi, Batamote, Broom Baccharis, Chamiso, Chamiso del Rio, Chilca, Cucamoarisha, Cuerepillo, Dsea Miis Ro, Dsea Miis Tee, False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote, Guatarote, Hierba del Pasmo, Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla, Jara Mexicana, Jaral, Jarilla, Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten, Tu Ta’ Vi, Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 12 feet high); within range reported from along washes, streams, rivers and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Bahia absinthifolia G. Bentham: Hairyseed Bahia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Cup Fruit, White Tackstem (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats and along washes 500 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle (terrestrial biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane (terrestrial long lived annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and floodplains 1,000 to 9,000 feet elevation)

 

Euryops multifidus (C.P. Thunberg) A.P. de Condolle (Euryops subcarnosus subsp. vulgaris R.B. Nordenstam): Euryops, Hawk’s Eye, Sweet Resinbush (terrestrial perennial shrub; within range reported from flats. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Gutierrezia sp.: Snakeweed

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 6? feet high); within range reported from sandy washes and streambeds 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, arroyos, sandy washes, streambeds. alluvial plains and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Machaeranthera canescens (F.T. Pursh) A. Gray subsp. canescens var. incana (J. Lindley) A. Gray (Aster tephrodes (A. Gray) J. Blake, Machaeranthera incana (J. Lindley) E.L. Greene): Cutleaf Goldenweed, Hoary Aster, Hoary Tansyaster, Purple Aster (terrestrial long lived annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from washes, floodplains and alluvial soils 150 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida (Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Condolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake), Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Condolle var. turbinellus (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake): Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Machaeranthera tagetina Greene (Aster tagetinus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Mesa Tansyaster, Tansyleaf Spine Aster (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, riverbanks and disturbed areas 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Parthenium incanum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Crowded Rayweed, Mariola (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: Desert Chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, New Mexico Plumeseed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes and plains 200 to 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill: Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sowthistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, adjacent to wetlands and disturbed areas 150 to 8,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall (Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray, Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.J. Robinson & J.M. Greenman) J.R. Coleman: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high or more); within range reported from roadsides and along washes and streams below 6,000 feet elevation; useful in erosion control and as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Cryptantha angustifolia (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Bristlelobe Cryptantha, Cat’s-eye Panamint, Desert Cryptantha, Narrow-leaf Cryptantha, Narrow-leaved Forget-me-not, Narrow-leaved Nievitas, Narrow-leaved Popcorn Flower, Panamint Cryptantha, Peluda (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Green var. occidentalis (Lappula redowski (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. desertorum (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson, Lappula redowski (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. redowski E.D. Hatch et all): Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Flatspine Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas 1,000 to 8,500 feet elevation)

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Plagiobothrys arizonicus (A. Gray) E.L. Greene ex A. Gray: Arizona Popcornflower, Bloodweed, Blood Weed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, among rocks, washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Condolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Condolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and dirt roads below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Green Tansy Mustard, Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Western Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Hairypod Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed sites below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Lepidium oblongum J.K. Small: Peppergrass, Veiny Peppergrass, Veiny Pepperweed, Wayside Peppergrass (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from waste places and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Lesquerella gordonii (A. Gray) S. Watson: Arizona Bladderpod Mustard, Beanpod, Bladderpod Mustard, Gordon’s Bladderpod, Yellow Bladderpod (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas below 4,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Sisymbrium orientale C. Linnaeus: Indian Hedgemustard, Tumble Mustard (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from roadsides and disturbed areas 2,450 to 3,300 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex A. Gray subsp. arizonicus (S. Watson) A.R. Kruckeberg, J.E. Rodman & R.D. Worthington (Streptanthus arizonicus S. Watson): Arizona Jewel Flower, Arizona Twist Flower, Lyreleaf Jewelflower, Lyreleaf Twistflower, Silver Bells (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata, Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann forma cristata): Crested Saguaro, Fan Top Saguaro, Fishtail Saguaro, Saguaro - Crested Form (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50 feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Candy Barrelcactus - Crested Form, Crested Fishhook Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann: Arizona Jumping Cactus, Ball Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cholla, Teddy Bear Cactus, Teddybear Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, rocky slopes, talus slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes and arroyos below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. lindheimeri (G. Engelmann) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. lindheimeri E.D. Hatch et al): Cactus Apple, Nopal Pricklypear, Texas Pricklypear, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from gravelly flats. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia ficus-indica (C. Linnaeus) P. Miller: Boereturksvy, Burbank Prickly Pear, Burbank’s Spineless, Grootdoringturksvy, Indian-fig Pricklypear, Mission Cactus, Nopal, Nopal de Castilla, Prickly Pear, Spineless Cactus, Spiny Pest Pear, Sweet Pricklypear, Tuna, Tuna Blanca, Tuna Cactus, Tuna de Castilla, Tuna Fina, Tuna Mansa (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia microdasys (J.G. Lehmann) L.K. Pfeiffer (Cactus microdasys J.G. Lehmann, Opuntia macrocalyx D. Griffiths): Angel’s-wings, Bunny Ears, Bunny Ears Pricklypear, Cegador, Nopal Cegador, Polka Dot Cactus, Prickly Pear, Rabbit Ears (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) J.N. Rose (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) L. Benson: Blue Blade, Dollar Cactus, Duraznilla, Nopal Morado, Purple Pricklypear, Red Blade Pricklypear, Santa Rita Cactus, Santa Rita Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 5 feet high); within range reported from canyons, ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and valleys 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia tetracantha J.W. Toumey (Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall): Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 7 fee high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter: Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Campanulaceae: The Bellflower Family

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson var. orientalis R. McVaugh: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex sp.: Saltbush

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Marah gilensis E.L. Greene: Big Root, Gila Manroot, Wild Cucumber (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Tumamoca macdougalii J.N. Rose: Globeberry, MacDougal Tumamoc Globeberry, Tumamoc Globeberry (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from hillsides, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos 2,150 to 2,600 feet elevation)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Chamaesyce sp.: Sandmat (terrestrial herb)

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Matacora, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains and along washes and arroyos 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Astragalus nuttallianus A.P. de Condolle var. austrinus (J.K. Small) R.C. Barneby: Locoweed, Nuttall Locoweed, Nuttall Milkvetch, Small-flowered Milkvetch (terrestrial winter annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by wildlife.)

 

Coursetia glandulosa A. Gray (Coursetia microphylla A. Gray): Baby Bonnets, Chino, Chipile, Chipilillo, Coursetia, Cousamo, Lac Bush, Samo Prieto, Rosary Babybonnets, Samota, Tepechipile (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 17 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, among rocks in among rocks in canyon bottoms, rocky slopes and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lotus humistratus E.L. Greene: Foothill Deervetch, Hill Deervetch, Hill Lotus, Foothill Deervetch (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Lupinus sp.: Lupine

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh subsp. concinnus: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham var. sparsiflorus: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Desert Lupine, Mojave Lupine (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, flats, roadsides and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Senna artemisioides (C. Gaudichaud-Beaupré ex A.P. de Condolle) B.R. Randell (Cassia artemisioides C. Gaudichaud-Beaupré ex A.P. de Condolle): Feathery Cassia, Silver Senna, Silver Wild Sensitive-plant (terrestrial perennial shrub; within range reported from roadsides. EXOTIC)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfilerillo, Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heron Bill, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Erodium texanum A. Gray: Alfilerilla, Desert Stork’s Bill, False Filaree, Large-flowered Stork’s Bill, Texas Stork’s Bill (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy streambeds and sandy soils below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Phacelia sp.: Phacelia

 

Phacelia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Phacelia, Arizona Scorpionweed (terrestrial winter annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plains and flats 1,500 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. crenulata: Cleftleaf Wild Heliotrope, Common Phacelia, Caterpillar Weed, Cleftleaf Wild Heliotrope, Desert Heliotrope, Scalloped Phacelia, Scorpionweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Phacelia distans G. Bentham (Phacelia distans G. Bentham var. australis A. Brand): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Phacelia, Distant Phacelia, Fern-leaf Phacelia, Scorpionweed, Wild Heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Juglandaceae: The Walnut Family

 

Juglans major (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Arizona Black Walnut, Arizona Walnut, Nogal, Nogal Cimarron, Nogal Encarcelado, Nogal Silvestre (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (30 to 50 feet high); within range reported from canyons, creeks, streams and rivers 3,500 to 7,000 feet elevation, 1,930 and 2,050 feet elevation at remnant sites in Marana; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet)

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: Chacate, Cosahui, Gray Rantany, White Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and plains below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham var. columbariae: California Sage, Chia (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes below 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Calochortus kennedyi T.C. Porter: Desert Mariposa, Desert Mariposa Lily, Desert Mariposa Tulip, Mariposa Lily, Red Mariposa Lily (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas and flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial vine or woody climber; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats; useful as an ornamental 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon incanum (J.H. Link) R. Sweet: Hoary Abutilon, Hoary Indian Mallow, Indian Mallow, Pelotazo, Pelotazo Chico, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Gossypium thurberi A. Todaro: Algodoncillo, Desert Cotton, Thurber’s Cotton, Thurberia, Wild Cotton, Wild Desert Cotton (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 12 feet high); within range reported from canyons, gravelly and rocky slopes and along washes, streambeds and ditches 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Hibiscus coulteri W.H. Harvey ex A. Gray: Coulter Hibiscus, Desert Rosemallow, Pelotazo (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Boerhavia sp.: Spiderling

 

Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Fraxinus sp.: Ash

 

Fraxinus velutina J. Torrey (Fraxinus pennsylvanica C.D. Marsh var. velutina (J. Torrey) G.N. Miller): Arizona Ash, Desert Ash, Fresno, Smooth Ash, Toumey Ash, Velvet Ash (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (40 feet high); within range reported from moist canyons, washes, streams, creeks, rivers and around pools 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Yellow Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats 1,500 to 7,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray (Oenothera primiveris A. Gray var. caulescens P.A. Munz): Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats below 4,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago insularis A. Eastwood: Plantain (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plains and gravelly flats below 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin (Plantago purshii J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes): Bristle Bract Plantain, Indian Wheat, Pastora, Pursh Plantain, Woolly Plantain (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and damp soil in streambeds 1,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Platanaceae: The Planetree Family

 

Platanus wrightii S. Watson (Platanus racemosa T. Nuttall var. wrightii (S. Watson) L. Benson): Arizona Planetree, Arizona Sycamore, Buttonwood, Plane Tree (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (40 to 80 feet); within range reported from rocky canyons and along creeks and streams 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers; valuable in preventing erosion along stream banks)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Arundo donax C. Linnaeus: Carrizo, Giant Cane, Giant Reed (terrestrial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 23 feet high); within range reported from seeps and along creeks, streams and irrigation ditches. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills below 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bromus arizonicus (C.L. Shear) G.L. Stebbins: Arizona Brome (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, roadsides, washes, streambeds and disturbed areas)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas 1,300 to 5,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Muhlenbergia rigens (G. Bentham) A.S. Hitchcock: Deer Grass, Deergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, meadows, flats and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Poa bigelovii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner: Bigelow’s Bluegrass, Zacate Azule Nativo (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation)

 

Rhynchelytrum repens (C.L. von Willdenow) C.E. Hubb. (Melinis repens (C.L. von Willdenow) G. Zizka, Rhynchelytrum roseum C.G. Nees von Esenbeck): Creeping Molasses Grass, Natal Grass, Natal Redtop, Red Natal Grass, Rose Natal Grass, Zacate Natal, Zacate Rosado (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, roadsides, streambeds and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) F. Mason: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Eriogonum sp.: Buckwheat

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. deflexum (Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg): Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Anemone tuberosa P.A. Rydberg var. tuberosa: Desert Anemone, Desert Thimbleweed, Desert Windflower, Tuber Anemone, Windflower (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills and flats 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Delphinium scaposum E.L. Greene: Bare-stem Larkspur, Espuelita, Naked Delphinium, Tall Mountain Larkspur, Wild Delphinium (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly flats and along washes below 8,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus fremontii S. Watson var. fremontii, incl. vars. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus toumeyi C.S. Sargent, and Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas, bottomlands and water holes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Salix gooddingii J. Ball: Dudley Willow, Goodding Black Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Western Black Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas and lakeshores below 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Sapindaceae: The Soapberry Family

 

Dodonaea viscosa (N.J. von Jacquin) C. Linnaeus (Dodonaea viscosa N.J. von Jacquin var. angustifolia (C. Linnaeus f.) G. Bentham): Airia, Akeake, Chapuliztle, Cuerno de Cabra, Florida Hopbush, Granadina, Guayabillo, Hierba de la Cucaracha, Hop Bush, Jarilla, Munditos, Pirimu, Switch-sorrel, Tarachico, Varal (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (to 12 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes and along washes 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; plant may have poisonous qualities)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & L.R. Heckard var. exserta (Orthocarpus purpurascens G. Bentham var. palmeri A. Gray): Common Owl’s Clover, Escobita, Exserted Indian Paintbrush, Mohave Owl Clover, Owl’s Clover (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Leucophyllum frutescens (A.N. Berlese) I.M. Johnson: Ceniza,  Purplesage, Texas Barometer Bush, Texas Barometer Plant, Texas Ranger, Texas Silverleaf,  (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (6 to 8 feet high); within range reported from gravelly flats. EXOTIC)

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and streambeds 1,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Simmondsiaceae: The Jojoba Family

 

Simmondsia chinensis (J.H. Link) C.K. Schneider: Coffee Berry, Coffee Bush, Deernut, Goat Nut, Goatnut, Gray Box Bush, Jojoba, Pignut, Quinine Plant, Sheepnut, Wild Hazel (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, bajadas and along washes 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; important browse plant for wildlife including deer and bighorn sheep)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, arroyos, along ditches and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation. Poisonous)

 

Lycium sp.: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche, Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation; flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tamaricaceae: Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix chinensis João de Loureiro (Tamarix pentandra P. Simon von Pallas): Fivestamen Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 20 feet high); within range reported from mountains, moist plains, stream and river banks, irrigation ditches, floodplains, moist soil and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Typhaceae: The Cat-tail Family

 

Typha domingensis C.H. Persoon (Arizona specimens historically referred to as Typha angustifolia C. Linnaeus): Narrow-leaf Cattail, Southern Cattail, Tule (semi aquatic perennial herb; within range reported from along creeks and streams, sloughs, pools along streambeds, marshy areas in shallow water, at the edges of lakes and ponds and moist soil 1,000 to 5,000 (?) feet elevation)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams 1,500 to 3,500 feet elevation; the fruit is eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Vitaceae: The Grape Family

 

Vitis arizonica G. Engelmann: Arizona Grape, Canyon Grape, Parra Cimarrona, Parra del Monte, Vid (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine or woody climber; within range reported from canyons and along creeks, streams and watercourses 2,000 to 7,500 feet elevation)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely deliniating the desert regions)

 

 

ANIMALS

 

BIRDS

 

Cathartidae: New World Vultures

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Columbidae: Doves and Pigeons

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: Dogs and Allies

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Castoridae: Beaver

 

Castor canadensis Kuhle: American Beaver; Beaver; Beaver Castor (Hispanic) (found in aquatic habitats including creeks, streams, rivers, marshes, cienegas, ponds and lakes; feeds on bark, branches, buds, leaves or needles and twigs of alder, aspen, birch, cattail, cottonwood, maple, mesquite, tamarix and willow, and the roots of pond lilies and other tuberous plants; beaver dams help reduce erosion and provide habitat for other animals including otters and waterfowl; Beavers have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the permanent streams in Arizona, their historical distribution in Pima County is unknown.)

 

Felidae: Cats

 

Felis concolor Linnaeus (Puma concolor): California Lion, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, El Leon (Hispanic), Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mountain Lion, Painter American Lion, Panther; Puma  (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bears, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupine, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer)

 

Lynx rufus (Schreber) (Felis rufus): Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat (feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes)

 

Geomyidae: Pocket Gophers

 

Thomomys bottae (Eydoux and Gervais): Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher (feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers)

 

Heteromyidae: Kangaroo Rats and Pocket Mice

 

Dipodomys sp.: Kangaroo Rat

 

Leporidae: Hares and Rabbits

 

Lepus californicus Gray: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti)

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

Sciuridae: Squirrels and Allies

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman) (Citellus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman)): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel (feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus (Citellus tereticaudus (Baird)): Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo,  paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking young quail)

 

Citellus variegatus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel (feeds on acorns, bird’s eggs and young birds, fruits, juniper berries, nuts and seeds of agave, black walnut, cacti, mesquite and other plants; found in rocky areas, boulder piles, cliffs, hills and talus slopes; nests beneath boulders)

 

Tayassuidae: Javelina

 

Peccari tajacu Linnaeus (Tayassu tajacu): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grass, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets)

 

Ursidae: Bears

 

Ursus americanus (Baird) (Euarctos americanus (Pallus)): Black Bear, Oso Negro (feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fruit, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. EXTIRPATED from township)

 

Ursus arctos (Linnaeus): Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (feeds on berries, carrion, fish, fungi, insects, leaves, mammals, roots and sprouts; reported from the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson. EXTIRPATED from Arizona)

 

 

Listing Footnotes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                Mt. Lemmon, Arizona – 15 Minute Series Topographic 1957

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/index/nwgctA.html

*Chamber, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field guide,

*Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

http://www.naba.org/pubs/enames2.html

*The Collection, Volume 4 Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003

http://tcbmed.com/Newsletters/Volume4-Issue4-Usnea.html

*Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA

*Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California

*Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

*Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

*Florida Nature

http://www.floridanature.org/

http://www.floridanature.org/copyright.asp

*Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Depatment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistltoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

http://www.meden.demon.co.uk/Malvaceae/Hermannia/American.html

*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

*Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

http://www.itis.usda.gov/

*The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005. Published on the Internet

http://www.ipni.org

*Jepson Flora Project

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html

*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

*Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/herb/TUCSONS/tucsonsA-C.html

*Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve.

*Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

*School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

*Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

*Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Texas Native Shrubs

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/indexscientific.htm

*Thornber, J.J. 1909. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station.

*Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

www.maps4u.com

*Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

*Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

*United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Web Site

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

*University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

*Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

*Walters, James W. A Guide to Forest Insect and Disease Management pf Southwestern Conifers, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

*Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,  New York.

*Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, Robert Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West, Pioneer of Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming.