December 11, 2005 Update

 

 

TOWNSHIP 12 SOUTH, RANGE 17 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information: William T. Kendall. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports.

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted.

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking northwest, Evans Mountain is in the background. WTK November 2005

 

The following are a few of the plants reported from this township that might be useful in landscaping and restoration projects. Trees and Large Shrubs: Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Emory Oak (Quercus emoryi), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Redberry Juniper (Juniperus coahuilensis), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), Kearney Condalia (Condalia warnockii var. kearneyana), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Cane Cholla (Opuntia spinosior), Desert Honeysuckled (Anisacanthus thurberi) and Common Sotol (Dasylirion wheeleri). Shrubs and Large Grasses: Bear Grass (Nolina microcarpa), Arizona Yucca (Yucca baccata var. brevifolia), Golden-flowered Agave (Agave chrysantha), Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) and Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla var. eriophylla). Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents: Bundle Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus), Bonker Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. bonkerae) and Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella).

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in northeastern Pima County in south-central Arizona. A portion of this township is located within the Coronado National Forest. Named historic ranch tanks include the Donovan Tank, Lonehill Tank, Trail Tank and Woods Tank.

 

Landmarks: This township is located on the eastern slopes of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Named peaks include Lone Hill (4,083 feet). Named canyons and basins include Buehman Canyon, Bullock Canyon, Diablo Canyon, and the Burro Basin. Named springs include Agua Nueva Spring, Alamo Spring, Bellota Spring (dry), Bullock Corrals Spring, Bull Spring, Cedar Spring, Chimney Spring, Finley Spring, Georges Spring, Iron Spring, Mesquite Flat Spring, Pearsons Spring, Pinto Spring, Rock Tank and Trampa Spring. Named creeks include Burro Creek and Chimney Rock Creek (north end).

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 3,250 feet in Buehman Canyon of the east township line to approximately 6,925 feet near the west township line south of the northwest corner (1).

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Mexican Highland Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils (soils with mean annual temperatures of 59 degrees to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees to 22 degrees Centigrade) and 10 to 16 inches (25 to 41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire-Cellar Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills) and mesic (cool) subhumid soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of 47 degrees to 59 degrees Fahrenheit (8 degrees to 15 degrees Centigrade) and more than 16 inches (41 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Rock Outcrop-Barkerville-Faraway Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow subhumid soils of the mountains) (3).

 

Biotic Community: Portions of this township are located within the Scrub-Grassland (Semidesert Grassland) Regional Formation of the Grassland Formation and Madrean Evergreen Woodland Regional Formation of the Woodland Formation with associated wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township Showing Adjacent Sections

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 8 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyon bottoms and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds, the Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave chrysantha R.H. Peebles: Agave, Apache Trail Agave, Golden-flowered Agave, Goldenflower Century Plant (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 3 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 23 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and outcrops 3,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson: Cactus Spoon, Common Sotol, Desert Spoon, Sotol, Spoon Flower, Spoon Plant, Wheeler Dasylirion, Wheeler Sotol (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 8 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 15 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and rocky and gravelly hillsides 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by bighorn sheep)

 

Nolina microcarpa S. Watson: Bear Grass, Palmilla, Sacahuista, Small-seed Nolina, Sotol Chiquito (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 8 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rock outcrops, hills, sandy and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats and valleys 3,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Yucca baccata J. Torrey var. brevifolia (H.W. Schott ex J. Torrey) L. Benson & R.A. Darrow (Yucca arizonica S.A. McKelvey, Yucca thornberi S.A. McKelvey): Arizona Yucca, Banana Yucca, Datil, Palma Criolla, Spanish Dagger, Thornber Yucca (terrestrial perennial evergreen herb, subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet high with a flowering stalk reaching to 5 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus trilobata T. Nuttall: Agrito, Chascarillo, Ill-scented Sumac, Lantrisco, Lemita, Lemonade Berry, Lemonade Sumac, Lentisco, Limonita, Skunk-bush, Skunkbush Sumac, Squaw-bush, Threeleaf Sumac  (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons and slopes 2,500 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Toxicodendron rydbergii (J.K. Small ex P.A. Rydberg) E.L. Greene (Rhus radicans C. Linnaeus (var. rydbergii (J.K. Small) A. Rehder is the variety reported from Arizona), Toxicodendron radicans C.E. Kuntze): Hiedra, Mala, Poison Ivy, Poison-oak, Western Poison Ivy (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 2 feet high, vine may reach a height of over 30 feet with trunk diameters of up to 12 inches); within range reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, ravines, stream banks, streambeds, bottomlands and disturbed areas 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation; provides beautiful fall colors with the leaves turning yellow, orange and red; the plant’s oils cause painful swelling and skin eruptions, the milky juice is poisonous when taken internally; an applicable saying: “leaflets of three, let it be”; FIREFIGHTERS should exercise caution when working fires in areas where Poison Ivy is known to occur because the plant may not be recognizable and the smoke from the burning plant may carry with it a toxic substance (urushiol) that  can cause serious rashes inside of the nose, throat and lungs)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate, Bachomo, Baldag Shi, Batamote, Broom Baccharis, Chamiso, Chamiso del Rio, Chilca, Cucamoarisha, Cuerepillo, Dsea Miis Ro, Dsea Miis Tee, False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote, Guatarote, Hierba del Pasmo, Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla, Jara Mexicana, Jaral, Jarilla, Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten, Tu Ta’ Vi, Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 12 feet high); within range reported from along washes, streams, rivers and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle (terrestrial biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; the Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) and Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) have been observed visiting the flowers, white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson (Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii C.R. Orcutt var. bonkerae R.H. Peebles, Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. bonkerae (J.J. Thornber & F. Bonker) L. Benson): Bonker Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from canyon walls, hilltops, bajadas, slopes and flats 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Ipomoea sp.: Morning-glory

 

Cupressaceae: The Cypress Family

 

Juniperus coahuilensis (Martinez) H.M. Gaussen ex R.P. Adams: Coahuila Juniper, Redberry Juniper (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to16 feet high; within range reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, foothills, rocky hillsides, slopes woodlands, rocky outcrops, among boulders, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs, along washes and streambeds and riparian areas 1,800 to 6,200 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; browsed by wildlife, highly palatable to deer; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dalea greggii A. Gray: Gregg Dalea, Gregg’s Prairie Clover, Trailing Indigo Bush, Trailing Smoke Bush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes and hills 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mimosa aculeaticarpa C.G. de Ortega var. biuncifera (G. Bentham) R.C. Barneby (Mimosa biuncifera G. Bentham): Cat Claw, Catclaw Mimosa, Garruno, Gatuno, Una de Gato, Wait-a-bit, Wait-a-minute, Wait-a-Minute Bush (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 8 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly flats and along washes 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for wildlife and forage for Whitetail Deer; reportedly useful in controlling erosion)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fagaceae: The Beech Family

 

Quercus emoryi J. Torrey: Blackjack Oak, Black Oak, Bellota, Emory Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (to 50 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, ridges, slopes, woodlands and foothills 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; the acorns “bellotas” are eaten by wildlife and the leaves are browsed by deer)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; the Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers and is a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird; useful as an ornamental)

 

Juglandaceae: The Walnut Family

 

Juglans major (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Arizona Black Walnut, Arizona Walnut, Nogal, Nogal Cimarron, Nogal Encarcelado, Nogal Silvestre (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (30 to 50 feet high); within range reported from canyons, creeks, streams and rivers 3,500 to 7,000 feet elevation, 1,930 and 2,050 feet elevation at remnant sites in Marana; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria sp.: Ratany

 

Platanaceae: The Planetree Family

 

Platanus wrightii S. Watson (Platanus racemosa T. Nuttall var. wrightii (S. Watson) L. Benson): Arizona Planetree, Arizona Sycamore, Buttonwood, Plane Tree (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (40 to 80 feet); within range reported from rocky canyons and along creeks and streams 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers; valuable in preventing erosion along stream banks)

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo (terrestrial perennial herb (2 to 4 feet tall); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama (terrestrial perennial herb (15 to 30 inches tall); within range reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills 1,800 to 7,000 feet elevation; larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus); useful as an ornamental)

 

Bouteloua hirsuta M. Lagasca y Segura: Hairy Grama (terrestrial perennial grass (1 to 2 feet tall); within range reported from sandy mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and rocky hills 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas 1,300 to 5,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz: Cola de Zorra, Feather Fingergrass, Showy Chloris, Zacate Lagunero (terrestrial summer annual herb (6 to 24 inches tall); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, damp soil of streambeds, ditches, swales, waste places and disturbed land below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb (3 to 6 inches tall); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Leptochloa dubia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Green Sprangletop, Texas Crowfoot (terrestrial perennial herb (2 to 3 feet tall); within range reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills and along washes 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Muhlenbergia rigens (G. Bentham) A.S. Hitchcock: Deer Grass, Deergrass (terrestrial perennial herb (2 to 5 feet tall); within range reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, meadows, flats and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus fremontii S. Watson var. fremontii, incl. vars. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus toumeyi C.S. Sargent, and Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas, bottomlands and water holes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers; beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark)

 

Salix gooddingii J. Ball: Dudley Willow, Goodding Black Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Western Black Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from wet soils along streams and washes, cienegas and lakeshores below 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers)

 

Sapindaceae: The Soapberry Family

 

Sapindus saponaria C. Linnaeus var. drummondii (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) L. Benson (Sapindus drummondii W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott): Amole, Amolio, Arbolillo, Cherioni, Guayul, Jaboncillo, Matamuchacho, Ojo de Loro, Palo Blanco, Soapberry, Tehuistle, Tzatzupa, Western Soapberry, Wild Chinaberry, Wild China-tree, Wing-leaf Soapberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, moist soil along streams and washes and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; seeds and leaves are poisonous)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams 1,500 to 3,500 feet elevation; the fruit is eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

 

Phoradendron sp. Mistletoe (observed growing on Black Walnut)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter); partial parasite observed growing Catclaw Acacia and Velvet Mesquite, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Vitaceae: The Grape Family

 

Vitis arizonica G. Engelmann: Arizona Grape, Canyon Grape, Parra Cimarrona, Parra del Monte, Vid (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine or woody climber; within range reported from canyons and along creeks, streams and watercourses 2,000 to 7,500 feet elevation)

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

 

AMPHIBIANS

 

Ranidae: The Frog Family

 

Rana yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost): Lowland Leopard Frog, San Felipe Leopard Frog, Yavapai Leopard Frog (feeds on small invertebrates; reported from woodland, scrubland, grassland and wetland formations)

 

 

BIRDS

 

Corvidae: The Crow, Jay, Magpie and Raven Family

 

Corvus corax Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees)

 

Strigidae: The Typical Owl Family

 

Strix occidentalis Xantus de Vesey subsp. lucida Nelson: Buho Manchado (Spanish), Mexican Spotted Owl, Spotted Owl, Tecolote Manchado Mexicano (Hispanic), Tecolote Moteado (Spanish) (feeds on small birds, insects, small mammals and reptiles; nests are located in canyon-wall caves and cavities, cliff caverns and ledges, rock hollows, tree cavities and abandoned hawk nests)

 

Tyrannidae: The Tyrant Flycatcher Family

 

Camptostoma imberbe (Sclater): Beardless Flycatcher, Beardless-tyrannulet, Northern Beardless Flycatcher, Northern Beardless-tyrannulet (feeds on insects; nests are domed or globular with a side entrance located in matted trees, tree tangles and clumps of mistletoe)

 

 

INSECTS

 

Order Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, Sawflies, Wasps and Others

 

Vespidae: The Hornet, Wasp and Yellow Jacket Family

 

Vespula sp.: Yellow Jacket (nests are usually made in the ground or near ground level in hollow stumps)

 

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) subsp. couesi: Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer (feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel; reported from mountains, canyons, forests, woodlands, meadows, scrub and desertscrub)

 

Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

An unknown small grey squirrel was observed

 

 

REPTILES

 

Testudinidae: The Land Tortoise Family

 

Gopherus agassizi Cooper (Sonoran Population): Sonoran Desert Tortoise (feeds on cacti, grass and herbs; reported from canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, woodlands, scrubs, grasslands, desertscrubs, sandy and gravelly flats, dunes, oases, washes and riverbanks)

 

 

 

Listing Footnotes

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                Bellota Ranch, Arizona – 15 Minute Series Topographic 1957

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arid Zone Trees, A Resource for Landscape Professionals, dedicated to providing quality trees to the Landscape Industries that are appropriate to the Desert Southwest

http://www.aridzonetrees.com/index.htm

*Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

* Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Migratory Pollinators Program, Spring 2003 Update, Table 3. Plants Visited by Hummingbirds in Sonora

http://desertmuseum.org/pollination/table_3.html

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/index/nwgctA.html

*Chamber, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field guide,

*Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

http://www.naba.org/pubs/enames2.html

*The Collection, Volume 4 Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003

http://tcbmed.com/Newsletters/Volume4-Issue4-Usnea.html

*Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA

*Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California

*Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

*Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

*Erickson, Jim. 1998. 2 Areas Near Santa Ritas Sought for Conservation, Park, the Arizona Daily Star, Tuesday, 17 November 1998.

*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/pfnm/indices.html

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

*Florida Nature

http://www.floridanature.org/

http://www.floridanature.org/copyright.asp

*Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Depatment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistltoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

http://www.meden.demon.co.uk/Malvaceae/Hermannia/American.html

*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

*Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

http://www.itis.usda.gov/

*The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005. Published on the Internet

http://www.ipni.org

*Jepson Flora Project

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Krausman, Paul R. and Michael L. Morrison. 2003. Wildlife Ecology and Management, Santa Rita Experimental Range (1903 to 2002), USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 59 thru 67.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Medina, Alvin L. 2003. Historical and Recent Flora of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-30.2003 Pages 141 thru 148.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html

*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

* Pima County Parks and Recreation Department, Cienega Creek Natural Preserve Bird Checklist, Tucson, Arizona.

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

*Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/herb/TUCSONS/tucsonsA-C.html

*Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve.

*Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

*School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

*Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

*Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Texas Native Shrubs

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/indexscientific.htm

*Thornber, J.J. 1909. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station.

*Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

www.maps4u.com

*Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

*Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

*United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Web Site

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

*University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

*Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

*Walters, James W. A Guide to Forest Insect and Disease Management pf Southwestern Conifers, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

*Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,  New York.

*Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, Robert Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West, Pioneer of Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming.

Wiens, John F. Vascular Plants of Ragged Top, compiled by John F. Wiens from 1987 - 2000, The Arizona Native Plant Society, Plant Press, Volume 25 Number 1, Spring 2001.