September 8, 2005 Update

 

TOWNSHIP 13 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

Major Contributor and Source: William T. Kendall. Special Status Species Reports - Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System.

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping, restoration, or revegetation projects. Disjunct species, outliers and populations on the edge of the main population are noted as being a PERIPHERAL POPULATION. Landscaped plants are not included in the lists unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

The use of local native vegetation is recommended for landscape, restoration and revegetation projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants. Species distribution information is shared with the Heritage Data Management System of the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. The information presented as township notes was obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not warrant the accuracy of the information presented in these listings.

 

Comments and the reporting of corrections, unrecorded species in townships and information relating to the historical distribution of species would be appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to:

KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in northeastern Pima County in south-central Arizona. The township is bounded on the north by the alignment for Ina Road Road, on the south by the alignment for Grant Road, on the east by the alignment for 1st Avenue and on the west by the alignment for Camino de Oeste. A portion of the northwest quarter is within the town limits for the Town of Marana. A southern portion of this township is within the city limits for the City of Tucson. A potion of the community of Casas Adobes is located in the northern portion of the township.

 

Landmarks: Named washes, creeks and rivers include the Canada del Oro, Pima Wash, Rillito Creek and Santa Cruz River.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,185 feet located south of the northwest corner on the west township line in the Santa Cruz River to approximately 2,685 feet at the southwest corner (1).

 

 

This photograph was taken looking west, the Tucson Mountains are in the background. Some of  the plants observed in the area included Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea) and Desert Unicorn Plant (Proboscidea althaeifolia). WTK September 2005

 

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Mohave-Tres Hermanos-Anway Association (deep, arid soils on the valley plains), Pinaleno-Nickel-Palos Verdes Association (deep, arid, gravelly soils on deeply dissected uplands) and the Rillino-Latene-Cave Association (deep to very shallow, arid calcareous soils on uplands) (3).

 

Biotic community: This township is located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township with Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

Plant Propagation Note

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer. Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

 

 

PLANTS

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata (5): Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height) (6); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Aizoaceae: The Fig-marigold Family

 

Trianthema portulacastrum C. Linnaeus: Black Pigweed, Desert Horsepurslane, Desert Purslane, Giant Pigweed, Horse Purslane, Phak Bia Hin, Pigweed, Purslane, Verdolaga Blanca, Verdolaga Rastrera (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus lancea C. Linnaeus f.: African Sumac, Karee, Karree, Sauce Africano, Willow Rhus (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 20-30 feet high); within range reported from washes. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat, unable to locate in BONAP or NRCS Plants Database)

 

Apiaceae: The Carrot Family

(Umbelliferae: The Parsley Family)

 

Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose var. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter (Lilaeopsis recurva A.W. Hill, Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (D.F. von Schlechtendal) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose subsp. recurva (A.W. Hill) J.M. Affolter): Cienega False Rush, Cienega Water Umbel, Huachuca Water Umbel, Schaffner’s Grasswort (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from wet ground near perennial seeps, springs, streams, rivers, cienegas, marshy wetlands and in shallow water; once occurred in the Santa Cruz River Valley near Tucson)

 

Apocynacaeae: The Dogbane Family

 

Nerium oleander C. Linnaeus: Oleander (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 20 feet high) within range reported from roadsides. EXOTIC. Poisonous)

 

Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. cynanchoides (Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. cynanchoides): Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Twinevine (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from plains and along washes, arroyos and streams 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate, Bachomo, Baldag Shi, Batamote, Broom Baccharis, Chamiso, Chamiso del Rio, Chilca, Cucamoarisha, Cuerepillo, Dsea Miis Ro, Dsea Miis Tee, False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote, Guatarote, Hierba del Pasmo, Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla, Jara Mexicana, Jaral, Jarilla, Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten, Tu Ta’ Vi, Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 12 feet high); within range reported from along washes, streams, rivers and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy and gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane (terrestrial long lived annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and floodplains 1,000 to 9,000 feet elevation)

 

Gutierrezia sarothrae (F.T. Pursh) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby: Broombrush, Broom Snakeweed, Broomweed, Cayaye, Hierba de la Vibora, Hierba de San Nicolas, Matchbrush, Matchweed, Perennial Broomweed, Perrenial Snakeweed, Resin-weed, Round-head Broomweed, Sheepweed, Stinkweed, Snakeweed, Turpentine Weed, Yellowtop, Yellow-weed, Yerba de San Nicholas (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Helianthus annuus C. Linnaeus: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Isoauringonkukka, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Wild Artichoke, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from bajadas, flats, roadsides, creeks and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Heterotheca psammophila R. Wagenknecht (Heterotheca subaxillaris (J.B. de Lamarck) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby sensu T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles): Camphorweed, Golden Aster, Gordolobo, Telegraph Plant (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditches, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to over 6 feet high); within range reported from sandy washes and streambeds 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, arroyos, sandy washes, streambeds. alluvial plains and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, draws and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lactuca serriola C. Linnaeus: China Lettuce, Compass Plant, Horse Thistle, Milk Thistle, Prickly Lettuce, Wild Lettuce, Wild Opium (terrestrial annual or biennial herb; within range reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and waste land 1,000 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Laennecia schiedeana (C.F. Lessing) G.L. Nesom (Conyza schiedeana (C.F. Lessing) A.J. Cronquist, Erigeron schiedeanus C.F. Lessing): Gordolobo, Pineland Marshtail, Simonillo, Xurhatajasi (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from flats, washes and disturbed areas (2,400?)  7,000 to 9,000 feet elevation)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill (Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill subsp. asper): Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sowthistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, adjacent to wetlands and disturbed areas 150 to 8,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.J. Robinson & J.M. Greenman) J.R. Coleman: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Xanthium strumarium C. Linnaeus var. canadense (P. Miller) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Xanthium saccharatum C.F. Wallroth): Abrojo, Cadillos, Canada Coclebur, Clotbur, Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur, Rough Cocklebur (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, washes, floodplains, streambeds and adjacent to wetlands 100 to 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high or more); within range reported from roadsides and along washes and streams below 6,000 feet elevation; useful in erosion control and as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,100 to 4,300 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas below 4,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata, Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann forma cristata): Crested Saguaro, Fan Top Saguaro, Fishtail Saguaro, Saguaro - Crested Form (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50 feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Candy Barrelcactus - Crested Form, Crested Fishhook Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mammillaria thornberi C.R. Orcutt (Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann in Arizona Flora): Clustered Fishhook, Thornber Clustered Pincushion Cactus, Thornber’s Nipple Cactus, Thornber Pincushion (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from bajadas, flats, valleys and along washes 1,200 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, very attractive in both flower and fruit. PERIPHERAL-DISJUCT POPULATION)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L. Benson (Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & Bigelow var. ramosa Peebles): Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent treelike subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 500 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann: Arizona Jumping Cactus, Ball Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cholla, Teddy Bear Cactus, Teddybear Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, rocky slopes, talus slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes and arroyos below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia chlorotica G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Dollarjoint Pricklypear, Nopal, Nopal Rastrera, Pancake Pear, Pancake Prickly-pear, Silver-dollar Cactus, Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 6 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, hills, flats and valleys 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia ficus-indica (C. Linnaeus) P. Miller: Boereturksvy, Burbank Prickly Pear, Burbank’s Spineless, Grootdoringturksvy, Indian-fig Pricklypear, Mission Cactus, Nopal, Nopal de Castilla, Prickly Pear, Spineless Cactus, Spiny Pest Pear, Sweet Pricklypear, Tuna, Tuna Blanca, Tuna Cactus, Tuna de Castilla, Tuna Fina, Tuna Mansa (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped an naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia microdasys (J.G. Lehmann) L.K. Pfeiffer (Cactus microdasys J.G. Lehmann, Opuntia macrocalyx D. Griffiths): Angel’s-wings, Bunny Ears, Bunny Ears Pricklypear, Cegador, Nopal Cegador, Polka Dot Cactus, Prickly Pear, Rabbit Ears (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) J.N. Rose (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) L. Benson: Blue Blade, Dollar Cactus, Duraznilla, Nopal Morado, Purple Pricklypear, Red Blade Pricklypear, Santa Rita Cactus, Santa Rita Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 5 feet high); within range reported from canyons, ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and valleys 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped an naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia tetracantha J.W. Toumey (Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall): Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 7 fee high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter: Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Capparaceae (Capparidaceae): The Caper Family

 

Polanisia dodecandra (C. Linnaeus) A.P. de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis (Polanisia trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis): Roughseed Clammyweed, Sandyseed Clammyweed, Western Clammyweed (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from slopes, flats, washes and sandy streambeds 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Caprifoliaceae: The Honeysuckle Family

 

Sambucus nigra C. Linnaeus subsp. canadensis (C. Linnaeus) R. Bolli (Sambucus caerulea C.F. Rafinesque var. mexicana (C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle) L.D. Benson, Sambucus mexicana C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle): American Elderberry, Arizona Blue Elder, Blueberry Elder, Arizona Elder, Common Elderberry, Desert Elderberry, Elder, Elderberry, Mexican Elder, Mexican Elderberry, Sauco, Tapiro, Tapiro Sauco (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub, shrub or tree (to 36 feet high); within range reported from washes, floodplains, creeks, streams, watercourses, ditches, cienegas and wet areas 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; foliage is browsed by deer, fruits are eaten by birds)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Allscale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Ipomoea hederacea (C. Linnaeus) N.J. von Jacquin (Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f.): Blue Morning-glory, Ivyleaf Morning-glory, Morning Glory, Trompillo Morado (terrestrial annual herb or vine; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, along washes and floodplains 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Tumamoca macdougalii J.N. Rose: Globeberry, MacDougal Tumamoc Globeberry, Tumamoc Globeberry (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from hillsides, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos 2,150 to 2,600 feet elevation)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Chamaesyce sp.: Sandmat

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Matacora, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains and along washes and arroyos 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by wildlife.)

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Comitin, Arizona Ironwood, Desert Ironwood, Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, floodplains and along washes below 2,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep, the seeds are an important food of desert animals. PERIPHERAL POPULATION)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfilerillo, Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heron Bill, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy streambeds and sandy soils below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet)

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray var. multiflora (Mentzelia pumila T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray var. multiflora (T. Nuttall) I. Urban & E.F. Gilg): Adonis Blazingstar, Desert Mentzelia, Blazingstar, Many-flowered Mentzelia (terrestrial biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas below 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial vine or woody climber; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats; useful as an ornamental 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Malva parviflora C. Linnaeus: Cheeseweed, Cheeseweed Mallow, Little Mallow, Malva, Small-flowered Malva, Small-whorl Mallow (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 8,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray subsp. ambigua: Apricot Globemallow, Apricot Mallow, Desert Hollyhock, Desert Globemallow, Desert Mallow, Globe Mallow, Mal de Ojo, Mountain Apricot Mallow, Plantas Muy Malas, Sore-eye Poppy (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed sites below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Fraxinus velutina J. Torrey (Fraxinus pennsylvanica C.D. Marsh var. velutina (J. Torrey) G.N. Miller): Arizona Ash, Desert Ash, Fresno, Smooth Ash, Toumey Ash, Velvet Ash (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (40 feet high); within range reported from moist canyons, washes, streams, creeks, rivers and around pools 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Eschscholzia californica L.K. von Chamisso subsp. mexicana (E.L. Greene) J.C. Clark (Eschscholtzia mexicana E.L. Greene): Amapola Amorilla,, Amopola del Campo, California Poppy, Desert Gold Poppy, Gold Poppy, Mexican Gold Poppy (terrestrial winter annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, ridge tops, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and roadsides below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Pedaliaceae: The Sesame Family

(Martyniaceae: The Unicorn-plant Family)

 

Proboscidea althaeifolia (G. Bentham) J. Decaisne (Proboscidea arenaria (G. Engelmann) J. Decaisne): Cuernitos, Desert Devil’s-claw, Desert Unicorn-plant, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-horn, Elephant Tusks, Gato, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Roundbrack Devil’s Claw, Sand Devil’s Claw, Torito, Una de Gato (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Proboscidea parviflora (E.O. Wooton) P.C. Standley subsp. parviflora: Cuernitos, Doubleclaw, Elephant Tusks, New Mexico Devil’s-claw, Small-flowered Devil’s-claw, Elephant Tusks, Small-flowered Unicorn Plant (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from mesas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Flaxgrass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, roadsides, along washes, low-lying areas and disturbed areas below 8,250 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach var. aristidoides: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and along washes and streambeds below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas 1,300 to 5,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura (Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz): False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, hills, plains and flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus subsp. leporinum (J.H. Link) G. Arcangeli (Critesion murinum (C. Linnaeus) R.M. Love subsp. leporinum (J.H. Link) R.M. Love, Hordeum leporinum J.H. Link): Cebadilla Silvestre, Common Foxtail, Hare Barley, Leporinum Barley, Mouse Barley, Wild Barley (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 9,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Phalaris minor A.J. Retzius: Alpisillo, Alpiste Silvestre, Littleseed Canarygrass (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, along washes, moist soil and disturbed areas 150 to 3,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, moist soil, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex F.L. Scribner (Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey var. wrightii (W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner) F.W. Gould): Alkali Sacaton, Big Sacaton, Sacaton, Sacaton Grass, Wright Sacaton, Zacaton (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from plateaus, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, river banks, floodplains and bottomlands 2,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey (Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg): Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or woody climber; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus fremontii S. Watson var. fremontii, incl. vars. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus toumeyi C.S. Sargent, and Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas, bottomlands and water holes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers; beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark)

 

Salix gooddingii J. Ball: Dudley Willow, Goodding Black Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Western Black Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas and lakeshores below 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Sapindaceae: The Soapberry Family

 

Sapindus saponaria C. Linnaeus var. drummondii (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) L. Benson (Sapindus drummondii W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott): Amole, Amolio, Arbolillo, Cherioni, Guayul, Jaboncillo, Matamuchacho, Ojo de Loro, Palo Blanco, Soapberry, Tehuistle, Tzatzupa, Western Soapberry, Wild Chinaberry, Wild China-tree, Wing-leaf Soapberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, moist soil along streams and washes and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; seeds and leaves are poisonous)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and streambeds 1,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Simmondsiaceae: The Jojoba Family

 

Simmondsia chinensis (J.H. Link) C.K. Schneider: Coffee Berry, Coffee Bush, Deernut, Goat Nut, Goatnut, Gray Box Bush, Jojoba, Pignut, Quinine Plant, Sheepnut, Wild Hazel (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, bajadas and along washes 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; important browse plant for wildlife including deer and bighorn sheep)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Datura discolor G. Bernham: Desert Thorn-apple, Small Datura, Poisonous Nightshade, Tolache, Toloache (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas below 2,000+ feet. Poisonous)

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, arroyos, along ditches and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation. Poisonous)

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. andersonii: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Desert Wolfberry, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Salicieso, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. wrightii A. Gray: Water Jacket, Wright Desert Thorn, Wright Lycium (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche, Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation; flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tamaricaceae: Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix chinensis João de Loureiro (Tamarix pentandra P. Simon von Pallas): Fivestamen Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 20 feet high); within range reported from mountains, moist plains, stream and river banks, irrigation ditches, floodplains, moist soil and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (7 to 17 feet high); within range reported from rivers, creeks, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, marshy areas, reservoirs and tanks. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, roadsides and along washes and streambeds below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lantana urticoides A. von Hayek (Lantana horrida K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Bunchberry, Calico Bush, Common Lantana, Common Verbena, Hierba de Cristo, Lantana, Texas Lantana, West Indian Shrubverbena (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub; within range reported from roadsides, washes and streams and disturbed areas at about 2,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Foothill Paloverde, Longleaf Paloverde, Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions)

 

Tribulus terrestris C. Linnaeus: Abojo de Flor Amarilla, Bullhead, Cadillo, Caltrop, Goathead, Ground Bur-nut, Mexican Sandbur, Puncture Vine, Puncturevine, Tackweed, Texas Sandbur, Toboso, Torito, Torrito (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

 

ANIMALS

 

BIRDS

 

Accipitridae: Eagles, Hawks, Kites and Allies

 

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus): Gavilan Norteno (Hispanic), Marsh Hawk, Northern Harrier (feeds on birds, mice and other small mammals; nest is made of grasses, reeds and stalks located on the ground in grasses or marsh)

 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus): Aguila Culva (Hispanic), Bald Eagle (feeds on small animals, birds, carrion and fish; nest is a platform of large sticks and vegetation located on cliffs or in forks of trees)

 

Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck): Aguililla Cinchada (Hispanic), Aguililla Roja (Hispanic), Harris’s Hawk (feeds on rodents, rabbits and birds; nest is a platform of sticks located in mesquites, small trees and yuccas)

 

Anatidae: Ducks, Geese and Swans

 

Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus): Black-bellied Tree Duck, Black-bellied Whistling-duck, Pato Chiflador Prieto (Hispanic) (feeds on grasses and seeds; nests are made in marshes, on snags or cavities in trees)

 

Ardeidae: Bitterns, Egrets and Herons

 

Ardea herodias Linnaeus: Garza (Hispanic), Garza Ceniza (Hispanic), Great Blue Heron (feeds on crayfish, fish, frogs, insects, mice, mollusks, insects and spiders; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs, islets, rocky islands, swamps and trees)

 

Cathartidae: New World Vultures

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Columbidae: Doves and Pigeons

 

Columbina inca (Lesson) (Scardafella inca (Lesson)): Gugu (Tohono O’odham), Inca Dove, Tortola (Hispanic), Tortolita Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; saucer shaped nests are made of mixed vegetation and located in shrubs and low trees)

 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are crude stick platforms located in thickets and trees)

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

Cuculidae: Anis, Cuckoos and Roadrunners

 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs)

 

Falconidae: Caracaras and Falcons

 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus: Merlin, Pigeon Hawk (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests in cavities, cliff ledges, niches, tree tops and on the ground)

 

Falco mexicanus Schlegel: Halcon Cafe' (Hispanic), Prairie Falcon (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests are made on sticks located on cliff niches or on the bare ground)

 

Falco peregrinus Tunstall subsp. anatum Boneparte: American Peregrine Falcon, Duck Hawk, Halcon Peregino (Hispanic), Peregrine Falcon (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests are made in potholes and scrapes or on sticks located on cliff ledges)

 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus: Cernicalo Americano (Hispanic), American Kestrel, Sisiki (Tohono O’odham), Sparrow Hawk (feeds on amphibians, birds, insects, reptiles, rodents and small birds; eggs are laid in holes in saguaros and trees and on cliffs)

 

Mimidae: Catbirds, Mockingbirds and Thrashers

 

Toxostoma curvirostre (Swainson): Palmer’s Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Comun (Hispanic), Cuitlacoche Pico Curvo (Hispanic), Curve-billed Thrasher, Kudwik (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests are cups made of twigs located in chollas and shrubs)

 

Odontiphoridae: Quail

 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel) (Lophortyx gambelii Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Gambel) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; eggs are laid in a ground scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti)

 

Pelecanidae: Pelicans

 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin: American White Pelican, Pelicano Blanco (Hispanic), White Pelican (feeds on crayfish, crustaceans, fish and salamanders; nest are mounds made of debris, sand, sticks, stones and flattened vegetation located on the ground or bulrushes; only occasionally observed in Tucson, possibly as storm-driven birds)

 

Picidae: Woodpeckers and Wrynecks

 

Melanerpes uropygialis (Baird) (Centurus uropygialus Baird): Carpintero del Desierto (Hispanic), Carpintero Gila (Hispanic), Gila Woodpecker, Hikiwigi (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit, honey and wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Strigidae: Typical Owls

 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin): Buho (Hispanic), Great Horned Owl, Tecolote Cornudo (Hispanic), Tecolote Cuernudo (Hispanic) (feeds on birds and small mammals; nests are made out of the deserted nests of other birds located in crevices, potholes, trees, on bluffs, cliffs and on the ground)

 

Micrathene whitneyi (Cooper): Elf Owl, Kuhkwul (Tohono O’odham), Tecolote Enano (Hispanic), Tecolotito (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests in old woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Troglodytidae: Wrens

 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafresnaye): Cactus Wren, Hokkad (Tohono O’odham), Matraca del Desierto (Hispanic), Saltapared del Disierto (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are straw, spheroid located in cacti, yuccas and thorny bushes)

 

INSECTS

 

Homoptera: Aphids, Cicadas, Hoppers, Psyllids, Scale Insects, Whiteflies and Others

 

Dactylopiidae: Cochineal Insects

 

Dactylophius coccus Costa: Cochineal Scale (observed on Bunny Ears, Engelmann, Major and Santa Rita Pricklypear Cacti)

 

Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, Sawflies, Wasps and Others

 

Apidae: Honeybees

 

Apis mellifera Linnaeus: African Honeybee, European Honeybee, Honeybee (found in bee boxes, buildings, water boxes and holes in ground, caves, cavities in saguaros, crevices, hollow trees logs. Introduced EXOTIC; domestic animal kept for crop pollination and for honey and beeswax production; feral honeybees, honeybees that have escaped and formed colonies in natural areas, may pose a threat to humans and wildlife)

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: Dogs and Allies

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Canis familiaris: Domestic Dog (feral dogs and packs of feral dogs pose a threat to humans and wildlife. EXOTIC)  

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) subsp. scottii: Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats)

 

Castoridae: Beaver

 

Castor canadensis Kuhle: American Beaver; Beaver; Beaver Castor (Hispanic) (found in aquatic habitats including creeks, streams, rivers, marshes, cienegas, ponds and lakes; feeds on bark, branches, buds, leaves or needles and twigs of alder, aspen, birch, cattail, cottonwood, maple, mesquite, tamarix and willow, and the roots of pond lilies and other tuberous plants; beaver dams help reduce erosion and provide habitat for other animals including otters and waterfowl; beavers have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the permanent streams in Arizona, their historical distribution in Pima County is unknown.)

 

Cervidae:  Deer and Allies

 

Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque): Black-tailed Deer,  Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic) (feeds on beans, branches, fruit, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurge; found in desert foothills with scrub growth, thick growth along washes, forest edges and mountains )

 

Cricetidae: Mice and Native Rats

 

Neotoma albigula Hartley: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat (feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca; nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows)

 

Felidae: Cats

 

Felis catus: House Cat (feral cats pose a threat to wildlife. EXOTIC)

 

Felis concolor Linnaeus (Puma concolor): California Lion, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, El Leon (Hispanic), Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mountain Lion, Painter American Lion, Panther; Puma  (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bears, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupine, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer)

 

Lynx rufus (Schreber) (Felis rufus): Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat (feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes)

 

Heteromyidae: Kangaroo Rats and Pocket Mice

 

Dipodomys ordii Woodhouse: Five-toed Kangaroo Rat, Ord’s Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera Ord (Hispanic) (feeds on cones, fruits, leaves, needles, seeds, grasshoppers and moths; the nest is made in sandy, rarely hard or gravelly, underground burrows)

 

Perognathus longimembris (Coues), Little Pocket Mouse (feeds on greens and seeds)

 

Leporidae: Hares and Rabbits

 

Lepus californicus Gray: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti)

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

Mustelidae: Skunks, Weasels and Allies

 

Lontra canadensis (Schreber) (Lutra canadensis (Schreber)): Arizona Otter, Arizona River Otter, Nearctic River Otter, Northern river Otter, Pah-hua-pe’na (Tewa), River Otter, Southwestern River Otter (feeds on amphibians, crustaceans, fish, large aquatic insects, small mammals, aquatic plants and turtles; found in permanently flowing water of streams and rivers and lakes, ponds, including beaver ponds, marshes, cienegas with overhanging bank vegetation and haul-out and slide sites for access, and establishing dens in banks; river otters have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the larger permanent river systems in Arizona, their historical presence in Pima County is unknown)

 

Phyllostomatidae: Leaf-nosed Bats

 

Macrotus californicus Baird: California Leaf-nosed Bat, Leaf-nosed Bat, Waterhouse’s Leaf-nosed Bat (feeds on beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, moths and other insects; found in caves and abandoned mine tunnels in the Sonoran and Mohave Desertscrub)

 

Sciuridae: Squirrels and Allies

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman) (Citellus harrisii (Audubon and Bachman)): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel (feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus (Citellus tereticaudus (Baird)): Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo,  paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking young quail)

 

Citellus variegatus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel (feeds on acorns, bird’s eggs and young birds, fruits, juniper berries, nuts and seeds of agave, black walnut, cacti, mesquite and other plants; found in rocky areas, boulder piles, cliffs, hills and talus slopes; nests beneath boulders)

 

Tayassuidae: Javelina

 

Peccari tajacu Linnaeus (Tayassu tajacu): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grass, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets)

 

Ursidae: Bears

 

Ursus americanus (Baird) (Euarctos americanus (Pallus)): Black Bear, Oso Negro (feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fruit, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. EXTIRPATED from township)

 

Ursus arctos (Linnaeus): Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (feeds on berries, carrion, fish, fungi, insects, leaves, mammals, roots and sprouts; reported from the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson. EXTIRPATED from Arizona)

 

Vespertilionidae: Plain-nosed Bats

 

Eptesicus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois): Big Brown Bat, Murcielago Cafe’ Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; roosts under bridges, in buildings, caves, crevices in cliff faces, mines, holes in saguaros and trees)

 

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

Jaynes, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1968

                Tucson North, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1984

                               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

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*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

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*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

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*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

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*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

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*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

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*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

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*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

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*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

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http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

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*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

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http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

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http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

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*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

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