August 29, 2005 Update

 

TOWNSHIP 12 SOUTH, RANGE 13 EAST, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Gila and Salt River Baseline and Meridian

 

Major Contributor and Source: William T. Kendall. Special Status Species Reports - Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System. Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area.

 

Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping, restoration, or revegetation projects. Disjunct species, outliers and populations on the edge of the main population are noted as being a PERIPHERAL POPULATION. Landscaped plants are not included in the lists unless they have become naturalized in the surrounding native environment.

 

The use of local native vegetation is recommended for landscape, restoration and revegetation projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants. Species distribution information is shared with the Heritage Data Management System of the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. The information presented as township notes was obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not warrant the accuracy of the information presented in these listings.

 

Comments and the reporting of corrections, unrecorded species in townships and information relating to the historical distribution of species would be appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to:

KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

Township Notes

 

Location: This township is located in Pima County in south-central Arizona. The township is bounded on the north by the alignment for Tangerine Road, on the south by the alignment for Ina Road, on the east by the alignment for 1st Avenue and on the west by the alignment for Camino de Oeste. A portion of the northwest quarter is within the town limits for the Town of Marana. A portion of the northeast half is within the town limits of the Town of Oro Valley. The Community of Casas Adobes is located in the southern portion of the township and the Community of Tortolita in the northwest quarter.

 

Landmarks: Named washes include the Canada Agua and Canada del Oro.

 

Elevation: Elevations range from approximately 2,200 feet located north of the southwest corner on the west township line to approximately 2,860 feet located on the east township line north of the southeast corner (1).

 

 

 

This photograph was taken looking to the southeast toward the Santa Catalina Mountains. Some of

the plants observed in the area included Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Staghorn Cholla (Opuntia versicolor),  Chainfruit Cholla (Opuntia fulgida  var. fulgida), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea) and

Graham Pinchusion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii). WTK August 2005

 

 

Physiographic Province: This township is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

Soil: Soils are described as thermic (hot) arid and semiarid soils of the Grabe-Gila-Pima Association (deep soils of the floodplains), Anthony-Sonoita Association (deep, arid soils on the alluvial fans and valley slopes), Pinaleno-Nickel-Palos Verdes Association (deep, arid, gravelly soils on deeply dissected uplands) and White House-Bernardino-Caralampi Association (deep, semiarid soils on uplands) (3).

 

Biotic community: This township is located within the Arizona Upland Subdivision of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Formation with associated Wetlands (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Township with Adjacent Sections

 

 

Plant Propagation Note

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer. Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

PLANTS

 

Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 8 feet high) (6); within range reported from canyon bottoms and along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; this plant is browsed by wildlife; the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds)

 

Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Yucca elata (G. Engelmann) G. Engelmann var. elata: Amole, Datil, Palmilla, Palmlilja Jukka, Pamilla, Pamella, Soaptree, Soaptree Yucca, Soap Weed, Spanish Bayonet (terrestrial perennial narrow-leaved evergreen, palm-like shrub or tree (25 feet high or more with a flowering stalk reaching to 6 feet or more in height); within range reported from mesas, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus lancea C. Linnaeus f.: African Sumac, Karee, Karree, Sauce Africano, Willow Rhus (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to 20-30 feet high); within range reported from washes. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat, unable to locate in BONAP or NRCS Plants Database)

 

Apiaceae: The Carrot Family

(Umbelliferae: The Parsley Family)

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Asteraceae: The Aster Family

(Compositae: The Sunflower Family)

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Condolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Condolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation)

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne (Franseria dumosa A. Gray): Burrobush, Burro Weed, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bursage, White Burrobush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, dunes and gravelly flats below 3,000 feet elevation; ,useful as an ornamental)

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streambeds, floodplains, bottom lands and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, consider planting male plants only to eliminate seed production)

 

Baccharis sergiloides A. Gray: Desert Baccharis, Squaw False Willow, Squaw Waterweed (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 7 feet high); within range reported from along rivers 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy gravelly flats, roadsides and washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Cup Fruit, White Tackstem (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats and along washes 500 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Conyza canadensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist var. canadensis (Erigeron canadensis C. Linnaeus): Blood Stanch, Canada Fleabane, Canadian Fleabane, Canadian Horseweed, Horsetail Conyza, Horseweed, Mare’s Tail (terrestrial long lived annual or biennial herb; within range reported from roadsides, washes, floodplains, moist soils, waste land and disturbed areas 1,000 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats and washes below 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes and flats 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Gutierrezia arizonica (A. Gray) M.A. Lane (Greenella arizonica A. Gray): Arizona Snakeweed (terrestrial annual or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 6? feet high); within range reported from sandy washes and streambeds 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, arroyos, sandy washes, streambeds. alluvial plains and disturbed areas below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas 2,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Isocoma tenuisecta E.L. Greene (Aplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus tenuisectus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Burroweed, Hierba del Burrow (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Laennecia schiedeana (C.F. Lessing) G.L. Nesom (Conyza schiedeana (C.F. Lessing) A.J. Cronquist, Erigeron schiedeanus C.F. Lessing): Gordolobo, Pineland Marshtail, Simonillo, Xurhatajasi (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from flats, washes and disturbed areas (2,400?)  7,000 to 9,000 feet elevation)

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial subshrubor shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,000 to 5,000 feet; useful as an ornamental elevation)

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill: Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sowthistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, adjacent to wetlands and disturbed areas 150 to 8,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Sonchus oleraceus C. Linnaeus: Achicoria Dulce, Annual Sowthistle, Cerraja, Colewort, Common Sowthistle, Grespino Commune, Hare’s Lettuce, Kaalivalvatti, Milk Thistle, Smooth Sowthistle, Sowthistle (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains, moist ground and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Condolle) B.J Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush, Thurber Dyssodia (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,500 to 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur)

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg: American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbesina encelioides (A.J. Cavanilles) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.J. Robinson & J.M. Greenman) J.R. Coleman: Butter-daisy, Cow Pasture Daisy, Cowpen Daisy, Crownbeard, Girasolillo, Golden Crownbeard, Hierba de la Bruja (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (under 1 foot high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and floodplains 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high or more); within range reported from roadsides and along washes and streams below 6,000 feet elevation; useful in erosion control and as an ornamental)

 

Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 2,100 to 4,300 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas below 4,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50  feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata, Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann forma cristata): Crested Saguaro, Fan Top Saguaro, Fishtail Saguaro, Saguaro - Crested Form (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (to 50 feet high or more); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges and foothills, rocky hill sides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos below 5,100 feet elevation; white-wing doves as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro seeds during fruiting season; Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Elf Owls; useful as an ornamental)

 

Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) F. Seitz var. fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor (Echinocereus fasciculatus (G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson) L. Benson, Echinocereus fendleri (G. Engelmann) K.T. Rümpler var. robustus (R.H. Peebles) L. Benson, Mammillaria fasciculata G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson): Bundle Hedgehog Cactus, Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Robust Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose forma cristata): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Candy Barrelcactus - Crested Form, Crested Fishhook Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 11 feet high); within range reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann var. grahamii (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (under 6 inches high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L. Benson (Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & Bigelow var. ramosa Peebles): Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent treelike subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 500 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann: Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 9 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia chlorotica G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Dollarjoint Pricklypear, Nopal, Nopal Rastrera, Pancake Pear, Pancake Prickly-pear, Silver-dollar Cactus, Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 6 feet high); within range reported from mountains, canyons, ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, hills, flats and valleys 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, and along washes, gullies and arroyos 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia ficus-indica (C. Linnaeus) P. Miller: Boereturksvy, Burbank Prickly Pear, Burbank’s Spineless, Grootdoringturksvy, Indian-fig Pricklypear, Mission Cactus, Nopal, Nopal de Castilla, Prickly Pear, Spineless Cactus, Spiny Pest Pear, Sweet Pricklypear, Tuna, Tuna Blanca, Tuna Cactus, Tuna de Castilla, Tuna Fina, Tuna Mansa (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida: Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter: Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle: Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Holycross Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and bottomlands and floodplains 200 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped an naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia microdasys (J.G. Lehmann) L.K. Pfeiffer (Cactus microdasys J.G. Lehmann, Opuntia macrocalyx D. Griffiths): Angel’s-wings, Bunny Ears, Bunny Ears Pricklypear, Cegador, Nopal Cegador, Polka Dot Cactus, Prickly Pear, Rabbit Ears (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, flats, along washes and floodplains. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann: Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats and valleys in sandy, gravelly or rocky soils 1,000 to 7,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides cover for many desert animals)

 

Opuntia santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) J.N. Rose (Opuntia violacea G. Engelmann ex B.D. Jackson var. santa-rita (D. Griffiths & R.F. Hare) L. Benson: Blue Blade, Dollar Cactus, Duraznilla, Nopal Morado, Purple Pricklypear, Red Blade Pricklypear, Santa Rita Cactus, Santa Rita Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 5 feet high); within range reported from canyons, ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and valleys 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped an naturalized ornamental)

 

Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey: Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains 1,000 to 5,000+ feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia tetracantha J.W. Toumey (Opuntia kleiniae A.P. de Candolle var. tetracantha (J.W. Toumey) W.T. Marshall): Candle Cholla, Four-spined Cholla, Klein Pencil Cholla, Pencil Joint Cholla, Tucson Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 7 fee high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter: Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (to 15 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant)

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) Backeberg: Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la noche (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub or shrub (to 8 feet high); within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, plant under desert shrubs such as the Creosote Bush, Foothill Paloverde and Velvet Mesquite for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant)

 

Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 6 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental and in controlling erosion)

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Allscale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 4 feet high); within range reported from gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Chenopodium album C. Linnaeus: Baconweed, Chou Grass, Common Lambsquarters, Farinello Comune, Fathen, Fat Hen, Forst Bite, Lambsquarters, Mealweed, Netseed Lambsquarters, Pigweed, Pitseed Goosefoot, White Goosefoot, White Pigweed, Wild Spinach (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from disturbed areas below 9,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola iberica Sennen & C. Pau, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas 150 to 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Ipomoea sp.: Morning-glory

 

Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Apodanthera undulata A. Gray: Melon Loco (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and washes 1,500 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Tumamoca macdougalii J.N. Rose: Globeberry, MacDougal Tumamoc Globeberry, Tumamoc Globeberry (terrestrial perennial herb or vine; within range reported from hillsides, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along washes and arroyos 2,150 to 2,600 feet elevation)

 

Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 15 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes below 4,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Matacora, Sangre de Cristo Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 5 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains and along washes and arroyos 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall)

 

Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, floodplains and along washes and arroyos 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, the flowers are fragrant)

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray var. greggii (Acacia greggii A. Gray, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 23 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams below 4,500 feet elevation: useful as an ornamental)

 

Astragalus allochrous A. Gray var. allochrous: Crazyweed, Halfmoon Locoweed, Halfmoon Milkvetch, Loco, Locoweed, Poisonvetch, Rattleweed (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from mountains, mesas, slopes, plains, flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains 1,500 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Caesalpinia gilliesii (W.J. Hooker) N. Wallich ex D.N. Dietrich: Bird of Paradise Flower, Bird of Paradise Shrub, Mexican Bird of Paradise, Yellow Bird of Paradise (terrestrial perennial evergreen vine, shrub or tree (to 10 feet); within range reported from roadsides and along washes. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; browsed by wildlife.)

 

Lupinus sp.: Lupine

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Comitin, Arizona Ironwood, Desert Ironwood, Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, floodplains and along washes below 2,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep, the seeds are an important food of desert animals)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 40 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and disturbed areas 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona; useful as an ornamental, observed as an escaped and naturalized ornamental that has become weedy in riparian areas and along roadsides; foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife)

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 30 feet high); within range reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental with a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring; twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife, seeds are eaten by birds and rodents; useful in controlling erosion)

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Paloverde, Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 25 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet high); within range reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains below 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife)

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial shrub (7 to 33 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats below 6,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental; a preferred food plant of Costa’s Hummingbird)

 

Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfilerillo, Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heron Bill, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Erodium texanum A. Gray: Alfilerilla, Desert Stork’s Bill, False Filaree, Large-flowered Stork’s Bill, Texas Stork’s Bill (terrestrial winter annual or biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes 1,000 to 4,500 feet elevation)

 

Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy streambeds and sandy soils below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Phacelia sp.: Phacelia

 

Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria sp.: Ratany

 

Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Lamium amplexicaule C. Linnaeus: Dead Nettle, Henbit, Henbit Deadnettle (terrestrial annual or biennial herb; within range reported from along washes and disturbed areas below 9,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham var. columbariae: California Sage, Chia (terrestrial winter annual herb; within range reported from gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes below 3,500 feet elevation)

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Mentzelia pumila T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray var. pumila: Blazing Star, Bullet Stickleaf, Desert Blazingstar, Dwarf Mentzelia, Evening Star, Golden Blazingstar, Moonflower, Yellow Mentzelia (terrestrial biennial herb; within range reported from flats, roadsides and along washes and streambeds below 8,000 feet elevation)

 

Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial vine or woody climber; within range reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats; useful as an ornamental 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Gossypium thurberi A. Todaro: Algodoncillo, Desert Cotton, Thurber’s Cotton, Thurberia, Wild Cotton, Wild Desert Cotton (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 12 feet high); within range reported from canyons, gravelly and rocky slopes and along washes, streambeds and ditches 2,500 to 7,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Malva parviflora C. Linnaeus: Cheeseweed, Cheeseweed Mallow, Little Mallow, Malva, Small-flowered Malva, Small-whorl Mallow (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb; within range reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 8,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray subsp. ambigua: Apricot Globemallow, Apricot Mallow, Desert Hollyhock, Desert Globemallow, Desert Mallow, Globe Mallow, Mal de Ojo, Mountain Apricot Mallow, Plantas Muy Malas, Sore-eye Poppy (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes below 3,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial herb, subshrub or shrub; within range reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides 2,000 to 6,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Oxalidaceae: The Wood-sorrel Family

 

Oxalis corniculata C. Linnaeus: Agrito; Creeping Oxalis, Creeping Lady’s-sorrel, Creeping Woodsorrel, Creeping Yellow Sorrel, Jacoyote, Little Yellow Sorrel, Procumbent Yellow Sorrel, Sheep Sour, Sour Clover, Wood Shamrock, Yellow Sorrel (terrestrial annual or perennial herb; within range reported from disturbed areas below 8,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Argemone pleiacantha E.L. Greene: Bluestem Pricklepoppy, Chicolote, Cowboys’ Fried Eggs, Southwestern Pricklypoppy, Thistle Poppy (terrestrial biennial herb; within range reported from mesas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas; useful as an ornamental)

 

Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago sp.: Plantain

 

Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation)

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles: Spidergrass (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Six-weeks Needle Grama, Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial summer annual herb; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes and streambeds below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Bermudagrass, Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Pata de Gallo, Zacate Bermuda, Zacate Ingles (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky hills, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats below 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes 2,000 to 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link: African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Zacate Buffle (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual herb; within range reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation)

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, moist soil, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Rumex hymenosepalus J. Torrey: Canaigra, Canaigre Dock, Desert Rhubarb, Dock; Sorrel, Wild Rhubarb (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from flats, roadsides, washes and streambeds below 6,000 feet elevation)

 

Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or woody climber; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams below 4,000 feet elevation)

 

Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia warnockii M.C. Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston: Crucillo, Guichutilla, Kearney Condalia, Kearney’s Snakewood, Mexican Crucillo, Squawbush (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes 2,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial shrub or small tree (to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands 1,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and streambeds 1,500 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Penstemon thurberi J. Torrey Thurber’s Penstemon (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within range reported from slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from mesas, plains, roadsides, arroyos, along ditches and disturbed areas 1,000 to 6,500 feet elevation. Poisonous)

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes below 5,500 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal: Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Terrac Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills, bajadas, gravelly flats and alluvial plains 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lycium exsertum A. Gray: Arizona Desert-thorn, Desert Thorn, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and alluvial outwash plains 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 25 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along washes, streams, ditch banks and disturbed areas below 3,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche, Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet high); within range reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds and disturbed areas below 6,000 feet elevation; flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available)

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bull Nettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial herb or subshrub; within range reported from plains, flats, roadsides, cienegas and disturbed areas 1,000 to 5,500 feet elevation)

 

Tamaricaceae: Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix chinensis João de Loureiro (Tamarix pentandra P. Simon von Pallas): Fivestamen Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 20 feet high); within range reported from mountains, moist plains, stream and river banks, irrigation ditches, floodplains, moist soil and disturbed areas below 5,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (7 to 17 feet high); within range reported from rivers, creeks, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, marshy areas, reservoirs and tanks. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis pallida J. Torrey: Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet high); within range reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds 2,500 to 6,000 feet elevation; this plant provides excellent cover for many birds, and the fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals; useful as an ornamental)

 

Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain (terrestrial perennial herb; within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, roadsides and along washes and streambeds below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental)

 

Lantana urticoides A. von Hayek (Lantana horrida K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Bunchberry, Calico Bush, Common Lantana, Common Verbena, Hierba de Cristo, Lantana, Texas Lantana, West Indian Shrubverbena (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub; within range reported from roadsides, washes and streams and disturbed areas at about 2,500 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant; poses a significant threat to native habitat)

 

Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe Family

(Loranthaceae: The Mistletoe Family)

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Catclaw Acacia, Desert Ironwood, Foothill Paloverde, Kearney Condalia, Velvet Mesquite and Whitethorn Acacia,  commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp. below 4,000 feet elevation; Phainopeplas feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants; Verdins nest in the stems; the fragrant flowers attract insects)

 

Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) R.S. Felger & R.T. Lowe, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Condolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, plains and gravelly flats below 5,000 feet elevation; useful as an ornamental, characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions)

 

Tribulus terrestris C. Linnaeus: Abojo de Flor Amarilla, Bullhead, Cadillo, Caltrop, Goathead, Ground Bur-nut, Mexican Sandbur, Puncture Vine, Puncturevine, Tackweed, Texas Sandbur, Toboso, Torito, Torrito (terrestrial long lived annual herb; within range reported from roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas below 7,000 feet elevation. EXOTIC Invasive Plant)

 

 

ANIMALS

 

BIRDS

 

Accipitridae: Eagles, Hawks, Kites and Allies

 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte): Cooper’s Hawk, Galvilan Palomero (Hispanic), Galvilan Pollero (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds and mammals; nest is a platform of sticks located in trees)

 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot: Galvilan Pajerero (Hispanic), Sharp-shinned Hawk; Wishag (feeds on birds and small mammals; nest is a platform of twigs located in trees)

 

Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus): Aguila Real (Hispanic), Golden Eagle (feeds on birds, rabbits and larger rodents; nest is a bulky mass of sticks located on cliffs, ledges or in trees)

 

Buteo albonotatus Kaup: Aguilill Cola Cinchada (Hispanic), Zone-tailed Hawk (feeds on small birds, lizards, and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks and green twigs located on cliffs or in trees)

 

Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin): Buzzard, Buzzard Hawk, Chicken Hawk, Eastern Redtail, Gavilan Cola Roja (Hispanic), Hen Hawk, Mouse Hawk, Redtail, Red-tailed Buzzard, Red-tailed Hawk, Western Redtail (feeds on rodents and lizards; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs and in saguaros and trees)

 

Buteo regalis (Gray): Ferruginous Hawk, Ferruginous Rough-legged Hawk (feeds on prairie dogs, ground squirrels and other rodents, birds, crickets and locusts; nest is a platform of sticks located in bushes and trees, or on cliffs, ground, hillsides, ledges and riverbanks)

 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte: Gavilan Chapulinero (Hispanic), Swainson’s Hawk (feeds on grasshoppers, locusts and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs or ground, or in bushes, tall cacti, trees and yuccas)

 

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus): Gavilan Norteno (Hispanic), Marsh Hawk, Northern Harrier (feeds on birds, mice and other small mammals; nest is made of grasses, reeds and stalks located on the ground in grasses or marsh)

 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus): Aguila Culva (Hispanic), Bald Eagle (feeds on small animals, birds, carrion and fish; nest is a platform of large sticks and vegetation located on cliffs or in forks of trees)

 

Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck): Aguililla Cinchada (Hispanic), Aguililla Roja (Hispanic), Harris’s Hawk (feeds on rodents, rabbits and birds; nest is a platform of sticks located in mesquites, small trees and yuccas)

 

Apodidae: Swifts

 

Aeronautes saxatalis (Woodhouse): White-throated Swift, Vencejo Montanes (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of saliva cemented twigs located in caves and crevices in mountain and sea cliffs)

 

Chaetura vauxi (Townsend): Vaux’s Swift (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of small sticks cemented together with saliva and attached to the inside of the hollows of trees)

 

Ardeidae: Bitterns, Egrets and Herons

 

Ardea herodias Linnaeus: Garza (Hispanic), Garza Ceniza (Hispanic), Great Blue Heron (feeds on crayfish, fish, frogs, insects, mice, mollusks, insects and spiders; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs, islets, rocky islands, swamps and trees)

 

Bombycillidae: Waxwings

 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot: Cedar Waxwing, Chinito Bolera (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, insects and seeds; nest is a bulk cup of grass, moss and twigs woven onto the horizontal branches of trees)

 

Caprimulgidae: Nighthawks, Nightjars and Allies

 

Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann): Aquador Tapacamino Chico (Hispanic), Lesser Nighthawk, Nehpod (Tohono O’Odham), Texas Nighthawk (feeds on insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on open ground)

 

Phalaenoptilus nuttalli (Audubon): Aquador (Hispanic), Common Poorwill, Kohlo’Ogam (Tohono O’Odham), Nuttall’s Poor-will, Poor-will (feeds on nocturnal insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on bare ground, gravel or rock)

 

Cardinalidae: Buntings, Cardinals and Grosbeaks

 

Cardinalis cardinalis (Linneaus) (Richmondena cardinalis (Linneaus)): Cardenal (Hispanic), Cardenal Rojo (Hispanic), Northern Cardinal, Sipuk (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of shredded bark and twigs located in a low shrubs or thickets)

 

Cardinalis sinuatus (Bonaparte) (Pyrrhuloxia sinuata (Bonaparte)): Bichpod (Tohono O’odham), Cardenal Gris, Cardinal Torito (Hispanic), Pyrrhuloxia (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds nests are neat cups located in thorny bushes)

 

Passerina amoena (Say): Jaspeado (Hispanic), Lazuli Bunting (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds nests are loose cups made of grasses and leaves located in low bushes)

 

Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus) (Guiraca caerulea (Linnaeus)): Blue Grosbeak, Pico Gordo Azul (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses, rootlets and snakeskin located in a bushes or low trees)

 

Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson): Black-headed Grosbeak, Rocky Mountain Grosbeak, Tigrillo (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruit, insects and seeds nests are frail saucers made of plant stems and twigs located in bushes and tree forks)

 

Cathartidae: New World Vultures

 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on the ground in thickets and tree hollow)

 

Charadriidae: Lapwings and Plovers

 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus: Chiwi-Chuhch (Tohono O’odham), Killdeer, Tildio (Hispanic) (feeds on marine invertebrate and worms; eggs are laid in a scrape on bare ground in fields, pastures and shores)

 

Columbidae: Doves and Pigeons

 

Columba livia Gmelin: Domestic Pigeon, Feral Pigeon, Pigeon, Paloma Domestica (Hispanic), Rock Dove, Rock Pigeon (feeds on insects, green plant matter and seeds; nests on buildings and cliffs. EXOTIC)

 

Columbina inca (Lesson) (Scardafella inca (Lesson)): Gugu (Tohono O’odham), Inca Dove, Tortola (Hispanic), Tortolita Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; saucer shaped nests are made of mixed vegetation and located in shrubs and low trees)

 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are crude stick platforms located in thickets and trees)

 

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose twig platforms located in cacti, shrubs trees and on the ground)    

 

Corvidae: Crows, Jays, Magpies and Ravens

 

Corvus corax Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees)

 

Cuculidae: Anis, Cuckoos and Roadrunners

 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs)

 

Emberizidae: Emberizids

 

Aimophila carpalis (Coues): Rufous-winged Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of woven course and fine grasses located low bushes and cacti, in young mesquite trees and on the ground)

 

Amphispiza belli (Cassin): Sage Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of fur, grasses and sagebrush located in shrubs)

 

Amphispiza bilineata (Cassin): Ba’ I-Chukulim (Tohono O’odham), Black-throated Sparrow, Desert Sparrow, Gorrion Garganta Negra (Hispanic), Zacatonaro Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose grassy cups located in cacti and shrubs)

 

Chondestes grammacus (Say): Gorrion Alondra (Hispanic), Lark Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grassy cups lined with fine fibers and hairs located on the ground, small bushes, and vines)

 

Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus): “Cassiar” Junco, Dark-eyed Junco, Gorrion Ojas Negros (Hispanic), Grey-headed Junco, Oregon Junco, Slate-colored Junco, White-winged Junco (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of shreds of bark, grasses, mosses, rootlets and twigs lined with hairs located on the ground in protected areas)

 

Melospiza lincolnii (Audubon): Gorrion Lincoln (Hispanic), Lincoln’s Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located in bogs and muskegs)

 

Melospiza melodia (Wilson): Gorrion Cantor (Hispanic), Song Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located in low bushes and on the ground)

 

Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon) (Chlorura chlorura (Audubon)): Green-tailed Towhee, Toqui Cola Verde (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are made of shredded bark and grasses located under brush and on the ground)

 

Pipilo fuscus Swainson: Bichput (Tohono O’odham), Brown Towhee, Canyon Towhee, Hichput; Toqui Pinto (Hispanic), Vieja (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are large deep cups of grasses and rootlets located in bushes and low trees)

 

Pipilo maculatus (Linnaeus) (Pipilo erythrophthalmus (C. Linnaeus)): Bullfinch, Bush-bird, Chewink, Eastern Towhee, Ground Robin, Joree, Low-ground-Stephen, Marsh Robin, Mountain Towhee, Nevada Towhee, Rufous-sided Towhee, Spotted Towhee, Spurred Towhee, Swamp Robin, Turkey Sparrow, White-eyed Towhee (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made up of shredded bark and leaves located low in dense bushes on or close to the ground)

 

Spizella breweri Cassin: Brewer’s Sparrow, Gorrion Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of grasses located in low conifers, sagebrush or on the ground)

 

Spizella passerina (Bechstein): Chipping Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of grasses and rootlets and lined with hairs located in bushes, trees and  vines)

 

Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin): Gorrion Garganta Blanca (Hispanic), White-throated Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of bark fiber, grasses, hairs, mosses and rootlets located under bushes)

 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster): Gambel’s Sparrow, Gorrion Copete Blanco (Hispanic), Gorrion Corona Blanca (Hispanic), Intermediate Sparrow, Nuttall’s Sparrow, Tomtol (Tohono O’odham), White-crown, White-crowned Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are grass cups located in bushes or on the ground)

 

Falconidae: Caracaras and Falcons

 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus: Merlin, Pigeon Hawk (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests in cavities, cliff ledges, niches, tree tops and on the ground)

 

Falco mexicanus Schlegel: Halcon Cafe' (Hispanic), Prairie Falcon (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests are made on sticks located on cliff niches or on the bare ground)

 

Falco peregrinus Tunstall subsp. anatum Boneparte: American Peregrine Falcon, Duck Hawk, Halcon Peregino (Hispanic), Peregrine Falcon (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests are made in potholes and scrapes or on sticks located on cliff ledges)

 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus: Cernicalo Americano (Hispanic), American Kestrel, Sisiki (Tohono O’odham), Sparrow Hawk (feeds on amphibians, birds, insects, reptiles, rodents and small birds; eggs are laid in holes in saguaros and trees and on cliffs)

 

Fringillidae: Cardueline and Fringilline Finches

 

Carduelis pinus (Wilson) (Spinus pinus (Wilson)): Pine Finch, Pine Siskin, Pinonero Rayado (Hispanic) (feeds on buds, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are neat cups made of grasses and twigs located in conifers)

 

Carduelis psaltria (Say) (Spinus psaltria (Say)): Arkansas Goldfinch, Arkansas Green-back, “Dark-backed” Goldfinch, Green-backed Goldfinch, Lesser Goldfinch, Tarweed Canary (feeds on buds, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are small cups made of twigs located in bushes and small trees)

 

Carpodacus mexicanus (Miller): House Finch, “Linnet”, Pinzon Mexicano (Hispanic) (feeds on buds, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are tightly woven, compact cups made of grasses located in bushes, cacti, trees and vines)

 

Hirundinidae: Martins, and Swallows

 

Hirundo rustica Linnaeus: Barn Swallow, Golondrina (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are cups made of mud lined with feathers located on cliff ledges and man-made structures)

 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot): Cliff Swallow, Golondrina Risquera (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are gourd-shaped mud jugs lined with feathers and grasses located on cliff faces)

 

Progne subis (Linnaeus): Martin Azul (Hispanic), Purple Martin, Western Purple Martin (feeds on insects; nests made of feathers, grasses, leaves, mud and stalks located in holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon) (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot)): Golondrina Alas Errada (Hispanic), Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Rough-winged Swallow (feeds on insects; nests located in holes in banks, caves and crevices in rocks)

 

Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot) (Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot)): Golondrina Invernal (Hispanic), Tree Swallow (feeds on insects; nests are feather-lined cups located in holes in trees)

 

Tachycineta thalassina (Swainson): Golondrina Verde (Hispanic), Violet-green Swallow (feeds on insects; nests are cups made of grasses lined with feathers located in holes in trees)

 

Icteridae: Blackbirds, Orioles and Allies

 

Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus): Red-wing, Red-winged Blackbird, S-Wegi Shashani (Tohono O’odham), Tordo de Alas Rojas (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are a woven grass cup attached to bushes, grasses, marsh reeds and tules)

 

Icterus bullockii (Swainson): Bullock’s Oriole, Calandria Nortina (Hispanic), Northern Oriole (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are woven basket hanging from the end of branches)

 

Icterus cucullatus Swainson: Calandria (Hispanic), Calandria Copetona (Hispanic), Hooded Oriole, S-Oam Shashani (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are a long, hanging basket or woven pouch located under palm fronds, shrubs and yuccas)

 

Molothrus aeneus (Wagler) (Tangavius aeneus (Wagler)): Bronzed Cowbird, Red-eyed Cowbird, Tordo Ojos Rojos (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; parasitic, eggs are laid in the nests of orioles and other birds)

 

Molothrus ater (Boddaert): Brown-headed Cowbird, Common Cowbird, Tordo (Hispanic), Tordo Copete Café (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; parasitic, eggs are laid in the nests or other birds)

 

Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin) (Cassidix mexicanus (Gmelin)): Boat-tailed Grackle, Chanate Cola Grande (Hispanic), Great-tailed Grackle, Zanate  (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of sticks, grasses, mud and sticks lined with grasses located in trees, bushes and marsh reeds)

 

Sturnella neglecta Audubon: Alondra Llanera (Hispanic), Western Meadowlark (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are partially domed saucers made of grasses located in grassy tussocks)

 

Laniidae: Shrikes

 

Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus: “Butcher Bird”, Loggerhead Shrike, Verdugo (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds, insects, lizards and small mammals; nests are made of feathers, rootlets and twigs located in bushes and trees)

 

Mimidae: Catbirds, Mockingbirds and Thrashers

 

Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus): Cenzontle (Hispanic), Cenzontle Norteno (Hispanic), Mockingbird, Northern Mockingbird, Shug (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests bulky cups made of rootlets and twigs located near ground in thickets and dense trees)

 

Oreoscoptes montanus (Townsend): Mirlo de las Chias (Hispanic), Sage Thrasher (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests are bulky cups made of strips of bark, grasses and twigs located in bushes or on the ground)

 

Toxostoma curvirostre (Swainson): Palmer’s Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Comun (Hispanic), Cuitlacoche Pico Curvo (Hispanic), Curve-billed Thrasher, Kudwik (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests are cups made of twigs located in chollas and shrubs)

 

Motacillidae: Pipits and Wagtails

 

Anthus rubescens Tunstall (Anthus spinoletta (C. Linnaeus)): Alondra Americana (Hispanic), American Pipit, Water Pipit (feeds on crustaceans, grubs, insects, small mollusks, seeds and spiders; nests are grassy cups located on the ground under shelter)

 

Odontiphoridae: Quail

 

Callipepla gambelii (Gambel) (Lophortyx gambelii Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Gambel) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, buds, insects and seeds; eggs are laid in a ground scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti)

 

Parulidae: Wood Warblers

 

Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus): Audubon Warbler, Myrtle Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Verdin Cola Amarilla (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped and made of shredded bark, feathers and twigs located in trees)

 

Dendroica nigrescens (Townsend): Black-throated Gray Warbler, Verdin Gris Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are neat, tightly-woven plant fiber cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Dendroica occidentalis (Townsend): Hermit Warbler, Verdin Ermitano (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped shaped and made up of bark, pine needles and rootlets located in trees)

 

Dendroica petechia (Linnaeus): Yellow Warbler, Verdin Amarillo (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are felted cups of plant fibers located in the forks of shrubs and trees)

 

Dendroica townsendi (Townsend): Townsend’s Warbler, Verdin Townsend (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are shallow and cup-shaped located in trees)

 

Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus): Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-throat, Garganta Amarilla (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are woven plant material cups lined with grasses and hair located on or near the ground under bushes in marshes)

 

Icteria virens (Linnaeus): Yellow-breasted Chat (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped made up of grasses and leaves located in briars, bushes and thickets)

 

Oporornis tolmiei (Townsend): MacGillivray’s Warbler, Verdin MacGillivray (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped and made of grasses located in briars, low brush and weeds)

 

Vermivora celata (Say): Lutescent Warbler, Orange-crowned Warbler, Verdin Copete Naranja (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of grasses, rootlets and other plant fibers located in a low shrub or on the ground)

 

Vermivora luciae (Cooper): Lucy’s Warbler, Verdin Lucy (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped and located in trees, under loose bark or in a hole)

 

Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson): Calaveras Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Verdin Nashville (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped made up of grasses, leaves, rootlets and soft vegetation located recessed into the ground, near the ground or on the ground under a tussock, usually on a steep slope)

 

Vermivora virginiae (Baird): Virginia’s Warbler, Verdin Virginia (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped and located on the ground under brush or in grass)

 

Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson): Pileolated Warbler, Wilson’s Warbler, Verdin Wilson (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are grassy cups located near or on the ground)

 

Passeriidae: Old World Sparrows

 

Passer domesticus (Linnaeus): English Sparrow, Gorrion Casero (Hispanic), Gorrion Ingles (Hispanic), House Sparrow, O’Odopiwa (Tohono O’odham), Zacatero (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, garbage, grain, insects and seeds; nests are bulky masses of debris, grass and straw located in cavities, crannies, ivy, niches and trees. EXOTIC)

 

Picidae: Woodpeckers and Wrynecks

 

Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) (Colaptes cafer (Gmelin)): Carpintero Norteno (Hispanic), Common Flicker, Northern Flicker, Red-shafted Flicker, Yellow-shafted Flicker (feeds on wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in posts, saguaros, stumps and trees)

 

Colaptes chrysoides (Malherbe): Carpintero Collarejo Cesertico (Hispanic), Common Flicker, Gilded Flicker, Kudat (Tohono O’odham), Mearn’s Gilded Flicker (feeds on wood boring insects nests are made in hollowed out holes in posts, saguaros, stumps and trees)

 

Melanerpes uropygialis (Baird) (Centurus uropygialus Baird): Carpintero del Desierto (Hispanic), Carpintero Gila (Hispanic), Gila Woodpecker, Hikiwigi (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Picoides scalaris (Wagler) (Dendrocopus scalaris (Wagler)): Cactus Woodpecker, Carpintero Listado (Hispanic), Chehegam (Tohono O’odham), Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Pajaro Carpintero (Hispanic) (feeds on wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in agaves, cacti, posts and yuccas)

 

Sphyrapicus nuchalis (Baird) (Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus)): Carpintero Rojo (Hispanic), Red-naped Sapsucker (feeds on wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in trees)

 

Ptilogonatidae: Silky Flycatchers

 

Phainopepla nitens (Swainson): Capulinero (Hispanic), Capulinero Negro (Hispanic), Phainopepla (feeds on berries; insects and mistletoe; nests are shallow cups on the forks of limbs of trees)  

 

Regulidae: Kinglets

 

Regulus calendula (Linnaeus): Reyezuelo Copete Rubio (Hispanic), Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Reyzuelo (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are spherical and made up of lichens and moss located under the tips of branches in conifer trees)

 

Remizidae: Verdins

 

Auriparus flaviceps (Sundevall): Baloncillo (Hispanic), Gisop (Tohono O’odham), Verdin (feeds on berries, insects, insect eggs, insect larvae and seeds; nests are spheres of thorny twigs located in chollas, shrubs, trees and the stems of the Desert Mistletoe)

 

Strigidae: Typical Owls

 

Athene cunicularia Molina (Speotyto cunicularia (Molina)): Lechuza Llanera (Hispanic), Burrowing Owl, Western Burrowing Owl (feeds on insects and small invertebrates; nest are grass lined and located at the end of a rodent burrow in open ground)

 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin): Buho (Hispanic), Great Horned Owl, Tecolote Cornudo (Hispanic), Tecolote Cuernudo (Hispanic) (feeds on birds and small mammals; nests are made out of the deserted nests of other birds located in crevices, potholes, trees, on bluffs, cliffs and on the ground)

 

Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin) cactorum: Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl, Ferruginous Owl, Ferruginous Pigmy-owl (feeds on birds, earthworms, frogs, insects, lizards and small rodents; nests in tree cavities and woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Micrathene whitneyi (Cooper): Elf Owl, Kuhkwul (Tohono O’odham), Tecolote Enano (Hispanic), Tecolotito (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests in old woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees)

 

Otus asio Linnaeus: Common Screech-owl, Eastern Screech-owl, Mexican Screech-owl, Saguaro Screech-owl, Screech Owl, Tecolotito Chillon (Hispanic), Western Screech-owl (feeds on insects and rodents; nests in tree cavities and woodpecker holes)

 

Sturnidae: Mynas and Starlings

 

Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus: European Starling, Starling (feeds on berries, grubs, insects and worms; nests are made of bark, down, feathers, grass, hair, leaves, lichen, moss, rootlets and sticks; located in abandoned bird nests, cavities, depressions, posts, rocks, shrubs, trees, underground burrows and woodpecker holes. EXOTIC)

 

Sylviidae: Gnatcatchers and Old World Warblers

 

Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus): Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Pisita Gris (Hispanic), Western Gnatcatcher (feeds on insects; nests are small cups made up of lichens, plant down and spider webs located on limbs of trees)

 

Polioptila melanura (Lawrence): Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, Perlita del Desierto (Hispanic), Plumbeous Gnatcatcher, Pisita Cola Negra (Hispanic), Schuk Mookam Gisop (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on insects; nests are felted cups in forks of low shrubs)

 

Thraupidae: Tanagers

 

Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson): Louisiana Tanager, Piranga Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Western Tanager (feeds on berries, insects and small fruit; nests are shallow saucers of shredded bark, grasses, weed stalks and rootlets located on tree branches)           

 

Piranga rubra (Linnaeus): Cooper’s Tanager, Piranga Avispera (Hispanic), Summer Tanager (feeds on berries, insects and small fruit; nests are shallow cups made of shredded bark and grasses located on tree branches)

 

Trochilidae: Hummingbirds

 

Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier and Mulsant): Black-chinned Hummingbird, Chuparosa (Hispanic), Colibri Barba Negra (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny cups of lichens and plant wool woven together with spider webs located in shrubs and trees)

 

Calypte anna (Lesson): Anna’s Hummingbird, Chuparosa Anna (Hispanic), Colibri Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny woven cups made of lichens and small twigs located in shrubs and trees)

 

Calypte costae (Bourcier): Chuparosa Costa (Hispanic), Costa’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are leaf-thatched and lichen woven cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Cynanthus latirostris Swainson: Broad-billed Hummingbird, Chuparosa Pico Ancho (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are loosely woven rough cups located on vertical branches)

 

Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin): Rufous Hummingbird, Wipismal (Tohono O’odham), Zumbador Rufo (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are lichen-covered cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Selasphorus sasin (Lesson): Allen’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tightly woven lichen cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Stellula calliope (Gould): Calliope Hummingbird, Chuparosa Calliope (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are lichen and moss cups located in shrubs and trees)

 

Troglodytidae: Wrens

 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafresnaye): Cactus Wren, Hokkad (Tohono O’odham), Matraca del Desierto (Hispanic), Saltapared del Disierto (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are straw, spheroid located in cacti, yuccas and thorny bushes)

 

Salpinctes obsoletus (Say): Rock Wren, Saltapared rocosa (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cups made of bark, grasses, moss, rootlets and weeds lined with feathers, hairs and wool located in rock crannies)

 

Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon): Bewick’s Wren, Saltapared Tapetatero (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of twigs and located in crannies, crevices and holes)

 

Troglodytes aedon Vieillot: House Wren, Parkman’s Wren, Saltapared Cucacrachero (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of twigs and located in holes in trees and in other birds nests)

 

Turdidiae: Thrushes

 

Catharus guttatus (Pallas) (Hylocichla guttata (Pallas)): Cuictlacoche  Ermitano (Hispanic), Hermit Thrush (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are cups made of leaves,  moss, rootlets and twigs located on or near to the ground)

 

Sialia currucoides (Bechstein): Mountain Bluebird, Ventura de Montana (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are made of grasses and lined with bark chips or feathers located in holes in tree stubs, trees or in cliffs)

 

Sialia mexicana Swainson: Ventura Azul (Hispanic), Western Bluebird (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders, and worms; nests are made of grass in holes in tress stubs and trees)

 

Turdus migratorius (Linnaeus): American Robin, Primavera (Hispanic), Robin (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are bowls lined with grasses, roots, small twigs and walled with mud located in the forks or on branches of trees)

               

Tyrannidae: Tyrant Flycatchers

 

Contopus cooperi (Swainson) (Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson)): Mosquerito Olfvo (Hispanic), Olive-sided Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are shallow saucers made of roots, stalks and twigs located in forks of the horizontal branches of conifers)

 

Contopus sordidulus Sclater: Western Wood Pewee (feeds on flying insects; nests are tightly built grass or lichen-covered cups located on the horizontal branches of a trees)

 

Empidonax difficilis Baird: Pacific-slope Flycatcher, Mosquerito Pacifico (Hispanic), Western Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are cups made of rootlets and twigs lined with bark and moss located on ledges or in cut banks and tree trunks)

 

Empidonax hammondii (Xantus): Hammond’s Flycatcher, Mosquerito de Hammond (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are neat cups made up of woven plant fibers saddled on conifer branches)

 

Empidonax oberholseri     Phillips: Dusky Flycatcher, Mosquerito Obscuro (Hispanic), Wright’s Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are neat cups made up of fibers, grasses and twigs located in the forks of branches of bushes, saplings and small trees)

 

Empidonax wrightii Baird: Gray Flycatcher, Mosquerito Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are woven grass cups located in junipers, pinyon pine, sagebrush and small trees)

 

Myiarchus cinerascens (Lawrence): Ash-throated Flycatcher, Copeton Cinezo (Hispanic), Papamoscas Cenizo (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are made of materials including snake skins located in knotholes and woodpecker holes in posts, trees and yuccas)

 

Myiarchus tyrannulus (Miller): Brown-crested Flycatcher, Mosquerito Café (Hispanic), Papamoscas Tirano (Hispanic), Weid’s Crested Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; feather and hair lined nests are located in holes in posts, saguaros and trees)

 

Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert): Cardenalito (Hispanic), Vermilion Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are flat saucers made of twigs lined with animal or plant hair located on forks of horizontal branches of conifers)

 

Sayornis nigricans (Swainson): Black Phoebe, Gihsupi (Tohono O’odham), Papamoscas Negro (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are thick cups of grasses, moss and mud lined with soft material including feathers and hair located in caves, on ledges and in the exposed roots of trees close to water)

 

Sayornis saya (Bonaparte): Papamoscas Boyero (Hispanic), Say’s Phoebe (feeds on flying insects and berries; nests are cups or brackets of grasses, moss, mud and wool located on ledges or rock walls)

 

Tyrannus verticalis Say: Arkansas Kingbird, Madrugador Avispero (Hispanic), Western Kingbird (feeds on flying insects; nests are bulky, neatly-lined saucers made up of grasses, twigs and wool lined with matted hair located in bushes and on horizontal branches of trees)

 

Tyrannus vociferans Swainson: Cassin’s Kingbird, Madrugador Chilero (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are bulky cups lined with grasses, hair, twigs and wool located on a tree limbs)

 

Tytonidae: Barn Owls

 

Tyto alba (Scopoli): Barn Owl; Common Barn Owl, Lechuza (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and rodents; nests are on litter of disgorged fur pellets or bare surface located in hollow trees or other cavities)

 

Vireonidae: Vireos

 

Vireo bellii Audubon: Arizona Bell’s Vireo, Arizona Vireo, Bell’s Vireo, Vireo Aceitunado (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are pensile cups suspended from branches of dense bushes and low trees)

 

Vireo cassinii (Vireo solitarius (Wilson): Cassin’s Vireo, Solitary Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are neat baskets made from long fibers and grasses lined with soft material camouflaged with bark chips, catkins, leaves and lichen hanging from forked branches in bushes and trees)

 

Vireo gilvus (Vieillot): Vireo Gorgojaedor (Hispanic), Warbling Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are tiny basket-like cups hanging from forked branches in trees)

 

Vireo huttoni Cassin: Hutton’s Vireo, Stephen’s Vireo, Vireo Hutton (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are downy or mossy suspended cups lined with feathers and moss hanging from branches of shrubs and trees)

 

Vireo plumbeus (Wilson) (Vireo solitarius (Wilson)): Plumbeous Vireo, Solitary Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are neat baskets made from long fibers and grasses lined with soft material camouflaged with bark chips, catkins, leaves and lichen hanging from forked branches in bushes and trees)

 

Vireo solitarius (Wilson): Blue-headed Greenlet, Blue-headed Vireo, Mountain Vireo, Solitary Vireo, Vireo Solitario (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are neat baskets made from long fibers and grasses lined with soft material camouflaged with bark chips, catkins, leaves and lichen hanging from forked branches in bushes and trees)

 

INSECTS

 

Homoptera: Aphids, Cicadas, Hoppers, Psyllids, Scale Insects, Whiteflies and Others

 

Dactylopiidae: Cochineal Insects

 

Dactylophius coccus Costa: Cochineal Scale (observed on several species of prickly-pear cacti)

 

MAMMALS

 

Canidae: Dogs and Allies

 

Canis latrans Say: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels)

 

Canis familiaris: Domestic Dog (feral dogs and packs of feral dogs pose a threat to humans and wildlife. EXOTIC)  

 

Leporidae: Hares and Rabbits

 

Lepus californicus Gray: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti)

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird): Desert Cottontail (feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs)

 

Sciuridae: Squirrels and Allies

 

Citellus variegatus (Erxleben): Rock Squirrel (feeds on acorns, bird’s eggs and young birds, fruits, juniper berries, nuts and seeds of agave, black walnut, cacti, mesquite and other plants; found in rocky areas, boulder piles, cliffs, hills and talus slopes; nests beneath boulders)

 

Tayassuidae: Javelina

 

Peccari tajacu Linnaeus (Tayassu tajacu): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grass, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets)

 

 

(1) National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                Ruelas Canyon, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1968

                Oro Valley, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1981

                Jaynes, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1968

                Tucson North, Arizona – 7.5 Minute Series Topographic 1984

               

(2) Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

 

(4) Brown, David E., Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, 1982, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe, Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Revised June 1983

 

(5) Nomenclature generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

 

(6) Growth habits generally coincide with that given by the National Plants Database. Common names identified in the database have been printed in bold lettering: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

 

 

Literature, References and Web Sites Cited, Consulted and Visited for Listings

 

*Arizona Game and Fish Department, Arizona’s Natural Heritage Program: Heritage Data Management System (HDMS)

http://www.gf.state.az.us/w_c/edits/species_concern.shtml

*Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona Rare Plant Field Guide, A Collaboration of Agencies and Organizations.

*Barnes, Will C. 1988. Arizona Place Names, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona

*Benson, Lyman. 1981. The Cacti of Arizona, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Benson, Lyman and Robert A. Darrow. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

*Biota Information System of New Mexico, New Mexico Game and Fish (BISON-M)

http://nmnhp.unm.edu/bisonm/bisonquery.php

*Bowers, Janice E. and Steven P. McLaughlin. 1987.  Flora and Vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 8, Number 2.

*Bowers, J.E., and R.M. Turner. 1985. A Revised Vascular Flora of Tumamoc Hill.

*Breitung, August J., The Agaves, The Cactus and Succulent Journal 1968 Yearbook, Abbey Garden Press, Reseda, California.

*Brenzel, Kathleen N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book,  Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California.

*Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, and associated map: Brown, David E. and Lowe, Charles H., Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Revised June 1983.

*Catalogue of New World Grasses

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*Especies Forestales No Maderables - Indices

*Felger, Richard S. 1997. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, Drylands Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

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*Haynes, Lisa and Susan Schuetze. 1997. Pamphlet: A Sampler of Arizona’s Threatened and Endangered Wildlife, Arizona Game and Fish Department and Arizona Department of Agriculture.

*The Hermannia Pages: American Species

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*Heymann, M.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of the American Southwest, Doubleshoe Publishers, Scottsdale, Arizona.

*Hoffmeister. 1980. Ursus arctos, Specimens in Collections

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*Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

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http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/copyright.html

*Johnson, Matthew Brian. 2004. Cacti, other Succulents, and Unusual Xerophytes of Southern Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum / Arizona Lithographers, Tucson, Arizona.

*Kearney, Thomas K. and Robert H. Peebles. 1951. with Supplement 1960. Arizona Flora, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, California.

*Laymon, Stephen A. Paper: Yellow-billed Cuckoo.

*Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

*Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Lowe, Charles H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona with Major Section on Arizona Habitats, The University of Arizona Press.

*Maus, Kathryn. September 2002. Checklist for the Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona.

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/HERB/WESTBRANCH/westbranch.html

*Maus, Kathryn. 12 October 2001. Plants of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, Arid Lands Resource Sciences, University of Arizona.

*McLaughlin, Steven P. July 18, 1990. Flora of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (including Arivaca Cienega), Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona.

*Milne, Lorus and Margery. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Minckly, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona, Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

*Missouriplants.com

http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html

*National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps

*National Plants Database: USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

http://plants.usda.gov

*Native Grasses from South Texas, Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Program.

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/grasses.htm

*Olin, George. 1982. Mammals of the Southwest Deserts, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

*Owensby, Clenton. 2002. Line Drawings of Kansas Grasses

http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/ksgrasskey/linedraw.htm

*Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes – North America North of Mexico, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Parker, Kittie F. 1982. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Peterson, Roger Tory. 1961. A Field Guide to Western Birds, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Pima Community College – Desert Ecology of Tucson, Arizona

http://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/wflow_heri.htm

*Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan Threatened and Endangered Species

http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/sdcp2/fsheets/facts.html

*Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1981. Harper and Row’s Complete Field Guide to North American Wildlife, Western Edition, Harper and Row, New York, New York.

*Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert and Helena Curtis. 1976 Biology of Plants, Second Edition,Worth Publishers, Inc.

*Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with The Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report ands interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona.

*Rondeau, Renee, Thomas R. Van Devender, C. David Bertelson, Philip Jenkins, Rebecca K. Wilson, Mark A. Dimmitt. December, 1996. Annotated Flora of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, Desert Plants, Volume 12, Number 2..

http://eebweb.arizona.edu/herb/TUCSONS/tucsonsA-C.html

*Rosen, Philip C. 15 October 2001. Biological Values of the West Branch of the Santa Cruz River, With an Outline for a Potential River Park or Reserve.

*Rosenberg, Gary H. and Russel, Ruth. 1999. Checklist of North American Birds United States and Canada Including Hawaii 2000, Tucson Audubon Society.

*School of Botanical Medicine - Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arizona (excluding grasses and their allies

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/alternative-healthcare/Southwest-School-of-Botanical-Medicine/HOMEPAGE/Floras/AZchklst.txt

*Southeast Arizona Butterfly Association (SEABA), Plant List - SEABA’s Butterfly Garden at the Tucson Audubon Society’s Mason Center

http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabasa/home.html

*Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet)

http://seinet.asu.edu/collections/selection.jsp?cat=plantae

*Spellenberg, Richard. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers – Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York.

*Stebbins, Robert C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Texas Native Shrubs

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/indexscientific.htm

*Thornber, J.J. 1909. Vegetation Groups in the Desert Laboratory Domain, Professor of Botany in the Arizona Experiment Station.

*Tohono Chul Park, Field Checklist of Birds, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

www.maps4u.com

*Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers and Tony L. Burgess. 1995. Sonoran Desert Plants An Ecological Atlas, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

*Tuttle, Merlin D. 1988. America’s Neighborhood Bats, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

*Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds Western Region, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York.

*United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Web Site

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/arizona/cabeza.html

*University of Michigan, Animal Diversity Web http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

*Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

*Walters, James W. A Guide to Forest Insect and Disease Management pf Southwestern Conifers, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

*Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,  New York.

*Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, Robert Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West, Pioneer of Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming.