December 22, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 12 SOUTH, RANGE 18 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information: Matthew B. Johnson, Program Manager and Curator of the Desert Legume Program - Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. William T. Kendall. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports. Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet).

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted.

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking east, the Galiuro Mountains are in the background. WTK June 2005

 

The following are a few of the plants reported from this township that might be useful in landscaping and restoration projects. Trees and Large Shrubs: Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Emory Oak (Quercus emoryi), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Desert Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis), Mexican Blue Oak (Quercus oblongifolia), Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis laevigata var. reticulata), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Desert Hackberry (Celtis pallida), Redberry Juniper (Juniperus coahuilensis), Longleaf Joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca), Chain-fruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), Kearney Condalia (Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Cane Cholla (Opuntia spinosior), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Desert Honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi) and Desert Spoon (Dasylirion wheeleri). Shrubs and Large Grasses: Arizona Yucca (Yucca baccata var. brevifolia), Bear Grass (Nolina microcarpa), Wright Sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii), Four-wing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Sandpaper Bush (Mortonia scabrella), Golden-flowered Agave (Agave chrysantha), Desert Christmas Cholla (Opuntia leptocaulis), White Sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana), Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia), Sand Dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa), Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus), Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri), American Threefold (Trixis californica), Burroweed (Isocoma tenuisecta) and Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla). Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents: Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus), Cooper Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi), Mariola (Parthenium incanum), Hall Panicgrass (Panicum hallii), Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii), Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata), Desert Senna (Senna covesii), Schott Agave (Agave schottii var. schottii), Bundle Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus), Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra), Common Owl’s Clover (Castilleja exserta var. exserta), Bonker Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. bonkerae), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa), Woody Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens), Hartweg Sundrops (Calylophus hartwegii), Mesa Tansyaster (Machaeranthera tagetina), Common Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta), Desert Holly (Acourtia nana), Bisbee Beehive Cactus (Escobaria vivipara var. bisbeeana), Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii) and Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella).

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in northeastern Pima County in south-central Arizona. It is bounded on the east by the Pima/Cochise County Line. Redington is located on the east side of the San Pedro River on the north township line. Named historic ranches and tanks include the Bayless Ranch, and the Red Tank.

 

Landmarks: Named canyons include portions of Buehman Canyon and Soza Canyon (crosses the southeast corner). Named hills include Piety Hill (4,714 feet). Named springs include the Peck Spring. Named washes and rivers include the Bollen Wash and San Pedro River.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,860 feet in the San Pedro River at the north township line to approximately 4,714 feet at Piety Hill near the southwest corner (1).

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Mexican Highland Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils (soils with mean annual temperatures of 59 degrees to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees to 22 degrees Centigrade) and 10 to 16 inches (25 to 41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Pinaleno-Nickel-Palos Verdes Association (deep, arid, gravelly soils on deeply dissected uplands), Rilino-Latene-Cave Association (deep to very shallow, arid calcareous soils on uplands), White House-Bernardino-Caralampi Association (deep, semiarid soils on uplands) and the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire-Cellar Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills) (3).

 

Biotic Community: This township is located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation and the Scrub-Grassland (Semidesert Grassland) Regional Formation of the Grassland of the Grassland Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township Showing Adjacent Sections

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 8 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyon bottoms and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds, the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave chrysantha R.H. Peebles: Agave, Apache Trail Agave, Golden-flowered Agave, Goldenflower Century Plant (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 3 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 23 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and outcrops 3,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agave schottii G. Engelmann var. schottii: Agave, Amole, Amolillo, Schott Agave, Schott’s Century Plant, Shin Dagger, Shin Digger (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 12 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock outcrops and bajadas 4,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Yucca baccata J. Torrey var. brevifolia (H.W. Schott ex J. Torrey) L. Benson & R.A. Darrow (Yucca arizonica S.A. McKelvey, Yucca thornberi S.A. McKelvey): Arizona Yucca, Banana Yucca, Datil, Palma Criolla, Spanish Dagger, Thornber Yucca (terrestrial perennial evergreen herb, subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet high with a flowering stalk reaching to 5 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata: Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Matelea arizonica (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Lachnostoma arizonicum A. Gray): Arizona Milkvine (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from canyons and along washes and streams 3,300 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb (to 10 inches high); within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial herb (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Artemisia ludoviciana T. Nuttall: Louisiana Cudweed Sagewort, Gray Sagewort, Louisiana Sagewort, Louisiana Wormwood, Mugwort Wormwood, Prairie Sage, Sagewort, White Sage, White Sagebrush (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, valleys, gulches, along washes, streambeds and fence rows 2,500 to 8,500 feet elevation)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate, Bachomo, Baldag Shi, Batamote, Broom Baccharis, Chamiso, Chamiso del Rio, Chilca, Cucamoarisha, Cuerepillo, Dsea Miis Ro, Dsea Miis Tee, False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote, Guatarote, Hierba del Pasmo, Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla, Jara Mexicana, Jaral, Jarilla, Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten, Tu Ta’ Vi, Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 12 feet high); within range reported from along washes, streams, rivers and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy and gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cirsium arizonicum (A. Gray) F. Petrak: Arizona Thistle (terrestrial biennial or perennial herb (to 6 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, forests, clearings in forests,  rocky slopes, rocky ledges, meadows, hollows, woodlands, scrubs, foothills, hillsides,  gulches and roadsides 3,000 to 7,700 feet elevation)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray: Sticky Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Three-leaf Snakeweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 3,500 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Gutierrezia sarothrae (F.T. Pursh) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby: Broombrush, Broom Snakeweed, Broomweed, Cayaye, Hierba de la Vibora, Hierba de San Nicolas, Matchbrush, Matchweed, Perennial Broomweed, Perrenial Snakeweed, Resin-weed, Round-head Broomweed, Sheepweed, Stinkweed, Snakeweed, Turpentine Weed, Yellowtop, Yellow-weed, Yerba de San Nicholas (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to over 6 feet high); within range reported from sandy washes and streambeds 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, draws and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Machaeranthera tagetina E.L. Greene (Aster tagetinus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Mesa Tansyaster, Tansyleaf Spine Aster (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, riverbanks and disturbed areas 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Parthenium incanum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Crowded Rayweed, Mariola (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Xanthium strumarium C. Linnaeus var. canadense (P. Miller) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Xanthium saccharatum C.F. Wallroth): Abrojo, Cadillos, Canada Cocleburr, Clotbur, Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur, Rough Cocklebur (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, washes, floodplains, streambeds and adjacent to wetlands 100 to 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; if ingested the spiny burs may cause the death of young animals)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Condolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Condolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and dirt roads below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,100 to 4,300 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; the Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) and Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) have been observed visiting the flowers, white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata, Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann forma cristata): Crested Saguaro, Fan Top Saguaro, Fishtail Saguaro, Saguaro - Crested Form (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50 feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson (Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii C.R. Orcutt var. bonkerae R.H. Peebles, Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson): Bonker Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from canyon walls, hilltops, bajadas, slopes and flats 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Escobaria vivipara (T. Nuttall) F. Buxbaum var. bisbeeana (C.R. Orcutt) D.R. Hunt (Coryphantha vivipara (T. Nuttall) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. bisbeeana (C.R. Orcutt) L. Benson): Beehive Cactus, Bisbee Beehive Cactus, Bisbee Spinystar, Cushion Cactus, Spinystar, Spiny Star Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 1 foot high); within range reported from mountains, hills, slopes, plains and flats 3,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia macrocentra G. Engelmann var. macrocentra (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. macrocentra (G. Engelmann) L. Benson; Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. violacea): Black-spined Pricklypear, Duranzilla, Long-spined Pricklypear, Purple Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 2 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Sclerocactus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.P. Taylor: Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes and flats 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation; includes Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson (Neolloydia erectocentra (T. Coulter) L. Benson var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson): Acuna Cactus, Bisnagitas, Red-spined Pineapple Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from ridges and bajadas 1,200 to 2,300 feet elevation) and Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. erectocentrus (Neolloydia erectocentra (T. Coulter) L. Benson var. erectocentra: Bisnagitas, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus, Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, slopes and flats 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation))

 

Capparaceae (Capparidaceae): The Caper Family

 

Polanisia dodecandra (C. Linnaeus) A.P. de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis (Polanisia trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis): Roughseed Clammyweed, Sandyseed Clammyweed, Western Clammyweed (terrestrial annual herb (to 3 feet high); within range reported from slopes, flats, washes and sandy streambeds 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Caprifoliaceae: The Honeysuckle Family

 

Sambucus nigra C. Linnaeus subsp. canadensis (C. Linnaeus) R. Bolli (Sambucus caerulea C.F. Rafinesque var. mexicana (C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle) L.D. Benson, Sambucus mexicana C.B. Presl ex A.P. de Condolle): American Elderberry, Arizona Blue Elder, Blueberry Elder, Arizona Elder, Common Elderberry, Desert Elderberry, Elder, Elderberry, Mexican Elder, Mexican Elderberry, Sauco, Tapiro, Tapiro Sauco (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub, shrub or tree (to 36 feet high); within range reported from washes, floodplains, creeks, streams, watercourses, ditches, cienegas and wet areas 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; hummingbirds have been observed visiting the flowers,  fruits are eaten by birds; foliage is browsed by deer; useful as an ornamental)

 

Celastraceae: The Bittersweet Family

(Canotiaceae: The Canotia Family)

 

Mortonia scabrella A. Gray: Rio Grande Saddlebush, Sandpaper Bush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from mesas, ledges, rocky and gravelly slopes, limestone slopes and outcrops, terraces and plains 3,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion; larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue, Brefidium exile)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Ipomoea sp.: Morning-glory

 

Cupressaceae: The Cypress Family

 

Juniperus coahuilensis (Martinez) H.M. Gaussen ex R.P. Adams: Coahuila Juniper, Redberry Juniper (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to16 feet high; within range reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, foothills, rocky hillsides, slopes woodlands, rocky outcrops, among boulders, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs, along washes and streambeds and riparian areas 1,800 to 6,200 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cuscutaceae: The Dodder Family

 

Cuscuta sp.: Dodder (terrestrial perennial herbaceous vine; parasite observed on Fairy Duster, Calliandra eriophylla)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ericaceae: The Heath Family

 

Arctostaphylos sp.: Manzanita

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Euphorbia spathulata J.B. de Lamarck (Euphorbia alta J.B. Norton): Roughpod Spurge, Warty Spurge (terrestrial annual or perenial herb; within range reported from mountains, rock outcrops, ridge tops, woodlands, hills, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs, washes, playas, riparian areas and woodlands, disturbed areas and moist soils below 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, desertscrubs, along washes and arroyos, floodplains and riparian habitats 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; browsed by wildlife, highly palatable to deer; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dalea formosa J. Torrey: Feather Dalea, Feather Peabush, Featherplume, Feather Plume, Indigo Bush, Pea Bush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mountains, rocky and gravelly slopes, woodlands, hills and rocky hillsides, grasslands, plains and desertscrubs 2,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; browsed by deer)

 

Dalea greggii A. Gray: Gregg Dalea, Gregg’s Prairie Clover, Trailing Indigo Bush, Trailing Smoke Bush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes and hills 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dalea pogonathera A. Gray: Bearded Dalea, Bearded Prairie Clover, Herba del Corazon, Heirba del Corazo (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills and flats 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Mimosa aculeaticarpa C.G. de Ortega var. biuncifera (G. Bentham) R.C. Barneby (Mimosa biuncifera G. Bentham): Cat Claw, Catclaw Mimosa, Garruno, Gatuno, Una de Gato, Wait-a-bit, Wait-a-minute, Wait-a-Minute Bush (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 8 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly flats and along washes 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for wildlife and forage for Whitetail Deer; reportedly useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae) and Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe;) useful as an ornamental)

 

Fagaceae: The Beech Family

 

Quercus emoryi J. Torrey: Blackjack Oak, Black Oak, Bellota, Emory Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (to 50 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, ridges, slopes, woodlands and foothills 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; the acorns “bellotas” are eaten by wildlife and the leaves are browsed by deer)

 

Quercus oblongifolia J. Torrey: Mexican Blue Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (16 to 30 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, foothills and woodlands 4,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; the foliage is browsed by deer)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; the Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers and is a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird; useful as an ornamental)

 

Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Phacelia caerulea E.L. Greene (Phacelia coerulea E.L. Greene): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Weed, Skyblue Phacelia (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes 1,800 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet)

 

Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Hedeoma dentata J. Torrey: Dentate False Pennyroyal, Mock-pennyroyal (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes 4,000 to 7,500 feet elevation)

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson: Cactus Spoon, Common Sotol, Desert Spoon, Sotol, Spoon Flower, Spoon Plant, Wheeler Dasylirion, Wheeler Sotol (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 8 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 15 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and rocky and gravelly hillsides 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by bighorn sheep)

 

Nolina microcarpa S. Watson: Bear Grass, Palmilla, Sacahuista, Small-seed Nolina, Sotol Chiquito (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 8 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rock outcrops, hills, sandy and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats and valleys 3,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Linaceae: The Flax Family

 

Linum puberulum (G. Engelmann) A.A. Heller: Desert Flax, Plains Flax, Yellow flax (terrestrial annual herb (to 15 inches high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, desertscrubs and flats 2,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon malacum S. Watson: Indian Mallow, Yellow Abutilon, Yellow Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within range reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, rocky slopes, rocky ravines, bajadas, grasslands, hilltops, desertscrubs, along washes, floodplains and rocky soils 1,700 to  4,000 feet elevation)

 

Abutilon parishii S. Watson: Indian Mallow, Parish’s Indian Mallow, Tucson Indian Mallow, Pima Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 75 inches tall); within range reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, bases of cliffs, ledges, rocky slopes, rocky hillsides, bajadas, among boulders and rocks, grasslands and drainages 1,700 to 4.900 feet elevation)

 

Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit, Yellow Menodora (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats 1,500 to 7,500 feet; useful as an ornamental)

 

Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Calylophus hartwegii (G. Bentham) J.E. Raven (Oenothera hartwegii G. Bentham): Hartweg Evening-primrose, Hartweg’s Sundrops (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hillsides, plains and roadsides 4,500 to 9,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray): Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago sp.: Plantain

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. nealleyi (G. Vasey) K.W. Allred (Aristida glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) W.G. Walpers, Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Holmgren & N. Holmgren): Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial herb (1 to 2 feet tall); within range reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and roadsides 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Flaxgrass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, roadsides, along washes, low-lying areas and disturbed areas below 8,250 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Bouteloua chondrosioides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Harvard Grama, Sprucetop Grama, Woolly-spiked Grama (terrestrial perennial herb (10 to 18 inches tall); within range reported from rocky slopes and rocky flats 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama (terrestrial perennial herb (15 to 30 inches tall); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills 1,800 to 7,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus); useful as an ornamental)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas 1,300 to 5,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb (3 to 6 inches tall); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial herb (1 to 3 feet tall); within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet tall); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Panicum hallii G. Vasey: Hall’s Panicum, Hall’s Panicgrass (terrestrial perennial herb (8 to 28 inches tall); within range reported from rocky hills, grasslands, prairies and sandy plains 2,500 to 7,500 feet elevation)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Rhynchelytrum repens (C.L. von Willdenow) C.E. Hubb. (Melinis repens (C.L. von Willdenow) G. Zizka, Rhynchelytrum roseum C.G. Nees von Esenbeck): Creeping Molasses Grass, Natal Grass, Natal Redtop, Red Natal Grass, Rose Natal Grass, Zacate Natal, Zacate Rosado (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, roadsides, streambeds and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb (1 to 4 feet tall); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Covered-spike Dropseed, Sand Dropseed, Zacate de Arena (terrestrial perennial herb (1½  to 4 feet tall); within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 7,000 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex F.L. Scribner (Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey var. wrightii (W. Munro ex F.L. Scribner) F.W. Gould): Alkali Sacaton, Big Sacaton, Sacaton, Sacaton Grass, Wright Sacaton, Zacaton (terrestrial perennial herb (3 to 6 feet tall); within range reported from plateaus, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, river banks, floodplains and bottomlands 2,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Polygalaceae: The Milkwort Family

 

Polygala scoparioides R.H. Chodat: Broom Milkwort (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky mesas, rocky slopes and desertscrubs 3,500 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Eriogonum capillare J.K. Small: San Carlos Buckwheat, San Carlos Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from sandy canyon bottoms, rocky hills, hillsides, desertscrub, rocky and sandy washes, volcanic tuff and gravelly and sandy silt alluvium 1,900 to 4,200 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Rutaceae: The Rue Family

 

Thamnosma texana (A. Gray) J. Torrey: Cordoncillo, Dutchman’s Breeches, Ruda del Monte, Rue of the Mountains, Texas Desertrue (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus fremontii S. Watson var. fremontii, incl. vars. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus toumeyi C.S. Sargent, and Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas, bottomlands and water holes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers; beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark)

 

Sapindaceae: The Soapberry Family

 

Sapindus saponaria C. Linnaeus var. drummondii (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) L. Benson (Sapindus drummondii W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott): Amole, Amolio, Arbolillo, Cherioni, Guayul, Jaboncillo, Matamuchacho, Ojo de Loro, Palo Blanco, Soapberry, Tehuistle, Tzatzupa, Western Soapberry, Wild Chinaberry, Wild China-tree, Wing-leaf Soapberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, moist soil along streams and washes and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; seeds and leaves are poisonous)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & L.R. Heckard var. exserta (Orthocarpus purpurascens G. Bentham var. palmeri A. Gray): Common Owl’s Clover, Escobita, Exserted Indian Paintbrush, Mohave Owl Clover, Owl’s Clover (terrestrial winter annual herb (to 16 inches high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 1,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Chamaesaracha sordida (M.F. Dunal) A. Gray (Chamaesaracha coniodes M.E. Moricand ex M.F. Dunal) N.L. Britton): Dingy Chamaesaracha, Hairy Five Eyes, Velvet Five-eyes (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from arid mountain slopes, dry mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, dry plains, desert grasslands, desertscrubs, roadsides, terraces above creeks and marshes 3,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Lycium sp.: Desert-thorn, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams 1,500 to 3,500 feet elevation; the fruit is eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Catclaw Acacia, Kearney Condalia, Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Phoradendron juniperinum G. Engelmann ex A. Gray: Juniper Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter); partial parasite observed growing on Redberry Juniper, commonly found on Juniperus spp. 4,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions; when planting Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base (the branches will provide support its’ roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelina); useful as an ornamental)

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

 

AMPHIBIANS

 

Ranidae: The Frog Family

 

Rana yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost): Lowland Leopard Frog, San Felipe Leopard Frog, Yavapai Leopard Frog (feeds on small invertebrates; reported from woodland, scrubland, grassland and wetland formations)

 

 

ARACHNIDS

 

Theridiidae: The Comb-footed Spider Family

 

Latrodectus mactans: Black Widow Spider (feeds on insects; reported from the underside of many objects. a venomous spider)

 

 

BIRDS

 

Accipitridae: The Eagle, Hawk, Kite and Allies Family

 

Buteo albonotatus Kaup: Aguilill Cola Cinchada (Hispanic), Zone-tailed Hawk (feeds on small birds, lizards, and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks and green twigs located on cliffs or in trees)

 

Buteogallus anthracinus Deppe: Black Hawk, Common Black-hawk, Gavilon Negro Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on birds, crabs, fish, frogs, insects, rodents and snakes; nest is a platform of sticks lined with bark locate high up in cottonwood and mesquite trees)

 

Cathartidae: The New World Vulture Family

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Corvidae: The Crow, Jay, Magpie and Raven Family

 

Corvus corax Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees)

 

Odontiphoridae: The Quail Family

 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel) (Lophortyx gambelii Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Gambel) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; eggs are laid in a ground scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti)

 

Tyrannidae: The Tyrant Flycatcher Family

 

Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot): Couch’s Kingbird, Olive-backed Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird (feeds on flying insects; nests are cups or saucers of twigs located on horizontal branches)

 

 

FISHES

 

Cyprinidae: The Minnow Family

 

Agosia chrysogaster Girard: Longfin Dace (feeds on algae, crustaceans, detritus, filamentous algae, insects and zooplankton; generally found in shallow and sandy rocky runs, clear and cool mountain brooks, flowing pools of creeks, gravelly and sandy streams and small to medium rivers)

 

 

INSECTS

 

Order Homoptera: Aphids, Cicadas, Hoppers, Psyllids, Scale Insects, Whiteflies and Others

 

Dactylopiidae: The Cochineal Insect Family

 

Dactylophius coccus Costa: Cochineal Scale (observed on Major Pricklypear Cactus, Opuntia phaeacantha var. major)

 

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque): Black-tailed Deer,  Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic) (feeds on beans, branches, fruit, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurge; reported from desert foothills with scrub growth, thick growth along washes, forest edges and mountains )

 

Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

 

 

Listing Footnotes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

Bellota Ranch, Arizona – 15 Minute Series Topographic 1957

                Redington, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1996

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

*Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

* Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Migratory Pollinators Program, Spring 2003 Update, Table 3. Plants Visited by Hummingbirds in Sonora

http://desertmuseum.org/pollination/table_3.html

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/index/nwgctA.html

*Chamber, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field guide,

*Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

http://www.naba.org/pubs/enames2.html

*The Collection, Volume 4 Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003

http://tcbmed.com/Newsletters/Volume4-Issue4-Usnea.html

*Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA

*Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California

*Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

*Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

*Erickson, Jim. 1998. 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998.

*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/pfnm/indices.html

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

*Florida Nature

http://www.floridanature.org/

http://www.floridanature.org/copyright.asp

*Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Depatment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistltoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

http://www.meden.demon.co.uk/Malvaceae/Hermannia/American.html

*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

*Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

http://www.itis.usda.gov/

*The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005. Published on the Internet

http://www.ipni.org

*Jepson Flora Project

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison. 2003. Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Medina, Alvin L. 2003. Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 141 thru 148.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html

*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

* Pima County Parks and Recreation Department, Cienega Creek Natural Preserve Bird Checklist, Tucson, Arizona.

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

*Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/herb/TUCSONS/tucsonsA-C.html

*Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve.

*Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

*School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

*Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

*Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Texas Native Shrubs

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/indexscientific.htm

*Thornber, J.J. 1909. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station.

*Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

www.maps4u.com

*Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

*Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

*United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Web Site

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

*University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

*Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

*Walters, James W. A Guide to Forest Insect and Disease Management pf Southwestern Conifers, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

*Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,  New York.

*Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, Robert Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West, Pioneer of Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming.

Wiens, John F. Vascular Plants of Ragged Top, compiled by John F. Wiens from 1987 - 2000, The Arizona Native Plant Society, Plant Press, Volume 25 Number 1, Spring 2001.