August 29, 2005 Update

 

TOWNSHIP 12 SOUTH, RANGE 15 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

Major Contributor and Source: William T. Kendall.

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping, restoration, or revegetation projects. Disjunct species, outliers and populations on the edge of the main population are noted as being a PERIPHERAL POPULATION. Landscaped plants are not included in the lists unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

The use of local native vegetation is recommended for landscape, restoration and revegetation projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants. Species distribution information is shared with the Heritage Data Management System of the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. The information presented as township notes was obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not warrant the accuracy of the information presented in these listings.

 

Comments and the reporting of corrections, unrecorded species in townships and information relating to the historical distribution of species would be appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to:

KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in northeastern Pima County in south-central Arizona. This township is located within the Coronado National Forest.

 

Landmarks: Named peaks in the township include Cathedral Rock, Marshall Peak, McFall Craigs, Mt. Miguel, Rattlesnake Peak and Window Rock. Named canyons include Bear Canyon, Bird Canyon, Box Camp Canyon, Breakfast Canyon, Cathedral Rock, Esperero Canyon, Lemmon Canyon, Palisade Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Romero Canyon, Sabino Canyon, Ventana Canyon and West Fork. Other landmarks include Apache Spring, Box Spring, Geronimo Meadow and Romero Pass.

 

 

This photograph was taken looking south southwest across Sabino Canyon. Some of the plants observed in the area included Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca), Arizona Pine (Pinus arizonica var. arizonica), Southwestern White Pine (Pinus strobiformis), White Fir (Abies concolor), Arizona White Oak (Quercus arizonica), Aspen (Populus tremuloides), Emory Oak (Quercus emoryi), Bigtooth Maple (Acer grandidentatum), New Mexico Locust (Robinia neomexicana), Hairy Brakenfern (Pteridium

aquilinum)  and Beardlip Penstemon (Penstemon barbatus). WTK August 2005

 

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 3,020 feet in Sabino Canyon on the south township line to approximately 8,240 feet at Marshall Peak (1).

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Mexican Highland Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils of the Rock Outcrop-Lampshire-Cellar Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow semiarid soils of the mountains and foothills), mesic (cool) subhumid soils of the Rock Outcrop-Barkerville-Faraway Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow seubhumid soils of the mountains), and frigid (cold) subhumid soils of the Mirabal-Rock Outcrop Association (very shallow to moderately deep soils and rock outcrop of the higher mountains)  (3).

 

Biotic Community: Portions of this township are located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation, Semidesert Grassland of the Grassland formation, Madrean Evergreen Woodland of the Woodland Formation, and Petran Montane Conifer Forest of the Forest Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township with Adjacent Sections

 

 

 

Plant Propagation Note

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer. Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

PLANTS

 

Aceraceae: The Maple Family

 

Acer grandidentatum T. Nuttall (5): Bigtooth Maple, Canyon Maple, Western sugar Maple (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 50 feet high) (6); within range reported from high mountains, plateaus, canyons, gulches, along streams 4,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; browsed by deer; leaves turning red or yellow in autumn, useful as an ornamental) 

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave chrysantha R.H. Peebles: Agave, Apache Trail Agave, Golden-flowered Agave, Goldenflower Century Plant (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 3 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 23 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and outcrops 3,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Agave schottii G. Engelmann var. schottii: Agave, Amole, Amolillo, Schott Agave, Schott’s Century Plant, Shin Dagger, Shin Digger (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent herb, subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high with a flowering stem reaching to 12 feet in height); within range reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock outcrops and bajadas 4,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson: Cactus Spoon, Common Sotol, Desert Spoon, Sotol, Spoon Flower, Spoon Plant, Wheeler Dasylirion, Wheeler Sotol (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (under 8 feet high with a flowering spike reaching to 15 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas and rocky and gravelly hillsides 4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by bighorn sheep)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Cirsium sp.: Thistle,

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann: Arizona Jumping Cactus, Ball Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cholla, Teddy Bear Cactus, Teddybear Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, rocky slopes, talus slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes and arroyos below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter: Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant)

 

Dennstaedtaceae: The Bracken Fern Family

 

Pteridium aquilinum (C. Linnaeus) F.A. Kuhn (var. pubescens L.M. Underwood is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Bracken, Brake, Downy Bracken-fern, Hairy Brackenfern, Pasture Brake, Western Bracken, Western Bracken-fern (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mountains, slopes, forests and woodlands, meadows, flats and dry and moist soils 5,000 to 8,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, a post-fire successional plant)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Robinia neomexicana A. Gray: New Mexican Locust, New Mexico Locust, Southwestern Locust (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, floodplains and waste places 4,000 to 8,500 feet elevation; of special value in reducing erosion, useful as an ornamental, flowers are large, showy and fragrant; bark, roots and seeds are reported to be poisonous; the foliage is browsed by wildlife)

 

Fagaceae: The Beech Family

 

Quercus arizonica C.S. Sargent: Arizona Oak, Arizona White Oak, Roble (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (30 to 60 or more feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, woodlands and foothills 5,000 to7,600 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, one of the largest of the southwestern oaks)

 

Quercus emoryi J. Torrey: Blackjack Oak, Black Oak, Bellota, Emory Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (to 50 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, ridges, slopes, woodlands and foothills 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; the acorns “bellotas” are eaten by wildlife and the leaves are browsed by deer)

 

Quercus hypoleucoides A. Camus: Silverleaf Oak, Whiteleaf Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (30 to 65 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, woodlands, and slopes 5,000 to 8,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Quercus rugosa L. Née, (Quercus reticulata F.W. von Humbolt & A.J. Bonpland): Netleaf Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (6 to 40 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, gravelly slopes, gulches, ravines and woodlands 4,000 to 8,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; wildlife feed on the acorns)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Pineaceae: The Pine Family

 

Abies concolor (G. Gordon & R. Glendinning) J. Lindley ex F.H. Hildebrand: Balsam Fir, Concolor Fir, Silver Fir, White Balsam, White Fir (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 150 feet high): within range reported from high mountains, in moist and rocky soils and on steep shaded slopes 5,500 to 10,000 feet elevation; porcupines gnaw on the bark, deer and grouse feed on the foliage, the seeds are eaten by birds and mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pinus arizonica G. Engelmann var. arizonica (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson var. arizonica (G. Engelmann) G.R. Shaw): Arizona Pine, Arizona Ponderosa Pine, Arizona Yellow Pine Ponderosa Pine Yellow Pine, Western Yellow Pine, Yellow Pine (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (80 to 150 feet high); within range reported from high mountains, canyons, slopes and ridges 3,500 to 9,500 feet elevation; the seeds are eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pinus strobiformis G. Engelmann (Pinus reflexa (G. Engelman) G. Engelmann: Border Limber Pine, Border White Pine, Mexican White Pine, Pino Enana, Rocky Mountain White Pine, Southwestern White Pine, White Pine (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (60 to 100 feet high); within range reported from high mountains, canyons, slopes and ridges 6,500 to 10,000 feet elevation; the seeds are eaten by wildlife; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pseudotsuga menziesii (C.F. de Mirbel) J.F. do Amaral Franco var. glauca (Pseudotsuga taxifolia var. glauca (L. Beissner) G.B. Sudworth): Blue Douglas-fir, Common Douglas-fir, Douglas-fir, Douglas Spruce, Oregon Pine, Red Fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, Yellow Fir (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 190 feet high); within range reported from high mountains, canyons, north facing slopes and ravines 5,000 to 10,000 feet elevation; foliage is browsed by deer, elk and grouse, birds and mammals eat the seeds; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Aquilegia chrysantha A. Gray: Golden Columbine, Yellow Columbine (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mountains, forests, seeps, along streams and rich and moist soils 3,000 to 11,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus tremuloides A. Michaux (var. aurea (Tidestrom) Daniels is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Alamo Temblon, Aspen, Golden Aspen, Quaking Asp, Quaking Aspen, Trembling Aspen, Trembling Poplar (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 80 feet high); within range reported from mountains, plateaus, canyons, gravelly and sandy slopes, forests and along streams 6,500 to 10,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; pioneer tree on burned areas; leaves and stems are browsed by deer, elk and moose; beavers, rabbits and other animals feed on the bark, buds and leaves, beavers, grouse and quail feed on the winter buds)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Penstemon barbatus (A.J. Cavanilles) A.W. Roth: Beard-lip Beard Tongue, Beardlip Penstemon, Golden-beard Penstemon, Hummingbird Flowers, Red Penstemon, Scarlet Penstemon, Southwestern Penstemon (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mountains, rocky slopes, forests, woodlands and roadsides 4,000 to 10,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

 

ANIMALS

 

MAMMALS

 

Bovidae: Cows, Sheep and Allies

 

Ovis canadensis Shaw: Berrego Cimarron (Hispanic), Bighorn, Bighorn Sheep, Desert Bighorn, Desert Bighorn Sheep, Mountain Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep  (feeds on agave, brittle bush, bursage, bush muhly, cacti, catclaw, cholla, coffeeberry, desert fluffgrass, desert ironwood, desert thorn, fairy duster; filaree, galleta, grama, jojoba, mesquite, mallow, Nevada joint fir, plantain, prickly-pear, ratany, ricegrass, saguaro, saltbush, threeawn and turpentine broom; found on rugged mountain pinnacles, ridges and slopes)

 

Castoridae: Beaver

 

Castor canadensis Kuhle: American Beaver; Beaver; Beaver Castor (Hispanic) (found in aquatic habitats including creeks, streams, rivers, marshes, cienegas, ponds and lakes; feeds on bark, branches, buds, leaves or needles and twigs of alder, aspen, birch, cattail, cottonwood, maple, mesquite, tamarix and willow, and the roots of pond lilies and other tuberous plants; beaver dams help reduce erosion and provide habitat for other animals including otters and waterfowl; Beavers have been reported as having once been widespread in all of the permanent streams in Arizona, their historical distribution in Pima County is unknown.)

 

Ursidae: Bears

 

Ursus americanus (Baird) (Euarctos americanus (Pallus)): Black Bear, Oso Negro (feeds on acorns, ants, beetles, berries, buds, carrion, crickets, currants, fruit, grapes, grubs, insects, leaves, pinyon nuts, prickly-pear fruit, raspberries small to medium-size mammals and other vertebrates and twigs. EXTIRPATED from township)

 

Ursus arctos (Linnaeus): Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear, Oso Gris (feeds on berries, carrion, fish, fungi, insects, leaves, mammals, roots and sprouts; reported from the Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountains and along the Santa Cruz River bottom from Nogales to Tucson. EXTIRPATED from Arizona)

 

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                Mount Lemmon, Arizona – 15 Minute Series Topographic 1957

                Sabino Canyon, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1957

 

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/index/nwgctA.html

*Chamber, Nina – Sonoran Institute & Hawkins, Trica Oshant - Environmental Education Exchange. Invasive Plants of the Sonoran Desert, A Field guide,

*Checklist of North American Butterflies Occurring North of Mexico

http://www.naba.org/pubs/enames2.html

*The Collection, Volume 4 Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003

http://tcbmed.com/Newsletters/Volume4-Issue4-Usnea.html

*Dollar, Derrick; Scott Richardson and Erin Deely. 2000. Mammal Survey for the Mason Audubon Center, Tucson, Arizona USA

*Duffield, Mary Rose and Warren D. Jones. 1981. Plants for Dry Climates, HP Books, Los Angeles, California

*Earle, W. Hubert. 1963. Cacti of the Southwest, Rancho Arroyo book distributors, Tempe, Arizona.

*Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A field Guide to the Plants of Arizona, Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, Montana.

*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

*Florida Nature

http://www.floridanature.org/

http://www.floridanature.org/copyright.asp

*Gould, Frank W. 1951. Grasses of Southwestern United States, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Hawksworth, Frank G. and Delbert Wiens. March 1996. United States Depatment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook 709 - Dwarf Mistltoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics.

http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/index.html

*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

http://www.meden.demon.co.uk/Malvaceae/Hermannia/American.html

*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

*Housholder, Bob. 1966. The Grizzly Bear in Arizona

*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

http://www.itis.usda.gov/

*The International Plant Names Index (2004), accessed 2005. Published on the Internet

http://www.ipni.org

*Jepson Flora Project

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/

http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html

*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

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