April 17, 2008 Update

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP 13 SOUTH, RANGE 06 WEST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking southeast into the township. William T. Kendall November 4, 2005

 

 

“To know the desert involves an acquaintance with all its aspects, and all its physical features,

as well as all of the animals and plants that have learned how to find in it a congenial place to live. The

most significant lesson that the desert dweller can learn from a familiarity with its plant and animal life is to

 regard himself not as an exile from some better place, but as a man at home in an environment to which his life can be adjusted without physical or intellectual loss.” Forest Shreve, The Cactus and

Its Home (Found in Discovering the Desert, by William G. McGinnies)

 

 

 

MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 

 

Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum *MBJ (observation date, if shown)*  

 

William T. Kendall *WTK (observation date, if shown)*

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*

 

Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85 (date of search for information on species)*

 

E. Lendell Cockrum, 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. This Inclusion is based on the general distribution maps and statements. *118 (distribution note, map - Figure Number and Page Number)*

 

 

 

SPECIES DISTRIBUTION LISTINGS

 

 

Species Distribution Listings are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. Species Distribution Listings are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered works in progress. The source(s) used for the inclusion of the species in a listing is highlighted in green *00* in the footnotes. Due to the lack of first hand knowledge, in the listing of animals, unless otherwise noted in the footnotes, species may be included based on general distribution maps and/or statements and not on an actual sight record. I recommend that we consider a species as being “confirmed” to a township or general listing area only after we have at least three recorded sightings, cited in the footnotes, with no more than one of those records being based on general distribution mapping for the species. Note that the Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) *85* may have several collections recorded for a species within any given township or listing area, and that the date shown in parentheses is a date of the search of their records and not a date of recorded sighting.  Note also that many of the individual species collection records found in SEINet include additional associated species.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by division, class, family and genus within their kingdoms. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat, the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed and footnotes. An attempt is being made to identify the range in mature (flowering/fruiting) heights reported for the plants. The habitat description is provided in order to help you visualize the types of natural habitats the species is found in and ones in which it might be planted back into in a landscape or restoration project. The range in elevation has been rounded off to the nearest 100 feet up, for the higher elevation or down, for the lower elevation. Species reported from within 0 to 100 feet as their lower elevation limit have been recorded as occurring “from sea level”. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, may be noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native plants are recommended for use in landscape and restoration projects. Many native species require little, if any, irrigation once established. Ideally restoration should include those plants that were native to the property prior to clearing. In order to determine what plants were native to the property you might try to locate photographs of the property prior to clearing or look for natural areas and remnant populations and plants adjacent to where the restoration is to take place. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density.

 

The use of native plants in landscape and restoration projects encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty and unique identity and heritage.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Questions, concerns, corrections and comments, including the reporting of unrecorded species and information relating to historical distributions, may be sent to the following address: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 86091, Tucson, Arizona 85754-6091, or E-mail to:KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. These listings are not meant to take the place of on-site surveys for species. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings. Attempts are made to keep the information contained in the Species Distribution Listings as accurate as possible, but Kendall Environmental Surveys disclaims any implied warranty or representation about its accuracy, completeness, or appropriateness for any particular purposes. Users of the information found in the listings assume full responsibility for their use of the information and understand that Kendall Environmental Surveys is not responsible or liable for any claim, loss, or damage resulting from its use.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling these plants and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Footnotes for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may be shown in red (*00*). Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Introduction

 

Township Notes

 

Conservation Related Organizations and Nurseries

 

Listing of Plants

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

Class Gnetopsida: The Gnetops

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

                                Class Insecta: The Insects

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

Class Reptilia: The Reptiles

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

TOWNSHIP NOTES

 

 

LOCATION: This township is located in northwestern Pima County in south-central Arizona. This township is bounded on the west by the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.

 

Historic Ranching Activities: Named tanks include the Camerons Stock Tank.

 

LANDMARKS: The John the Baptist Mountains are located in this township. Named peaks include Black Mountain (3,008 feet) and Locomotive Rock (2,107 feet). A portion of this township is located within the Valley of the Ajo. Named arroyos include Arroyo Chico and the Daniels Arroyo.

 

ELEVATION: Elevations range from approximately 1,580 feet on the south township line west of the southeast corner to approximately 3,008 feet at Black Mountain southwest of the northeast corner (1).

 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

SOILS: Soils have been described as being Hyperthermic (very hot) Arid Soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm)  mean annual precipitation) of the Gilman-Antho-Valencia Association (deep soils on floodplains and alluvial fans), Gunsight-Rillito-Harqua Association (deep, gravelly, calcareous soils on the upper slopes), Rock Outcrop-Lomitas-Cherioni Association (rock outcrop and very shallow, and shallow soils on low hills and mountains) and isolated areas of Rock Outcrop and shallow soils (3).

 

BIOTIC COMMUNITY: Portions of this township are located within the Lower Colorado River and Arizona Upland Subdivisions of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Map Printed from TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township and Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS TOWNSHIP THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs (over 7 feet in height)

 

Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea - 5’ to 60’)

Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina - 2’ to 56’)

Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida - 40” to 40’)

Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota - 10’ to 33’)

Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens - 5’ to 33’)

Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla - 6’ to 26’)

Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi - 5’ to 25’)

Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii - 40” to 25’)

Arizona Jumping Bean (Sebastiania bilocularis - 7’ to 20’, CAUTION: Handle with care, or do not handle

at all, the sap is poisonous, not recommended for use in urban landscaping)

Desert Hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana - 3’ to 20’)

Bitter Snakewood (Condalia globosa - 2’ to 20’)

Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta - 2’ to 18’)

Emory Crucifixion Thorn (Castela emoryi - 3’ to 15’)

Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida - 3’ to 15’)

Seep Willow (Baccharis salicifolia - 32” to 15’)

Kearney Snakewood (Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana - 40” to 13’)

Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens - 3’ to 13’)

Pencil Cholla (Cylindropuntia arbuscula - 3’ to 12’)

Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata - 20” to 12’)

Baja Desert-thorn (Lycium brevipes - 20” to 12’)

Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni - 2’ to 11’)

Desert Broom (Baccharis sarothroides - 3’ to 10’)

Fremont Lycium (Lycium fremontii - 2’ to 10’)

Colorado Buckhorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis - 44” to 9’)

Teddybear Cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii - 3’ to 9’)

Shrubby Limberbush (Jatropha cuneata - 2’ to 9’)

Berlandier Lycium (Lycium berlandieri var. longistylum - 3’ to 8’)

Emory Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus emoryi - 1’ to 8’)

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Drummond Clematis (Clematis drummondii - 10’ to 40’)

 

 

Shrubs (2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Major Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major - 32” to 7’)

Canyon Ragweed (Ambrosia ambrosioides - 1’ to 7’)

Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii - 20” to 6’)

White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa - 18” to 6’)

Desert Christmas Cactus (Cylindropuntia leptocaulis - 1’ to 6’)

California Copperleaf (Acalypha californica - 20” to 5’)

Rough Jointfir (Ephedra aspera - 1’ to 5’)

White Rantany (Krameria grayi - 1’ to 5’)

American Threefold (Trixis californica - 10” to 5’)

Fairyduster (Calliandra eriophylla - 4” to 5’)

Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea - 1’ to 4’)

White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa - 7” to 40”)

 

 

Shrubs (under 2’), Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii - 12” to 52”)

Parry Penstemon (Penstemon parryi - 2’ to 4’)

Goodding Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii - 4” to 32”)

Desert Chicory (Rafinesquia neomexicana - 6” to 24”)

Dakota Mock Vervain (Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida - 8” to 20”)

Arrowleaf Mallow (Malvella sagittifolia - 6” to 18”)

White Tackstem (Calycoseris wrightii - 10” to 12”)

Desert Evening Primroase (Camissonia chamaenerioides 6” to 12”)

Mohave Desertstar (Monoptilon bellioides - 1” to 12”)

Arizona Blanketflower (Gaillardia arizonica - 4” to 8”)

 

 

 

 

CONSERVATION RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND NURSERIES

 

 

 

Arizona Department of Agriculture

http://www.azda.gov/

 

The Arizona Department of Agriculture enforces the sections of the Arizona Revised Statutes commonly referred to as the “Arizona Native Plant Law”. The Native Plant Law requires, in part, that anyone who is clearing land notify the State of Arizona in advance of the clearing. Some land owners involved in the clearing of land allow for nurseries and people who are interested in salvaging plants to do so prior to the clearing. The Arizona Department of Agriculture posts these notifications in their county offices. You may also contact the Arizona Department of Agriculture and, for a fee, be put on a mailing list of people receiving copies of the Notices of Intent to Clear Land.

 

Contact Information: Arizona Department of Agriculture, 1688 West Adams Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85007; 602-542-4373.

 

 

 

Arizona Native Plant Society

http://aznps.org/

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

 

LISTING OF SOURCES FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND SEEDS

 

The Arizona Native Plant Society maintains a listing of Native Plant and Seed Sources at: http://www.aznps.org/sources.html

 

 

Contact Information: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

 

Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.

 

 

The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact Information: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759; 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact Information: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713; 520-791-9309.

 

 

 

Native Seeds/SEARCH

http://www.nativeseeds.org

 

The Native Seeds/SEARCH is a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to preserve the crop seeds that connect the Native American cultures to their lands. The mission of the Native Seeds/SEARCH is to conserve, distribute and document the adapted and diverse varieties of agricultural seeds, their wild relatives and the role these seeds play in the cultures of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico.

 

Contact Information: Native Seeds/SEARCH, 526 North Fourth Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85705; 520-622-5561, toll free at 866-622-5561, FAX 520-622-5561; e-mail:  info@nativeseeds.org

 

 

 

Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The Tohono Chul Park Greenhouse offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact Information: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo del Norte, Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415; Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234; e-mail:  russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson

 

The goal of Wildlife Rehabilitation of Northwest Tucson is to provide experienced care for injured and orphaned wild birds and mammals so that they can be released back into the wild. For assistance with an injured bird or mammal, please call 520-743-0217, briefly explain the situation, being sure to repeat your name and phone number before ending the call.

 

Contact Information: Lewis and Janet Miller, 3690 Hills of Gold, Tucson, Arizona 85745; 520-743-0217.

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

 

 

 

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

 

 

 

CLASS GNETOPSIDA: The GNETOPS

 

 

Family Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra aspera G. Engelmann ex S. Watson (5): Rough Jointfir

SYNONYMY: Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson var. aspera (G. Engelmann ex S. Watson) L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Aspera Mormon Tea, Boundary Ephedra, Canatillo, Canutillo, Mormon Tea, Nevada Ephedra, Nevada Joint-fir, Pitamo Real (Hispanic), Popotillo (Hispanic), Rough Jointfir, Sanguinaria, Tepopote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height, one plant was described as being 1 foot in height with a crown 4 feet in width) (6), the young dark green branches yellow with age, the production of strobili (female and male cones) generally takes place between January and June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; along rocky canyons; rocky ledges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; gravelly flats; along arroyos; rocky ravines; sandy stream beds; along and in rocky and gravelly washes; sandy banks; terraces, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Rough Jointfir may reach full size within 20 years living to be 100 years or more in age. This plant is browsed by wildlife, including the Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13 (Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. var. aspera (Engelm.) L. Benson), 18 (gen.), 46 (Ephedra nevadensis Wats. var. aspera (Engelm.) L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 63 (051607), 77, 85 (081407), 91 (Ephedra aspera Engelm. ex S. Watson), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ephedra nevadensis var. aspera (see Ephedra aspera)

 

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Festuca octoflora (see Vulpia octoflora)

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung (5): Common Mediterranean Grass

COMMON NAMES: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 14 inches in height) (6), flowering generally takes place between November and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky talus; rocky ridges; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; along streams; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet (one record at 7,880 feet) in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22 (color photograph), 33, 46, 58, 63 (040407), 68, 77, 85 (081507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg: Sixweeks Fescue

COMMON NAME: Sixweeks Fescue. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 20 inches in height), the color this grass has been described as being yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May (flowering records: two for mid-February, one for mid-March, three for mid-April and three for mid-May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountain slopes; mesas; rocky cliffs; rocky canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; crevices in rocks; rocky ledges; along ridges; ridgelines; meadows; rocky foothills; hills; rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; dunes; plains; stony, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; gulches; gullies; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; rocky-sandy creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in stony-gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainages; swales; around lakes; margins of cienegas; sandy banks; sand bars; sandy beaches; gravelly and sandy terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; flood plains; charcos; ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and chalky soils; rocky-clayey loam, cobbly loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam, sandy loam, clayey loam and loam soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and rocky silty soils, occurring from 200 to 7,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodlands; scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 46 (Festuca octoflora Walt.), 58, 63 (112707), 85 (112807)*

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

 

 

Family Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus C. Linnaeus (5): Pigweed

COMMON NAME: Pigweed. *63 (091406), 85*

 

 

Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae): The Carrot Family

 

Eryngium nasturtiifolium A.L. de Jussieu ex A. Delarbre f. (5): Hierba del Sapo

COMMON NAMES: Hierba del Sapo, Nasturtium Leaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb (2 to 8 inches in height) (6), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish-green, flowering generally takes place between early April and early May (probably more extensive, flowering records: six for early April, one for mid-April, two for early May, one for mid-June and one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from lava outcrops; flats; arroyos; stream beds; along and in drainages; lakes; playas; depressions; grassy banks; stock tanks (charcos), and reservoirs in silty-clay and clay soils and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 1,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 63 (112907), 85 (112907)*

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King: Brownfoot

SYNONYMY: Perezia wrightii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 to 52 inches in height, one plant was recorded as being 12 inches in height with a crown 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green (and holly-like), the flowers lavender, pink, pink-brown, pink-lavender, pinkish-purple, purple, white, white and pink or whitish-maroon, flowering generally takes place between early February and early July and sometimes in autumn between early September and early November (additional records: one for late November and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; plateaus; rock cliffs; rocky canyons; rocky canyon bottoms; crater walls; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; along ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky, stony-gravelly and sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; rocky plains; rocky flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; along arroyos; gullies; ravines; seeps; along creeks; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; rocky banks of streams; beaches; river basins; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; rocky silty loam, sandy loam, silty-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (040507), 77, 85 (081507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) W.W. Payne: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles. COMMON NAMES: Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Burr Sage, Bur-sage, Bursage, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura (Hispanic), Leaf Burr Ragweed, Nu Nu Ju Its  (Tohono O’odham), Tinkl (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (1 to 7 feet in height), the color of the branches has been described as being reddish-brown with white hairs, the leaves dull gray-green or green, the flowers yellowish or yellowish-green, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and early May (additional records: two for mid-January, one for early June, one for mid-June and one for mid-September), the fruits are burrs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rocky outcrops; soil pockets in rocks; plains; coastal plains; along roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along seeping streams; along streams; rocky and sandy stream beds; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; along sandy drainages; rocky and sandy banks; around water holes; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria ambrosioides Cav.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #67), 85 (081507), 91*

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle: Weakleaf Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg. COMMON NAMES: Altamisa de Playa, Bur-sage, Bursage Ragweed, Bur-weed, Chi’ichivo (Yaqui), Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Istafiate (northern Sinaloa, Mexico), Slimleaf Bursage, Weak-leaf Burr-ragweed, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 5 feet in height and may be procumbent and up to 6 feet in width in higher elevations), the leaves are gray, the color of the flowers has been described as being white, yellow, yellow-brown or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early May and early December (additional record: one for late March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; crevices in rock faces; foothills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; flats; valleys; roadsides; ravines; seeps; springs; along streams; at rivers; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in drainages; swales; around ponds and lakes; banks; rocky benches; terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; fence rows; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam soils; rocky clay and gravelly clay soils, and rocky silty and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Franseria confertiflora (DC.) Rydb.), 58, 63 (041807), 68, 77, 85 (112907), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne: Triangle Burr Ragweed

SYNONYMY: Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Burrobush, Bur-sage, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Kokomak Segoi (Pima), Shegoi (Pima), Todshag (Papago), Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaved Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 4 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, gray-green or green, the flowers greenish, greenish-yellow, purple or white, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; lava flows; dunes; sandy plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; around seeping streams; runnels; river beds; along sandy washes; rocky banks of creeks; gravelly terraces, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam soils, and rocky clay, gravelly clay and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Triangleleaf Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria deltoidea Torr.), 63 (040707), 77 (color photograph #68), 85 (081607), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne: Burrobush

SYNONYMY: Franseria dumosa A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Burro Bush, Burrobush, Burro Weed, Burro-weed, Burroweed, Bur Sage, Bur-sage, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bur-sage, White Bursage, White Burrobush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial cold- and drought-deciduous subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height, one low mound-shaped plant was reported to be 40 inches in width), the color of the branches has been described as being gray, tan or white, the leaves blue-green-gray, gray-green or white-tomentose, the flowers cream, cream-yellow, greenish, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one for early January, one for mid-January, two for mid-May, one for mid-June, one for late June, four for late September, one for early October, one for mid-November, one for late November and two for mid-December), the fruits are spiny burs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; gravelly mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; amongst boulders; lava fields; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sand sheets; sandy valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; along sandy washes; banks of stream beds and washes; benches; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than 100 years of age with an estimated average longevity of 35.7 years. This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). In the re-vegetation of disturbed sites more success may be achieved through the use of transplanted plants than from over-seeding. White Bursage serves as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Franseria dumosa Gray), 63 (040907), 77, 85 (081707), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg: White Easterbonnets

SYNONYMY: Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly-daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum, Woolly Fleabane. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (¾ to 8 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish, the leaves gray-green, the ray flowers white and the disk flowers orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May (additional records: two for mid-June and one for mid-November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; foothills; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; sand hills; gravelly plains; rocky and gravelly flats; gravelly and sandy roadsides; creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks; terraces; sandy bottom lands, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly-sandy loam and silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may grow in patches, larger plants tend to be prostrate. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Eriophyllum lanosum), 46 (Eriophyllum lanosum Gray), 58, 63 (070407), 77 (color photograph # 19 labeled Eriophyllum lanosum), 85 (111607)*

 

Baccharis glutinosa (see Baccharis salicifolia)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon: Mule’s Fat

SYNONYMY: Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon. COMMON NAMES: Azumiate (Hispanic), Bachomo (Hispanic), Baldag Shi (Hispanic), Batamote (Hispanic), Broom Baccharis, Chamiso (Hispanic), Chamiso del Rio (Hispanic), Chilca, Cucamoarisha (Cora), Cuerepillo (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Ro (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Tee (Hispanic), False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote (Hispanic), Guatarote (Hispanic), Hierba del Pasmo (Hispanic), Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla (Hispanic), Jara Mexicana (Hispanic), Jaral (Hispanic), Jarilla (Hispanic), Mule’s Fat, Romerello, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten (Hispanic), Tu Ta’ Vi (Hispanic), Water Motie, Watermotie, Water Wally, Water-wally, Waterwally, Water Willow, Waterwillow. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (32 inches  to 15 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being gray, the leaves gray or dark green, the rayless flowers (dioecious) cream, cream-maroon, cream-maroon-purple, cream-white or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early November. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; along rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky hillsides; slopes; dunes; plains; flats; roadsides; arroyos; seeps; springs; along streams; bouldery-rocky and rocky stream beds; along and in bouldery creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; along rocky and sandy river beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; drainages; marshlands; depressions; lake beds; edges of ponds; sandy banks; beach ridges; gravelly bottom lands; sandy flood plains; margins of stock tanks (charcos); along irrigation canals; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, rocky, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Seep Willow is useful in controlling watercourse erosion and slowing stream flow. *5, 6, 13 (Baccharis glutinosa Pers.), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph, Baccharis glutinosa), 30, 46 (Baccharis glutinosa Pers.), 48 (Baccharis glutinosa), 58, 63 (112907), 68, 77, 85 (113007)*

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Desertbroom

COMMON NAMES: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Caasot Caocl (Seri), Desert Broom, Desert-broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush, Rosin-brush, Soosk Vaks “Wet Shoes” (Maricopa?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height, one plant 40 inches in height was described as being 40 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being bright green or yellow-green, the flowers (dioecious) cream, rust, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-September and late February (additional records: one for mid-March, two for late March, two for mid-April, one for late April, one for mid-July, one for early August and one for late August). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; chasms; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; sandy plains; flats; valley floors; roadsides; along arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; gullies; springs; along streams; stream beds; along creeks; gravelly creek beds; along rivers; gravelly river beds; gravelly and sandy washes; playas; along gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos and washes; beaches; flood plains; bottom lands; along drainage ditches; along canals; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 77, 85 (082007), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray: Coulter’s Brickellbush

SYNONYMY: Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri. COMMON NAMES: Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height), the color of the florets (rayless flowers) has been described as being cream, cream-maroon-purple, cream-purple, cream-yellow, green, greenish-yellow, purplish, purplish-brown, white, yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-October (additional records: one for early November, one for mid-November, one for early December and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; arroyos; rocky arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; rocky walls of ravines; springs; along stream beds; along rivers; along and in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy washes; rocky drainages; around waterholes; sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and silty loam soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color picture), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 65 (082007), 77, 85 (082007)*

 

Brickellia coulteri var. coulteri (see Brickellia coulteri) 

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Tackstem

COMMON NAMES: Tackstem, White Cupfruit, White Tackstem. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 12 inches in height), the leaves are gray-green, the flowers creamy-yellow, white and white with purple, red or red-purple stripes turning purplish with age, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; buttes; ridges; bouldery and rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; gravelly plains; gravelly and loamy flats; valleys; along rocky and gravelly roadsides; along rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy benches; terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (070407), 77, 85 (082007), 86 (note)*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey [superfluous autonym], Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. phenicodonta (J. Blake) I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Brittle Bush, Brittle-bush, Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 6 feet in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, silvery-gray or whitish, the ray flowers yellow or yellow-orange and the disk flowers brown-maroon, dark purple, orange-yellow or yellow, the flowers appear 6 to 12 inches beyond the end of the foliage, flowering generally takes place between early November and late May (additional records: two for late August, one for early September, two for mid-October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; buttes; rocky ledges; ridges; rocky ridge tops; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; boulder and rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; lava flows; flats; roadsides; springs; creeks; rocky and sandy washes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and rocky loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Plants with yellow ray flowers and dark purple disk flowers have historically been referred to as variety phenicodonta (Blake) Johnst. and has been observed growing with the typical plant which has yellow disk flowers. Brittle Bush is reportedly browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (040907), 85 (082107), 86 (color photograph), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Encelia farinosa var. farinosa (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia farinosa var. phenicodonta (see Encelia farinosa)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray: Button Brittlebush

SYNONYMY: Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Green Brittle Bush, Rayless Encelia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are drought deciduous) shrub (1 to 5 feet in height and to 3 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green or gray-green and shiny on the upper surface, the disk flowers yellow or yellow-orange (disk flowers only, no ray flowers), flowering generally takes place between mid-March and early December (additional records: two for late February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; cliff tops; rim rock; canyons; bouldery-gravelly-sandy canyon bottoms; bluffs; buttes; foothills; hills; hill tops; hillsides; bouldery, rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; plains; sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; gulches; seeps; along sandy washes; rocky drainages; sandy margins of creeks; flood plains, and sandy disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-gravelly-sandy, rocky and sandy soils; rocky loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (041007), 77, 85 (082107), 91*

 

Encelia frutescens var. frutescens (see Encelia frutescens)  

 

Eriophyllum lanosum (see Antheropeas lanosum)

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria confertiflora (see Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Blanketflower

SYNONYMY: Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray var. arizonica A. Gray [superfluous autonym], Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray var. pringlei (P.A. Rydberg) J. Blake. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Blanketflower, Pringle Blanketflower, Pringle’s Blanketflower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being dark green, the ray flowers gold, orange-yellow or yellow, the disc flowers gold, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; canyons; foothills; hills; slopes; bajadas; alluvial plains; sandy plains; sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; grassy arroyo channels; draws; along and in gravelly-sandy, sandy and sandy-silty washes; depressions; gravelly-sandy-loamy terraces, and mesquite bosques in desert pavement; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 600 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (052307), 77, 85 (030708)*

 

Gaillardia arizonica var. arizonica (see Gaillardia arizonica)

 

Gaillardia arizonica var. pringlei (see Gaillardia arizonica)

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: TransPecos Thimblehead

COMMON NAMES: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower, Yellow Thimblehead. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), the color of the ray and disc flowers has been described as being green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early June and late November (additional record: one for late March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; clefts in cliffs; buttes; meadows; foothills; stony-gravelly hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; along gravelly-silty roadsides; along rivers; along rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks; terraces; flood plains; around stock tanks, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, stony-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam soils; gravelly clay soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from 1,300 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (062107), 77, 85 (110607), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & C.J. Hartman: Goodding’s Tansyaster

COMMON NAMES: Cutleaf Ironplant, Goodding Tansyaster, Goodding’s Tansyaster, Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 32 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish, the ray and disk flowers yellow, flowering (see footnote 46) generally takes place between late March and late October (flowering records: additional records: one for mid-January, one for early February, one for mid-February, one for early March, one for late March, nine for early April, five for mid-April, one for late April, four for early May, two for mid-May, three for late May, two for early June, one for mid-June, one for mid-July, one for late July, two for late August, one for early September, two for mid-September, two for late September, three for early October, one for late October and three for  late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; rock cliffs; rocky rims of canyons; canyons; talus slopes; rocky ridges; bouldery ridge tops; crater walls; foothills; hills; bouldery and rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly flats; rocky and rocky-loamy roadsides; gullies; along creeks; along rocky and gravelly washes; banks of creeks and rivers; terraces; bottom lands; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky loam, gravelly loam and gravelly-clayey loam soils, occurring from 500 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46 (shows the flowering period for the species (Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC.) as being from March to October - Aplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. var. gooddingii (A. Nels.) Blake), 63 (120107), 80 (Species of the genus Machaeranthera (Aster sp.) are listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Species of this genus are secondary or facultative selenium absorbers and can be dangerous to livestock.”), 85 (also recorded as Machaeranthera pinnatifida var. gooddingii (A. Nels.) B.L. Turner & Hartman - 012608)*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida var. gooddingii (see footnote 85 under Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii)

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Mohave Desertstar

COMMON NAMES: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desert Star, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 12 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish-green, the ray flowers blue, blue-lavender-white, lavender, pink, purplish-lavender, white, white-lavender or white tinged with pink, pink-purple, purple or rose, the disk flowers golden or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for early June). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; stony and sandy mesas; foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; boulder outcrops; amongst rocks; lava fields; lava flows; gravelly plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; sandy roadsides; gullies; creek beds; along and in sandy washes; stony drainages; playas; gravelly and sandy banks of small drainages, gravel bars; lake shores; terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly-sandy loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 100 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This small winter annual may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are about ¾ inch in width. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (070807), 77 (color photograph #21), 85 (082607), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: New Mexico Plumeseed

COMMON NAMES: Desert Chicory, Desert-chicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, Mexican Plumeseed, New Mexico Plumeseed, Plumeseed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height), the color of the ray flowers has been described as being cream, cream-white, white, white-pink, yellow or yellow-cream, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas, along cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knobs; ridges; ridge tops; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; lava fields; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; gravelly and sandy roadsides; gullies; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; sandy depressions; terraces; flood plains; sandy riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 4,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. It is often found growing through and supported by Triangleleaf Bursage and other small shrubs. *5, 6, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (120107), 77 (color photograph #22), 85 (120207), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Sonchus oleraceus C. Linnaeus: Common Sowthistle

COMMON NAMES: Achicoria (Hispanic), Achicoria Dulce (Hispanic), Annual Sowthistle, Borraja (Hispanic), Borrajilla (Hispanic), Cardo (Hispanic), Cerraja (Hispanic), Chicalotillo (Hispanic), Chicoria (Hispanic), Chicoria (Purépecha), Colewort, Common Sowthistle, Diente de León (Hispanic), Endivia (Hispanic), Grespino Commune (Hispanic), Hare’s Lettuce, Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Kaalivalvatti (Hispanic), Lechuguilla (Hispanic), Matalí Morado (Hispanic), Milk Thistle, Mitihuaraca (Hispanic), Muela de Caballo (Hispanic), Smooth Sowthistle, Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Tlamatsalin (Michoacán), Tskutsuk Chekamiti (Purépecha). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height), the ray flowers are cream or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and late September (additional records: one for mid-January and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; near springs; along streams; along creeks; along and in creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along washes; sandy beaches; along cobbly banks; edges of ponds; shorelines; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; canal banks; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy loam and loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 7,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 30, 46, 63 (120207), 68, 77 (color photograph #23), 80 (Species of the genus Sonchus are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of this genus (Sonchus) have been reported to accumulate dangerous levels of nitrates.”), 85 (120207), 101 (color photograph)*

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold

SYNONYMY: Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (10 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being gray, the leaves green or yellow-green, the flowers bright yellow, flowering generally takes place between late January and late December, the seeds have straw-colored bristles. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; shaded cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky gorges; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; in the shade of trees on sandy flats; valleys; draws; rocky gully bottoms; by streams; by rivers; along rocky and sandy washes; at the edges of arroyos in the shade of larger shrubs and trees; beaches; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607), 86 (color photograph), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Trixis californica var. californica (see Trixis californica)

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene: Guadalupe Cryptantha

COMMON NAMES: Guadalupe Cat’s-eye, Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being red-brown, the flowers white, flowering generally takes place between early February and late April (additional records: one each for early May and mid-May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; buttes; gravelly ridges; hills, rocky slopes; bajadas; plains; creosote flats; roadsides; springs; along and in rocky-sandy and gravelly-sandy washes; along banks of washes; terraces; stock tanks, and riparian areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 46, 63 (071007), 77, 85 (082607)*

 

Pectocarya platycarpa (P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston) P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed

COMMON NAMES: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Comb Bur, Broad-wing Comb-bur, Stickweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height), the flowers are white, flowering generally takes place between early February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; foothills; rocky, gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy flats; lava fields; valley floors; along gravelly roadsides; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; sandy banks; terraces; sandy and loamy bottom lands; sandy and silty flood plains; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and sandy disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 700 to 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58 63 (041607), 77, 85 (082707)*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Western Tansymustard

COMMON NAMES: Aasam (Yaqui), Green Tansy Mustard, Huy Aasum (Yaqui), Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Tansy-mustard, Western Tansy-mustard, Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the feathery leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream, greenish-yellow, yellow or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early September. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; sandy canyonsides; sandy canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rims of craters; cinder cones; ridges; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; sheltered rocky coves; volcanic dikes and plugs; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; roadsides; seeps; along streams; stream beds; along rivers; along and in bouldery, gravelly and sandy washes; banks of creeks and rivers; sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; stock tanks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam, gravelly-silty loam, sandy loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 400 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (071207), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Symptoms of poisoning are similar to the “blind staggers” disease caused by selenium, but the principle is unknown. Large quantities of the plant must be eaten for a considerably long time before symptoms appear. Consumption of toxic amounts is most likely to occur during the blossoming period in the spring. Poisoned cattle become partially or completely blind and wander aimlessly about until exhausted, or stand pushing against some solid object for hours. Animals lose their ability to use their tongue in swallowing and cannot eat or drink. They eventually die if neglected. As a result a popular term for the disease is “paralyzed tongue”. ... Analysis of plants in Arizona shows that tansy mustard also may accumulate toxic levels of nitrate. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested pastures during the spring-growth period, or by providing more desirable forage to reduce mustard consumption.” See text for additional information.), 85 (082707), 101 (note)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. coulteri: Coulter’s Lyrepod

SYNONYMY: Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. typica R.C. Rollins. COMMON NAMES: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter Lyrepod, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (16 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being brown-cream, brownish-green, brown-purple or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late April (additional records: one for early September, one for late September, one for late November and two for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; buttes; rocky hills; rocky slopes; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; flats; arroyos; seeps; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along stony drainages; banks; mesquite bosques; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The flowers have been reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 46 (Lyrocarpa coulteri Hook. & Harv. var. typica Rollins), 63 (052907), 85 (082807)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri var. typica (see Lyrocarpa coulteri var. coulteri) 

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket

COMMON NAMES: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 5 feet in height), the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-December and mid-April (additional records: one for late July, two for mid-August, three for late August, one for mid-September, one for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November and three for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; buttes; rock ledges; ridge tops; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; railroad right-of-ways; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; river beds; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy banks; terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly; rocky-cobbly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and sandy loam and loam soils, occurring from 100 to 10,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (042007), 68, 77, 85 (082807), 101 (color photograph), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Saguaro

SYNONYMY: Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Giant Cactus, Giant Cereus, Ha Shun (Pima), Mashad (Tohono O’odham), “Pitahaya” (Spanish Conquistadors), Saguaro, Sahuaro. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent tree (5 to 60 feet in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter), the flowers are a waxy creamy-white, 2 to 3 inches across, opening at about 8 p.m. and closing at about 5 p.m. the next day, flowering generally takes place between late April and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for early September and one for early October), the ripe fruits split into 2 to 6 segments that curl back to reveal the red inner lining of the rinds which are sometimes mistakenly thought to be red flowers. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyon walls; ridges; ridgelines; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; stabilized dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; along and in river beds; in sandy washes, and flood plains in bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from 100 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Saguaros are very slow to establish, a 5 year old plant may be no more than ¼ to ½ inch in height. The growth rate of Saguaros is extremely variable. William G. McGinnies in his book “Discovering the Desert” reports that a plant 36 inches in height may be from 20 to 50 years of age, he also presents a table of typical growth rates reporting the following: 4 inches - 8.0 years, 8 inches - 12.5 years, 16 inches - 19.1 years, 32 inches - 27.3 years, 3.3 feet - 30.3 years, 6.6 feet - 40.5 years, 10 feet - 47.5 years, 13 feet - 54 years, 16 feet - 60.0 years, 18 feet - 74.0 years. 20 feet - 83.0 years, 25 feet - 107.0 years, 30 feet - 131.0 years, and 35 feet - 157.0 years. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated saguaros is much faster. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument, was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other animals and birds feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 13 (color photographs, in habitat with associated species Plates C.2 and D.3), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 16, 18 (Carnegiea gigantea), 26 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 27 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 28 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 38 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, Carnegiea gigantea), 46 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus giganteus), 52 (color photograph, Cereus giganteus), 53 (Cereus giganteus Engelm.), 58, 63 (042207), 77 (color photograph #63), 85 (082907), 86 (color photograph, Cereus gigantea), 91 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose), 107, 119 (Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) B.&R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. coloradensis (L.D. Benson) D.J. Pinkava: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. coloradensis L.D. Benson. COMMON NAMES: Colorado Buckthorn Cholla, Colorado Desert Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (44 inches to 9 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 80 inches in height with a crown and 80 inches in width), the color of the spines has been described as being golden-yellow or yellow, the flowers bronze, bronze with red tips, chartreuse-yellow, golden-yellow, magenta, orange-yellow, pink, yellow tinged with pink, yellow with red tips or red throats or yellow-green with purple centers, flowering generally takes place between early March and late May (additional records: two for late June, one for mid-July) the spiny fruits are brown or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; bouldery canyons; ridges; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky-gravelly and gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; plains; desert flats; along creek beds; along gravelly washes, and rocky benches in bouldery, bouldery-rocky-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,200 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow var. coloradensis L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27, 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (071407), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) D.J. Pinkava: Buckhorn Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L.D. Benson, Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. ramosa R.H. Peebles. COMMON NAMES: Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (32 inches to 7 feet in height, one plant was recorded as being 32 inches in height with a crown 72 inches in width, one plant was recorded as being 72 inches in height with a crown 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being grayish-blue-green, the flowers bronze-red, dark orange, brick-orange, magenta, dark pink, purple, brick-red, red-pinkish or dark yellow turning brown, flowering generally takes place between early March and early June (additional records: two for early January and two for early August), the spiny fruits are brown, gray or tan and dry when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; buttes; gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; basins, and along gravelly-sandy washes in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann & Bigelow var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow) var. major (Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel. var. ramosa Peebles), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 53 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigel.), 63 (053007), 77 (color photograph labeled Opuntia acanthocarpa #66), 85 (083107), 119 (sp. - Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia arbuscula (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Arizona Pencil Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 12 feet in height, one plant reported to be 5 feet in height had a crown 5 feet in width, one plant reported to be 6½ feet in height had a crown 8¼ feet in width, one plant reported to be 7 feet in height had a crown 5½ feet in width), the stems are blue-green, dull green or yellow-green, the flowers are dark bronze, brown, green-yellow, orange-yellow, red, terra cotta or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early April and early June (additional record: one for late July), the spineless fleshy fruits are green with a pink blush, green tinged with purple or red or yellow-green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from hills; growing with grasses on rocky and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and silty flats; valleys; gravelly roadsides; along arroyos; river beds; along gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; flood plains, and mesquite bosques in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; silty loam soils, and silty soils, occurring from 600 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruit is eaten by browsing animals including the Javelina (Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis). The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia arbuscula (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.), 15, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia arbuscula), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (112207), 91, 119 (Opuntia arbuscula Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth: Teddybear Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jumping Cactus, “Ball” Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cactus, Jumping Cholla, Silver Cholla, Teddybear Cactus, Teddy Bear Cholla, Teddy-bear Cholla, Teddybear Cholla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (3 to 9 feet in height, one plant was reported to be just over 8 feet in height and 40 inches in width with 2 to 3 main trunks), the color of the stems has been described as being light green or bluish-green, the flowers chartreuse-yellow, cream tinged with rose, green-yellow, magenta, pink, yellow tinged with red-purple or white tinged with lavender, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for early September and one for early December), the nearly spineless fruits are greenish-yellow or yellow and fleshy when ripe. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky and sandy mountainsides; canyons; cliffs; talus slopes; bluffs; rocky ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy slopes; bajadas; plains; gravelly and silty flats; basins; valleys; arroyos; along sandy washes; benches, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam and silty loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils occurring from sea level to 4,400 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This is the spiniest cholla cactus in Arizona. Thomas Kearney and Robert Peebles in their book Arizona Flora had this to say about the Teddybear Cholla: “The combination of barbed spines and densely armed, easily detached joints has earned profound respect for this formidable cholla.” Teddy-bear Chollas may live to be 60 or more years of age. The Teddybear Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Pack Rats (Neotoma sp.) use the joints of this plant in the construction of their nests. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia bigelovii (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 15 (color photograph on Page 77 includes habitat and associated species), 18, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia bigelovii), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 48, 63 (042507), 77 (color photograph #13), 85 (100107), 86 (color photograph), 91 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), 119 (Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida: Jumping Cholla

SYNONYMY: Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida. COMMON NAMES: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 40 inches in width, one plant was reported as being 4¼ feet in height and 8¼ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 6½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 10 feet in height and 13 feet in width), the stems are green or purple, the spines are golden-yellow turning brown with age, the flowers are cream-yellow, pink, pink-purple, purple, purple-pink, rose-pink or yellow tinged with pink, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and mid-September (additional record: one for early December), the smooth fleshy fruits are green or purple forming clusters or pendulant “chains”. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountain slopes; mesas; canyons; ledges; hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; plains; gravelly, sandy and sandy-silty flats; valleys; along creeks; along and in washes; banks of creeks and washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 800 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Each year, following flowering, additional fruits are added to the end of the chains. Chain-fruit Chollas may live to be from 40 to 80 years of age. The Chain-fruit Cholla is a preferred nesting site of the Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. Deer and Javelina feed on the fruits. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 15, 16 (sp.), 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 52 (color photograph, sp. - Opuntia fulgida), 53 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), 63 (042607), 77, 85 (100407), 91 (Opuntia fulgida Engelm. var. fulgida), 119 (sp. - Opuntia fulgida Engelm.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth: Christmas Cactus

SYNONYMY: Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle. COMMON NAMES: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajilla (Hispanic), Tasajillo, Tesajo (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 6 feet in height (sometimes becoming vine-like and growing upwards with support 8 to 15 feet in height), one plant was reported as being 2 feet in height and 2 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 2½ feet in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 5 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 4 feet in height and 8 feet in width, one plant was reported as being 5 feet in height and 8¼ feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellow-green, the spines gray-brown, purple-brown or yellow-brown often being paler toward the tip, the flowers bronze, cream, green, green-yellow, yellow or whitish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for mid-July and one for late July), the spineless (with glochids) fleshy fruits are coral, orange, orange-red, red, reddish-orange or yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; rocky ledges; gravelly ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; sand hills; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; arroyos; along ravines; along washes; sandy drainages; benches; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas often found growing within grasses, shrubs or trees in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam, clayey loam and silty loam soils, and loamy clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Desert Christmas Cactus is believed to have a life span of about 50 years. A high mortality rate is to be expected with plants coming into contact with fire. Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers. The fruits are eaten by birds and small mammals. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS has not been recognized in BONAP, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (gen. - Opuntia), 27 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph, Opuntia leptocaulis), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (053107), 77, 85 (100507), 86 (color photograph, Opuntia leptocaulis), 91 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), 119 (Opuntia leptocaulis DC.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L.D. Benson: Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

SYNONYMY: Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L.D. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson. COMMON NAMES: Bundle Hedgehog, Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Bundle-spine Hedgehog, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 4 to 18 inches in height and 1½ to 3 inches in diameter in clusters of 1 to 30 stems), the flowers are lavender-pink, magenta, magenta-pink, magenta-purple, pink, pink-purple, purple or reddish-purple, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June (additional records: one for early October, one for mid-October, one for late October and one for early November), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; bases of cliffs; buttes; ledges; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky; gravelly and sandy hills; hillsides; knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; gravelly flats; valleys; along cobbly creeks; along washes; rocky and sandy banks, and flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The fruits are eaten by birds and other animals. *5, 6, 8, 12 (color photograph), 15, 16, 27 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler var. robustus (Peebles) L. Benson), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (053107), 77 (color photograph #64), 85 (also recorded as Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (Engelm. ex B.D. Jackson) L Benson - 112307), 119 (sp. - Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) Rümpler), WTK (November 2005, ?ID)*

 

Echinocereus fasciculatus var. fasciculatus (see footnote 85 under Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Echinocereus fendleri var. robustus (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Ferocactus covillei (see Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt: Emory’s Barrel Cactus

SYNONYMY: Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory Barrel, Emory Barrel Cactus, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Nail-keg Barrel, Red-spined Barrel Cactus, Semxl (Seri?). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and 12 to 40 inches in diameter), the color of the flowers has been described as being orange, red or yellow sometimes with a broad pink or reddish center stripe, flowering generally takes place between early June and mid-September (additional records: one for late March, one for mid-April and one for early May), the fleshy fruits are bright yellow when mature. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; rocky peaks; rocky-gravelly hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; sand dunes; plains; grassy flats; coastal plains; arroyos; along stream beds; wash margins, and sandy flood plains in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are fragrant. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph, Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 45 (color photograph), 46 (Ferocactus covillei Britt. & Rose), 63 (060107), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. emoryi - 100707), 91 (Ferocactus emoryi Britton & Rose), 119 (Ferocactus covillei B. & R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ferocactus emoryi var. emoryi (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Candy Barrelcactus

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrel Cactus, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fish-hook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter), the flowers are orange, orange-yellow, parchment, pinkish-red, red, red-orange, yellow or yellow-orange, flowering generally takes place between mid-July and mid-October (additional records: one for early January, three for early March, five for mid-March, two for late March, one for early April, one for mid-April, one for late April and two for early June) the ripe fruits are yellow and may remain on the plant until the next flowering period. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; bouldery hills; hillsides; rocky and cobbly slopes; alluvial fans; bajadas; rocky outcrops; plains; gravelly flats; arroyos; along washes, and flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils, and sandy-clayey loam and clayey loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Fishhook Barrel Cacti are very slow to establish. A 4 year old plant may be no more than 1½ inches in height and 2 inches in width, and an 8 year old plant may be no more that 4¼ inches in height and 4¾ inches in width. Fishhook Barrel Cacti may live to be over 130 years of age. The growth rate of propagated and cultivated barrel cacti is much faster. The fruits are eaten by animals and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, gen.), 27 (color photograph), 28, 45 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (042807), 77 (color photograph #10), 85 (also recorded as Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose 100707), 91, 119, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ferocactus wislizeni var. wislizeni (see footnote 85 under Ferocactus wislizenii)

 

Lemaireocereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Mammillaria fasciculata (see Echinocereus fasciculatus)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. major (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia arbuscula (see Cylindropuntia arbuscula)

 

Opuntia bigelovii (see Cylindropuntia bigelovii)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii: Cactus Apple

SYNONYMY: Opuntia discata Griffiths, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L.D. Benson & D.L. Walkington. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Prickly Pear, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 20 inches to 6 feet in height and 20 inches to 10 feet or more in diameter, one plant was reported as being 3 feet in height and 4½ feet in width, one plant was reported as being 40 inches in height and 79 inches in width), the color of the stems has been described as being a dull green, blue-green, gray-green or yellow-green, the spines white with red, the glochids yellow, the flowers pink, reddish-pink or yellow turning to orange or orange-yellow with the flowers opening at about 8 AM and remaining open for one or two days, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June (additional records: one for mid-July, one for mid-August, one for early September, one for mid-September and one for late December), the fruits are magenta-rose, purple, red or red-purple. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mountainsides; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; plains; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; along arroyos; gullies; along streams; creek beds; along washes; along drainages; benches; flood plains and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and may live to be 30 or more years of age. The juicy fruits (tunas) with edible pulp are fed on by many browsing animals, including Black Bear (Ursus americanus amblyceps), Coyote (Canis latrans mearnsi), Javelina (Peccari tajacu sonoriensis) and Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) among others, and birds. The plant provides cover for many desert animals. *5, 6, 12 (color photograph, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington “This is the largest and, in especially southern Arizona, one of the best-known native prickly pears of the Southwestern Deserts of the United States. It is variable in habit of growth, shape and size of joints, and size and distribution of spines. It is almost always found growing with var. major, which has longer brown spines restricted largely to the upper part of the narrower joint. Almost everywhere there are intergrading forms with many character recombinations. Var. discata is rarely stable but apparently a fringe-population extreme tied in closely with the more abundant and wide-ranging var. major.”), 15, 16 (Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson - “Rocky slopes and gravelly flats; common; intergrading with O. p. var. major.”), 26 (sp. - Opuntia engelmannii), 27 (color photograph, Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths) L. Benson), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck.), 48 (gen. - Opuntia), 58, 63 (092306), 77 (color photograph #14 labeled Opuntia phaeacantha), 85 (101007), 91 (Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck. (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington) / Opuntia phaeacantha var. major Engelmann - “Both species are sympatric throughout much of their range and often can be found together.”), 119 (sp. - Opuntia discata Griffiths), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis (see Cylindropuntia leptocaulis) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Stenocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) F. Buxbaum: Organpipe Cactus

SYNONYMY: Cereus thurberi G. Engelmann, Lemaireocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose. COMMON NAMES: Marismena, Mehuele, Organo, Organ Pipe Cactus, Organ-pipe Cactus, Organpipe Cactus, Pitahaya, Pitahaya Dulce (Sweet Cactus Fruit), Pitayo Dulce (Hispanic). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (stems 5 to 25 feet in height and 5 to 12 or more inches in width with 10 to 20 stems with larger specimens having 40 to 45 stems clustering to 6 to 18 feet in diameter), the color of the stems has been described as being gray-green, green or yellowish, the spines brownish, gray or black, the flowers (2½ to 3 inches in length and  1½ to 2½  inches in width) brownish-green, greenish-white, pale lavender, lavender with white margins, pink, purple, white or white with a pale pink center opening after sunset and closing the following morning, flowering generally takes place between mid-May and mid-June (additional records: one for early March, one for mid-April, one for mid-July and one for late July), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliff ledges; rocky canyons; rocky canyonsides; ridges; foothills; rocky and sandy hills; rocky and rocky-gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst rocks; sand dunes; sandy plains; flats; valleys; coastal bluffs; sandy and powdery coastal plains, and rocky benches in rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony, gravelly, sandy and powdery soils, occurring from sea level to 3,500 feet elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is sensitive to frosts. It has been estimated that plants 10 to 15 feet in height may be between 50 and 75 years of age, The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. The flowers are pollinated by bats, including Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae), and bees. The ripe fruits are eaten by ants, bats, Coyotes (Canis latrans mearnsi), Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica). The candy, Pitahaya Dulce, is made by cooking the fruits of the Organ Pipe Cactus with those of Prickly Pear Cacti.*5, 6, 8, 12 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 13 (color photograph, in habitat with associated species Plate D.1), 18, 27 (color photograph and color photograph in habitat (p.93), Cereus thurberi), 28 (color photograph, Cereus thurberi), 45 (color photograph, Stenocereus thurberi), 46 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose), 48 (Cereus thurberi), 53 (Cereus thurberi Engelm.), 63 (062307), 85 (101107), 91 (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Buxb.), 119 (Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) B. & R.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Campanulaceae: The Bellflower Family

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson var. orientalis R. McVaugh: Glandular Threadplant

COMMON NAMES: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 8 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish-brown, the flowers pinkish-white, white, white-cream-lavender or white and maroon, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; ridge tops; hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly flats; valleys; gravelly-sandy roadsides, along rocky and sandy washes; drainages; gravelly banks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (120307), 77 (sp.), 85 (120307)*

 

 

Family Caryophyllaceae: The Pink Family

 

Silene antirrhina C. Linnaeus: Sleepy Silene

COMMON NAMES: Catchfly, Desert Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Silene. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being magenta, magenta-pink, pink, purple, purple-pink, red or rose, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and mid-June (additional records: one for mid-September and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ledges; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky, gravelly and sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; seeps; along streams; along rocky and sandy stream beds; along creek beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; sandy banks; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and waste places in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 1,200 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (060207), 77, 85 (120307)*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Chenopodium berlandieri C.H. Moquin-Tandon: Pitseed Goosefoot

COMMON NAMES: Berlandier Goosefoot, Berlandier Netseed, Netseed Lambsquarters, Pitseed Goosefoot, Southern Huauznotle, Teksasinsavikka. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being greenish-gray or white, flowering generally takes place between early July and late September (additional records: one for mid-February, one for mid-May, one for late May, one for early June and one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; sandy ridges; meadows; amongst. boulders; flats; roadsides, clayey draws; beside streams; stream beds; creek beds; in rocky-gravelly-sandy washes; drainages; near ponds; sandy banks; sandbars; benches; sandy and clayey bottom lands; flood plains; ditch banks; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils; clayey loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 9,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (120407), 77, 85 (120407), 101 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Acalypha californica G. Bentham: California Copperleaf

SYNONYMY: Acalypha pringlei S. Watson. COMMON NAMES: California Copperleaf, Copperleaf, Hierba del Cancer, Pringle Three-seeded Mercury. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being green or green and red, the flowers are red, flowering generally takes place between early August and early December (additional records: one for mid-February, one for early March, one for mid-March, one for late March and one for late April). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountains; cliffs; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; cliffs; buttes; ledges; rocky foothills; rocky and gravelly slopes; sandy bajadas; amongst rocks; rocky mounds; flats; basins; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; ravines; along and in rocky and sandy washes; in drainages; banks of arroyos, and along flood plains in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 100 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 13 (Acalypha pringlei S. Wats.), 46 (Acalypha pringlei Wats.), 63 (101207), 85 (101207)*

 

Acalypha pringlei (see Acalypha californica) 

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley: Carrizo Mountain Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann. COMMON NAMES: Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (8 to 16 inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being reddish, the foliage green or reddish sometimes with white and showy appendages, the flowers pale pink or white, flowering takes place from mid-January and mid-December, the fruits have ringed ridges. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; cliff sides; talus slopes; rocky canyons; cinder cones; crevices in rocks; rock ledges; ridgecrests; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bluffs; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; crater floors; gravelly flats; valley plains; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; creek beds; along rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky drainages; playas; cobbly edges of washes; sand bars; floodplains; dry charco (stock tank) bottoms; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and sandy loam soils, occurring from sea level to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (101507), 68 (gen.), 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101507), 86 (gen.)*

 

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera var. pediculifera (see Chamaesyce pediculifera) 

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish: Smallseed Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish var. hirtella P.E. Boissier, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. polycarpa, Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. hirtella P.E. Boissier. COMMON NAMES: Desert Spurge, Golondrina, Koapa’im (Yaqui), Smallseed Sandmat, Small-seeded Sand Mat, Smallseed Spurge, Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2¼ inches in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pink, the herbage green or reddish, the flowers purple, flowering takes place early February and late December. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyons; gravelly canyon bottoms; talus slopes; ridges; ridge tops; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rocky mounds; amongst rocks; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; beach dunes; roadsides; arroyos; gravelly-sandy arroyo bottoms; around streams; rocky river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; swales; sand bars; along shores of lakes; sandy bottom lands; margins of stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and clay soils, occurring from sea level to 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (101507), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (also recorded as Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham var. typica Wheeler - 101507), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Chamaesyce setiloba (G. Engelmann ex J. Torrey) J.B. Norton: Yuma Sandmat

SYNONYMY: Euphorbia setiloba G. Engelmann ex J. Torrey. COMMON NAMES: Bristlelobe Sandmat, Bristlelobe Spurge, Golondrina, Fringed Spurge, Spurge, Yuma Sandmat, Yuma Spurge. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (1½ to 20 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being pale green, reddish or yellow-green, the flowers white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-December (flowering records: one for mid-January, one for early February, late February thru early April, one for mid-May, early August thru late October and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; bouldery hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly-sandy bajadas; sandy plains; rocky and gravelly flats; valleys; coastal plains; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy arroyo bottoms; draws; rocky river beds; along and in rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; edges of rivers and washes; sandy flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; loamy soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (071707), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Euphorbia are considered to be Secondary Poisonous Range Plants. “The milky juice of Spurge is considered poisonous. Plants may cause skin irritation, diarrhea, photosensitization, and cyanogenetic poisoning. Cattle, horses, sheep, and humans may be affected. The green plants are generally unpalatable but the dried plants in hay are more palatable and remain toxic. ... Poisoning may be prevented by keeping animals off areas heavily infested with spurge when other desirable feed is unavailable, and by not feeding contaminated hay. Range improvement will both reduce spurge infestations through grass competition, and decrease consumption by making more desirable forage available.” See text for additional information.), 85 (071707), 86 (gen.)*

 

Euphorbia pediculifera (see Chamaesyce pediculifera)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. hirtella (see Chamaesyce polycarpa) 

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa)   

 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. typica (see footnote 85 under Chamaesyce polycarpa)

 

Euphorbia setiloba (see Chamaesyce setiloba)  

 

Jatropha cuneata I.L. Wiggins & R.C. Rollins: Physicnut

COMMON NAMES: Leatherplant, Limber Bush, Limberbush, Matacora, Physicnut, Sange-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Shrubby Limberbush, Tecote Prieto, Torote Amarillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial (cold and drought deciduous, semi-succulent) shrub (2 to 9 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being pinkish, the leaves dark green, the small tubular flowers white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between July and September (flowering records: one for early January, one for mid-March and one for mid-August), the fruits are green. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; sandy knolls; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks in pockets of sand; sand dunes; gravelly plains; sandy flats; roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; along and in cobbly-gravelly washes; rocky benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in rocky, cobbly-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 2,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental; however, it may be killed or killed back to the ground in a severe freeze.. A clear or orange-red sap of the stems and blood-red sap of thee roots reportedly has a fragrance similar to that of citrus. The Shrubby Limberbush may live to be more 55 years of age. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 63 (042907), 80 (Species of the genus Jatropha are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Seeds of several species of Jatropha are toxic to humans and livestock but no poisoning has been reported from Arizona.”), 85 (120407), 91*

 

Sapium biloculare (see Sebastiania bilocularis)

 

Sebastiania bilocularis S. Watson: Arrow Poison Plant

SYNONYMY: Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) F.A. Pax. COMMON NAMES: Arizona Jumping Bean, Arrow Poison Plant, Hierba de la Flecha (Spanish - Herb of the Arrow), Hierba Malla (Hispanic - Bad Herb), Hoyo Kuta (Yaqui), Jumping Bean Sapium, Mago, Mexican Jumping Bean, Yerba de Fleche, Yerba-de-fleche, Yerba Mala. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (7 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 8 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 11 feet in height with a crown 12 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being green or red, the flowers yellowish, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late October. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; along canyon bottoms; cliffs; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; flats; valleys; along and in arroyos; along and in rocky, gravelly and sandy washes; drainages; water courses, and water holes in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful in restoration projects; however, care must be taken in handling the plant due to the toxic sap. The sap is poisonous and the wind may release sufficient toxin to cause stinging eyes and congested lungs. The male flowers are fragrant. Jerking movements mage within the seed by the larva of a small moth (Cydia deshaisiana) causes the “beans” to “jump”.* 5, 6, 13 (Sapium biloculare Pax), 46 (Sapium biloculare (Wats.) Pax), 53 (Sapium biloculare (S. Wats.) Pax), 63 (060307), 85 (101607), 91 (Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) Pax), 106 (note on the moth, Cydia deshaisiana - 060307), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Whitethorn Acacia

COMMON NAMES: Chaparo Prieta, Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn, Yellow Cat Claw. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (drought and cold) shrub or tree (2 to 18 feet in height and about the same in width, one plant was reported to be 8 feet in height and 8 feet in width) , the spines are white, the small flowers are golden-yellow, orange-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between late April and late October (additional records: one for early March and one for early April), the fruits are brown, purple-red or reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy-loamy plains; gravelly flats; along rocky arroyos; arroyo bottoms; creeks; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy, sandy and silty-clayey washes; sandy banks of washes; sandy bottom lands; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam, gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, and silty clay soils, occurring from 1,200 to 5,000 feet (infrequently to as low as 500 feet and to as high as 9,200 feet) in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant. Whitethorn Acacia is used for food by the Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus). *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (101607), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Major Poisonous Range Plant. “The plants are high in cyanide forming-compounds and have been reported to cause death of cattle in Arizona. In general, the plants are not palatable to livestock although the pods are grazed. However, in the fall of the year at or near frost time, when the range grasses become less palatable, cattle may eat heavily of these plants and death is likely to result. ... Animals should be removed from heavily infested areas during the early frost period or considerable death losses may occur.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley). OMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are gray-green or green, the fragrant flowers are cream yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the ripe fruits (twisted seed pods) are brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; sandy flats; coastal plains; basins; valleys; along arroyos; draws; ravines; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; along rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; drainages; banks of streams; sandy-loamy flood plains; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (“This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the cloths and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (“A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52, 53, 58, 63 (043007), 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91*

 

Acacia greggii var. arizonica (see Acacia greggii var. greggii)  

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii: Catclaw Acacia

SYNONYMY: Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley. COMMON NAMES: Acacia, Algarroba, Cat Claw, Catclaw, Cat Claw Acacia, Catclaw Acacia, Cat’s-claw, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-claw, Devilsclaw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Gregg’s Acacia, Tearblanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato, Wait-a-minute. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial winter deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 25 feet in height with a broad crown), the leaves are green or grey-green, the fragrant flowers are yellow, yellow-green or white catkins, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and mid-July (additional records: two for late August, one for mid-September, two for late September, one for early October, two for mid-October, one for early November, one for mid-November and one for early December), the fruits (twisted seed pods) are brownish-red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; rocky and sandy canyon bottoms; rocky bluffs; rocky and sandy ridges; rocky slopes; amongst boulders; flats; valleys; edges of arroyos; draws; ravines; along streams; along creeks; along rivers; along sandy washes; drainages; flood plains, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from slightly above sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, sp.), 15 (sp.), 16 (Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley), 18 (sp.), 26 (color photograph, sp.), 28 (color photograph, sp.), 46 (sp. - “This is probably the most heartily disliked plant in the state, the sharp, strong prickles tearing the clothes and lacerating the flesh.”), 48 (sp. - “A good honey plant but a poisonous weed on range lands.”), 52 (sp.) 53, (sp.) 58, 63 (043007), 77 (sp.), 80 (The species is listed as a Secondary Poisonous Range Plant. “Plants contain cyanide-forming compounds and symptoms are typical of cyanide poisoning. The new foliage is relished by cattle in the early spring. It also may be grazed considerably during dry seasons or drouth periods when other feed is short. Plants are most dangerous in the fall during first frosts. Cattle are most often poisoned, but losses in Arizona are not heavy. Poisoning may be prevented by deferring heavily infested areas during the early frost periods.” See text for additional information.), 85 (101607), 91 (sp.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham: Fairyduster

SYNONYMY: Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairy Duster, Fairy-duster, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (4 inches to 5 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being bluish, light gray, whitish or white-gray, the leaves grayish, dark green or red, the flowers cream-white, pink, pink-red, pink-white, red, red and white, reddish-purple or rose, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late May (additional records: one for mid-January, one for mid-February, two for late February, seven for early March, one for early June, two for mid-June, one for mid-August, two for late August, one for early September, one for early October, three for mid-October, four for late October, one for early November, two for late November and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; knolls; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; interior dunes; plains; gravelly flats; valley bottoms; rocky roadsides; rocky-sandy arroyos; along and in sandy washes; edges of rocky drainages; gravelly terraces; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 6,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental and as a soil binder. Fairy Duster is browsed by wildlife and found to be highly palatable by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (071907), 58, 77 (color photograph #32), 85 (101707), 86 (color photograph), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Calliandra eriophylla var. eriophylla (see Calliandra eriophylla)

 

Cercidium floridum (see Parkinsonia florida)   

 

Cercidium microphyllum (see Parkinsonia microphylla)   

 

Dalea mollis G. Bentham: Hairy Prairie Clover

COMMON NAMES: : Hairy Prairie Clover, Hairy Prairie-clover, Hairy Prairieclover, Silk Dalea, Soft Dalea. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2½ to 6 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue-magenta, blue-violet and white, gray, magenta-blue, pink, pink-orange, purple or white with lavender or purple spots, flowering generally takes place between early January and mid-June (additional records: two for early July, two for mid-September, one for mid-October, one for early November and two for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; foothills; sandy hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; lava flows; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; sand hummocks; plains; sandy flats; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; arroyo walls; springs, running streams; creeks; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; beaches; sandy shell mounds; riparian areas and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, stony-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-silty loam and clayey loam soils; clay soils, and gravelly silty and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation. NOTE: The flowers are reportedly fragrant. *5, 6, 46, 63 (072007), 85 (101807), 85 (101807)*

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Desert Ironwood

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Ironwood, Comitin, Desert Iron Wood, Desert Ironwood, Ho Id Cam (Pima), Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo-de-hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height and about the same in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being bluish-green, gray or gray-green, the flowers lavender, pink, pink-lavender, purplish, violet, white or yellowish, flowering generally takes place between early April and late June (additional records: one for early January and one for early March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; rocky and sandy canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; along bluffs; buttes; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; rocky and gravelly flats; rocky and sandy arroyos; along gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along gravelly-sandy and sandy banks of washes; benches; flood plains, and riparian areas in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis). Hummingbirds including the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa spp.) and the Solitary Bee (Centris pallida) have been observed visiting the flowers. The seeds are an important food for the Desert Wood Rat (Neotoma lepida) and other desert animals. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102007), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson: Blue Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium floridum G. Bentham. COMMON NAMES: Blue Palo-verde, Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (40 inches to 40 feet in height), the color of the bark has been described as being blue-green, green, yellow or yellow-green, the leaves are blue-green, the flowers are yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June (additional records: one for early February, one for mid-August, two for early September, one for late September, one for early October, one for mid-October, two for late October and three for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon walls; sandy canyon bottoms; buttes; ridges; rocky and sandy hills; bajadas; rocky slopes; sand hills; sand dunes; flats; valley bottoms; along roadsides; gravelly arroyos; sandy arroyo bottoms; rocky draws; seeps; stream beds; along rivers; along river beds; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky and sandy banks of washes; gravelly terraces; loamy bottom lands; flood plains; fence rows; stock tanks; canal banks; gravelly-sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam, sandy loam and loam soils, and gravelly clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it has a very showy display of yellow flowers in March or April. The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents and used by Bruchid Beetles. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate S.2 - Cercidium floridum Bentham), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum), 46 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium floridum Benth. ex Gray), 53 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), 58, 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium floridum Benth.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey: Yellow Paloverde

SYNONYMY: Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston. COMMON NAMES: Dipua, Foothill Palo Verde, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Littleleaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Little-leaf Palo Verde, Little-leaf Palo-verde, Littleleaf Palo Verde, Littleleaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Spanish for Green Pole, Green Stick or Green Tree), Palo-verde, Paloverde, Yellow-Palo-verde, Yellow Paloverde. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 26 feet in height), the bark is green or yellow-green, the leaves are green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between late March and mid-June. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; cliffs; canyons; canyon bottoms; bluffs; buttes; ledges; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; alluvial fans; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-silty bajadas; boulder fields; boulder and rock outcrops; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valley bottoms; rocky roadsides; arroyos; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; gravelly terraces; flood plains; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and gravelly silty soils, occurring from sea level to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Foothill Paloverde is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photograph, in habitat Plate T.1 - Cercidium microphyllum), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 28 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum), 46 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnston), 48, 52 (color photograph, Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnst), 53 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnst.), 63 (050107), 77, 85 (102107), 86, 91 (Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnston), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Prosopis juliflora var. velutina (see Prosopis velutina)  

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton: Velvet Mesquite

SYNONYMY: Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent. COMMON NAMES: Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 56 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 6½ feet in height with a canopy 6½ feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a canopy 16½ feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-green, the flowers cream-yellow, green-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late August (additional records: one for early October and one for early November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; plateaus; canyons; rocky ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; rocky plains; gravelly flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; along creeks; creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; playa lake beds; banks of creeks; benches; gravelly and gravelly-sandy terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; around reservoirs; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky loam, sandy loam and clayey loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 300 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, and may live to be more than several hundred years of age. The Velvet Mesquite is a common “nurse plant” of the Saguaro or Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert water courses have been lost to fuel wood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields and commercial and residential development. The plant is a food source for quail, Desert Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) and Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Coyotes (Canis latrans), Round-tailed Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus), Desert Cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and other wild animals feed on the seed pods. Velvet Mesquite is the host for a Drywood Termite (Incisitermes banksi). Bruchid Beetles feed on the fruits and seeds. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph - Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 46 (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. velutina (Wooton) Sarg.), 48, 52 (color photograph), 53 (sp. - Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), 58, 63 (050107), 68, 77, 80 (This species is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “Heavy, long-continued consumption of pods and leaves of these common desert shrubs may cause rumen impaction and poisoning.”), 85 (102107), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Ocotillo

SYNONYMY: Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens G. Engelmann [superfluous autonym]. COMMON NAMES: Albarda, Barda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candlewood, Coach-whip, Coachwhip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought and cold deciduous moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 5 to 100 wand-like stems branching from the base to 5 to 33 feet in height with a crown width of 5 to 10 feet), the stems are gray or gray and green, the leaves are green, the color of the flowers has been described as being coral-red, orange, red, red-orange, salmon or scarlet in 2 to 10 inch long clusters that appear at the tips of the stems, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for late June, two for early July, one for mid-July, one for early August, two for mid-September, one for late September, one for mid-October, two for late October, one for early November and three for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; sandy mesas; crags; canyon rims; rocky canyons; crevices in rocks; gravelly ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly and gravelly-sandy slopes; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand hills; sand dunes; gravelly and sandy plains; gravelly and gravelly-sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; arroyos, and terraces in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older plants may be 150 to 200 years in age. This “vase-shaped” plant has been described by Benson and Darrow as being “one of the most distinctive shrubs in the Southwestern Deserts, and it is one of the plants giving outstanding character to the flora of the region”. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Butterflies, Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Finches, Orioles, Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), Solitary Bees, Syrphid Flies, Verdins, and Warblers have been observed visiting the flowers. The Ocotillo is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. *5, 6, 10, 13 (color photographs Plate N), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph), 28 (color photograph), 45 (color photograph), 46, 48, 58, 63 (102207), 77 (color photograph #27), 85 (102207), 86 (color photograph), 91, 107, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann subsp. splendens (Fouquieria splendens)

 

 

Family Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Eucrypta micrantha (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Dainty Desert Hideseed

COMMON NAMES: Dainty Desert Hideseed, Peluda, Small-flower Eucrypta, Smallflower Eucrypta, Small-flowered Eucrypta. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual (may appear to be vining) forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the cup-shaped flowers blue, pale lavender, blue-magenta, blue-purple, purplish, reddish-purple with a yellow throat or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for late October). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders and rocks; sand dunes; gravelly flats; valleys; along railroad right-of-ways; rocky arroyos; along streams; along rivers; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; along drainages; sandy depressions; banks of rivers; sand bars; benches, and riparian areas often in the shade of shrubs and trees in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 400 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (072507), 77, 85 (102207)*

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray: Bristly Nama

SYNONYMY: Nama hispidum A. Gray var. mentzelii A. Brand, Nama hispidum A. Gray var. revolutum W.L. Jepson, Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock. COMMON NAMES: Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Hohr-oohit (Seri), Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Roll-leaf, Rough Nama, Sand Bells, Sandbells. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 12 inches in height and to 16 inches in width, one plant was reported to be 10 inches in height and 12 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being pale green or white, the flowers blue, blue-purple, lavender, pink-purple, purple, purple-magenta; purple-white, rose, rose-magenta, violet, violet-blue and sometimes with a white throated corolla, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional records: one for late June, one for mid-July, one for late July, two for mid-August, one for mid-October, one for late October, one for early November and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; sandy canyon bottoms; foothills; hills; bajadas; lava flows; sand dunes; sand hummocks; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valleys; coastal plains; gravelly and sandy roadsides; arroyos; sandy draws; ravines; along streams; along sandy stream beds; rocky-cobbly-sandy and sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; swales; edges of playas; silty banks; benches; terraces, sandy bottom lands; flood plains; margins of stock tanks; along ditches; sandy riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, sandy loam, sandy-clayey loam and loam soils; clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This small annual forb may be useful as an ornamental*5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (112307), 77, 85 (112407)*

 

Nama hispidum var. mentzelii (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Nama hispidum var. revolutum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Nama hispidum var. spathulatum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Phacelia ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia ambigua var. ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. ambigua (M.E. Jones) J.F. Macbride: Purplestem Phacelia

SYNONYMY: Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones, Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones var. ambigua M.E. Jones. COMMON NAMES: Caterpillar Weed, Caterpillar-weed, Notch-leaf Phacelia, Notch-leaved Phacelia, Phacelia, Purplestem Phacelia, Purplestem Scorpionweed, Scorpion-weed, Wild Heliotrope, Wild-heliotrope, Ytamoosh-oohit (Desert Tortoise Food). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 40 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being blue, lavender, purple or violet, flowering generally takes place between early January and early June (additional records: one for early September and two for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mesas; canyons; bases of cliffs; ledges; ridges; foothills; hills; rocky-gravelly and gravelly hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas, amongst rocks; plains; gravelly, sandy and loamy flats; rocky roadsides; arroyos; draws; gulches; sandy river beds; rocky, gravelly and gravelly-sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks; benches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 6,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28 (color photograph, sp.), 46, 63 (060407), 80 (Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata and Phacelia pedicellata) is listed as a Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plant. “These annual forbs have caused liver damage in horses, hogs and cattle. Also their glandular hairs may cause severe dermatitis to susceptible persons.”), 85 (102307)*

 

 

Family Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: White Ratany

COMMON NAMES: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 5 feet in height and to 5 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 2 feet in height with a crown 30 inches in width), the color of the foliage has been described as being blue-gray, the flowers lavender, magenta, maroon, pinkish-purple, purple or violet, flowering generally takes place between mid-March and late June and between early September and late November (additional records: one for mid-August and one for mid-December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mountainsides; mesas; canyons; ridges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; gravelly-sandy hills; hill tops; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery-cobbly, rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; gravelly and sandy bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy valleys; gullies; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; benches; terraces; bottom lands; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-cobbly, rocky, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy-clayey loam soils, occurring from sea level to 3,600 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reportedly fragrant. White Ratany is browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (050307), 77, 85 (102407), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Watson: Whitebract Blazingstar

COMMON NAMES: Bracted Blazing Star, Desert Blazing Star, Sand Blazing Star, Blazing Star, Whitebract Blazingstar, Whitebract Stickleaf. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 14 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as cream, cream-yellow, white, yellow or yellow with orange veins, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and mid-May (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly talus slopes; cracks in rocks; ridges; ridge tops; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders; lava fields; plains; desert flats; along rivers; sandy washes; rocky and gravelly banks of washes; beaches, and terraces in desert pavement and bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from sea level to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (072807), 85 (102507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

 

Family Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Malvella sagittifolia (A. Gray) P.A. Fryxell: Arrowleaf Mallow

SYNONYMY: Sida lepidota A. Gray var. sagittaefolia A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Arrowleaf Mallow, Scurfy Sida. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height), the color of the flowers has been described as being cream, orange, pink, rose or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and mid-June and between mid-August and mid-October (additional record: one for late November). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas; bajadas; plains; mud flats; valleys; roadsides; washes; silty playas; depressions; bosques; flood plains; ditches, and disturbed areas in sandy soils; gravelly loam, clayey loam and loam soils; silty clay and clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46 (Sida lepidota Gray var. sagittaefolia Gray), 63 (120407), 85 (120407)*

 

Sida lepidota var. sagittaefolia (see Malvella sagittifolia)

 

Sphaeralcea A.F. Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire: Globemallow  

COMMON NAME: Globemallow. *63 (032807), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Boerhavia C. Linnaeus: Spiderling

COMMON NAME: Spiderling. *63 (032807), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven: California Suncup

SYNONYMY: Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene. COMMON NAMES: California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening Primrose, Mustard Evening-primrose, Sun-drops. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), the flowers are orange-yellow, white or bright yellow fading reddish, flowering generally takes place between late January and mid-June (additional records: one for late July and one for mid-September). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; along canyon walls; canyon bottoms; rocky chutes; rocky and rocky-sandy ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; plains; creosote flats; valleys; sandy roadsides; arroyos; draws; along creeks; along gravelly-sandy creek beds; along rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly and sandy banks of arroyos; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy loam soils, occurring from 200 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Oenothera leptocarpa Greene), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 58, 63 (062507), 77 (color photograph #46), 85 (101707)*

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven: Longcapsule Suncup

SYNONYMY: Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height), the color of the plants has been described as being reddish with stems being pink or red and leaves being either green with red spots or green tipped with red, purple or red, the flowers cream, pink, purple, white, white-cream, white-pink, whitish-yellow or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and early June (additional record: one for late December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky mesas; canyons; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; cracks in rocks; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; rock walls; gravelly flats; rocky draws; along and in rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly and sandy washes; banks and cobbly edges of washes; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, rocky-sandy, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and silty loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46 (Oenothera chamaeneriodes Gray), 48 (gen. - Oenothera spp.), 63 (073107), 77, 85 (102807)*

 

Eulobus californicus (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera californica (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes (see Camissonia chamaenerioides) 

 

Oenothera leptocarpa (see Camissonia californica)

 

 

Family Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago C. Linnaeus: Plantain

COMMON NAMES: Indian-wheat, Plantain. *63 (032907), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Gilia bigelovii (see Linanthus bigelovii) 

 

Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bigelow’s Linanthus

SYNONYMY: Gilia bigelovii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Bigelow Desert Trumpet, Bigelow Gilia, Bigelow Linanthus, Bigelow’s Linanthus. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 9 inches in height), the color of the vespertine flowers has been described as being bluish, cream, cream-white, lavender-blue, mahogany-tinged cream or white and blue-lavender, flowering generally takes place between early February and late May. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; cliffs; canyons; meadows; rocky foothills; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; along cinder cones; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; lava fields; dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley floors; roadsides; around seeping streams; along streams; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy drainages; sandy terraces; loamy bottom lands, and riparian areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-sandy, cindery, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils, and gravelly-sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (120407), 77, 85 (120507)*

 

 

Family Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey (var. brevicornu is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Brittle Spineflower

COMMON NAMES: Brittle Spine Flower, Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 8 inches in height) the color of the basal rosette of leaves has been described as being maroon, reddish or yellow-green, the small inconspicuous flowers green (sepals only, no petals) white or yellow-green, flowering generally takes place between early February and early May (additional records: one for mid-January and one for late May). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; ridge tops; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and sandy slopes; gravelly bajadas; rock outcrops; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; lava flows; sand dunes; plains; gravelly and sandy flats; sandy roadsides; arroyos; springs; along creeks; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly and sandy washes; cobbly drainages; banks of rivers; gravelly-sandy and sandy terraces, and riparian areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-cobbly-sandy, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam, gravelly-sandy loam and silty loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from 200 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 63 (080407), 77, 85 (103007)*

 

Eriogonum inflatum J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont: Desert Trumpet

COMMON NAMES: Bladder Stem, Bladderstem, Cigarette Plant, Desert Trumpet, Indian Pipe-weed, Indianpipe Weed, Native American Pipeweed. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height), this plant has a basal rosette of gray-green, green or red leaves, the stems gray-green, green or purple-red, the flowers are greenish-yellow, orange-yellow, pink or yellow, flowering generally takes place between early March and late November (additional records: one for mid-January, one for early February and one for mid-February). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky-clayey mesas; plateaus; rocky canyons; talus slopes; rocky buttes; rocky ledges; rocky ridges; ridgelines; crater walls; foothills; rocky hills; gravelly crests of hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; bouldery, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; gravelly and gravelly-sandy bajadas; rocky coves; gypsum outcrops; sand dunes; plains; flats; rocky valleys; along gravelly roadsides; along rocky and gravelly arroyos; along rivers; along and in bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; rocky banks of rivers; gravelly terraces; sandy bottom lands; flood plains; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, shaley, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, and rocky clay soils, occurring from sea level to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080507), 77 (plants observed had yellow flowers and stems that were not inflated), 85 (103107), 86 (color photograph), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Drummond’s Clematis

COMMON NAMES: Barbas de Chivato, Chiva’ato Himsita Saila (Yaqui - Brother of Goat’s Moustache), Drummond Clematis, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Pipe-stem, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous vine (10 to 40 feet in length), the color of the leaves has been described as being grayish- green, the flowers cream or white, flowering generally takes place between early March and late October (additional records: one for early January and two for early December, other flowering records: one for early March, one for mid-March, one for late March, one for late April, five for early May, four for mid-May, four for late May, one for early June, one for late June, one for mid-July, six for late July, four for mid-August, four for late August,  nine for early September, seven for mid-September, seven for late September, two for early October, four for mid-October and four for late October), the plumes on the fruit have been described as being purplish, silvery or white. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; canyon bottoms; bases of cliffs; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sandy flats; railroad right-of-ways; roadsides; gravelly-sandy arroyos; around salt springs; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; along creek beds; along rivers; river beds; along and in gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; in sandy drainages; around ponds; around lakes; gravelly-sandy banks; terraces; bottom lands; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks (charcos); riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam soils, and sandy silty and silty soils, occurring from 800 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This woody vine may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (051407), 77, 80 (Species in the genus Clematis are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “These climbing, perennial forbs contain toxins that have been suspected of causing losses in other countries but none have been reported in the United States. Some species do cause dermatitis.”), 85 (120507), WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia globosa I.M. Johnston: Bitter Snakewood

COMMON NAMES: Bitter Condalia, Bitter Snakewood, Crucerilla, Hu’upa Keka’ala (Yaqui), Mangy Mesquite, Mesquite Mangy. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (2 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height with a crown 5 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height with a crown 6 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 13 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray-brown, green or yellow-green, the cup-shaped flowers (sepals, no petals) yellow or yellow-green, flowering may take place throughout the year (flowering records: one for mid-March, one for mid-April, one for early June, one for late August, one for late September, two for early October, two for late October, two for early December and one for late December), the color of the fruits has been described as being black, dark blue or purple-black. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rock outcrops; bajadas; sandy and sandy-silty plains; coastal slopes; coastal dunes; along gravelly and sandy arroyos; arroyo bottoms; ravines; sandy-loamy river beds; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; along sandy banks of washes; flood plains, and riparian area in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the branches are spine-tipped, the flowers are sweet scented. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph of Condalia globosa var. pubescens), 46, 52 (color photograph), 53, 63 (051307), 85 (110207), 91, MBJ/WTK (September 2003)*

 

Condalia lycioides var. canescens (see Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens)

 

Condalia spathulata (see footnote 46 under Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana) 

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Kearney’s Snakewood

COMMON NAMES: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney Snakewood, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squaw-bush, Squawbush.  DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (though considered evergreen except during periods of severe drought) shrub (40 inches to 13 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 6½ feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 10 feet width), the color of the flowers has been described as being yellowish), flowering generally takes place between early February and November (flowering records: one for early February, one for mid-August, one for late August and one for mid-September), the fruits are black, dark purple or reddish black. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; gravelly and sandy mesas; canyon bottoms; cliff faces; rocky ledges; edges of meadows; foothills; rolling hills; rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes; rocky and gravelly bajadas; gravelly and sandy flats; gulches; rocky washes; along drainages; terraces; flood plains, and around tanks in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE:. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46 (recorded as Condalia spathulata A. Gray), 58, 63 (060807), 77, 85 (080707), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston: Lotebush

SYNONYMY: Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease. COMMON NAMES: Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Buchthorn, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Oschuvapat (Pima), Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 13 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 40 inches in height with a crown 18 inches in width, one  was reported to be plant 7 feet in height with a crown 7 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 10 feet in height with a crown 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 13 feet in height with a crown 13 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being bluish, gray, gray-green, green or whitish (the twigs end in stout thorns), the leaves gray-green, green or yellow-green, the inconspicuous flowers cream, green, greenish-white, yellow-green or whitish-green, flowering generally takes place between early June and late November (additional records: one for late January, one for mid-March, one for late March and one for mid-April), the ripe fruits are black, blue-purple, dark blue o r purple. HABITAT: Within range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; along canyon bottoms; talus slopes; bases of cliffs; buttes; foothills; rocky hills; hill tops; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; gravelly bajadas; amongst boulders, rocks and gravels; sandy-silty plains; rocky and gravelly flats; rocky valleys; gravelly roadsides; arroyos; arroyo bottoms; gulches; ravines; bouldery ravine bottoms; springs; along streams; along rocky stream beds; along creeks; along creek beds; along gravelly and gravelly-sandy rivers; river beds; along and in rocky washes; drainages; rocky banks of creeks; sandy benches; terraces; bottom lands; mesquite bosques; along canals; riparian areas; fence rows, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; bouldery, bouldery-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, rocky-gravelly-sandy, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; cobbly-gravelly loam, gravelly loam and gravelly-clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty soils, occurring from sea level to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers are visited by orange-winged Spider Wasps. Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii), Band-tailed Pigeons (Columba fasciata), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds feed on the fruit. The plants numerous spines provide an impenetrable refuge for birds *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 28 (sp. color photograph of Ziziphus obtusifolia), 46, 58, 63 (111007), 77, 85 (111007), 91, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

Family Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry’s Beardtongue

COMMON NAMES: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Beardtongue, Parry Penstemon, Parry’s Penstemon, Pichelitos, Varita de San Jose, Wind’s Flower. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb (2 to 4 feet in height and 1 to 3 feet in width), the color of the flowers has been described as being lavender, pink, pink-lavender, purple, purple-magenta, red, rose-magenta, rose-pink or scarlet, flowering generally takes place between mid-February and late June (additional records: one for late July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been range reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; canyons; bases of cliffs; foothills; rocky hills; rocky and gravelly hillsides; rocky slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst rocks; gravelly flats; along gravelly roadsides; seeps; stream beds; creek beds; along and in rocky and sandy washes; along banks, and disturbed areas in rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-sandy loam and clayey loam soils, and clay soils, occurring from 1,400 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) and Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) have been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (112407), 77 (color photograph #95), 80 (Species of the genus Penstemon are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Species of Penstemon are facultative or secondary selenium absorbers.”), 85 (112507), 86 (color photograph)*

 

Veronica peregrina C. Linnaeus subsp. xalapensis (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.W. Pennell: Hairy Purslane Speedwell

SYNONYMY: Veronica peregrina C. Linnaeus var. xalapensis (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.W. Pennell. COMMON NAMES: Hairy Purslane Speedwell, Jalapa Speedwell, Necklace Speedwell, Necklace Weed, Neckweed, Purselane Speedwell. DESCRIPTION: Aquatic or terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height), the color of the leaves has been described as being yellow-green, the flowers blue, pink-white, purple, white or white-blue, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and early October, the heart-shaped fruits are reddish. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; meadows; rocky hillsides; amongst rocks; flats; coastal plains; roadsides; arroyos; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; sandy stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; sandy river beds; along and in sandy washes; drainages; in shallow lake water; bogs; marsh lands; mud banks; mud flats; depressions; around ponds; shores of lakes; playas; banks; benches; flood plains; sandy edges of stock tanks (charcos); along irrigation ditches; riparian areas; waste places, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; gravelly-clayey loam and loam soils; rocky clay, sandy clay and silty clay soils, and rocky silty and silty soils, occurring from 100 to 9,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 63 (120607), 77, 85 (120607), 101 (color photograph of species)*

 

Veronica peregrina var. xalapensis (see Veronica peregrina subsp. xalapensis) 

 

 

Family Simaroubaceae: The Quassia-wood Family

 

Castela emoryi (A. Gray) R.V. Moran & R.S. Felger: Crucifixion Thorn

SYNONYMY: Holacantha emoryi A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Cascara Amarga, Castela, Chaparro Amargosa, Corona de Cristo (Spanish), Crucifixion Thorn, Emory Crucifixion Thorn, Holacantha (Latin for allthorn), Rosario. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous (leafless most of the year) shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height), the color of the stems and stout branches has been described as being blue-green, gray-green or dark green, the flowers cream-yellow, gray-green, greenish-yellow or rose-pink (salmon), flowering generally takes place between mid-April and early August (additional records: one for late September and one for mid-November), the persistent fruits are green changing to yellow, red, dark brown and finally black as they ripen. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; hills; slopes; bajadas; sand dunes; gravelly-silty plains; sandy flats; valleys; gravelly-silty valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in rocky, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; gravelly-sandy banks; margins of playas; bottom lands; flood plains, and disturbed areas in desert pavement; rocky, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; sandy clay and clay soils, and gravelly silty and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the branches are heavily armed with thorns,  the fruits remain on the plant for five to seven years. *5, 6, 8, 13, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Holacantha emoryi Gray), 48, 53 (Holacantha emoryi A. Gray), 63 (051507), 85 (111107), 91*

 

Holacantha emoryi (see Castela emoryi) 

 

 

Family Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Lycium C. Linnaeus: Desert-thorn 

COMMON NAMES: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry. *63 (040207), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier’s Wolfberry

COMMON NAMES: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier Wolfberry, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Terrac Wolfberry, Wolfberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (spiny, 3 to 8 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 3 feet in height with a crown 3 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being purple-brown or reddish, the branches dark brown, gray, gray-brown, purple-brown or dark red, the leaves dark green, the flowers bluish, cream, cream-yellow, pale green, lavender, tan or white, flowering generally takes place between early February and late December (additional record: one for early January), the ripe fruits are orange or red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky canyons; talus slopes; crevices; buttes; ledges; rocky ridge tops; rocky foothills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; rock outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; bajadas; plains; gravelly flats; valleys; ravines; around streams; in sandy washes; terraces; mesquite bosques, and riparian areas in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils; sandy loam soils, and loamy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph), 46, 63 (062907), 85 (120707)*

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal var. longistylum C.L. Hitchcock: Berlandier’s Wolfberry

COMMON NAMES: Bachata, Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier Wolfberry, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Salicieso, Wolfberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height), the color of the stems has been described as being almost black, the flowers white or pale yellow, flowering generally takes place between early February and early December (additional record: one for early January, flowering records: one for early February, one for early March, one for late March, one for mid-August, one for late September, one for late November and one for early December), the ripe fruits are red. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; rocky foothills; hills; rocky hillsides; rocky slopes; plains; valleys; around streams; washes, and riparian areas in rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 900 to 3,200 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 10, 13 (sp.), 18 (gen.), 28 (color photograph of species), 46, 63 (120607), 77 (color photograph #97 labeled Lycium berlandieri), 85 (120707)*

 

Lycium brevipes G. Bentham: Baja Desert-thorn

SYNONYMY: Lycium brevipes G. Bentham var. brevipes G. Bentham [superfluous autonym], Lycium richii A. Gray. COMMON NAMES: Baja Desert-thorn, Hahös an Quinelca (Seri). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 5 feet in height with a crown 5 to 10 feet in width, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height with a crown just over 13 feet in width), the color of the semi- to succulent leaves has been described as being bright green, the flowers lavender, lavender and cream, purple, pale violet or white, flowering generally takes place between mid-August and late April (additional record: one for late June, flowering records: one for early January, late January thru late April, one for late June, four for mid-August, two for mid-September, three for early October, one for mid-October and three for late December), the fleshy fruits are orange, orange-red, bright red or red-orange. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; slopes; bajadas; amongst rocks; dunes; crests of coastal dunes; sandy plains; sandy flats; coastal plains, rocky coasts; arroyos; river beds; along and in rocky washes; sandy beaches; sandy strands, and riparian areas in rocky and sandy soils; sandy clay soils, and sandy silty and clay silty soils, occurring from sea level to 2,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, sometimes forming dense clumps several meters across. Anthophorid bees, beeflies, beetles, butterflies and hummingbirds visit the flowers, birds feed on the berries. *5, 6, 13, 18, 63 (120707), 85 (120707)*

 

Lycium brevipes var. brevipes (see Lycium brevipes)

 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray: Frémont’s Desert-thorn

COMMON NAMES: Desert-thorn, Frémont Desert-thorn, Frémont’s Desert-thorn, Frémont Lycium, Frémont Thornbush, Frémont’s Wolfberry, Kwavul (Pima); Wolfberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height, one plant 20 inches in height had a crown 40 inches in width, one plant 7 feet in height had a crown 13 feet in width), the color of the stems has been described as being dark gray, the leaves grayish-green or light green, the small flowers brown-yellow-purple, lavender, purple, purple and white or white with purple lobes, flowering generally takes place between early January and late April but may take place throughout the year (one record for late September, two records  for early October 2, two records for mid-October, one record for late October and two records for early November), the ripe fruit is brownish, orange, orange-red, red, red-orange,  or red-orange-brown. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; shaded cliff walls; canyons; talus slopes; rocky slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; sand dunes; bajadas; alluvial plains; sandy plains; flats; valley floors; coastal plains; railroad right-of-ways; rocky roadsides; along arroyos; rocky arroyo walls; springs; along and in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of streams; terraces; shores of lakes; mesquite bosques; along banks of irrigation canals; ditches; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils and sandy clay soils, occurring from 100 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Frémont Lycium is a host plant of the Texas Root Rot Fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28 (color photograph), 46, 48, 63 (081207), 77, 85 (also recorded as Lycium fremontii A. Gray var. fremontii - 081207)*

 

Lycium fremontii var. fremontii (see footnote 85 under Lycium fremontii)

 

Lycium richii (see Lycium brevipes) 

 

 

Family Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis ehrenbergiana (J.F. Klotzsch) F.M. Liebmann: Spiny Hackberry

SYNONYMY: Celtis pallida J. Torrey, Celtis tala J. Gillies ex J.E. Planchon var. pallida (J. Torrey) J.E. Planchon. COMMON NAMES: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Kunwo (Yaqui), Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 20 feet in height, one plant was reported to be 7 feet in height with a crown 7 feet in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the inconspicuous flowers green, greenish-yellow or white-green, flowering generally takes place between early March and late October, the ripe fruits are orange, bright red, reddish-orange or yellow. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; mesas; rocky canyons; canyon bottoms; ridges; foothills; rocky hillsides; bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; shady coves; plains; flats; roadsides; arroyos; draws; seeps; springs; along streams; along stream beds; along creeks; along gravelly and sandy washes; in drainages; benches; gravelly terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; around stock tanks; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in bouldery, bouldery-rocky, bouldery-cobbly-sandy, rocky, rocky-gravelly, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 800 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the small fruits are juicy and sweet. The Desert Hackberry may live to be more than 88 years of age and may be useful in controlling erosion. The Desert Hackberry is a larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia) and is browsed by deer; it provides a nesting site for the White-wing Dove (Zenaida asiatica), and cover for Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii gambelii) and other birds and mammals. The fruits are eaten by many birds, small desert mammals, coyotes (Canis latrans), foxes and javelinas (Peccari tajacu). *5, 6, 13 (Celtis tala Gillies var. pallida (Torrey) Planch.), 15, 16, 18, 26 (color photograph, Celtis pallida), 28 (color photograph, Celtis pallida), 46 (Celtis pallida Torr.), 48, 58, 63 (112607), 85 (112607), 91 (Celtis pallida Torr.), WTK (November 2005)*

 

Celtis pallida (see Celtis ehrenbergiana) 

 

Celtis tala var. pallida (see Celtis ehrenbergiana) 

 

 

Family Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia bipinnatifida (T. Nuttall) T. Nuttall var. bipinnatifida: Dakota Mock Vervain

SYNONYMY: Verbena bipinnatifida T. Nuttall. COMMON NAMES: Alfombrilla (Hispanic), Alfombrilla de Campo (Hispanic), Azul Chichique (Hispanic), Dakota Mock Vervain, Dakota Verbena, Hierba del Ojo (Hispanic), Moradilla (Hispanic), Small-flowered Verbena, Tatsundiku Moradu (Purépecha), Vervain. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 20 inches in height, one plant was reported to be 12 inches in height and 16 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being gray, dark green or yellow-green, the flowers lavender -pink, pink, purple, purplish-pink or rose-purple, flowering generally takes place between late March and early November (additional records: two for late February and one for early December). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; mesas; canyons; buttes; meadows; foothills; rocky hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; bajadas; flats; sandy valleys; roadsides; seeps; along and in stream beds; along creeks; along rivers; along and in river beds; washes; drainages; on banks; shores of lakes; terraces; sandy ditches; riparian areas and sandy disturbed areas in rocky-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-gravelly loam and gravelly loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 1,600 to 9,300 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The flowers have been reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28 (color photograph of species, Verbena bipinnatifida), 30 (sp.), 46 (sp., Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.), 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (120807), 85 (120807)*

 

Tetraclea coulteri A. Gray: Coulter’s Wrinklefruit

COMMON NAMES: Coulter Tetraclea, Coulter Wrinklefruit, Coulter’s Wrinklefruit. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (10 to 18 inches in height), the color of the foliage has been described as being ash-gray or gray-green, the flowers cream, cream-white, pink-cream, white or yellow, flowering generally takes place between mid-April and late October (additional records: two for mid-March). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; canyons; gravelly ridges; rocky foothills; rocky-gravelly and gravelly hillsides; rocky, cobbly and gravelly slopes; bajadas; amongst boulders; plains; gravelly ad sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; arroyos; along and in rocky washes; drainages; banks; benches; terraces; ditches; flood plains, and disturbed areas in bouldery, rocky, rocky-gravelly, cobbly, gravelly and sandy soils; gravelly-silty loam and sandy loam soils; silty clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTE: The genus Tetraclea is sometimes placed in the Lamiaceae (Labiatae), the Mint Family. *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 63 (120807), 77, 85 (120807)*

 

Verbena bipinnatifida (see Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida) 

 

 

Family Viscaceae (Loranthaceae): The Christmas Mistletoe Family

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall: Mesquite Mistletoe

SYNONYMY: Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease. COMMON NAMES: American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite American Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter), the stems are green or yellow-green, the fragrant flowers are greenish-yellow, flowering generally takes place between late July and mid-May (additional records: one for early June, one record for late June and one record for early July), the fruits are orange, pink, red, red-orange or white. HABITAT: Partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Desert Ironwood, Foothill Paloverde, Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found growing on Acacia spp. (Acacia constricta, Whtitethorn Acacia; Acacia farnesiana, Sweet Acacia; Acacia greggii, Catclaw Acacia); Condalia spp. (Condalia globosa, Bitter Snakewood); Condalia warnockii, Kearney Snakewood); Larrea spp. (Larrea tridentata, Creosote Bush); Olneya spp. (Olneya tesota, Desert Ironwood); Parkinsonia spp. (Parkinsonia aculeata, Jerusalem Thorn; Parkinsonia florida, Blue Paloverde; Parkinsonia microphylla, Yellow Paloverde); Prosopis spp. (Prosopis glandulosa, Honey Mesquite; Prosopis pubescens, Screwbean Mesquite; Prosopis velutina, Velvet Mesquite), and Ziziphus spp.(Ziziphus obtusifolia, Lotebush), occurring from 500 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feeds on the berries and disperses the seeds to other host plants. Verdins nest in the stems. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 15, 16, 28 (color photograph), 46, 58, 63 (050607), 77, 80 (Species of the genus Phoradendron are considered to be Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Cattle may be killed by browsing these parasitic forbs, but plants are unpalatable and poisoning is rare. Also children may be poisoned by eating the berries.”), 85 (111107), 97, WTK (November 2005)

 

Phoradendron californicum var. distans (see Phoradendron californicum) 

 

 

Family Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Fagonia californica (see footnote 46 under Fagonia laevis)

 

Fagonia californica subsp. laevis (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia californica subsp. longipes (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia laevis P.C. Standley: California Fagonbush

SYNONYMY: Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. laevis (P.C. Standley) I.L. Wiggins, Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. longipes (P.C. Standley) R.S. Felger, Fagonia longipes P.C. Standley. COMMON NAMES: California Fagonbush, Smooth-stemmed Fagonia. DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height, plants reported to be 4 to 6 inches in height had a crown 8 to 10 inches in width, one plant was described as being 12 inches in height with a crown 18 inches in width), the color of the leaves has been described as being dark green, the flowers lavender, lavender-pink, magenta, pink, purple, purple-pink or reddish-lavender, flowering generally takes place between mid-January and late May and late September to early December (additional records: two for mid-June and two for late July). HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky mountainsides; rocky and sandy mesas; cliffs; canyons; bases of cliffs; craters; crevices in rocks; buttes; rocky hills; rocky hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders and rocks; flats; valley floors; roadsides; arroyos; rocky and gravelly arroyo bottoms; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; banks of washes; benches, and sandy flood plains in desert pavement; bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; stony-clayey loam and gravelly-sandy loam soils, and alkaline clay soils, occurring from sea level to 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. *5, 6, 13, 28 (color photograph), 46 (Fagonia californica Benth.), 63 (081307), 77, 85 (081407), 86 (color photograph, Fagonia californica)*

 

Fagonia longipes (see Fagonia laevis) 

 

Larrea divaricata subsp. tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville (var. tridentata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Creosote Bush

SYNONYMY: (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles (subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger). COMMON NAMES: Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Creosote-bush, Creosotebush, Gobernadora, (erroneously called Greasewood), Guamis, Hediondilla (Little Bad Smeller). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height and about the same in width), the leaves are bright glossy green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-white, flowering takes place throughout the year with the peak blooming periods occurring in the spring, between March and April, and then again between November and December, the round fuzzy fruits are gray, reddish, white or rust. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; gravelly and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in well-drained bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older stems of the Creosote Bush may be 40 to 90 years of age. As the Creosote Bush ages the older central stems of the plant die off and new stems form at the outer edge of the crown. New stems are not created at the center of the plant. As the crown of the plant expands a “clonal ring”, made up of genetically identical individual shrublets, develops which continues the outward expansion of the ring eventually reaching several yards in diameter. It has been estimated that some of the older rings approach 11,700 years of age. Lac Scale insects (Tachardiella sp.) and Jackrabbits feed on this plant. Stem galls are produced by the Creosote Gall midge (Asphondylia sp.). The Creosote Bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting a Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelinas. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph - sp.), 28, (color photograph, Larrea tridentata), 46 (Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville “An outstanding xerophyte and a very important element of the perennial desert flora in southern and western Arizona. ... Creosote-bush has a strong characteristic odor, especially noticeable when the foliage is wet. The plant is ordinarily not touched by livestock, although it is reported that sheep, especially pregnant ewes, have been killed by partaking of it. This plant is reported to cause dermatitis in exceptional persons who are allergic to it.”), 48, 63 (var. tridentata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona - 081407), 77 (color photograph #101), 80 (This species is listed under Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Early reports accusing this common desert shrub of being poisonous have been proven wrong.”), 85 (081407), 91, 101 (color photograph), 107*

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata: Creosote Bush

SYNONYMY: Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger. COMMON NAMES: Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Creosote-bush, Creosotebush, Gobernadora, (erroneously called Greasewood), Guamis, Hediondilla (Little Bad Smeller). DESCRIPTION: Terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (20 inches to 12 feet in height and about the same in width), the leaves are bright glossy green or yellow-green, the flowers are yellow or yellow-white, flowering takes place throughout the year with the peak blooming periods occurring in the spring, between March and April, and then again between November and December, the round fuzzy fruits are gray, reddish, white or rust. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains; rocky, gravelly and sandy mesas; plateaus; canyons; canyon bottoms; talus slopes; rocky ridges; foothills; hills; hillsides; rocky and gravelly slopes; alluvial fans; sandy bajadas; rocky outcrops; amongst boulders; sand dunes; sandy plains; gravelly and sandy flats; valley bottoms; roadsides; along and in gravelly-sandy and sandy washes; sandy banks of streams, creeks and rivers; gravelly and sandy terraces; flood plains; mesquite bosques; riparian areas, and disturbed areas in well-drained bouldery, rocky, rocky-sandy, stony, gravelly, gravelly-sandy and sandy soils; rocky-clayey loam and clayey loam soils; sandy clay soils, and silty soils, occurring from below sea level to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations. NOTES: This plant may be useful as an ornamental. Older stems of the Creosote Bush may be 40 to 90 years of age. As the Creosote Bush ages the older central stems of the plant die off and new stems form at the outer edge of the crown. New stems are not created at the center of the plant. As the crown of the plant expands a “clonal ring”, made up of genetically identical individual shrublets, develops which continues the outward expansion of the ring eventually reaching several yards in diameter. It has been estimated that some of the older rings approach 11,700 years of age. Lac Scale insects (Tachardiella sp.) and Jackrabbits feed on this plant. Stem galls are produced by the Creosote Gall midge (Asphondylia sp.). The Creosote Bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting a Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelinas. *5, 6, 13 (color photograph), 16, 18, 26 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 28 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 46 (sp., Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville “An outstanding xerophyte and a very important element of the perennial desert flora in southern and western Arizona. ... Creosote-bush has a strong characteristic odor, especially noticeable when the foliage is wet. The plant is ordinarily not touched by livestock, although it is reported that sheep, especially pregnant ewes, have been killed by partaking of it. This plant is reported to cause dermatitis in exceptional persons who are allergic to it.”), 48, 63 (081407), 77 (color photograph #101), 80 (This species is listed under Rarely Poisonous and Suspected Poisonous Range Plants. “Early reports accusing this common desert shrub of being poisonous have been proven wrong.”), 85 (081407), 91, 101 (color photograph of species - Larrea tridentata, sp.), 107, WTK (November 2005)*

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  ANIMALS FROM

COLLECTION AND FROM BEING DISTURBED OR KILLED

 

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

 

 

 

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

 

 

 

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

 

 

 

CLASS INSECTA: The INSECTS

 

 

ORDER LEPIDOPTERA: The BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS AND SKIPPERS

 

 

Family Saturniidae: The Giant Silkworm Moths and Royal Moth Family

 

Eupackardia calleta (Westwood) (5): Calleta Silkmoth

COMMON NAMES: Calleta Silkmoth. NOTE: Observed on Sebastiania bilocularis, Mexican Jumping Bean. *85 (recorded in an entry for Sebastiania bilocularis)*

 

 

Family Tortricidae: The Tortricid Moth Family

 

Cydia deshaisiana (Lucas): Mexican Jumping Bean Moth

COMMON NAMES: Mexican Jumping Bean Moth. NOTE: Observed on Sebastiania bilocularis, Mexican Jumping Bean. *85 (recorded in an entry for Sebastiania bilocularis)*

 

 

 

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

 

 

 

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

 

 

 

CLASS MAMMALIA: The MAMMALS

 

 

Family Antilocapridae: The Pronghorn Family

 

Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis Goldman (5): Sonoran Pronghorn

COMMON NAMES: “Antelope”, Prong-horn, Pronghorn, Pronghorn Antelope, Prong-horned Antelope, Sonoran Pronghorn, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti including chain-fruit cholla, forbs, grasses, ocotillo and sagebrush. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (a marginal distribution record was identified near Cipriano Well in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument - 113006, 55 (sp. - Antilocapra americana Ord “Formerly widely distributed in grassland areas throughout the state; presently restricted to areas of favorable habitat.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052806), 106 (052806), 118 (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis Goldman - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 111, Page 255)*

 

 

Family Bovidae: The Cow, Sheep and Allies Family

 

Ovis canadensis subsp. mexicana C.H. Merriam: Desert Bighorn Sheep

COMMON NAMES: Berrego Cimarron (Hispanic), Berrego Cimarron del Desierto (Hispanic), Bighorn, Bighorn Sheep, Desert Bighorn, Desert Bighorn Sheep, Mountain Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep. HABITS: The species feeds on agave, brittle bush, bursage, bush muhly, cacti, catclaw, cholla, coffeeberry, desert fluffgrass, desert ironwood, desert thorn, fairy duster, filaree, galleta, grama, jojoba, mesquite, mallow, Nevada joint fir, plantain, prickly-pear, ratany, ricegrass, saguaro, saltbush, threeawn and turpentine broom; young are dropped in small scraped out depressions located in protected places on inaccessible peaks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Ovis canadensis Shaw “Probably formerly statewide in mountainous or rocky situations; presently restricted to scattered low desert mountains.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - no records 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (072306), 118 (Ovis canadensis mexicana Merriam - Distribution: Probably formerly statewide in mountainous situations. Figure 112, Page 257)*

 

 

Family Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans subsp. mearnsi Merriam: Coyote

COMMON NAME: Coyote. HABITS: The species feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels. The young are born in dens that may be dug in the ground or located in caves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Canis latrans Say “Statewide (120 - 9,100 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Canis latrans mearnsi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 87, Page 217)*

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (J.C. von Schreber): Common Gray Fox

COMMON NAMES: Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats. Whelping usually takes place in burrows dug into the ground or in dens in rocks and cliffs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) “Statewide with the possible exception of the northeast portion (120 - 5,800 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (052906), 100, 106 (052906), 118 (Recorded as Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii Mearns - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 90, Page 222)*

 

Vulpes macrotis C.H. Merriam: Kit Fox

COMMON NAMES: Kit Fox, Zorra del Desierto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on berries, birds, cottontail rabbits, crickets, grasses, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, lizards and pocket mice. The young are born in dens in underground burrows that have been excavated in soft soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: Vulpes velox (T. Say): The Swift Fox is generally considered a separate species by most authors. *14 (subspp. macrotis Merriam and neomexicanus Merriam - 050907), 55 (Vulpes macrotis Merriam “Widely distributed at lower elevations throughout the southern part of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (no records - 052906), (100), 106 (052906), 118 (Vulpes macrotis arispus Elliot - Distribution: Lower elevations in western and southern part of the state. Vulpes macrotis neomexicana Merriam - Distribution: Extreme southeastern Arizona. Figure 89, Page 220)*

 

Vulpes velox (see note under Vulpes macrotis) 

 

 

Family Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus subsp. crooki (Mearns): Mule Deer

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Deer, Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, beans, branches, fruits, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurges. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque) “Statewide, but not of uniform distribution (250 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus hemionus crooki (Mearns) - Distribution: Northeastern, central and southeastern part of the state. Figure 109, Page 252)*

 

Odocoileus virginianus subsp. couesi (E. Coues & Yarrow): Coues’ White-tailed Deer

COMMON NAMES: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Desert Whitetail, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer, Whitetail Deer. HABITS: The species feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel. Young are generally dropped along ridges and hillsides. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) “Southeastern Arizona (1,200 - 9,000 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Odocoileus virginianus couesi (Coues & Yarrow) - Distribution: Southern Arizona. Figure 110, Page 254)*

 

 

Family Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis rufus subsp. baileyi (see Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi)

 

Lynx rufus subsp. baileyi Merriam: Bobcat

SYNONYMY: Felis rufus (J.C. von Schreber) subsp. baileyi Elliot. COMMON NAMES: Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat. HABITS: The species feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes. Young are born in dens located in rocky caves, hollow logs and recesses. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Lynx rufus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 9,300 feet).”), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lynx rufus baileyi Merriam - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 106, Page 247)*

 

 

Family Geomyidae: The Pocket Gopher Family

 

Thomomys bottae subsp. comobabiensis Huey: Botta’s Pocket Gopher

COMMON NAMES: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher. HABITS: The species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers. Young are born in nests in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - several varieties listed - 051107), 55 (sp. - Thomomys bottae (Eydoux and Gervais) “Widely distributed throughout the state at all elevations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Thomomys bottae comobabiensis Huey - Distribution: Slopes of Comobabi Mountains, Pima County. Figure 46, Page 107)*

 

 

Family Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam: Rock Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius C.H. Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Raton de Rocas de Bosla (Hispanic), Rock Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds. Burrows are dug in soil near to or under rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam “Widely distributed in rocky areas in the Colorado River valley, western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius), 85 (sp. - Perognathus intermedius Merriam - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus intermedius (Merriam) - 051007), 118 (Chaetodipus intermedius intermedius Merriam - Distribution: Known from Mohave County southward and eastward, across most of the state to Cochise County. Figure 54, Page 141)*

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei (S.W. Woodhouse): Desert Pocket Mouse

SYNONYMY: Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei S.W. Woodhouse). COMMON NAMES: Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite. The nest is made in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse “Widely distributed in desert and low grasslands of southern and western Arizona (120 - 5,200 feet.”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus), 85 (sp. - Perognathus penicillatus (A.H. Howell) - 051007), 100 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus), 106 (sp. - Chaetodipus penicillatus (Woodhouse) - 051007), 118 (Perognathus penicillatus pricei Allen - Distribution: Known from south-central Arizona. Figure 53, Page 137)*

 

Dipodomys merriami subsp. merriami Mearns: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera Merriam (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on ants, green plant material and seeds of creosote bush, grama grass, mesquite, ocotillo and purselane. Nests are made in underground burrows often located under bushes. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp. - 051007), 55 (“Widely distributed in western and southern parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns - Distribution: Occurs throughout most of the western and southern part of the state. Figure 56, Page 145)*

 

Dipodomys spectabilis subsp. perblandus Goldman: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat

COMMON NAMES: Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat, Kangaroo Rat, Rata de Nopalera (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on grasses, forbs, succulent plants, insects, rodents and seeds. Nests are made up of chaff, stems and leaves of grass located in underground burrows in firm soils. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051007), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. with a listing of species), 118 (Dipodomys spectabilis perblandus Goldman - Distribution: Known from the grasslands of southern Pinal and Pima County. Figure 55, Page 143)*

 

Perognathus amplus subsp. taylori Goldman: Arizona Pocket Mouse

COMMON NAME: Arizona Pocket Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, insects and seeds. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *55 (sp. - Perognathus amplus Osgood “Locally common in desert areas on south-central, western and north-central parts of the state (500 - 5,100 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 118 (Perognathus amplus taylori Goldman.  Distribution: Known from south central Arizona. Figure 50, Page 129)*

 

Perognathus intermedius subsp. intermedius (see Chaetodipus intermedius subsp. intermedius)

 

Perognathus penicillatus subsp. pricei (see Chaetodipus penicillatus subsp. pricei) 

 

 

Family Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns: Antelope Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAME: Antelope Jack Rabbit. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite. Young are born in a nest that is usually located above ground. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus alleni (Mearns) “Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus alleni subsp. alleni Mearns - Distribution: Occurs in the central third of the southern half of the state. Figure 31, Page 68)*

 

Lepus californicus subsp. eremicus J.A. Allen: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit

COMMON NAMES: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit”. HABITS: The species feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti. Young are born in nests located either above or below ground in forms that have been lined with breast hair, after birth the young are moved to separate nests and cared for individually by the female. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Lepus californicus Gray “Statewide.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Lepus californicus eremicus J.A. Allen - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 32, Page 69)*

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (S.F. Baird) subsp. arizonae: Desert Cottontail

COMMON NAME: Desert Cottontail. HABITS: The species feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs. Young are born into nests lined with forbs, grasses and the females fur which are located on the ground and in brush piles, piles of rocks, and burrows abandoned by other animals. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird) “Common at elevations below 6,000 feet throughout the state.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906), 118 (Sylvilagus audubonii arizonae (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Widely distributed at elevations up to 6,000 feet in the western half of the state. Figure 34, Page 74)*

 

 

Family Mephitidae: The Skunk Family

 

Mephitis macroura subsp. milleri (Mearns): Hooded Skunk

COMMON NAMES: Hooded Skunk, Zorrillo (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on small birds, insects and other invertebrates, rodents and plant material; young are born in a dens located in burrows or among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - 050807), 55 (sp. - Mephitis macroura (Lichtenstein) “Southeastern part of the state (2,000 to 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Mephitis macroura milleri (Mearns) - Distribution: South central and southeastern Arizona. Figure 101, Page 240) *

 

Spilogale gracilis Merriam: Western Spotted Skunk

SYNONYMY: Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam. COMMON NAMES: Spotted Skunk, Western Spotted Skunk, Zorillo Pinto (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on arachnids, berries, birds and bird eggs, carrion, fruits, insects, small mammals, scorpions and seeds. Dens are made in rock crevices and hollow logs. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis Merriam is a synonym for Spilogale gracilis C. Linnaeus the Western Spotted Skunk. Spilogale putorius subsp. leucoparia is a synonym for Spilogale putorius C. Linnaeus the Eastern Spotted Skunk. 051107), 55 (Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus) “Probably statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65 (Spilogale putorius), 73 (Spilogale gracilis), 85 (Spilogale putorius - 051107), 100 (Spilogale gracilis), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Spilogale putorius gracilis Merriam - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 99, Page 237)*

 

Spilogale putorius (see footnotes 14, 55, 65 and 85 under Spilogale gracilis)

 

Spilogale putorius subsp. gracilis (see Spilogale gracilis)

 

 

Family Molossidae: The Free-tailed Bat Family

 

Eumops perotis subsp. californicus (Merriam): Greater Western Mastiff Bat

COMMON NAMES: Bonnet Bat, Greater Western Bonneted Bat, Greater Mastiff Bat, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Mastiff Bat, Murcielago Mastiff (Hispanic), Western Mastiff Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on crickets, long-horned grasshoppers, moths and other small insects. Roosts in crevices and shallow caves in cliffs and rock walls at lower elevations. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Eumops perotis (Schinz) “Rare, in small colonies in rock crevices at lower elevations in the western and southern part of the state.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (fam. - 053006), 118 (Eumops perotis californicus (Merriam) - Distribution: Probably throughout southern Arizona in the Lower Sonoran Life Zone. Figure 29, Page 65)*

 

 

Family Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula subsp. albigula Hartley: White-throated Wood Rat

COMMON NAMES: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat. HABITS: The species feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca. Nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (051107), 55 (sp. - Neotoma albigula Hartley “Widely distributed at elevations below 7,000 feet throughout all of the state south of the Colorado River. (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Neotoma albigula albigula Hartley - Distribution: Occurs commonly south of the Mogollon Rim. Figure 76, Page 193)*

 

Onychomys torridus subsp. torridus (E. Coues): Southern Grasshopper Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates. Nests are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. torridus - 020307), 55 (sp. - Onychomys torridus (Coues) “Widely distributed in the western and southern parts of the state (120 - 5,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Onychomys torridus torridus (Coues) - Distribution: Southeastern quarter of the state. Figure 62, Page 161)*

 

Peromyscus eremicus (S.F. Baird) subsp. eremicus: Cactus Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Cactus Mouse, Raton de Cactaceas (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on flowers, small fruits, insects, green plant material and seeds. Nests are made within the abandoned burrows of other animals, clumps of cacti and among rocks. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (sp.), 55 (sp. - Peromyscus eremicus (Baird) “Widely distributed in western and southern Arizona (120 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus eremicus eremicus (Baird) - Distribution: Almost all of the western and southern part of the state.  Figure 67, Page 171)*

 

Peromyscus maniculatus subsp. sonoriensis (Le Conte): Deer Mouse

COMMON NAMES: Deer Mouse, Raton Venado (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on bark, berries, bones, centipedes, earthworms, small fruits, fungi, insects, leaves, nuts and snails. Nests are built in buildings, underground burrows, rock crevices debris, in and under logs, and clumps of vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subspp. blandus (Osgood) and rufinus (Merriam) - 050907), 55 (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) “Statewide (120 - 11,400 feet).”), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006), 118 (Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis (Le Conte) - Distribution: Grasslands at lower elevations throughout the state. Figure 69, Page 177)*

 

Reithrodontomys megalotis subsp. megalotis (S.F. Baird): Western Harvest Mouse

COMMON NAME: Western Harvest Mouse. HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids, grasses, insects (larvae and adults) and seeds of grasses forbs and shrubs. Spherical nests are made of woven plant material and lined with plant fibers and can be located near the ground or above the ground in dense vegetation. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird) “Statewide (120 - 8,000 feet).”), 73 (sp.), 85 (053006), 100 (sp.), 106 (053006), 118 (Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis (Baird) - Distribution: At medium and low elevations statewide except extreme northeastern part of the state. Figure 64, Page 164)*

 

 

Family Mustelidae: The Weasel and Allies Family

 

Taxidea taxus (J.C. von Schreber): American Badger

COMMON NAMES: American Badger, Badger, Badger Tejon (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on ground dwelling birds and eggs, carrion, insects, rodents and snakes. Young are born in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (subsp. berlandieri Schreber - 050907), 55 (Taxidea taxus (Schreber) “Statewide (120 - 7,000 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053006), 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Taxidea taxus - Distribution: Statewide. Figure 98, Page 235)*

 

 

Family Phyllostomidae: The Leaf-nosed Bat Family

 

Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae (Martinez & Villa-R.): Southern Long-nosed Bat

SYNONYMY: Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni D.F. Hoffmeister, Leptonycteris sanborni (Saussure). COMMON NAMES: Lesser Long-nosed Bat, Little Long-nosed Bat, Mexican Long-nosed Bat, Murcielago de Sanborn (Hispanic), Sanborn’s Long-nosed Bat, Sanborn’s Southern Long-nosed Bat, Southern Long-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects, nectar, pollen and the nectar and soft-bodied fruits of agaves and cacti. Roosts are located in caves, rock crevices and mines. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: Long-nosed bats are pollinators of Agaves, Cardons, Organ Pipe Cacti and Saguaros. *8, 14 (Populations may be compromised by roost-site disturbance, loss of food sources and direct killing by humans. - 050907), 35 (This species is vulnerable to disturbances at roosting sites by cave explores.), 55 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure) “Locally common in moist caves. Known from Pinal, Pima, Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties.”), 85 (no records - 053006), 92 (Leptonycteris sanborni), 100 (sp. - Leptonycteris curasoae), 106 (053006), 118 (recorded as Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (Saussure) - Distribution: Known only from the southeastern part of the state. Figure 9, Page 35)*

 

Leptonycteris nivalis (see footnote 55 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (see footnote 118 under Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris nivalis sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Macrotus californicus S.F. Baird: California Leaf-nosed Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Leaf-nosed Bat, Leaf-nosed Bat, Leafnose Bat, Waterhouse’s Leaf-nosed Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: Feeds on beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, moths and other insects. Roosts are located in caves and abandoned mine tunnels. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from  the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 050907), 55 (Macrotus californicus Baird “Locally common in shallow caves, mine tunnels and under bridges. Occurs widely at lower elevations in the western and southern parts of the state.”), 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 92, 100, 106 (053006), 118 (Macrotus californicus Baird - Distribution: Known from lower elevations in the southern and western parts of the state. Figure 7, Page 32)*

 

 

Family Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Bassariscus astutus subsp. arizonensis Goldman: Ringtail

COMMON NAMES: Band-tailed Cat, Cacomistle, Civet Cat, Coon CatGato Minero (Hispanic), Miner’s Cat, Ringtail, Ringtail Cat, Ring-tailed Cat. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, birds, fruits, carrion, crickets, eggs, insects, lizards, small mammals, snakes and spiders. Nests are made of grass located in dens in underground burrows, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, cavities in logs, stumps and trees and man-made structures. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14 (050907), 55 (Bassariscus astutus (M.H. Lichenstein) “Statewide (120 - 6,500 feet).”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 051107), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053106), 118 (Bassariscus astutus arizonensis Goldman - Distribution: Statewide except extreme southeastern and southwestern parts. Figure 93, Page 227)*

 

 

Family Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman). COMMON NAMES: Harris’ Antelope Squirrel, Yuma Antelope Squirrel. HABITS: Feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds. Dens are located in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (Citellus harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) “Southern and western parts of the state at elevations below 6,500 feet.”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus harrisii harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) - Distribution: Southern and western Arizona except for most of Yuma County. Citellus harrisii saxicola (Mearns) - Distribution: Southwestern Arizona. Figure 38, Page 85)*

 

Citellus harrisii (see Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii harrisii (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus harrisii saxicola (see footnote 118 under Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus tereticaudus (see Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (see footnote 118 under Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (see Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus S.F. Baird: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus tereticaudus S.F. Baird. COMMON NAME: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel HABITS: Feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo, paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking scavenging Gambel’s Quail chicks; nests are made of plant fibers and stems and located in dens in underground burrows. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation. *14, 55 (Citellus tereticaudus Baird “Lower Sonoran Life-zone of the western part of the state (below 3,200 feet).”), 65, 73, 85 (053106), 100, 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (Merriam) - Distribution: Lower Sonoran Life Zone of southwestern Arizona. Figure 39, Page 90)*

 

Spermophilus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel

SYNONYMY: Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say). COMMON NAMES: Ardilla Coluda (Hispanic), Rock Squirrel. HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, berries, small birds, chicks and eggs, carrion, insects, fruits, small mammals, nuts and seeds burrows. Nests are made of leaves, pine needles and plant fibers and located in dens in underground burrows between boulders, rock crevices and talus. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14, 55 (sp. - Citellus variegatus (Erxleben) “Statewide, especially at elevations below 6,000 feet.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Citellus variegatus subsp. grammurus (Say) - Distribution: Statewide, especially common below 6000 feet. Figure 37, Page 82)*

 

 

Family Soricidae: The Shrew Fmaily

 

Notiosorex crawfordi subsp. crawfordi (E. Coues): Crawford’s Desert Shrew

COMMON NAMES: Crawford’s Desert Shrew, Crawford’s Gray Shrew, Desert Shrew, Gray Shrew, Musarana del Deseirto Crawford (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on centipedes, insects, lizards, small mice, scorpions, sowbugs and spiders. Nests are made of shredded bark and leaves and located in packrat dens or under dead agaves. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues) “Locally common, widely distributed statewide at elevations below 6,000 feet, especially in riparian situations.”), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 051107), 118 (Notiosorex crawfordi crawfordi (Coues) - Distribution: Probably occurs statewide at elevations below 6000 feet. Figure 5, Page 30)*

 

 

Family Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns): Collared Peccary

SYNONYMY: Dicotyles tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns), Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (Mearns). COMMON NAMES: Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, “Musk Hog”, Peccary. HABITS: The species feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fruits, fungi, grasses, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, roots, palm nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms. Javelina bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets and at night in burrows usually under the roots of trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu (Linnaeus) “Southeastern and central parts of the state (1,200 - 6,000 feet).”), 65 (sp. - Pecari angulatus), 73 (sp. - Dicotyles tajacu), 85 (no records - 051207), 100 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu), 106 (sp. - Tayassu tajacu - 051107), 118 (Tayassu tajacu sonoriensis (Mearns) - Distribution: Southern part of the state. Figure 107, Page 249)*

 

Tayassu tajacu subsp. sonoriensis (see see Peccari tajacu subsp. sonoriensis)

 

 

Family Ursidae: The Bear Family

 

Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (see Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps)

 

Ursus americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird): Black Bear

SYNONYMY: Euarctos americanus subsp. amblyceps (Baird). COMMON NAMES: American Black Bear, Black Bear, Cinnamon Bear, Oso Negro  (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fishes, fruits, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries, sprouts, small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. Shelter is taken in dense cover and they climb trees to escape danger. Nests are made of grasses leaves, mud and sticks located in a den. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *14 (050907), 55 (sp. - Euarctos americanus (Pallas) “Formerly common throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now greatly reduced in numbers and distribution.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (no records - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (includes a listing of subspecies and their distribution - 050907), 118 (Euarctos americanus amblyceps (Baird) - Distribution: Probably formerly occurred throughout the state, at least in mountainous areas. Figure 91, Page 224)*

 

Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord: Grizzly Bear

SYNONYMY: Ursus horribilus Ord. COMMON NAMES: (subspecies of Brown Bear), Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (Hispanic), Silvertip Bear. HABITS: The species feeds on berries, carrion, fishes (Bass, Salmon, Trout), fungi, grasses, insects (Army Cutworm moths), leaves, large (Bison, Black Bear, Caribou, Deer, Elk, Moose, Mountain Goats) and small (rodents) mammals, nuts (Whitebark Pine nuts), roots and sprouts. The Grizzly Bear beds down in depressions in thickets. Dens are excavated from under rocks or located in caves, crevices or hollow trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTES: EXTIRPATED from Arizona. The Grizzly Bear is Extinct in Arizona. The last confirmed kill was made on the slopes of Mount Baldy (Apache County) in the summer 1939). Grizzly Bears were exterminated by American immigrants because of the risks to humans and livestock. *14 (Ursus arctos subspp. horriaeus (Baird) and perturbans (Merriam) - 050907), 39 (Ursus horribilus), 40 (Ursus arctos - Grizzly Bears were historically present in the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson), 55 (Ursus horribilus Ord “Formerly throughout the mountainous areas of the state, now extinct in Arizona.”), 73 (Ursus horribilus), 85 (no records - 053106) 100 (Ursus arctos), 106 (Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus Ord - 051207), 118 (Ursus horribilus - Distribution: Formerly statewide, now extinct in Arizona. Figure 92, Page 225)*

 

Ursus arctos (see footnotes 14 and 100 under Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

Ursus horribilus (see Ursus arctos subsp. horribilus)

 

 

Family Vespertilionidae: The Plain-nosed Bat Family

 

Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (see Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens)

 

Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen): Spotted Bat

COMMON NAMES: Death’s Head Bat, Jackass Bat, Murcielago Pinto (Hispanic), Pinto Bat, Spotted Bat. HABITS: Feeds on insects. Roosts in cracks and crevices in caves, cliffs and ledges, and under loose rock in rocky situations, possibly in close proximity to water. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This bat is rarely encountered. Riparian habitats seem to be important. *8, 14 (053007), 55 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) “Extremely rare; known from four specimens, Maricopa and Yuma counties.”), 73, 85 (no records - 072306), 92, 100, 106 (072306), 118 (Euderma maculata (J.A. Allen) - Distribution: Can be expected almost anywhere in the state although recorded from only four localities. Figure 23, Page 57)*

 

Myotis californicus (J.J. Audubon & Bachman) subsp. stephensi: California Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: California Bat, California Myotis, California Myotis Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic). HABITS: The species feeds on arachnids and insects. Roosts in crevices and cracks in cliffs and canyon walls, caves, mine shafts and man made shelters. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (sp. - Myotis californicus N. Miller), 14 (subspp. californicus (Audubon & Bachman) and stephensi (Dalquest) - 051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis californicus Audubon & Bachman “Locally common throughout the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis californicus stephensi Dalquest - Distribution: Northern and western part of the state. Figure 16, Page 45)*

 

Myotis velifer subsp. brevis Vaughan: Cave Myotis Bat

COMMON NAMES: Cave Bat, Cave Myotis, Cave Myotis Bat, Mexican Brown Bat, Murcielago de Cueva (Hispanic), Southwestern Cave Myotis. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects. Roosts in holes and pockets in caves, crevices, bridges, buildings, abandoned mine shafts, tunnels, and trees. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8 (Myotis velifer velifer J.A. Allen), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. - Myotis velifer (J.A. Allen) “Locally abundant in summer months at lower elevations (below 5,000 feet) throughout the southern and western parts of the state.”), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 92 (sp.), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Myotis velifer brevis Vaughan - Distribution: Probably statewide. Figure 11, Page 37)*

 

Myotis velifer velifer (see footnote 8 under Myotis velifer subsp. brevis)

 

Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen) subsp. hesperus: Western Pipistrelle Bat

COMMON NAMES: Canyon Bat, Flittermouse, Murcielago del Poniente (Hispanic), Western Pipistrelle, Western Pipistrelle Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on insects. Roosts in buildings, crevices in canyon walls, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, under rocks and in mine shafts. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: This is the smallest of the western bats. *8 (sp. - Pipistrellus hesperus N. Miller), 14 (051007), 55 (sp. Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen)), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106), 118 (Pipistrellus hesperus apus Elliot - Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. Figure 19, Page 49)*

 

Plecotus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Miller): Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat

SYNONYMY: Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Frost). COMMON NAMES: Lump-nosed Bat, Mule-eared Bat, Murcielago de Townsend (Hispanic), Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat, Western Big-eared Bat, Western Long-eared Bat, Western Lump-nosed Bat. HABITS: The species feeds on small moths and other small insects; roosts on open ceilings in caves and rock shelters, and under bridges and in water diversion tunnels, abandoned mines, mine tunnels and buildings. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. NOTE: The Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat is a rather sedentary species that is extremely sensitive to human disturbance and the vandalism of roost caves. *14 (053007), 55 (sp. - Plecotus townsendii (Cooper) - “Locally common throughout the state at elevations above 5,000 feet; rare at lower elevations.”), 73, 85 (053106), 92, 100, 118 (Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens Miller - Distribution: Probably more or less state wide but more abundant in the Upper Sonoran and Transitional Life Zones. Figure 24, Page 58)*

 

 

 

CLASS REPTILIA: The REPTILES

 

 

Family Testudinidae: The Land Tortoise Family

 

Gopherus agassizi (J.G. Cooper) - Sonoran Population (also spelled Gopherus agassizii) (5): Sonoran Desert Tortoise

COMMON NAMES: Desert Tortoise, Sonoran Desert Tortoise. HABITS: Feeds on cacti, forbs, grasses, Slender Janusia and other plants and plant materials. Takes shelter in underground burrows, caliche caves located along washes and crevices. HABITAT: Within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 106 (060306)*

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

I would like to thank Matthew B. Johnson for his review of several of the listings, his input into the layout, his numerous trips into the field to assist in the identification of species and above all for his continued support for this project. I would also like to thank Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator, and the Botanists of the University of Arizona Herbarium for years of assistance with plant identifications. I would also like to thank Neva Connolly, Julia Fonseca and Bill Singleton with the Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District for being willing and able to present the listings on the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan website.

 

 

 

 

FOOTNOTES and REFERENCES

for the Species Distribution Listings compiled for Arizona

 

 

(1) General Mapping:

 

Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

 

National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

 

Ajo, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

                Kino Peak, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

 

Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

www.maps4u.com

 

(2) Physiographic Province Mapping:

 

Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Soils Mapping:

 

Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Biotic Communities Mapping and Definitions

 

Ecological formations used in the listings follow those presented in the mapping for the Biotic Communities of the Southwest.

 

Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. Revised June 1983. Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

 

Brown, David E., Charles H. Lowe and Charles P. Pase. June 1980. A Digitized Systematic Classification for Ecosystems with an Illustrated Summary of the Natural Vegetation of North America, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 (5) Nomenclature:

 

for Plants:

 

Generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

The International Plant Names Index (2004, 2005) 

Published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org [accessed 2004, 2005, 2006]

 

National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

for Vertebrate Animals:

 

Generally follows that presented by Charles H. Lowe. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona and E. Lendell Cockrum. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

for Invertebrate Animals:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

(6) Growth Habits of Plants:

 

Generally coincides with that presented by the National Plants Database. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

               

Common names identified in the USDA NRCS database have been printed in bold lettering: A few of the plants were not provided with a common name in the USDA NRCS database and additional resources were used, including:

 

Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. *8*

 

Sunset Western Garden Book Kathleen N. Brenzel, 2001, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California. *18*

 

(7) Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

 

(8) Arizona Game and Fish Department. Unpublished Abstracts Compiled and Edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

 

Amphibians: 2002. Bufo microscaphus, Arizona Toad; 2005. Bufo retiformis, Sonoran Green Toad; 2001. Eleutherodactylus augusti subsp. cactorum, Western Barking Frog; 2003. Gastrophryne olivacea, Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad; 2002. Hyla arenicolor, Canyon Treefrog; 2003. Pternohyla fodiens, Lowland Burrowing Treefrog; 2001. Rana chiricahuensis, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, and 2001. Rana yavapaiensis, Lowland Leopard Frog.

Arachnids: 2004. Albiorix anophthalmus, a cave obligate Pseudoscorpion.

Birds: 2003. Accipiter gentilis, American Goshawk; 2003. Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow; 2002. Aimophila ruficeps subsp. rupicola: Yuma Rufous-crowned Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow; 2001. Ammodramus savannarum subsp. ammolequs, Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow; 2001. Anthus spragueii, Sprgaue’s Pipit; 2002. Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle; 2000. Asturina nitida, Northern Grey Hawk; 2001. Athene cunicularia subsp. hypugaea, Western Burrowing Owl; 2001. Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk; 2001. Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk; 2005. Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-hawk; 2003. Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara; 2002. Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher; 2001. Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher; 2002. Coccyzus americanus subsp. occidentalis, Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo; 2001-08-27. Colinus virginianus subsp. ridgwayi, Masked Bobwhite; 2002. Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-duck; 2001. Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-duck; 2002. Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink; 2002. Egretta thula, Snowy Egret; 2002. Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite; 2003 Empidonax fulvifrons subsp. pygmaeus, Northern Buff-breasted Flycatcher; 2003. Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher; 2002. Empidonax traillii subsp. extimus, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher; 1998. Falco peregrinus subsp. anatum, American Peregrine Falcon; 2001. Glaucidium brasilianum subsp. cactorum, Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl; 2002. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle; 2004. Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike; 2005. Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl; 2002. Pandion haliaetus, Osprey; 2002. Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis; 2002. Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher; 2001. Rallus longirostris P. Boddaert subsp. yumanensis, Yuma Clapper Rail; 2002. Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart; 2005. Strix occidentalis subsp. lucida, Mexican Spotted Owl; 2001. Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon; 2003. Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird, and 2002. Vireo bellii subsp. arizonae, Arizona Bell’s Vireo.

Dicots: 2000. Abutilon parishii, Pima Indian Mallow; 2004. Ammoselinum giganteum, Sand Parsley; 2003. Amoreuxia gonzalezii, Saiya; 2003. Amsonia kearneyana, Kearney’s Blue Star; 2004. Arenaria aberrans, Mt. Dellenbaugh Sandwort; 1995. Aster potosinus, Lemmon’s Aster; 2004. Berberis harrisoniana, Kofa Barberry; 2000. Boerhavia megaptera, Tucson Mountain Spiderling; 2004. Bursera fagaroides, Torch Wood Copal; 2003. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, Chiltepin; 2005. Castela emoryi, Crucifixion Thorn; 2004. Cirsium mohavense, Mohave Thistle; 2001. Cleome multicaulis, Playa Spider Plant; 2001. Colubrina californica, California Snakewood; 2001. Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina, Pima Pineapple Cactus; 2005. Coryphantha scheeri var. valida, Slender Needle Corycactus; 2004. Croton wigginsii, Dune Croton; 2005. Cryptantha ganderi, Gander’s Cryptantha; 2001. Dalea tentaculoides, Gentry Indigo Bush; 2005. Desmanthus covillei, Coville Bundleflower; 2004. Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii, Nichol Turk’s Head Cactus; 2005. Echinocactus polycephalus, Cotton-top Cactus; 2005. Echinocereus fasciculatus, Magenta-flower Hedgehog Cactus; 2003. Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus, Arizona Hedgehog Cactus; 2004. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis, Acuna Cactus; 2003. Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus; 2001. Erigeron arisolius, Arid Throne Fleabane; 2003. Eriogonum capillare, San Carlos Wild-buckwheat; 2005. Eriogonum ericifolium var. ericifolium, Heathleaf Wild-buckwheat; 2004. Euphorbia gracillima, Mexican Broomspurge; 2005. Euphorbia platysperma, Dune Spurge; 2005. Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus. California Barrel Cactus; 2001. Graptopetalum bartramii, Bartram Stonecrop; 2000. Hackelia ursina, Chihuahuan Stickseed; 2000. Hedeoma dentata, Mock-pennyroyal; 2000. Hermannia pauciflora, Sparseleaf Hermannia; 2001. Heterotheca rutteri, Huachuca Golden Aster; 2005. Ibervillea tenuisecta, Texas Globe Berry; 2000. Ipomoea tenuiloba, Trumpet Morning-glory; 2003. Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva, Huachuca Water Umbel; 2000. Lupinus huachucanus, Huachuca Mountain Lupine; 2004. Mammillaria mainiae, Counter Clockwise Fishhook Cactus; 2004. Matelea cordifolia, Sonoran Milkweed Vine; 2006. Passiflora arizonica, Arizona Passionflower; 2003. Pectis imberbis, Beardless Chinch Weed; 2005. Peniocereus striatus, Dahlia Rooted Cereus; 2004. Penstemon superbus, Superb Beardtongue; 2005. Perityle ajoensis, Ajo Rock Daisy; 2005. Petalonyx linearis, Longleaf Sandpaper-plant; 2004. Pholisma sonorae, Sand Food; 2004. Plagiobothrys pringlei, Pringle Popcorn-flower; 2005. Rhus kearneyi, Kearney Sumac; 2005. Stenocereus thurberi, Organ Pipe Cactus; 2005. Stephanomeria schottii, Schott Wire Lettuce; 2004. Stevia lemmonii, Lemmon’s Stevia; 2004. Tragia laciniata, Sonoran Noseburn; 2004. Tumamoca macdougalii, Tumamoc Globeberry; 2005. Vauquelinia californica subsp. sonorensis, Sonoran Mountain Rosewood, and 2004. Viola umbraticola, Shade Violet.

Ferns: 1997. Cheilanthes pringlei, Pringle Lip Fern and 2003. Notholaena lemmonii, Lemmon Cloak Fern.

Fishes: 2002. Agosia chrysogaster, Longfin Dace; 2002. Catostomus clarki, Desert Sucker; 2002. Catostomus insignis, Sonora Sucker; 2001. Cyprinodon eremus, Quitobaquito Pupfish; 2001. Cyprinodon macularius, Desert Pupfish; 2002. Gila intermedia, Gila Chub; 2002. Gila robusta, Roundtail Chub; 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. occidentalis, Gila Topminnow, and 2001. Poeciliopsis occidentalis subsp. sonorensis, Yaqui Topminnow. 

Gastropods: 2003. Tryonia quitobaquitae, Quitobaquito Tryonia.

Insects: 2001. Agathymus aryxna, Arizona Giant Skipper; 2001. Agathymus polingi, Poling’s Giant Skipper; 2004. Anthocharis cethura, Desert Orangetip; 2001. Calephelis rawsoni subsp. arizonensis, Arizona Metalmark; 2002. Heterelmis stephani, Stephan’s Heterelmis Riffle Beetle; 2001. Limenitis archippus subsp. obsoleta, Obsolete Viceroy Butterfly, and 2001. and Neophasia terlootii, Chiricahua Pine White.

Mammals: 2002. Antrozous pallidus, Pallid Bat; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. mexicana, Chihuahuan Pronghorn Antelope; 2002. Antilocapra americana subsp. sonoriensis, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope; 2004. Bassariscus astutus, Ringtail; 2003. Choeronycteris mexicana, Mexican Long-tongued Bat; 2004. Eptesicus fuscus, Big Brown Bat; 2003. Euderma maculatum, Spotted Bat; 2002. Eumops perotis subsp. californicus, Greater Western Bonneted Bat; 2003. Eumops underwoodi, Underwood’s Mastiff Bat; 2004. Herpailurus yaguarondi, Jaguarundi; 2004. Lasionycteris noctivagans, Silver-haired Bat; 2003. Lasiurus blossevillii, Western Red Bat; 2004. Lasiurus cinereus, Hoary Bat; 2004. Leopardus pardalis subsp sonoriensis, Ocelot; 2003. Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae, Lesser Long-nosed Bat; 2002. Lontra canadensis subsp. sonora, Southwestern River Otter; 2001. Macrotus californicus, California Leaf-nosed Bat; 2003. Myotis auriculus, Southwestern Myotis; 2004. Myotis californicus, California Myotis; 2003. Myotis occultus, Fringed Myotis; 2003. Myotis yumanensis, Yuma Myotis; 2003. Nyctinomops femorosacca, Pocketed Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Nyctinomops macrotis, Big Free-tailed Bat; 2003. Myotis thysanodes, Fringed Myotis; 2002. Myotis velifer, Cave Myotis; 2004. Panthera onca, Jaguar; 2004. Pipistrellus hesperus, Western Pipistrelle; 2006. Puma concolor, Mountain Lion; 2005. Sciurus arizonensis, Arizona Gray Squirrel; 2003. Sigmodon ochrognathus, Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat, and 2004. Tadarida brasiliensis, Brazilian Free-tailed Bat.

Monocots: 2005. Agave x ajoensis, Ajo Agave; 2003. Agave murpheyi, Hohokam Agave; 1994. Agave parviflora subsp. parviflora, Santa Cruz Striped Agave; 2005. Agave schottii var. treleasei, Trelease Agave; 2005. Agave utahensis var. kaibabensis, Kaibab Agave; 2005. Allium bigelovii, Bigelow Onion; 1999. Allium gooddingii, Goodding Onion; 2005. Allium parishii, Parish Onion; 2004. Carex chihuahuensis, Chihuahuan Sedge; 2000. Carex ultra, Arizona Giant Sedge; 2004. Cathestecum erectum, False Grama; 2004. Hexalectris revoluta, Chisos Coral-root; 2005. Hexalectris spicata, Crested Coral Root; 2001. Lilium parryi, Lemon Lily; 2005. Listera convallarioides, Broadleaf Twayblade; 2000. Muhlenbergia xerophila, Weeping Muhly, and 2005. Schiedeella arizonica, Fallen Ladies’-tresses.

Reptiles: 2001. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. stictogrammus, Giant Spotted Whiptail; 2003. Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus, Redback Whiptail; 2002. Chionactis occipitalis subsp. klauberi, Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake; 2003. Chionactis palarostris subsp. organica, Organ Pipe Shovel-nosed Snake; 2001. Crotalus lepidus subsp. klauberi, Banded Rock Rattlesnake; 2001. Gopherus agassizi, Desert Tortoise; 2002. Heloderma suspectum subsp. cinctum, Banded Gila Monster; 2002. Heterodon nasicus subsp. kennerlyi, Mexican Hog-nosed Snake; 2005. Kinosternon sonoriense, subsp. longifemorale, Sonoyta Mud Turtle; 2003. Lichanura trivirgata subsp. gracia, Desert Rosy Boa; 2003. Phrynosoma mcallii, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard; 2005. Sauromalus ater, Common Chuckwalla; 2001. Thamnophis eques subsp. megalops, Mexican Garter Snake; 2003. Uma rufopunctata, Yuma Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, and 2003. Xantusia arizonae, Arizona Night Lizard.

 

(9) Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

 

(10) Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Migratory Pollinators Program, Spring 2003 Update, Table 3. Plants Visited by Hummingbirds in Sonora

http://desertmuseum.org/pollination/table_3.html

 

(11) Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(12) Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(13) Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(14) Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M), New Mexico Game and Fish, New Mexico Natural Heritage Program

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

 

(15) Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987. Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 50-95, 1987.

 

(16) Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono, Vol.32, No.4, pp. 225-252, 20 December 1985.

 

(17) Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

 

(18) Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

 

(19) Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

 

(20) Bull, John and John Farrand, Jr. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds:  Eastern Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

 

(21) Catalogue of New World Grasses

http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/index/nwgctA.html

 

(22) Chambers, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field Guide.

 

(23) Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

http://www.naba.org/pubs/enames2.html

 

(24) Checklist of Plants, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, August 2005.

 

(25) Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA.

 

(26) Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California.

 

(27) Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

 

(28) Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A Field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

 

(29) Erickson, Jim. 1998. 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998.

 

(30) Especies con Usos No Maderables en Bosques de Encino, Pino y Pino-Encino en los Estados de Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco, Michoacan, Guerrero y Oaxaca.

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(31) Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(32) Florida Nature

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(33) Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(34) Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistletoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

 

(35) Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

 

(36) The Hermannia Pages: American Species

http://www.meden.demon.co.uk/Malvaceae/Hermannia/American.html

 

(37) Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

 

(38) Hodge, Carle. 1991. All About Saguaros, Arizona Highways Magazine, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, Arizona.

 

(39) Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

 

(40) Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

 

(41) Howery, Larry D. and Gina Ramos. Arizona’s Invasive Weeds, The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension Service and United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

 

(42) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) on-line database:

 http://www.itis.usda.gov.

 

(43) The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005 and 2005, published on the Internet:

http://www.ipni.org

 

(44) Jepson Flora Project

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

 

(45) Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(46) Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

 

(47) Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison. 2003. Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

 

(48) Landscaping with Native Arizona Plants. 1973. Natural Vegetation Committee, Arizona Chapter, Soil Conservation Society of America, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(49) Las Cienegas National Conservation Area - Records and Reports.

 

(50) Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

 

(51) Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

 

(52) Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

 

(53) Little, Elbert L., Jr. December 1950. Southwestern Trees - A Guide to the Native Species of New Mexico and Arizona, Agriculture Handbook No. 9, United State Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25 D.C.

 

(54) Lowe, Charles H., Cecil R. Schwalbe and Terry B. Johnson. 1986. The Venomous Reptiles of Arizona, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.

 

(55) Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(56) Maus, Kathryn. October 12, 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, The West Branch Flora, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

http://www.co.pima.az.us/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/reports/WB/pflora.htm

 

(57) Maus, Kathryn. September 9, 2002.  “Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

 

(58) McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

 

(59) Medina, Alvin L. 2003. Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 141 thru 148.

 

(60) Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

 

(61) Minckly, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

 

(62) Missouriplants.com

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(63) National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

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(64) Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

 

(65) Olin, George. 1975. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Popular Series No. 8, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

 

(66) Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

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(67) Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

(68) Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(69) Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

(70) Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

 

(71) Pima County Parks and Recreation Department, Cienega Creek Natural Preserve Bird Checklist, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(72) Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

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(73) Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

 

(74) Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition, Worth Publishers, Inc.

 

(75) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Reports and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(76) Richmond, D.L. and M.L. Richardson. January 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Natural Resource Conservation Districts in Mohave County, General Soil and Interpretations, Mohave County, Arizona and General Soil Map Mohave County, Arizona.

 

(77) Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

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(78) Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve, Including a Preliminary Flora by Kathryn Maus (Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz , The West Branch Flora has been recorded separately  as Footnote 56), School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

http://www.co.pima.az.us/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/reports/WB/WestB.htm

 

(79) Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

 

(80) Schmutz, Ervin M., Barry N. Freeman, Raymond E. Reed. 1968. Livestock- Poisoning Plants of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(81) School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies)

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(82) Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

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(83) Southwest Parks and Monument Association. 1991. A Checklist of Mammals, Amphibians and Reptiles of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(84) Southwest Parks and Monument Association. 1999. A Checklist of the Birds of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(85) Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

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(86) Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers - Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

 

(87) Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

(88) Texas Native Shrubs

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(89) Thornber, J.J. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain in Spalding. 1909. The Distribution and Movements of Desert Plants, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 113: 103 - 112.

 

(90) Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(91) Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona.

 

(92) Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

 

(93) Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

 

(94) United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge: Listing of Amphibians (April 15, 2002 Update), Listing of Birds (March 2004), Listing of Mammals (April 15, 2002 Update), Listing of Plants (April 15, 2002 Update) and Listing of Reptiles (April 15, 2002 Update).

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

 

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(95) University of Arizona

 

Herbarium, P.O. Box 210036 Herring Hall, 1130 East South Campus Drive, Tucson, Arizona 85721; 520-621-7243; FAX: 520-621-7186

http://ag.arizona.edu/herbarium/

 

Department of Entomology, Forbes 410, PO Box 2100: (36), Tucson, Arizona 85721-0036; 520-621-1151; FAX: 520-621-1150

                http://ag.arizona.edu/ento/insectid.htm

 

(96) University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web

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(97) Venomous Creatures of the Southwest, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum and the Arizona Poison Control System. University of Arizona, Poison and Drug Information Center, College of Pharmacy, Tucson 1-800-222-1222, and the Samaritan Regional Poison Center, Good Samaritan Medical Center - Phoenix and the Arizona Department of Health Services - Emergency Medical Services Division.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/

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(98) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

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(104) Lehr, J. Harry. 1978. A Catalogue of the Flora of Arizona, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona. Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona.

 

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(107) McGinnies, William G. 1981. Discovering the Desert, Legacy of the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

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(110) United States fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Field Office, Endangered and Threatened Species of Arizona - Summer 1991.

 

(111) California Register of Big Trees

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(112) Kitt Peak Handouts: Common Trees and Shrubs on Kitt Peak; Common Birds of Kitt Peak; Common Mammals of Kitt Peak, and Common Reptiles and Amphibians of Kitt Peak.

 

(113) Halbedel, E. June 2005. The Birds of Kitt Peak, Revised 3rd Edition.

 

(114) Nearctica.com, Inc. 1999, The Natural World of North America.

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(115) Wildflowers of Tucson, Arizona

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(116) Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison, Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003: 59 - 67.

 

(117) Medina, Alvin L., Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Rage, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003: 141 - 148.

 

(118) Cockrum, E. Lendell. 1960. The Recent Mammals of Arizona: Their Taxonomy and Distribution, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(119) Stockwell, William Palmer and Lucretia Breazaele.  April 1, 1933. Arizona Cacti, University of Arizona Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3, Biological Science Bulletin No. 1, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

 

(120) Duncan, Russell B. Two Rare Plants and the Warm Season Flora of a Unique Habitat in Pima County, Arizona: The Pantano Formation, Claystone Member Deposits, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Autumn 2003: 7-14.

 

(121) Reichhardt, Karen. Triteliopsis palmeri - Blue Sand Lily, an Elusive Plant of the Sand Dunes, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Volume 30 Number 2, October 2006: 10-11.

 

(122) Kaiser, Jack. Common Ferns of Southern Arizona, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Volume 18 Number 2, Spring 1994: 5-12.

 

(123) McDonald, Christopher. Pima Pineapple Cactus, The Arizona Native Plant Society, The Plant Press, Volume 31 Number 1, April 2007: 1-4.

 

 

 

(HR) Historical Record (possibly without author and/or observation date)

 

(TC) Tucson Citizen (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

 

(ADS) Arizona Daily Star (Date, Section and Page Number)

 

(AHS) Arizona Historical Society

 

(ANN) Anonymous

 

(JFW) John F. Wiens

 

(MBJ) Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum

 

(RGM) G. Meades

 

(WTK) William T. Kendall  

 

 

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