September 17, 2006 Update

 

 

 

WESTERN PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA, INCLUDING THE

ORGAN PIPE CACTUS NATIONAL MONUMENT AND WILDERNESS AREA

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information: William T. Kendall *WTK (observation date, if shown)*. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*. The Checklist of Plants, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, August 2005 *24*. A Checklist of Mammals, Amphibians and Reptiles of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, 1991, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, Tucson, Arizona *83*. A Checklist of the Birds of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, 1999, Southwest Parks and Monument Association, Tucson, Arizona *84*. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Natural History Handbook Series, No. 6 *108*

 

 

 

The Kris Eggle Visitor Center at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument is located on the west

side of State Route 85 approximately 5 miles north of Lukeville, Arizona. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument was established in 1937 and covers 330,688.86 acres, the Organ Pipe Wilderness

was added in 1978 and covers an additional 312,600 acres. WTK November 2005

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by family and genus. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat and the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed, and the bibliography for the comments and sources of additional information. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as listing area notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Major and secondary poisonous range plants as reported by Schmutz, Freeman and Reed 1968 (*80*) are noted “... has/have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968)” in red lettering). Footnotes (*00*) for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may also be shown in red. Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Listing Area Notes

 

Listing of Plant Species

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Division Lycopodiophyta: The Lycopods

Class Lycopodiopsida: The Clubmosses, Firmosses and Spikemosses

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

Class Filicopsida: The Ferns

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Coniferophyta: The Conifers

                                                                Class Pinopsida: The Conifers

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

Class Gnetopsida: The Gnetops

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Mollusca: The Mollusks

                                                                Class Gastropoda: The Snails and Their Allies

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

Subphylum Chelicerata: The Spiders and Their Allies

Class Arachnida: The Harvestmen, Mites, Pseudoscorpions, Scorpions,

Spiders and Ticks

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

                                Class Insecta: The Insects

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Amphibia: The Amphibians

Class Aves: The Birds

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

Class Osteichthyes: The Bony Fishes

Class Reptilia: The Reptiles

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

LISTING AREA NOTES

 

 

Location

 

This listing area is located in western Pima County in south-central Arizona. The Community of Lukeville is located on the border on the south side of the monument. The monument is bordered on the south by the Country of Mexico, on the east by the Tohono O’odham Nation and on the west by the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.

 

Historic Ranching Activities: Named historic ranches, line camps and stock tanks include the Dos Lomitas Ranch, the Gachado Line Camp, and the Cement Tank, Diablo Tank and the Wild Horse Tank.

 

Historic Mining Activities: Named historic mines include the Baker Mine, Copper Mountain Mine, Golden Bell Mine, Lost Cabin Mine, Martinez Mine, Milton Mine and the Victoria Mine.

 

Named wells include the Acuna Well, Armenta Well, Bates Well, Blankenship Well, Bonita Well, Cipriano Well (Dry), Daniels Well, Gachado Well, Hocker Well, Pozo Nuevo and the Red Tanks Well.

 

 

Landmarks

 

Named mountains, peaks, canyons, passes and hills include the Ajo Range, Alamo Canyon, Alamo Canyon - Middle Fork, Alamo Canyon - North Fork, Alamo Canyon - South Fork, Ali Wua Pass, Arch Canyon, Bates Mountains, Boulder Canyon, Canyon Diablo, Cerro Blanco, Cipriana Hills (2,605 feet), Cipriano Pass, Diablo Mountains, Diaz Peak (4,024 feet), Diaz Spire (3,892 feet), Dos Lomitas, Estes Canyon, Grass Canyon, Growler Canyon, Growler Mountains (2,610 feet), Growler Pass, Kino Peak (3,197 feet), Gunsight Hills (2,642 feet), Kuakatch Pass, Mount Ajo (4,808 feet), Pinkley Peak (3,146 feet), Pitahaya Canyon, Puerto Blanco Mountains, Montezumas Head (3,634 feet), Quitobaquito Hills, Sierra de Santa Rosa, Slit Rock, Sonoyta Mountains, Sweetwater Pass, Tillotson Peak (3,374 feet) and the Twin Peaks (2,615 feet).

 

Named valleys, plains and basins include the Bull Pasture, Growler Valley, La Abra Plain, Senita Basin, Sonoyta Valley and the Valley of the Ajo. 

 

Named springs include the Aguajita Spring, Bull Pasture Spring, Burro Spring, Dripping Springs, Quitobaquito Springs and the Williams Spring.

 

Named washes include the Aguajita Wash, Alamo Wash, Cherioni Wash, Cuerda de Lena, Growler Wash, Kuakatch Wash and the San Cristobal Wash.

 

 

Elevation

 

Elevations range from approximately 975 feet in an unnamed wash located on the international border southeast of the southwest corner and west of the Hocker Well to approximately 4,808 feet at Mount Ajo in the Ajo Range (1).

 

 

Physiographic Province

 

This listing area is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

 

Soils

 

Soils are described as hyperthermic (very hot) arid soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Gilman-Antho-Valencia Association (deep soils on floodplains and alluvial fans), Gunsight-Rillito-Harqua Association (deep, gravelly, calcareous soils on the upper slopes) and the Rock Outcrop-Lomitas-Cherioni Association (rock outcrops and very shallow, and shallow soils on low hills and mountains) with isolated areas of Rock Outcrop and shallow soils (3).

 

 

Biotic Community

 

Portions of this listing area are located within the Lower Colorado River and Arizona Upland Subdivisions of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Ecological Formation, Scrub-Grassland (Semidesert Grassland) Regional Formation of the Grassland Formation and Interior Chaparral of the Scrub Formation with associated Wetland Ecological Formations (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Western Pima County, Arizona, Including the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument and Adjacent Townships

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS LISTING AREA THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs

(over 7 feet in height)

 

Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii), Gray Oak (Quercus grisea), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Goodding Willow (Salix gooddingii), Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis laevigata var. reticulata), Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Ajo Mountain Scrub Oak (Quercus ajoensis), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Screwbean Mesquite (Prosopis pubescens), Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Sonoran Rosewood (Vauquelinia californica subsp. sonorensis), Smoketree (Psorothamnus spinosus), Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Beechleaf Frangula (Frangula betulifolia var. betulifolia), Organpipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis subsp. arcuata), Desert Olive (Forestiera shrevei), Scrub Live Oak (Quercus turbinella), Arizona Mimosa (Mimosa distachya var. laxiflora), Bitter Snakewood (Condalia globosa var. pubescens), Baby Bonnets (Coursetia glandulosa), Desert Hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Redberry Juniper (Juniperus coahuilensis), Senita (Pachycereus schottii), Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi), Redberry Buckthorn (Rhamnus ilicifolia), Hop Bush (Dodonaea viscosa), Staghorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia versicolor), Ashy Limberbush (Jatropha cinerea), Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Emory Crucifixion Thorn (Castela emoryi), Quail-brush (Atriplex lentiformis), Baja Desert-thorn (Lycium brevipes), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), Cane Cholla (Cylindropuntia spinosior), Anderson Lycium (Lycium andersonii var. andersonii), Arizona Desert-thorn (Lycium exsertum), Fremont Desert-thorn (Lycium fremontii), Desert Wolfberry (Lycium macrodon), Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), Rush Milkweed (Asclepias subulata), Eastwood Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus cylindraceus var. eastwoodiae), Pencil Cholla (Cylindropuntia arbuscula), Harrison’s Barbery (Berberis harrisoniana), Teddybear Cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii), Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens var. canescens), Narrowleaf Saltbush (Atriplex canescens var. linearis), Shrubby Limberbush (Jatropha cuneata), Berlandier Wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri var. longistylum), Desert Honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi), Ragged Rockflower (Crossosoma bigelovii), Snapdragon Penstemon (Keckiella antirrhinoides subsp. microphylla), Colorado Buckhorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis) and Red-spined Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus emoryi).

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Drummond Clematis (Clematis drummondii), Fingerleaf Gourd (Cucurbita digitata), Hartweg Twinevine (Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum), Pipevine Flower (Aristolochia watsoni), Slender Janusia (Janusia gracilis), Scarlet Creeper (Ipomoea cristulata), Tumamoc Globeberry (Tumamoca macdougalii), Pringle’s Clustervine (Jacquemontia pringlei), Bloodberry Rougeplant (Rivina humilis) and Texas Snoutbean (Rhynchosia senna).

 

 

Shrubs and Large Grasses

(2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Bamboo Muhly (Muhlenbergia dumosa), Arizona Yucca (Yucca baccata var. brevifolia), Wright Beebrush (Aloysia wrightii), Bear Grass (Nolina microcarpa), Red Barberry (Mahonia haematocarpa), Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia chlorotica), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Sprawling Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia phaeacantha), Desert Saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa), Chuparosa (Justicia californica), Rock Gooseberry (Ribes quercetorum), Thurber Sandpaper Plant (Petalonyx thurberi subsp. thurberi), Limberbush (Jatropha cardiophylla), Green Brittlebush (Encelia frutescens var. frutescens), Rough Jointfir (Ephedra aspera), Rock Sage (Salvia pinguifolia), Prairie Acacia (Acacia angustissima var. suffructescens), Major Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major), Diamond Cholla (Cylindropuntia ramosissima), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa), Pineneedle Milkweed (Asclepias linaria), Deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens), Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta), Arizona Cootontop (Digitaria californica), Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla var. eriophylla), Desert Hibiscus (Hibiscus coulteri), Cane Beardgrass (Bothriochloa barbinodis), Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia), Parry Penstemon (Penstemon parryi), Alkali Sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), American Threefold (Trixis californica), Big Galleta (Pleuraphis rigida), Desert Globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. ambigua), Caliche Globemallow (Sphaeralcea laxa), Desert Christmas Caholla (Cylindropuntia  leptocaulis), California Desert-thorn (Lycium californicum), Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus), Yellow Monkey Flower (Mimulus guttatus), Hummingbird Trumpet (Epilobium canum subsp. latifoliium), Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra), Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus), Blue Toadflax (Nuttallanthus texanus), Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri), Sideoats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Wright Buckwheat (Eriogonum wrightii), White Ratany (Krameria grayi), Flat-top Buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium), White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea), Violet Ruellia (Ruellia nudiflora),  Cooper Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi), Nichol’s Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus nicholii) and Arizona Cockroach Plant (Haplophyton crooksii).

 

 

Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus), Dahlia-rooted Cereus (Peniocereus striatus), Parish Larkspur (Delphinium parishii var. parishii), Desert Lily (Hesperocallis undulata), Western Wallflower (Erysimum capitatum), Chaparral Nightshade (Solanum xanti), Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii), California Caltrop (Kallstroemia californica), California Suncup (Camissonia californica), Bare-stem Larkspur (Delphinium scaposum), Prairie Flax (Linum lewisii), Covena (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum), Parry False Prairie-clover (Marina parryi), San Filipe Dogweed (Adenophyllum porophylloides), Woolly Paintbrush (Castilleja lanata), Mexican Gold Poppy (Eschscholzia californica subsp. mexicana), Desert Senna (Senna covesii), Desert Four O’Clock (Mirabilis multiflora), Arizona Lupine (Lupinus arizonicus), Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata), Woolly Desert Marigold (Baileya pleniradiata), Catchfly Prairie Gentian (Eustoma exaltatum), Desert Agave (Agave deserti subsp. simplex), Desert Verbena (Glandularia gooddingii), Desert Mariposa (Calochortus kennedyi), Schott Agave (Agave schottii var. schottii), Claret-cup Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus polyacanthus), Small-flowered Verbena (Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida), Rothrock Grama (Bouteloua rothrockii), Santa Rita Snakeroot (Ageratina paupercula), Desert Windlflower (Anemone tuberosa), Common Owl’s Clover (Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta), Orange Flame Flower (Phemeranthus aurantiacus), Mojave Lupine (Lupinus sparsiflorus subsp. mojavensis), Yellow Spiny Daisey (Machaeranthera gracilis), Orange Caltrop (Kallstroemia grandiflora), Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa), Hispid Nama (Nama hispidum), Desert Devil’s-claw (Proboscidea althaeifolia), Desert Holly (Acourtia nana), Thornber Clustered Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria thornberi), San Francisco Leatherpetal (Graptopetalum rusbyi), Woody Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens), Largeflower Onion (Allium macropetalum), Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii var. acicularis), Firehair Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. belenidium), Mesa Tansyaster (Machaeranthera tagetina), Lacy Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii), Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii), Corky-seed Fishhook (Mammillaria tetrancistra), Arizona Blue Eyes (Evolvulus alsinoides var. angustifolius), Desert Evening-primrose (Camissonia chamaenerioides), Arizona Foldwing (Dicliptera resupinata), Spreading Fanpetals (Sida abutifolia), Desert Fluff Grass (Dasyochloa pulchella), Yellow Desert Evening-primrose (Oenothera primiveris) and Arizona Liveforever (Dudleya pulverulenta).

 

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TOHONO CHUL PARK GREENHOUSE

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The TOHONO CHUL PARK GREENHOUSE offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo  del Norte, , Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415,  Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234, russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Organ Pipe Cactus

National Monument is available at the Visitor Center for $2.50 (April 1998)

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

 

Division Lycopodiophyta: The Lycopods

 

 

 

CLASS LYCOPODIOPSIDA: The CLUBMOSSES, FIRMOSSES

and SPIKEMOSSES

 

 

Family Selaginellaceae: The Spike-moss Family

 

Selaginella arizonica W.R. Maxon (5): Arizona Selaginella, Arizona Spikemoss, Desert Spike-moss, Flor de Piedra (terrestrial perennial herb (½ to 1½ inches in forb/height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky ledges, cliffs and soil pockets on bedrock, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 51, 77*

 

Selaginella eremophila W.R. Maxon: Desert Selaginella, Desert Spikemoss, Flor de Piedra (terrestrial perennial herb (1/2 inch in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, hills, rocky slopes and rock crevices, occurring from 1,200 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 51*

 

 

 

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

 

 

 

CLASS FILICOPSIDA: The FERNS

 

 

Family Pteridaceae: The Maidenhair Fern Family

 

Argyrochosma limitanea (W.R. Maxon) M.D. Windham subsp. limitanea (Notholaena limitanea W.R. Maxon, Pellaea limitanea (W.R. Maxon) J.S. Morton) (5): Border Cloak Fern, Kalawala (Tarahumara), Southwestern False Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/ herb (fronds are 2 to 10 inches in length) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, crevices, ledges, hillsides and bases of boulders, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 46, 51*

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. cochisensis (Notholaena cochisensis L.N. Goodding, Notholaena sinuata (O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) C.A. Weatherby): Cloak Fern, Cochise’s Cloak Fern, Cochise Scaly Cloakfern, Helechillo, Jimmyfern, Narrow Cloakfern, Scaly Star Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 11½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky ledges, on boulders and among rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 51, 77, 80*

 

Astrolepis sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. sinuata (Notholaena sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss): Bulb Cloakfern Canaguala (Hispanic), Helecho (Hispanic), Kalawala (Tarahumara), Wavy Cloak Fern, Wavy Scaly Cloakfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 4½ to 22 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among rocks, crevices and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 46, 51, 58, 77, 108*

 

Bommeria hispida (G.H. Mettenius ex F.A. Kuhn) L.M. Underwood: Copper Fern, Hairy Bommeria (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2 to 12½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, canyons and rocky canyon walls, shaded cliffs, hilltops, rocky hillsides, dry rocky slopes, rocky ledges, rocky outcrops, in the shelter of boulders and rocks, crevices, springs, moist crevices along streams and below falls, washes, stock tanks, riparian areas, forest litter and moist, rich and sandy soils, occurring from 2,300 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 51, 63 (090506), 85 (090506)*

 

Cheilanthes lindheimeri W.J. Hooker: Canaguala, Fairy Sword, Fairyswords, Hierba de la Pena, Kalawala, Lindheimer Lip Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 13½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, crevices on cliffs, talus slopes, dry rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders and rocks and crevices, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 51, 58, 77, 108*

 

Cheilanthes parryi D.C. Eaton (Notholaena parryi (D.C. Eaton) K. Domin): Parry’s Cloak Fern, Parry’s Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountain sides, mesas, canyons and canyon walls, hillsides, rock crevices, among boulders and rocks, rocky slopes and rocky draws, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 51, 77*

 

Cheilanthes standleyi (see Notholaena standleyi) 

 

Cheilanthes villosa G.E. Davenport ex W.R. Maxon: Hairy Lipfern, Villous Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 14 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky cliffs, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, talus slopes, ledges, rocky outcrops, among boulders, rocky crevices, occurring from 2,000 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 51, 63 (090506), 85 (090506)*

 

Cheilanthes wrightii W.J. Hooker: Wright Lipfern, Wright’s Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2 to 8½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, crevices on cliffs and rocky slopes, ledges, talus slopes, soil pockets on rocky outcrops, among rocks and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 51, 58, 77*

 

Cheilanthes yavapensis R.G. Reeves ex M.D. Windham: Graceful Lipfern, Yavapai Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyon walls, rocky slopes, boulder outcrops, rocky hillsides, crevices and rocky draws, occurring from 2,600 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 77, 85*

 

Notholaena californica D.C. Eaton subsp. californica: California Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, hills, rocky slopes and among rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 51*

 

Notholaena cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis) 

 

Notholaena limitanea (see Argyrochosma limitanea subsp. limitanea)

 

Notholaena parryi (see Cheilanthes parryi) 

 

Notholaena sinuata (see Astrolepis sinuata subsp. sinuata)

 

Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)  

 

Notholaena standleyi W.R. Maxon (Cheilanthes standleyi W.R. Maxon): Standley Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2½ to 13 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, crevices on cliffs, rocky slopes and in shaded areas among boulders and rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 16, 46, 51, 58*

 

Pellaea limitanea (see Argyrochosma limitanea subsp. limitanea) 

 

Pellaea longimucronata (see Pellaea truncata) 

 

Pellaea truncata L.N. Goodding (Pellaea longimucronata W.J. Hooker): Spiny Cliffbrake (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 4½ to 16½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from crevices on cliffs and rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 (to 8,000?) feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 51, 77, 108*

 

Pentagramma triangularis (G.F. Kaulfuss) G.A. Yatskievych, M.D. Windham & E. Wollenweber subsp. maxonii (C.A. Weatherby) G.A. Yatskievych, M.D. Windham & E. Wollenweber (Ptyrogramma triangularis G.F. Kaulfuss var. maxonii C.A. Weatherby): Goldback Fern, Goldfern, Maxon’s Goldback Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 15½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rock ledges, crevices and among boulders, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 51, 108*

 

Ptyrogramma triangularis var. maxonii (see Pentagramma triangularis subsp. maxonii) 

 

 

 

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

 

Division Coniferophyta: The Conifers

 

 

 

CLASS PINOPSIDA: The CONIFERS

 

 

Family Cupressaceae: The Cypress Family

 

Juniperus coahuilensis (M. Martinez) H.M. Gaussen ex R.P. Adams (Juniperus erythrocarpa V.L. Cory subsp. coahuilensis M. Martinez, several populations in southern Arizona have been referred to as Juniperus monosperma (G. Engelmann) C.S. Sargent) (5): Coahuila Juniper, Redberry Juniper (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (to16 feet in height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, foothills, rocky hillsides, slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,800 to 6,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46 (gen.), 68, 80, 108 (recorded as Juniperus monosperma)*

 

Juniperus erythrocarpa subsp. coahuilensis (see Juniperus coahuilensis) 

 

Juniperus monosperma (see note under Juniperus coahuilensis)

 

Juniperus osteosperma (J. Torrey) E.L. Little: Cedro, Sabina, Shaggy Bark Juniper, Junipero (Hispanic), Utah Juniper, Western Juniper (terrestrial perennial evergreen tree (10 to 40 feet in height and 10 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, rocky hills, dry plains and rocky soils, occurring from 3,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Birds and mammals feed on the berries. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 30, 46, 48, 52, 53, 63 (062706), 68, 80, 108 (possibly a misidentified Juniperus coahuilensis, generally the Utah Juniper is not found in the southern part of Arizona)*

 

 

 

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

 

 

 

CLASS GNETOPSIDA: The GNETOPS

 

 

Family Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra aspera G. Engelmann ex S. Watson (Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson var. aspera (G. Engelmann) L. Benson) (5): Boundary Ephedra, Canatillo, Canutillo, Mormon Tea, Nevada Ephedra, Nevada Joint-fir, Pitamo Real, Popotillo, Rough Jointfir, Sanguinaria, Tepopote (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (3 to 5 feet in height and 3 to 5 feet in width) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife, food plant of the Bighorn Sheep. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 46, 48, 77, 91, 108*

 

Ephedra nevadensis var. aspera (see Ephedra aspera)

 

Ephedra trifurca J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Canatilla, Canitilla, Desert Ephedra, Desert Joint-fir, Itama Real, Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Joint-fir, Mexican Tea, Mormon Tea, Popotilla, Popotillo, Tepopote, Teposote (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 15 feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, sand hills, dunes, and along sandy washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is valuable in binding soils. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 91, 108*

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Family Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave x ajoensis W.C. Hodgson (the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument population has been reported as being a population of Agave schottii var. treleasei) (5): Ajo Agave (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (7 to 16 inches in height with a flowering stem reaching 8 to 12 feet in height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, ledges, rocky outcrops, swales and basins, occurring from 2,900 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) is reported to be a pollinator of the Schott Agave and may be a pollinator of the Ajo Agave. *5, 6, 8, 9, 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Agave deserti G. Engelmann subsp. simplex H.S. Gentry: Agave, Amul, Desert Agave, Desert Century Plant, Single-rosette Desert Agave, Mescal (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height and 16 to 32 inches in diameter with a flowering stem reaching to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas, outcrops and sandy flats, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 17, 24, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 91*

 

Agave schottii G. Engelmann var. schottii: Agave, Amole, Amolillo, Schott Agave, Schott’s Century Plant, Shin Dagger, Shin Digger (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (8 to 16 inches and 14 inches in diameter with a flowering stem reaching 6 to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock outcrops and bajadas, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers are visited by bees, hummingbirds and wasps. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) is reported to be a pollinator of the Schott Agave. *5, 6, 13, 15, 17, 24 (sp.), 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 108*

 

Agave schottii var. treleasei (see note included with Agave x ajoensis)

 

Yucca arizonica (see Yucca baccata var. brevifolia)

 

Yucca baccata J. Torrey var. brevifolia (H.W. Schott ex J. Torrey) L. Benson & R.A. Darrow (Yucca arizonica S.A. McKelvey, Yucca thornberi S.A. McKelvey): Arizona Yucca, Banana Yucca, Blue Yucca, Datil, Palma Criolla, Spanish Dagger, Thornber Yucca (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (under 7 feet in height with a flowering stalk reaching to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, slopes, foothills, hills, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos, occurring from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24 (sp.), 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91, 108 (sp.)*

 

Yucca thornberi (see Yucca baccata var. brevifolia)

 

 

Family Commelinaceae: The Spiderwort Family

 

Commelina erecta C. Linnaeus: Erect Dayflower, Herba del Pollo (Hispanic - Herb of the (cooked) Chicken), Hierba del Pollo (Hispanic), Matlali (Hispanic), Matlalina (Hispanic), Narrowleaf Dayflower, Small-bracted Dayflower, Tripa de Gallina (Hispanic), Whitemouth Dayflower, Widow’s Tears (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 foot in height and 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, among rocks, rock crevices, dunes, flats, benches, coastal plains, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 6,900 feet in  elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland  ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 30, 46, 58, 63 (090506), 85 (090506), 86*

 

 

Family Cyperaceae: The Sedge Family

 

Cyperus aristatus (see Cyperus squarrosus)  

 

Cyperus laevigatus (C. Linnaeus): Smooth Flatsedge, Smooth Nutsedge (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, meadows, plains, sandy flats, springs, brooks, streambeds, riverbeds, borders of pools and ponds and wet and moist gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85, 108*

 

Cyperus mutisii (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach (Cyperus pringlei N.L. Britton): Mutis’ Flatsedge (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyon bottoms, gravelly hillsides, gravelly slopes, among boulders, along streams and washes, arroyos, riparian areas and damp sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 63 (090506), 85 (090506)*

 

Cyperus odoratus C. Linnaeus: Fragrant Flatsedge, Large Head Flat Sedge, Rusty Flat Sedge (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from stream banks and wet soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 58*

 

Cyperus pringlei (see Cyperus mutisii)  

 

Cyperus squarrosus C. Linnaeus: (Cyperus aristatus C.F. Rottboll). Awned Cyperus, Awned Flat Sedge, Bearded Flatsedge, Dwarf Sedge, Umbrella Sedge (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes and wet and moist ground, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Eleocharis caribaea (see Eleocharis geniculata)

 

Eleocharis geniculata (C. Linnaeus) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes (Eleocharis caribaea (C.F. Rottboll) J. Blake): Canada Spikesedge (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hills, springs, rocky and gravelly washes, along arroyos, streams, creeks and riverbeds, edges of lakes, riparian areas and wet and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85*

 

Eleocharis rostellata (J. Torrey) J. Torrey: Beaked Spikerush, Beaked Spikesedge (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from meadows, seeps, springs, along arroyos and creeks, floodplains, cienegas, swampy areas, edges of ponds, lake sides, riparian areas and moist sands, gravelly loam, and wet and marshy soils, occurring below 6,100 feet in elevation in wetlands ecological formations within the forest, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85*

 

Schoenoplectus americanus (C.H. Persoon) R. Volk ex H. Schinz & R. Keller (Scirpus americanus C.H. Persoon, Scirpus olneyi A. Gray): American Bulrush, Chairmaker’s Bulrush, Olney Bulrush, Schoenoplectus (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, seeps, springs, streambeds, along rivers, bogs, marshes, edges of pools and lakes, saline marshes, riparian areas and wet, moist and sandy soils, occurring below 6,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (062706), 85, 108*

 

Scirpus americanus (see Schoenoplectus americanus)

 

Scirpus olneyi (see Schoenoplectus americanus)

 

 

Family Iridaceae: The Iris Family

 

Sisyrinchium demissum E.L. Greene: Blue-eyed Grass, Blue Star Grass, Dwarf Blue-eyed Grass, Stiff Blue-eyed Grass (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, meadows, hillsides, seeps, springs, draws, along washes and streams, wet meadows, cienegas, pools and moist and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,800 to 10,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 85*

 

 

Family Juncaceae: The Rush Family

 

Juncus arcticus var. mexicanus (see Juncus mexicanus)

 

Juncus bufonius C. Linnaeus: Toad Rush (terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, wet meadows, seeps, springs, along stream and river banks, streambeds, around ponds and lakes, riparian areas, dried up pools and wet, moist and damp soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 80, 85, 101*

 

Juncus cooperi G. Engelmann: Cooper’s Rush (terrestrial perennial graminoid (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, flats, salt ponds, water holes and wet soils, occurring below 1,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 80, 85*

 

Juncus mexicanus C.L. von Wildenow ex J.H. & J.A. Schultes (Juncus arcticus C.L. von Wildenow var. mexicanus (C.L. von Wildenow ex J.J. Roemer) H. Balslev): Mexican Rush (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, meadows, seeps, springs, along washes, gullies, stream, creek and river banks, cienegas, marshy areas, bogs, stock tanks, around lakes and wet, moist and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,100 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 80*

 

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Allium macropetalum P.A. Rydberg: Arizona Onion, Cebollin, Desert Onion, Largeflower Onion, Large-petal Onion, Wild Onion (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, among rocks, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and heavy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Calochortus kennedyi T.C. Porter: Desert Mariposa, Desert Mariposa Lily, Desert Mariposa Tulip, Mariposa Lily, Red Mariposa Lily (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas and flats, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 30 inches in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Dichelostemma pulchellum var. pauciflorum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum)

 

Hesperocallis undulata A. Gray: Ajo, Ajo Lily, Ajo Sylvestre, Desert Lily, Hesperocallis (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, plains, flats, valleys, sand dunes, washes and fine sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 86, 108*

 

Nolina microcarpa S. Watson: Beargrass, Palmilla, Sacahuista, Small-seed Nolina, Sotol Chiquito (terrestrial perennial evergreen graminoid, subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height and 6 feet in width with a flowering spike reaching to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rock outcrops, hills, gravelly and sandy slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, valleys and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 3,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 24, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 80*

 

Zephyranthes longifolia W.B. Hemsley: Copper Zephyrlily, Rain Lily (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, hills, gravelly hillsides, rocky and sandy flats, sandy washes, creekbeds and pockets of soil in rocky outcrops, occurring from 4,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77, 80, 85, 86*

 

 

Family Najadaceae: The Waternymph Family

 

Najas major (see Najas marina) 

 

Najas marina C. Linnaeus (Najas major C. Linnaeus): Holly-leaf Water Naiad, Holly-leaf Waternymph, Holly-leaved Water Nymph, Spiny Naiad (aquatic annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from ponds and lakes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Achnatherum speciosum (C.B. von Trinius & F.J. Ruprecht) M.E. Barkworth (Stipa speciosa (C.B. von Trinius & F.J. Ruprecht) M.E. Barkworth): Desert Needlegrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rocky hills and plains, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24 (Stipa speciosa Trinius & Ruprecht var. specisoa), 33, 46, 48, 77*

 

Agrostis semiverticillata (see Polypogon viridis)

 

Andropogon barbinodis (see Bothriochloa barbinodis)

 

Aristida adscensionis C. Linnaeus: Sixweeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Three-awn Grass, Zacate Cola de Zorra, Zacate Tres Barbas (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77, 105*

 

Aristida californica G. Thurber ex S. Watson var. glabrata G. Vasey (Aristida glabrata (G. Vasey) A.S. Hitchcock): Santa Rita Threeawn (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, mesas, foothills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 48, 105*

 

Aristida glabrata (see Aristida californica var. glabrata)

 

Aristida glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)  

 

Aristida hamulosa (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)

 

Aristida parishii (see Aristida purpurea var. parishii)

 

Aristida purpurea var. glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. nealleyi (G. Vasey) K.W. Allred (Aristida glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) W.G. Walpers, Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Holmgren & N. Holmgren): Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and roadsides, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48 (sp.), 77*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. parishii (A.S. Hitchcock) K.W. Allred (Aristida parishii A.S. Hitchcock): Parish’s Threeawn, Threeawn (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been range reported from rocky slopes, hills and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48 (sp.), 77*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. purpurea: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation). *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48 (sp.), 77, 105*

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. gentilis (J.S. Henrickson) K.W. Allred (Aristida hamulosa J.S. Henrickson): Hook Threeawn, Mesa Threeawn, Poverty Threeawn, Spidergrass, Threeawn, Zacate Arana de Tres (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46 , 58, 77*

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. ternipes: Spidergrass, Zacate Arana (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46*

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Flaxgrass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat (terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, roadsides, along washes, low-lying areas and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,250 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo, Zacatón (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Pasto Cabra (Hispanic), Six-weeks Needle Grama, Tochite (Hispanic), Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes and streambeds, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. barbata [superfluous autonym]): Navajita Annual, Sixweeks Grama, Zacate Liebrero (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata var. barbata (see Bouteloua barbata) 

 

Bouteloua barbata var. rothrockii (see Bouteloua rothrockii) 

 

Bouteloua curtipendula (A. Michaux) J. Torrey: Avenilla (Hispanic), Banderilla (Hispanic), Banderita (Hispanic), Grama del Cerro (Hispanic), Navajita Banderilla, Sideoats Grama, Uitsaku Juatarhu (Purépecha) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (15 to 30 inches in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes and hills, occurring from 1,800 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 24, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 82, 105*

 

Bouteloua filiformis (see Bouteloua repens)

 

Bouteloua repens (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill (Bouteloua filiformis (E.P. Fournier) D. Griffiths): Navajta Rastrera, Large Mesquite Grama, Slender Grama, Zacate Sabanilla (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, rocky and dry gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Bouteloua rothrockii G. Vasey (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. rothrockii (G. Vasey) F.W. Gould): Navajita Liebrero, Rothrock’s Grama (terrestrial perennial graminoid (10 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 2,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Bouteloua trifida G. Thurber: China, Navajita, Navajita Roja, Red Grama, Three-awn Grama (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky and sandy slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 77*

 

Brachiaria arizonica (see Urochloa arizonica)  

 

Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott: Arizona Brome, Basiawari (Hispanic), Basicuáare (Hispanic), Bromo de California (Hispanic), California Brome, Camaloti (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Masiyague (Hispanic), Mountain Brome, Pipillo (Hispanic), Pipilo (Hispanic), Tigrillo (Hispanic), Tupikua (Purépecha), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bromo (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial graminoid (16 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, moist meadows, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, near ponds and damp soils, occurring from 2,200 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 33, 46, 58, 77, 80, 101*

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 105*

 

Cenchrus echinatus C. Linnaeus: Burgrass, Cadillo (Hispanic), Ch’ohool (Hispanic), Common Sandbur, Field Sandbur, Huizapol (Hispanic), K´iith (Hispanic), K´iith Toom (Hispanic), Konpeito-gusa, Ojo de Arriera (Hispanic), Ojo de Hormiga (Hispanic), Sandbur, Se Mbulabula, Southern Sandbur, T´oxol (Hispanic), Vao Tui Tui, Zacate de Abrojo (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 36 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand dunes, roadsides, strands, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,300 to 2,500 (one record from 6,600 feet in conifer forest) feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) The barbed spines of the burs are painful to humans beings and animals, sometimes causing inflammation and infection. *5, 6, 24, 30, 33, 46, 68*

 

Chloris crinita M. Lagasca y Segura (Trichloris crinita (M. Lagasca y Segura) L.R. Parodi, Trichloris mendocina (R.A. Philippi) F. Kurtz): False Rhodes Grass, Feather Fingergrass, Multiflowered Chloris (terrestrial perennial graminoid (24 to 44 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, hills, plains and flats, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 58*

 

Chloris elegans (see Chloris virgata) 

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz (Chloris elegans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Barbas de Indio (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra, Feather Fingergrass, Plumerito (Hispanic), Showy Chloris, Verdillo (Hispanic), Zacate de Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Zacate Lagunero (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds, ditches, swales, waste places, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 30, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Cottea pappophoroides K.S. Kunth:  Cotta Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77*

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Acabacahuiztle (Hispanic), Acacahuitzli (Nahuatl), Bermudagrass, Bramilla (Hispanic), Canzuuc (Maya), Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Gallitos (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Grama de la Costa (Hispanic), Gramilla (Hispanic), Grana (Hispanic), Guix-biguiñi (Zapoteco), Lan-suuk (Maya), Pasto Bermuda (Hispanic), Pasto Estrella (Hispanic), Pata de Gallo (Hispanic), Pata de Perdiz (Hispanic), Pata de Pollo (Hispanic), Tsakam Toom (Hispanic), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bermuda (Hispanic), Zacate Borrego (Hispanic), Zacate Chino (Hispanic), Zacate del Conejo (Hispanic), Zacate Inglés (Hispanic), Zacate Pilillo (Hispanic), Zaruue (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (low-growing sodgrass); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes and banks of washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 22, 24 (recorded as Cynodon dactylon (Linnaeus) Persoon var. dactylon), 30, 33, 46, 58, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 80, 101, 105, 109*

 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. von Wildenow: Crowfootgrass, Durban Crowfootgrass, Egyptian Grass, Egyptian Crowfootgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, plains, roadsides, sandy washes, along streams, riverbeds, floodplains, coastal plains, disturbed areas and gravelly soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46*

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (3 to 6 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring  below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77, 105*

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene (Distichlis spicata (C. Linnaeus) E.L. Greene var. stricta (J. Torrey) A.A. Beetle, Distichlis stricta (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene): Coastal Saltgrass, Desert Saltgrass, Inland Saltgrass, Marsh Spikegrass, Saltgrass, Seashore Saltgrass, Spicate Saltgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, alkali flats, streambeds and wet, moist and alkaline soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48, 68, 101, 105, 108*

 

Distichlis spicata var. stricta (see Distichlis spicata)

 

Distichlis stricta (see Distichlis spicata)

 

Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link): Arroz del Monte (Hispanic), Junglegrass, Jungle Rice, Jungle Ricegrass, Leopard Grass, Watergrass, Zacate Pinto, Zacate Rayado, Zacate Tigre (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, swales, streambeds, ditch banks, muddy shores, disturbed areas and moist, damp and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 30, 33, 46, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 101*

 

Echinochloa colona var. zonale (see Echinochloa colona) 

 

Echinocloa colonum (see Echinochloa colona)

 

Echinocloa colonum var. zonale (see Echinochloa colona) 

 

Elymus elymoides (C.S. Rafinesque) G.D. Swezey (Sitanion hystrix (T. Nuttall) J.G. Smith): Alkali Rye, Beardless Wild Rye, Bottlebrush Squirreltail, Creeping Wild Rye, Squaw Grass, Squirreltail (terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, dry rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, meadows, gravelly flats, sand dunes, floodplains and bottomlands, occurring from 2,000 to 11,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77*

 

Enneapogon desvauxii A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Feather Pappusgrass, Nineawn Pappusgrass, Spike Pappusgrass, Wright Pappusgrass, Zacate Ladera, Zacate Lobero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 15, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77, 105*

 

Eragrostis cilianensis (C. Allioni) F. Vignolo-Lutati ex E.E. Janchen (Eragrostis megastachya (G.L. Koeler) J.H. Link: Amoresco (Hispanic), Candygrass, Lovegrass, Stinkgrass, Stinking Lovegrass, Strong-scented Lovegrass, Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Borreguero (Hispanic), Zacate de Amor Hediondo (Hispanic), Zacate Estepario (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, stream beds, bottomlands, waste places, disturbed areas and damp and gravelly soils; occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 30, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial graminoid (18 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas in woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77, 105*

 

Eragrostis lugens C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Amorseco Llorón (Hispanic), Chuchun-arimbicua (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Jiuatsiri eh' Eti (Purépecha), Mourning Lovegrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (8 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, among boulders, valleys, flood plains and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 7,300 feet in elevation in the forest and woodland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 30, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Eragrostis megastachya (see Eragrostis cilianensis) 

 

Eriochloa acuminata (J.S. Presl): K.S. Kunth var. acuminata (Eriochloa gracilis (E.P. Fournier) A.S. Hitchcock, Eriochloa lemmoni G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner var. gracilis (E.P. Fournier) F.W. Gould): Cupgrass, Southwestern Cupgrass, Tapertip Cupgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 2,600 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101*

 

Eriochloa aristata G. Vasey: Bearded Cupgrass, Zacate Taza Aristida (terrestrial annual graminoid (20 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, swales, roadsides, sandy washes, along streams, streambeds, riparian areas and damps and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,400 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46*

 

Eriochloa gracilis (see Eriochloa acuminata var. acuminata)

 

Eriochloa lemmoni var. gracilis (see Eriochloa acuminata var. acuminata)

 

Erioneuron pulchellum (see Dasyochloa pulchellah)

 

Festuca microstachys (see Vulpia microstachys var. microstachys)

 

Festuca octoflora (see Vulpia octoflora var. octoflora)

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Hilaria belangeri (E.G. von Steudel) G.V. Nash var. belangeri: Common Curlymesquite, Creeping Curly-mesquite, Curly Mesquite Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (to 1 foot in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 105*

 

Hilaria rigida (see Pleuraphis rigida) 

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus subsp. glaucum (E.G. von Steudel) N.N. Tzvelev (Hordeum stebbinsii G. Covas): Barley, Smooth Barley, Wild Barley (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, valleys, along washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Hordeum stebbinsii (see Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum)

 

Leptochloa dubia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Green Sprangletop, Texas Crowfoot (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, hills and along washes, occurring from 2,600 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48, 77, 105*

 

Leptochloa filiformis (see Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata)

 

Leptochloa fusca (C. Linnaeus) K.S. Kunth subsp. uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase (Leptochloa uninervia (J.S. Presl) A.S. Hitchcock & M.A. Chase): Mexican Sprangletop (terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along streams, ditch banks and moist waste places, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. brachiata E.G. von Steudel) N. Snow (Leptochloa filiformis (J.B. de Lamarck) A.M. Palisot de Beauvpis): Mucronate Sprangletop, Red Sprangletop (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, buttes, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and streams, stock tanks, playas, bosques, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist, rocky, gravelly, sandy, silty and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 85*

 

Leptochloa uninervia (see Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia)

 

Lycurus setosus (T. Nuttall) C.O. Reeder: Bristly Wolfstail (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from open mesas and rocky and gravelly slopes, occurring below 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 77*

 

Melica frutescens F.L. Scribner: Woody Melic, Woody Melicgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (5 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, dry hills and slopes, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46*

 

Muhlenbergia appressa C.O. Goodding: Devils Canyon Muhly, Spreading Littleseed Muhly (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons and sandy canyon bottoms, rock ledges, foothills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rock crevices, among boulders and rocks, swales, flats, along washes, creeks and streams and moist, gravelly, sandy, loam and clay soils, occurring from 1,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 85*

 

Muhlenbergia dumosa F.L. Scribner ex G. Vasey: Bamboo Muhly, Liendilla Abierta (Hispanic), Otatillo (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (32 to 84 inches height and 3 to 6 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mesas, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky cliffs, foothills, rocky hillsides, ledges, dry rocky slopes, valleys, ravines, along streams and streambeds, riparian areas and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiacus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 30, 33, 46, 82, 85*

 

Muhlenbergia emersleyi G. Vasey: Bullgrass, Cola de Zorra (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, among rocks, flats and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,600 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Muhlenbergia fragilis J.R. Swallen: Annual Muhly, Delicate Muhly (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyon bottoms, hillsides, dry rocky slopes, pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, terraces, valley flats, sandy washes, streambeds, along creeks, riparian areas and moist, rocky, gravelly, sandy and clay soils, occurring form 1,100 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 58, 85*

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Littleseed Muhly (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 30, 33, 46, 63 (083006), 77*

 

Muhlenbergia monticola (see Muhlenbergia tenuifolia) 

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Mesquitegrass, Zacate Aparejo (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height and 1½ to 3 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Muhlenbergia rigens (G. Bentham) A.S. Hitchcock: Deer Grass, Deergrass, Liendrilla de Venado (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 5 feet in height and 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from plateaus, canyons, rocky slopes, meadows, flats and along washes and stream beds, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornament. *5, 6, 15, 24, 18, 30, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Muhlenbergia tenuifolia (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.B. von Trinius (Muhlenbergia monticola S.B. Buckley): Mesa Muhly, Slimflower Muhly, Slender Muhly (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (8 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, cliffs, rocky hills, rocky slopes, ledges, rock crevices, among boulders, meadows, along washes and creeks, gulches, draws, riparian areas and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,600 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 63 (090706), 77, 85 (090706)*

 

Panicum antidotale A.J. Retzius: Blue Panic, Blue Panicgrass, Blue Panicum, Giant Panic Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (32 inches to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and rivers, arroyos, riparian forests, flood plains, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,300 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 58, 63 (090706), 80, 85 (090706), 105*

 

Panicum arizonicum (see Urochloa arizonica)

 

Panicum capillare var. hirticaule (see Panicum hirticaule var. hirticaule)

 

Panicum hallii G. Vasey (var. hallii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Hall’s Panic, Hall Panicum, Hall’s Panicum, Hall’s Panicgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (8 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky hills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders, prairies, sandy plains, along washes and gravelly clay, gravelly loam and heavy clay soils, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 63 (090706), 80 (gen.), 85 (090706), 105*

 

Panicum hirticaule J.S. Presl var. hirticaule (Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus var. hirticaule (J.S. Presl) F.W. Gould): Mexican Panicgrass, Roughstalk Witchgrass, Witchgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides, seeps,  along sandy washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 30 (sp.), 33, 46, 77, 80*

 

Panicum obtusum K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Grapevine Mesquite, Vine Mesquite, Vine Mesquite Grass, Wiregrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (8 to 32 inches in length, with runners up to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from swales, pastures, mud flats, rocky drainages and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is useful in binding soils and controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 105*

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Cenchrus ciliaris C. Linnaeus): African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Cadillo Buffel (Hispanic), Huizapol (Hispanic), Sandbur, Zacate Buffle (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (10 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,200 to 2,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22, 24, 30, 33, 46, 77*

 

Pennisetum ruppelii (see Pennisetum setaceum)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 77*

 

Phalaris minor A.J. Retzius: Alpisillo, Alpiste Silvestre, Littleseed Canarygrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 36 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, along washes, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 150 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 24, 33, 46, 77, 101*

 

Phragmites australis (A.J. Cavanilles) C.B. Trinius ex E.G. von Steudel (Phragmites communis C.B. Trinius): Common Reed, Giant Reed Grass, Reed Grass (terrestrial perennial graminoid subshrub or shrub (6½ to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, flats, springs, cienegas, marshes, along stream, creek and river banks, lake shores, riparian areas, irrigation canals and wet, moist, dry and sandy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 24, 30, 33, 46, 77, 85*

 

Phragmites communis (see Phragmites australis) 

 

Pleuraphis rigida G. Thurber (Hilaria rigida (G. Thurber) G. Bentham): Big Galleta, Galleta Grande, Tobosa (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1  to 4 feet in height and to 6 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, buttes, foothills, rocky hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and sandy plains, sand dunes, washes, depressions, disturbed areas and rocky sandy, gravelly sandy, sandy and heavy alluvial soils, occurring below 4,600 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48, 63 (081006), 80, 85 (081006) 105, 108*

 

Poa annua C. Linnaeus: Annual Bluegrass, Dwarf Meadowgrass, Low Speargrass, Walkgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, streambeds, ditch banks, cienegas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and damp soils, occurring from 500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Bluegrasses (Poa sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 80, 101*

 

Poa bigelovii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner: Bigelow’s Bluegrass, Zacate Azule Nativo (terrestrial annual or biennial graminoid (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bluegrasses (Poa sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Polypogon monspeliensis (C. Linnaeus) R.L. Desfontaines: Annual Beardgrass, Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass, Rabbit-foot Grass, Rabbitfoot Polypogon (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, streambeds, ditches, cienegas, waste places and wet, moist and damp soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101*

 

Polypogon viridis (A. Gouan) M.A. Breistroffer (Agrostis semiverticillata (P. Forsskal) C.F. Christensen): Beardless Rabbitsfoot Grass, Cola de Ardilla (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Cola de Zorrillo (Hispanic), Water Bent, Water Bentgrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, along streams, streambeds, lake shores and wet and damp soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 33, 46*

 

Schismus arabicus C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Arabiangrass, Arabian Schismus, Zacate Arabe (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 68, 77*

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Setaria grisebachii E.P. Fournier: Grisebach’s Bristlegrass, Ola de Zorra (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, pockets of soil in rocky outcrops, flats, along washes and streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77*

 

Setaria liebmanni E.P. Fournier: Bristlegrass, Liebmann’s Bristlegrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, rocky slopes, washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,600 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 33, 46, 77*

 

Setaria macrostachya (see Setaria vulpiseta) 

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 105*

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, low-lying areas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 6,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101, 105*

 

Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey: Alkali Sacaton, Sacaton, Zacaton, Zacaton Alcalino (terrestrial perennial graminoid (24 to 42 inches in height and 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, mesas, canyons, hills, rocky slopes, meadows, flats, sand hummocks, roadsides, springs, along sandy washes, bosques, floodplains, bottomlands, swampy areas, cienegas, edges of pools, playas, disturbed areas and moist, rocky, gravelly, clay and silty soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 24, 33, 46, 48, 77, 85, 105*

 

Sporobolus coromandelianus (see Sporobolus pyramidatus) 

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Covered-spike Dropseed, Sand Dropseed, Zacate de Arena (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, meadows, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, swales, roadsides, along washes, arroyos, draws, riverbeds, disturbed areas and moist and gravelly clay and sandy loam soils, occurring below 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 85, 105*

 

Sporobolus flexuosus (G. Thurber ex G. Vasey) P.A. Rydberg: Mesa Dropseed (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, rocky slopes, among boulders, plains, swales, dunes, roadsides, washes, river banks and beds and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 6,000 feet in elevation; useful as an ornamental in the woodland, scrub, grasslands, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 48, 85*

 

Sporobolus pulvinatus (see Sporobolus pyramidatus)

 

Sporobolus pyramidatus (J.B. de Lamark) A.S. Hitchcock (Sporobolus coromandelianus (A.J. Retzius) K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth [misapplied], Sporobolus pulvinatus J.R. Swallen,): Madagascar Dropseed, Whorled Dropseed (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (2 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy plains, sandy flats, dunes, swales, roadsides, coastal plains, springs, washes, arroyos, creeks, sandy floodplains, perennial ponds, playas, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 7,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 85*

 

Stipa speciosa (see Achnatherum speciosum)

 

Trichachne californica (see Digitaria californica)

 

Trichloris crinita (see Chloris crinita) 

 

Trichloris mendocina (see Chloris crinita)

 

Tridens eragrostoides (G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner) G.V. Nash: Lovegrass Tridens (terrestrial perennial graminoid (14 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, dry slopes, along washes and rocky loam and sandy soils, occurring from 2,600 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 77*

 

Tridens muticus (J. Torrey) G.V. Nash var. muticus: Slim Tridens, Tridente (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 48, 77, 105*

 

Tridens pulchellus (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

Triticum aestivum C. Linnaeus: Common Wheat, Cultivated Wheat, Wheat (terrestrial annual graminoid (24 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, plains, road sides, washes, streams, river banks and beds, riparian areas, disturbed areas and rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 600 to 8,700 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 58, 77, 80*

 

Urochloa arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) O. Morrone & F.O. Zuloaga (Brachiaria arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) S.T. Blake, Panicum arizonicum F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill): Arizona Panicgrass, Arizona Panicum, Arizona Signalgrass, Piojillo de Arizona (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy flats, roadsides, ephemeral seeps and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Vulpia microstachys (T. Nuttall) W. Munro var. microstachys: (Festuca microstachys T. Nuttall): Desert Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides, slopes, among rocks, roadsides, along creeks and riparian areas, occurring from 4,000 to 5,200 feet in elevation) *5, 6, 24, 33, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg (Festuca octoflora T. Walter): Sixweeks Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, soil pockets in rock outcrops, gravelly flats, streambeds and damp soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 33, 46, 58*

 

 

Family Potamogetonaceae: The Pondweed Family

 

Potamogeton pectinatus (see Stuckenia pectinatus)

 

Stuckenia pectinatus (C. Linnaeus) C.J. Börner (Potamogeton pectinatus C. Linnaeus): Sago Pondweed (aquatic perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, stock tanks, ponds, lakes and cienegas, occurring from 1,000 to 7,400 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

 

Family Ruppiaceae: The Ditch-grass Family

 

Ruppia cirrhosa (V. Petagna) L. Grande (Ruppia maritima C. Linnaeus): Beaked Witch-grass, Spiral Ditchgrass, Widgeon Grass (aquatic, semi-aquatic or terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from beach drifts, hot springs, esteros and in pools, ponds, lakes and bays, occurring below 2,800 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is browsed by ducks. *5, 6, 24, 85*

 

 

Family Typhaceae: The Cat-tail Family

 

Typha angustifolia (see note in Typha domingensis)

 

Typha domingensis C.H. Persoon (Arizona specimens historically referred to as Typha angustifolia C. Linnaeus): Narrow-leaf Cattail, Southern Cattail, Tule (semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb (4 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, along streams and streambeds, creeks and rivers, sloughs, pools, marshy areas, in shallow water, at the edges of lakes and ponds and moist soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 108*

 

 

Family Zannichelliaceae: The Horned-pondweed Family

 

Zannichellia palustris C. Linnaeus: Common Poolmat, Horned Pondweed, Horned Poolmat (aquatic perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, creeks, slow streams, rivers, marshes, ditches, cienegas, ponds, lakes and irrigation ditches, occurring in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 58*

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

 

 

Family Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Anisacanthus thurberi (J. Torrey) A. Gray (5): Anisacanthus, Chuparosa, Colegayo, Desert Honeysuckle, Thurber Anisacanthus, Thurber’s Desert-honeysuckle (terrestrial perennial cold deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyon bottoms and along gravelly and sandy washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife and the flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds. The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 91*

 

Beloperone californica (see Justicia californica)

 

Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Carlowrightia, Arizona Wrightwort, Lemilla, Rama de Toro, Wrightwort (terrestrial annual or perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been range reported from rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Dicliptera resupinata (M. H. Vahl) A. L. de Jussieu: Arizona Dicliptera, Arizona Foldwing, Dicliptera, Foldwing, Purple Drop, Twin Seed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and floodplains, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46*

 

Jacobinia candicans (see Justicia candicans) 

 

Jacobinia ovata (see Justicia candicans)

 

Justicia californica (G. Bentham) D. Gibson (Beloperone californica G. Bentham): Beloperone, California Beloperone, California Justicia, Chuparosa, Desert Hummingbird Bush, Honeysuckle, Hummingbird-bush, Rama Parda, Water-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and along gravelly and sandy washes and watercourses, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The nectar-rich flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds and eaten by linnets and sparrows. The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, recovers quickly from frost damage. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Justicia candicans (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) L.D. Benson (Jacobinia candicans (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) G. Bentham & W.J. Hooker f., Jacobinia ovata A. Gray): Arizona Water-willow, Chuparosa, Hierba Azul, Jacobinia, Rama del Toro (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, among rocks, rocky gorges, arroyos, along washes and streams, riparian areas and rocky soils, occurring from 400 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and White-eared Hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 18, 24, 28, 46, 85, 91*

 

Justicia longii (Siphonoglossa longiflora)

 

Ruellia nudiflora (G. Engelmann & A. Gray) I. Urban var. nudiflora: Common Wild Petunia, Longneck Ruellia, Oregano de China, Ruellia, Violet Ruellia, Violet Wild Petunia, Wild Petunia (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, swales, flats, banks of arroyos, along rocky and sandy washes, along streams and on floodplains usually among rocks, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77, 85*

 

Siphonoglossa longiflora (J. Torrey) A. Gray (Justicia longii R.A. Hilsenbeck): Long-flowered Justicia, Longflowered Tubetongue, Tubetongue, Siphonoglossa, White Needle Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, springs, along washes, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 4,700 feet tin elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife and has flowers that are fragrant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 85*

 

 

Family Aizoaceae: The Fig-marigold Family

 

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum C. Linnaeus: Common Iceplant, Crystalline Iceplant, Ice Plant (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 inches in height with stems 8 to 24 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, sandy flats, valleys, roadsides, sandy beaches, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring below 2,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 22, 24, 46*

 

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum C. Linnaeus: Slender-leaf Iceplant (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, floodplains, disturbed areas and low wet areas, occurring from 1,100 to 1,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 22, 24, 46*

 

Trianthema portulacastrum C. Linnaeus: Black Pigweed, Desert Horsepurslane, Desert Purslane, Giant Pigweed, Horse Purslane, Phak Bia Hin, Pigweed, Purslane, Verdolaga Blanca, Verdolaga Rastrera (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

 

Family Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus albus C. Linnaeus (Amaranthus graecizans auct. non C. Linnaeus, Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson): Cochino, Prostrate Amaranth, Prostrate Pigweed, Quelite Manchado, Stiff Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed Amaranth, Tumble Pigweed, White Amaranth, White Pigweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 68, 101*

 

Amaranthus blitoides (see Amaranthus albus) 

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Bledo, Fringed Amaranth, Fringed Pigweed, Quelite, Quelitillo, Toothed Amaranth (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, sandy flats and sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 68*

 

Amaranthus graecizans (see Amaranthus albus)

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height, sometimes taller to 15 feet); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock  (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101, 108*

 

Amaranthus tucsonensis J.S. Henrickson: Tucson Amaranth, Tucson Pigweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring from 2,600 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This species was not found in either BONAP or NRCS Plants Database. *5, 6, 24, 77*

 

Gomphrena sonorae J. Torrey: Ball Clover, Globe Amaranth, Sonoran Globe Amaranth (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bases of cliffs, hills, rocky slopes and plains, occurring from 2,600 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 18 inches in height, up to 5 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus aromatica var. trilobata (see Rhus trilobata var. trilobata) 

 

Rhus trilobata T. Nuttall: Agrillas (Hispanic), Agrito (Hispanic), Chascarillo, Ill-scented Sumac, Lantrisco, Lemita, Lemonade Berry, Lemonade Sumac, Lentisco, Limonita, Skunk-bush, Skunkbush Sumac, Squaw-bush, Threeleaf Sumac (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons and canyon bottoms, hillsides, slopes, meadows, along streams and washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 28, 30, 46, 48, 63 (no record on species - 090706), 85 (090706), 108*

 

Rhus trilobata T. Nuttall var. trilobata (Rhus aromatica W. Aiton var. trilobata (T. Nuttall) A. Gray ex S. Watson): Agrillas (Hispanic), Agrito (Hispanic), Chascarillo, Ill-scented Sumac, Lantrisco, Lemita, Lemonade Berry, Lemonade Sumac, Lentisco, Limonita, Skunk-bush, Skunkbush Sumac, Squaw-bush, Threeleaf Sumac (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, slopes, riparian areas, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 28, 30 (sp.), 46, 48 (sp.), 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

 

Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae): The Carrot Family

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Caucalis microcarpa (see Yabea microcarpa)

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Lomatium nevadense (S. Watson) T. Coulter & J.N. Rose: Parish’s Biscuitroot (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas and rocky slopes, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Spermolepis echinata (T. Nuttall ex A.P. de Condolle) A.A. Heller: Beggar’s Lice, Bristly Scaleseed, Scaleseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Yabea microcarpa (W.J. Hooker & G.A Arnott) B.M. Koso-Poljansky (Caucalis microcarpa W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott): California Hedge Parsley, False Carrot, Hedge Parsley, Wild Parsley (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Apocynacaeae: The Dogbane Family

 

Haplophyton cimcidium (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton cimcidium var. crooksii (see Haplophyton crooksii)

 

Haplophyton crooksii (L. Benson) L. Benson (Haplophyton cimcidium auct. non A.L. de Candolle [misapplied], Haplophyton cimcidium A.L. de Candolle var. crooksii L. Benson): Actimpatli, Atempatli, Arizona Cockroach Plant, Cockroachplant, Crooks Cockroachplant, Hierba-de-la-cucuracha (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders and rocks, flood plains and riparian areas, occurring from 1,900 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the yellow flowers open in the evening and close in the early morning, this plant is slow growing and may be drought deciduous, it may be useful when planted with succulents in a rock garden. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 63 (082806), 77, 85 (082806), MBJ*

 

 

Family Aristolochiaceae: The Birthwort Family

 

Aristolochia watsoni E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Dutchman’s Pipe, Dutchman’s Pipevine, Hierba del Indio, Indian-root, Pipevine Flower, Raiz del Indio, Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe, Watson Indian Root (terrestrial perennial deciduous (?) forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Asclepias linaria A.J. Cavanilles: Algodoncillo (Hispanic), Atu'sh-jiuátsi (en Mich), Chiche de Burra (Hispanic), Chichivilla Cimarrona (Hispanic), Chucuipe (en Mich), Cinco Negritos (Hispanic), Cola de Gato (Hispanic), Guajito (Hispanic), Hierba de Cuervo (Hispanic), Hierba de Vibora (Hispanic), Hierba del Cuervo (Hispanic), Lumu Turhipiti Xukurhi (en Mich), Oreja de Liebre (Hispanic), Patito (Hispanic), Pineneedle Milkweed, Pinillo (Hispanic), Plumilla (Hispanic), Romerillo (Hispanic), Soliman (Hispanic), Talayote de Coyote (Hispanic), Torbisco (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial fob/herb or subshrub (16 inches to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, steep rock walls, hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky ledges, among rocks, along streams, around stock tanks and reservoirs, rocky sand bars, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy loam soils, occurring from 1,500 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 30, 46 (gen.), 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Asclepias nyctaginifolia A. Gray: Four O’clock Milkweed, Hierba Lechosa, Mojave Milkweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, plains, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Asclepias subulata J. Decaisne: Ajamete, Bedstraw Milkweed, Cadenilla Bronca, Desert Milkweed, Junete, Leafless Milkweed, Rush Milkweed, Yamate (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, sandy and gravelly plains, flats, roadsides and in washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46 (gen.), 86, 91*

 

Cynanchum arizonicum (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Metastelma arizonicum A. Gray): Arizona Smallwort, Arizona Swallow-wort, Milkweed Vine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (8 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Funastrum heterophyllum (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

Gonolobus parvifolius (see Matelea parvifolia) 

 

Matelea cordifolia (A. Gray) R.E. Woodson (Rothrockia cordifolia A. Gray): Sonoran Milkvine, Sonoran Milkweed Vine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy plains and arroyos, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation  in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 24, 46*

 

Matelea parvifolia (J. Torrey) R.E. Woodson (Gonolobus parvifolius J. Torrey): Anglepod, Littleleaf Matelea, Little Leaf Milk Vine, Milkweed Vine, Small-leaf Anglepod, Small-leaved Milkvine, Spearleaf (terrestrial perennial shrub or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Metastelma arizonicum (see Cynanchum arizonicum)

 

Rothrockia cordifolia (see Matelea cordifolia)

 

Sarcostemma cynanchoides subsp. hartwegii (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus (W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray) A. Gray: Goldenhead, Rayless Goldenhead (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, slopes and plains, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46*

 

Acourtia nana (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia nana A. Gray): Desert Holly, Dwarf Desertpeony (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Adenophyllum porophylloides (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia porophylloides A. Gray): San Felipe Adenophyllum, San Felipe Dogweed, San Felipe Dyssodia, San Felipe Fetid Marigold (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 24, 28, 15, 46, 77*

 

Ageratina paupercula (A. Gray) R.M. King & H.E. Robinson (Eupatorium pauperculum A. Gray): Santa Rita Snakeroot (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, crevices in cliffs, rocky slopes, recesses under boulder, along streams and creeks, draws and wet and damp soils, occurring from 3,300 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be white. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial evergreen (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, sandy washes and streambeds, occurring below 4,500 feet elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28, 46, 77, 91*

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and rocky soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 68, 77*

 

Ambrosia cordifolia (A. Gray) F.W. Payne (Fransera cordifolia A. Gray): Chicurilla, Sonoran Bursage, Tucson Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (28 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, arroyos, washes and floodplains, occurring from 1,500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 77, 91*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (12 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, runnels and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant acts as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77, 91, 108*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne (Franseria dumosa A. Gray): Burrobush, Burro Weed, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bursage, White Burrobush (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (7 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, alluvial fans, gravelly plains, gravelly flats and dunes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae), acts as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77, 91, 108*

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray): White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 1½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Aplopappus acredenius (see Isocoma acradenia var. acradenia)

 

Aplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Aplopappus laricifolius (see Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Aplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Artemisia dracunculoides (see Artemisia dracunculus)

 

Artemisia dracunculus C. Linnaeus (Artemisia dracunculoides F.T. Pursh): Dragon Wormwood, False Tarragon, False-tarragon Sagewort, French Tarragon, Green Sagewort, Silky Wormwood, Tarragon, True Tarragon, Wormwood (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyon bottoms, bases of cliffs, hillsides, rocky slopes, meadows, ravines, among boulders, alluvial terraces, roadsides, streambeds, washes, creekbeds and rivers, flood plains, disturbed areas and gravelly sandy, sandy and rocky clay soils, occurring from 2,200 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Artemisia ludoviciana T. Nuttall: Louisiana Cudweed Sagewort, Gray Sagewort, Louisiana Sagewort, Louisiana Wormwood, Mugwort Wormwood, Prairie Sage, Sagewort, Silver Wormwood, White Sage, White Sagebrush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, ridges, valleys, fence rows, stream beds, along washes, gulches, floodplains and rocky and sandy and rocky clay loam soils, occurring from 2,400 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 58, 63 (080106), 85 (073006)*

 

Artemisia ludoviciana T. Nuttall subsp. albula (E.O. Wooton) K. Keck: Gray Sagewort, White Sage, White Sagebrush, White Sagewort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, valleys, gulches, along washes and streambeds and fence rows, occurring from 2,500 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations; often on limestone) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (080106), 77*

 

Aster tagetinus (see Machaeranthera tagetina)

 

Baccharis brachyphylla A. Gray: Shortleaf Baccharis, Short-leaved Baccharis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, washes, floodplains and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Baccharis glutinosa (see Baccharis salicifolia)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate (Hispanic), Bachomo (Hispanic), Baldag Shi (Hispanic), Batamote (Hispanic), Broom Baccharis, Chamiso (Hispanic), Chamiso del Rio (Hispanic), Chilca, Cucamoarisha (Cora), Cuerepillo (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Ro (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Tee (Hispanic), False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote (Hispanic), Guatarote (Hispanic), Hierba del Pasmo (Hispanic), Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla (Hispanic), Jara Mexicana (Hispanic), Jaral (Hispanic), Jarilla (Hispanic), Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten (Hispanic), Tu Ta’ Vi (Hispanic), Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (32 inches  to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes, streams and streambeds, rivers and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is useful in controlling watercourse erosion and slowing stream flow and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 30, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 108*

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along gravelly and sandy washes, along streams, streambeds, floodplains, bottomlands and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 108*

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Cloth-of-gold, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 108*

 

Baileya pleniradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray: Tecomblate, Desertmarigold Baileya, Woolly Desert Marigold, Woolly Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (12 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, bajadas, plains, sandy flats, alkali flats, sand hills, sand hummocks, dunes, sandy roadsides, sandy washes, arroyos, sandy river beds, disturbed areas and gravelly, sandy and silty soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (073006)*

 

Bebbia juncea (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene var. aspera: Chuckwalla Delight, Junco, Sweetbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 46, 77*

 

Brickellia californica (J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray: Brickellbush, California Brickellbush, Pachaba (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, cliffs, rocky slopes and flats and along washes, occurring from 3,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray (Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri): Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along washes and streambeds, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Brickellia frutescens A. Gray: Rigid Brickellbush, Shrubby Brickellbush, Shrubby Brickellia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (10 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, ridges, pocket of soil in rock outcrops, rocky slopes, crevices and rocky soils, occurring fro 2,000 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Cupfruit, White Tackstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hillsides, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 108*

 

Carthamus tinctorius C. Linnaeus: Safflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, bajadas, roadsides, springs, disturbed areas and along irrigation ditches, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24*

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along ditch banks and washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 41, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Chaenactis carphoclinia A. Gray (var. carphoclinia is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Broadleaved Chaenactis, False Yarrow, Pebble False-yarrow, Pebble Pincushion, Pincushion Flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains and along washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (062606), 77*

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott (Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott var. stevioides): Broad-leaved Chaenactis, Desert Pincushion, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dustymaiden (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Cirsium neomexicanum A. Gray: Desert Thistle, New Mexico Thistle, Mexican Thistle (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb (to 6 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Conyza canadensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist var. canadensis (Erigeron canadensis C. Linnaeus): Blood Stanch, Canada Fleabane, Canadian Fleabane, Canadian Horseweed, Horsetail Conyza, Horseweed, Mare’s Tail (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (3 inches to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste land, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101 (sp.)*

 

Conyza coulteri (see Laennecia coulteri)

 

Dyssodia cocinna (see Thymophylla concinna)

 

Dyssodia porophylloides (see Adenophyllum porophylloides)

 

Dyssodia thurberi (see Thymophylla pentachaeta var. belenidium) 

 

Eclipta alba (see Eclipta prostrata)

 

Eclipta prostrata (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus (Eclipta alba (C. Linnaeus) J.C. Hasskarl: Eclipta, False Daisy, White Eclipta, White Heads, Yerba de Tago, Yerba de Tajo (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 86, 91, 108*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 15, 18 (sp.), 24, 46 (sp.), 48 (sp.), 77, 91 (sp.)*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey x Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens *24*

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial (leaves are drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (3 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 15, 46 (sp.), 77, 91*

 

Ericameria cuneata (A. Gray) A.J. McClatchie var. spathulata (A. Gray) W. Hall (Haplopappus cuneatus A. Gray var. spathulatus (A. Gray) J. Blake ex P.A. Munz): Cliff Goldenbush, Desert Rock Goldenbush, Wedgeleaf Golden Weed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ledges, rocks and crevices in boulders and rocks, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 15, 24, 46, 77*

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Erigeron canadensis (see Conyza canadensis)

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86*

 

Erigeron lobatus A. Nelson: Desert Fleabane, Fleabane, Lobed Daisy, Lobed Fleabane (terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 9 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, lava flows, plains, seeps, stream beds, along sandy washes, arroyos and rivers, occurring from 600 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080106), 77, 85 (073006)*

 

Eriophyllum lanosum (see Antheropeas lanosum)

 

Eupatorium pauperculum (see Ageratina paupercula)

 

Eupatorium solidaginifolium (see Koanophyllon solidaginifolium)

 

Evax multicaulis (see Evax verna var. verna)

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque var. verna C.S. Rafinesque (Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle): Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77*

 

Filago arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Cottonrose, Arizona Filago, Arizona Fluffweed, Arizona Herba Impia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Filago californica T. Nuttall: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Filago depressa A. Gray: Dwarf Cottonrose, Dwarf Filago (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria confertiflora (see Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Fransera cordifolia (see Ambrosia cordifolia)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Blanketflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, plains, sandy flats and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Geraea canescens J. Torrey & A.Gray: Desert Gold, Desert Sunflower, Hairy Desertsunflower, Hairy-headed Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rock outcrops, gravelly and sandy hillsides, sand dunes, sandy flats, desert pavement, sandy roadsides, along arroyos, disturbed areas gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 86, 108*

 

Gnaphalium palustre T. Nuttall: Cudweed, Lowland Cudweed, Marsh Everlasting, Western Marsh Cudweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, meadows, rocky ledges and outcrops, seeps, washes, along creeks, dry river channels, around stock tanks, mud flats, floodplains, sandbars, riparian areas and moist soils, occurring below 5,900 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 101*

 

Gnaphalium wrightii (Pseudognaphalium canescens subsp. canescens)

 

Greenella arizonica (see Gutierrezia arizonica)

 

Gutierrezia arizonica (A. Gray) M.A. Lane (Greenella arizonica A. Gray): Arizona Snakeweed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in  elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Gutierrezia sarothrae (F.T. Pursh) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby: Broombrush, Broom Snakeweed, Broomweed, Cayaye, Hierba de la Vibora, Hierba de San Nicolas, Matchbrush, Matchweed, Perennial Broomweed, Perrenial Snakeweed, Resinweed, Round-head Broomweed, Sheepweed, Stinkweed, Snakeweed, Turpentineweed, Yellowtop, Yellow-weed, Yerba de San Nicholas (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, clearings in forests, stony plains, flats, roadsides, along washes and gravelly, sandy, loam and clayey soils, occurring from 2,800 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 80, 86, 101*

 

Gymnosperma glutinosum (C.P. Sprengel) C.F. Lessing (Selloa glutinosa C.P. Sprengel): Cola de Zorro, Escobilla, Glutinous Gymnosperma, Gumhead, Hierba Pegajosa, Jarilla, Jucu Ndede, Mariquita, Motita, Moto, Nakedseed Weed, Pegajosa, Tatalencho, Tata Lencho, Xonequilitl, Zazal (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 feet to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Haplopappus acredenius (see Isocoma acradenia var. acradenia)

 

Haplopappus cuneatus var. spathulatus (see Ericameria cuneata var. spathulata)

 

Haplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Haplopappus laricifolius (see Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Haplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Helianthus annuus C. Linnaeus: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Isoauringonkukka, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Wild Artichoke, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, creeks, ditch banks, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 101*

 

Hoffmeisteria laphamioides (see Pleurocoronis laphamioides) 

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy washes, streambeds and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in controlling erosion and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 91*

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, alluvial plains, flats, arroyos, sandy washes, streambeds. alluvial plains, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in the re-vegetation of disturbed sites and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 91, 108*

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray var. pentalepis: Burrobrush, Cheesebush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats, arroyos, gravelly and sandy washes, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in the revegetation of disturbed sites and plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91*

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Isocoma acradenia (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. acradenia (Aplopappus acredenius (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus acredenius (E.L. Greene) J. Blake: Alkali Goldenbush, Alkali Golden Weed, Alkali Jimmyweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, saline flats, terraces, roadsides, along washes, creeks and streams, riparian scrublands, alkaline and sandy and moist loam soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 80*

 

Koanophyllon solidaginifolium (A. Gray) G. King & H.E. Robbins (Eupatorium solidaginifolium A. Gray): Boneset, Shrubby Thoroughwort (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and rocky slope, occurring from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 63 (062406), 77*

 

Lactuca serriola C. Linnaeus: China Lettuce, Compass Plant, Horse Thistle, Milk Thistle, Prickly Lettuce, Wild Lettuce, Wild Opium (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom (Conyza coulteri A. Gray): Conyza, Coulter Conyza, Coulter Marshtail (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, plains, washes, river bottoms, floodplains, moist soils, adjacent to riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 80*

 

Lygodesmia exigua (see Prenanthella exigua)

 

Machaeranthera arida B.L. Turner & J. Horne (Machaeranthera coulteri (A. Gray) B.L. Turner & J. Horne var. arida (B.L. Turner & J. Horne) B.L. Turner, Psilactis coulteri A. Gray): Arid Spiny Daisy, Arid Tansyaster, Silver Lake Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, floodplains and riverbanks and bottoms, occurring from 200 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 80*

 

Machaeranthera asteroides J. Torrey var. glandulosa B.L. Turner (Machaeranthera hansonii A. Nelson): Golenweed, Hanson’s Fall Tansyaster, Machaeranthera, Tansyaster (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, among boulders, roadsides, along washes and creeks, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy soils from 1,800 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 48 (gen.), 80, 85*

 

Machaeranthera carnosa (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom var. carnosa: Shrubby Alkaliaster (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from salty flats 1,000 to 1,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 48 (gen.), 80*

 

Machaeranthera coulteri var. arida (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Machaeranthera gracilis (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus gracilis (T. Nuttall) A. Gray): Goldenweed, Slender Goldenweed, Yellow Daisy, Yellow Spiny Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, dry plains and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Machaeranthera hansonii (see Machaeranthera asteroides var. glandulosa)

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & C.J. Hartman var. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & C.J. Hartman (Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Condolle var. gooddingii A. Nelson, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. gooddingii A. Nelson): Cutleaf Ironplant, Goodding’s Tansyaster, Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (083006), 80*

 

Machaeranthera tagetina E.L. Greene (Aster tagetinus (E.L. Greene) J. Blake): Mesa Tansyaster, Tansyleaf Spine Aster (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, riverbanks, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 4,600 feet elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Malacothrix californica var. glabrata (see Malacothrix glabrata)

 

Malacothrix fendleri A. Gray: Desert Dandelion, Fendler’s Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hills, rocky slopes, sandy plains, flats, roadsides, along washes, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray (Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton): California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, washes and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Malacothrix sonorae W.S. Davis & J.E. Raven: Sonoran Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, cocky canyons and canyon bottoms, cliffs, hillsides, rocky slopes, gulches, along streams, washes and creeks, riparian areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 800 to 6,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 63 (080206), 85 (080206)*

 

Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray (Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Uropappus lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) T. Nuttall, Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall): Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs, Starpoint (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides, sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77*

 

Microseris linearifolia (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and sandy slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77, 86*

 

Packera quercetorum (E.L. Greene) C. Jeffrey (Senecio quercetorum E.L. Greene): Oak Creek Ragwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, draws, among rocks, along streams and creeks and riparian areas, occurring from 2,300 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetlands ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46*

 

Palafoxia arida B.L. Turner & J. Morris var. arida (Palafoxia linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) M. Lagasca y Segura): Desert Needles, Desert Palafox, Desert Palafoxia, Spanish Needles (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, sandy plains, sand dunes, roadsides, alluvial plains, sandy flats, sandy washes, bottomlands, sandy and gravelly soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 85*

 

Palafoxia linearis (see Palafoxia arida var. arida)

 

Parthenice mollis A. Gray: Annual Monsterwort (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 3,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58*

 

Pectis linifolia C. Linnaeus (Pectis linifolia C. Linnaeus var. linifolia): Narrowleaf Lemmonweed, Romero Macho (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from shaded canyons, slopes, sandy flats and floodplains, occurring from 2,600 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

Pectis linifolia var. linifolia (see Pectis linifolia) 

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray var. papposa: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46 (sp.), 86, 108*

 

Perezia nana (see Acourtia nana)

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Perityle ajoensis T.K. Todsen: Ajo Rock Daisy, Ajo Rockdaisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 12 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rock faces, benches and crevices, occurring from 2,600 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 9, 24, 85*

 

Perityle emoryi J. Torrey: Desert Rock Daisy, Emory’s Rockdaisy, Emory Rocklily, Rock Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rocky slopes, crevices in boulders and washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Pleurocoronis laphamioides (J.N. Rose) R.M. King & H.E. Robinson [excluded] (Hoffmeisteria laphamioides J.N. Rose [excluded]): Arrow Leaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 24, 46 (gen.), 63 (062406)*

 

Pluchea odorata (C. Linnaeus) A.H. de Cassini (var. odorata is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona, Pluchea purpurascens (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle): Marsh Fleabane, Sweetscent (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from wet meadows, around springs, river bottoms, bosques, marshes, ponds and lakes, disturbed areas and wet, sandy and silty clay soils, occurring from 600 to 2,800 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (083006), 85*

 

Pluchea sericea (T. Nuttall) F.V. Coville (Tessaria sericea (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners): Arrowweed, Arrowweed Pluchea, Arrowwood, Marsh Fleabane (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams, rivers and ditches, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae) and is browsed by deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 48, 108*

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Prenanthella exigua (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Lygodesmia exigua A. Gray) Brightwhite, Feeble Prenanthella: (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky outcrops, gravelly ridges, talus slopes, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, lava flows and slides, desert pavement, desert varnish, roadsides, sandy washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, gypsum soils, silty soils and clay loam soils, occurring from 700 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (080106), 77, 80, 85 (080106)*

 

Pseudognaphalium canescens (A.P. de Candolle) W.A. Weber subsp. canescens (Gnaphalium wrightii A. Gray): Everlasting, Gordolobo, Wright’s Cudweed (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and hills, occurring from 3,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77*

 

Psilactis asteroides (see Machaeranthera asteroides var. asteroides).

 

Psilactis coulteri (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height and 8 to 20 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 80, 86*

 

Rafinesquia californica T. Nuttall: California Chicory, California Plumeseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and washes, occurring from 3,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 77, 80*

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: Desert-hicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, New Mexico Plumeseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes and plains, occurring from 200 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 108*

 

Selloa glutinosa (see Gymnosperma glutinosum)

 

Senecio douglasii var. monoensis (see Senecio flacciduss var. monoensis)

 

Senecio flaccidus C.F. Lessing var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) B.L. Turner & T.M. Barkley (Senecio douglasii A.P. de Candolle var. monoensis (E.L. Greene) W.L. Jepson, Senecio monoensis E.L. Greene): Comb Butterweed, Creek Senecio, Groundsel, Mono Groundsel, Mono Ragwort, Sand Wash Groundsel, Shrubby Ragwort, Threadleaf Groundsel, Threadleaf Ragwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (12 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86 (sp.)*

 

Senecio lemmonii A. Gray: Groundsel; Lemmon Butterweed, Lemmon Groundsel, Lemmon’s Ragwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain slopes, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Senecio monoensis (see Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis) 

 

Senecio mohavensis A. Gray: Mojave Groundsel, Mojave Ragwort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, crevices in boulders, rocky hillsides, bajadas, flats, draws, along washes and riparian areas, occurring below 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Senecio quercetorum (see Packera quercetorum)

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill (Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill subsp. asper [superfluous autonym]): Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, ditch banks, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 30, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Sonchus asper subsp. asper (see Sonchus asper) 

 

Sonchus oleraceus C. Linnaeus: Achicoria (Hispanic), Achicoria Dulce (Hispanic), Annual Sowthistle, Borraja (Hispanic), Borrajilla (Hispanic), Cardo (Hispanic), Cerraja (Hispanic), Chicalotillo (Hispanic), Chicoria (Hispanic), Chicoria (Purépecha), Colewort, Common Sowthistle, Diente de León (Hispanic), Endivia (Hispanic), Grespino Commune (Hispanic), Hare’s Lettuce, Hierba del Golpe (Hispanic), Kaalivalvatti (Hispanic), Lechuguilla (Hispanic), Matalí Morado (Hispanic), Milk Thistle, Mitihuaraca (Hispanic), Muela de Caballo (Hispanic), Smooth Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Tlamatsalin (Michoacán), Tskutsuk Chekamiti (Purépecha) (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, ditch banks, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 30, 46, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Stephanomeria exigua T. Nuttall var. exigua (Stephanomeria exigua T. Nuttall var. pentachaeta (D.C. Eaton) H.M. Hall): Annual Mitra, Small Stephanomeria, Small Wirelettuce, Wire Lettuce (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been range reported from mesas, hills, plains, sand dunes and gravelly sandy and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson (Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson var. pauciflora): Brownplume Wirelettuce, Desert Straw, Small-flowered Wirelettuce (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy plains, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Stylocline gnaphalioides T. Nuttall: Everlasting Neststraw, Mountain Neststraw (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, hillsides, gravelly and sandy flats, along washes, riparian areas and gravelly, sandy and silty soils, occurring from 500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77, 85 (051006)*

 

Stylocline micropoides A. Gray: Desert Neststraw, Woollyhead Fambract, Woollyhead Neststraw (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Tessaria sericea (see Pluchea sericea)

 

Thymophylla concinna (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia cocinna (A. Gray) P.A. Robins): Dogweed, Manzanilla de Coyote, Sonoran Pricklyleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, valleys and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 2,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (080106), 77, 85 (073006)*

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Candolle) J.K. Small var. belenidium (A.P. de Candolle) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia thurberi (A. Gray) A. Nelson): Firehair Dogweed, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Thurber Dysodia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (sp.), 24, 46, 63 (083006)*

 

Townsendia annua J.H. Beaman: Annual Townsend Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills and flats, occurring from 1,400 to 5,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Trichoptilium incisum A. Gray: Yellowdome, Yellow Head (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, hillsides, ridge tops, slopes, rocky banks, along arroyos and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 86*

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg (Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]): American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 91*

 

Trixis californica var. californica (see Trixis californica)

 

Uropappus lindleyi (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Uropappus linearifolius (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Viguiera deltoidea var. parishii (see Viguiera parishii)

 

Viguiera parishii E.L. Greene (Viguiera deltoidea A. Gray var. parishii (E.L. Greene) G. Vasey & J.N. Rose): Ariosa, Golden Eye, Parish’s Goldeneye, Parish Viguiera (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy plains, among boulders, bajadas and along washes and arroyos, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 91*

 

Zinnia acerosa (A.P. de Condolle) A. Gray (Zinnia pumila A. Gray): Desert Zinnia, Spinyleaf Zinnia, White Zinnia, Wild Zinnia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 12 inches in height and to 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky hills and rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, ridge tops, terraces, gravelly bajadas, sandy alluvial fans, gravelly flats, roadsides, valley bottoms, floodplains, riparian areas and gravelly silt/loam soils, occurring from 1,5000 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 85 (052006)*

 

 

Family Berberidaceae: The Barberry Family

 

Berberis haematocarpa (see Mahonia haematocarpa)

 

Berberis harrisoniana T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles: Harrison’s Barberry, Kofa Barberry, Kofa Mahonia, Kofa Mountain Barberry, Red Barberry (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (1½ to 9 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, cliffs, rocky slopes, talus slopes and among boulders, occurring from 2,200 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a secondary host of the black stem rust of cereal grains. This plant is reputed to be sometimes poisonous to livestock. *5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 24, 28, 46*

 

Mahonia haematocarpa (E.O. Wooton) F.K. Fedde (Berberis haematocarpa E.O. Wooton): Algerita, Arizona Algerita, Mexican Barberry, Red Barberry, Red Mahonia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountain slopes, mesas, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hills and hillsides, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, dry rocky stream beds and banks, gravelly sandy washes, sandy arroyos, disturbed areas and rocky, gravelly soils and rocky silty soils, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils, occurring from 1,400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The berries are eaten by birds and mammals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; the flowers are reported to be fragrant. This plant is a secondary host of the black stem rust of cereal grains. This plant is reputed to be sometimes poisonous to livestock. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28 46, 63 (081206), 77, 85 (081206)*

 

 

Family Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) J.S. Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 25 feet or more in height and 10 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from drainages, roadsides and along washes and streams located in mesas, foothills and plains, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful in erosion control and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (sp.), 24, 26 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 46, 52 (sp.), 53, 58, 74 (sp.), 91 (sp.)*

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia var. echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 2½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 101*

 

Amsinckia tessellata A. Gray: Bristly Fiddleneck, Checker Fiddleneck, Checkered Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Tessellate Fiddle Neck, Western Fiddleneck (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, bajadas, gravelly flats, along sandy washes, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77, 80*

 

Coldenia canescens (see Tiquilia canescens var. canescens)

 

Cryptantha angustifolia (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Bristlelobe Cryptantha, Cat’s-eye Panamint, Desert Cryptantha, Narrow-leaf Cryptantha, Narrow-leaved Forget-me-not, Narrow-leaved Nievitas, Narrow-leaved Popcorn Flower, Panamint Cryptantha, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene: Guadalupe Cat’s-eye, Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, flats and washes, occurring below 2,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene var. cycloptera (E.L. Greene) J.F. Macbride: Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46*

 

Harpagonella palmeri A. Gray var. arizonica I.M. Johnston: Arizona Harpagonella, Arizona Grapplinghook, Grappling Hook, Palmer Grapplinghook (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, benches and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 16 (sp.), 24, 46, 58, 77 (sp.)*

 

Heliotropium curassavicum C. Linneaus: Alkali Heliotrope, Chinese-pusley, Cola del Mico (Monkey Tail), Hierba del Sapo, Monkey-tail, Quail-plant, Salt Heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 16 inches high); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys and moist saline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The fruits are eaten by quail. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 68, 80, 86, 108*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene: Flatspine Stickseed, Stickseed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry plains, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 101*

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Pectocarya platycarpa P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Combbur, Broad-wing Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Pectocarya recurvata I.M. Johnston: Arched Bomb-bur, Archnut Combbur, Arch-nutted Combbur, Curvenut Combseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Plagiobothrys arizonicus (A. Gray) E.L. Greene ex A. Gray: Arizona Popcornflower, Bloodweed, Blood Weed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, among rocks, washes, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 80*

 

Plagiobothrys jonesii A. Gray: Jones Popcorn Flower, Mohave Popcornflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders, flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly, sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 80*

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Candolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Candolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, dry mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, dirt roads and rocky and calcareous soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 63 (083006), 77*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Arabis eremophila (see Arabis perennans)

 

Arabis perennans S. Watson (Arabis eremophila E.L. Greene, Boechera perennans (S. Watson) W.A. Weber: Perennial Rockcress, Rock Cress, Stiff-arm Rock Cress (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain slopes, rocky canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock crevices and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 63 (062606), 77*

 

Boechera perennans (see Arabis perennans) 

 

Brassica eruca (see Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)

 

Brassica nigra (C. Linnaeus) W.D. Koch: Black Mustard, Short-pod Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. utahensis (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Green Tansy Mustard, Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Western Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray var. cuneifolia: Gasa, Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, seeps and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.)*

 

Eruca sericea G. Bentham? (see footnote under Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)

 

Eruca vesicaria (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cavanilles subsp. sativa (P. Miller) A. Thellung (Brassica eruca C. Linnaeus, Eruca sativa (P. Miller): Chacuacumba (Purépecha), Garden Rocket, Mostaza (Hispanic), Rabanillo (Hispanic), Rábano Blanco (Hispanic), Ranu-urapiti (Purépecha), Rocketsalad, Roquette (terrestrial annual forb/herb (32 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, flats, roadsides, washes, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy and loamy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 24 (recorded as Eruca sericea G. Bentham - unable to locate species records), 30, 46, 63 (081706)*

 

Erysimum capitatum (D. Douglas ex W.J. Hooker) E.L. Greene: Coast Wallflower, Desert Wallflower, Douglas’s Wallflower, Sanddune Wallflower, Western-wallflower (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and sandy canyon bottoms, hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky ledges, meadows, slopes, flats, roadsides, stony banks, cienegas, riparian areas and rocky clay soils, occurring to 2,500 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 58, 86*

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene (Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene): California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Lepidium densiflorum H.A. Schrader: Common Pepperweed, Greenflower Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperwort, Peppergrass, Prairie Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from ledges, slopes, meadows, washes and riverbeds, riparian areas, rocky and sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring from 900 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Hairypod Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed sites, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 68, 77*

 

Lepidium thurberi E.O. Wooton: Thurber Peppergrass, Thurber’s Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Lesquerella tenella A. Nelson: Delicate Bladderpod, Moapa Bladderpod, Palmer Bean Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, sand hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 48 (gen.)*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. coulteri: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains canyons, sand dunes, washes and sandy rocky soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation; the flowers are reported to be fragrant) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Nasturtium microphyllum C.M. Boenninghausen ex H.G. Reichenbach (Rorippa microphylla (C.M. Boenninghausen ex H.G. Reichenbach) N. Hylander ex A. & D.B. Löve, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (C. Linnaeus) A. Hayek var. longisiliqua (J.F. Irmisch) B. Boivin): Onerow Yellowcress (semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb) EXOTIC. *5, 6. 24, 63 (090706), 85 (no records - 090706)*

 

Rorippa microphylla (see Nasturtium microphyllum) 

 

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum var. longisiliqua (see Nasturtium microphyllum)

 

Schoenocrambe linearifolia (A. Gray) R.C. Rollins (Sisymbrium linearifolium (A. Gray) E.B. Payson): Slimleaf Plainsmustard (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (16 inches to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, rocky slopes, meadows, among boulders, streams and stream and creek beds, along streams and creeks, ravines and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 63 (090706), 85 (090706)*

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101*

 

Sisymbrium linearifolium (see Schoenocrambe linearifolia)

 

Sisymbrium orientale C. Linnaeus: Indian Hedgemustard, Oriental Hedgemustard, Tumble Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, springs, washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy clayish soils, occurring from 1,500 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24, 77, 85*

 

Streptanthella longirostris (S. Watson) P.A. Rydberg: Long-beaded Twist Plant, Longbeak Fiddle Mustard, Longbeak Streptanthella, Long-beaked Twist Flower (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, gypsum hills, sandy flats, lava flows, sand dunes and moist soils, sandy soils, sandy loam soils and gypsum soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (080106)*

Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex A. Gray: Lyreleaf Jewelflower, Lyreleaf Twistflower, Lyre-leaved Twistflower, Pecos Twist Flower, Silver Bells (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation) *5, 6, 8, 24, 46, 77*

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Thelypodium wrightii A. Gray subsp. wrightii: Wright Thelypody (terrestrial biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, slopes, roadsides, along washes and rich soils, occurring from 2,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 24*

 

Thysanocarpus amplectens (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker (Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker var. elegans (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) B.L. Robinson; Thysanocarpus amplectens E.L. Greene): Lace Pod, Lacepod, Sand Fringepod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, meadows, flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes var. elegans (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

 

Family Burseraceae: The Frankincense Family

 

Bursera microphylla A. Gray: Copal, Elephant Bursera, Elephant Tree, Little Leaf Elephant Tree, Torote, Torote Colorado (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, cliffs, foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly plains, flats and washes, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is frost sensitive. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 91, 108*

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (9 to 50  feet or more in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges, foothills, rocky and gravelly hills, rocky hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 600 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 27, 28, 38, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 63 (091206), 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus greggii (see Peniocereus greggii) 

 

Cereus greggii var. transmontanus (see Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) 

 

Cereus schottii (see Pachycereus schottii) 

 

Cereus striatus (see Peniocereus striatus) 

 

Cereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. coloradensis (L.D. Benson) D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. coloradensis L.D. Benson): Colorado Buckthorn Cholla, Colorado Desert Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (4 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, hills, bajadas, slopes, benches, flats, desertscrubs, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 4,300 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 28 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.)*

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. major (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) L.D. Benson, Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. ramosa R.H. Peebles): Buckhorn Cholla, Major Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent treelike shrub (3 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.), 77*

 

Cylindropuntia arbuscula (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia arbuscula G. Engelmann): Arizona Pencil Cholla, Bush Pencil Cholla, Pencil Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia arbuscula (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91, 108*

 

Cylindropuntia bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann): Arizona Jumping Cactus, Ball Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cholla, Silver Cholla, Teddy Bear Cactus, Teddybear Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 5, or to 9 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, canyons, rocky slopes, talus slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats, along washes and arroyos and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia bigelovii (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 18, 24 (recorded as Cylindropuntia  bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. bigelovii), 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Cylindropuntia  fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann): Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 91, 108*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida): Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 24, 27 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 77, 91*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth  var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter): Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils,  occurring from 1,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 24, 27, 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.), 58, 77, 91*

 

Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle): Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 3 feet in height and width); within the range for this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos, bottomlands and floodplains, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Cylindropuntia ramosissima (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia ramosissima G. Engelmann): Branched Pencil Cholla, Darning Needle Cholla, Diamond Cholla, Diamond Plated Pencil Cholla, Holy Cross Cholla, Rattail Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia ramosissima (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 91, 108*

 

Cylindropuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey): Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (8 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to over 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia spinosior (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 58, 77*

 

Cylindropuntia versicolor (G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter): Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia versicolor (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 16, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Echinocactus visnaga (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire: Engelmann’s Cactus, Engelmann Hedgehog, Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus, Strawberry Echinocereus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus, Torch Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 18 inches in height in clusters of 5 to 15 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon, hillsides, plains along washes and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 12, 18, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 108*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. acicularis L. Benson: Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 8 inches in height in clusters of 5 to 25, or as many as 50 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from range reported from rocky ridges, hills, rocky, gravelly and sandy hillsides, slopes, plains, flats, valleys and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18 (sp.), 24, 27, 28 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii var. nicholii (see Echinocereus nicholii) 

 

Echinocereus nicholii (L. Benson) E. Parfitt (Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. nicholii L. Benson): Golden Hedgehog, Nichol’s Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 1 to 2 feet in height (stems up to 5 feet in length) in clusters of 10 to 30 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Echinocereus polyacanthus G. Engelmann (Echinocereus triglochidiatus G. Engelmann var. polyacanthus G. Engelmann): Claret-cup Hedgehog, Mohave Mound Cactus, Scarlet Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems to 18 inches in height in clusters of 5 to 50 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, hillsides and among rocks, occurring from 3,000 to 9,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 24 (recorded as Echinocereus santaritensis W. Blum & Rutow), 27, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Echinocereus santaritensis (see footnote under Echinocereus polyacanthus)

 

Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. polyacanthus (see Echinocereus polyacanthus)

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Sclerocactus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.P. Taylor): Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 5 inches in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from knolls, ridges, hills, bajadas, slopes, alluvial fans and flats, occurring from 1,200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations); includes Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson: Acuna Cactus, Bisnagitas, Redspine Fishhook Cactus, Red Pineapple Cactus, Red-spined Pineapple Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 4 inches in width); within the range of this variety it has been reported from hills, knolls, gravelly ridges bajadas and flats, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Pollinated by polylectic bees (Megachile palmensis and Diadasia rinconis), small mammals and the larvae of the Opuntia Borer (Moneilema gigas) feed on the stems and the pyralith moth (Yosemitia graciella) feeds on the seeds), and Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. erectocentrus: Bisnagitas, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus, Red-spine Butterfly-cactus, Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 5 inches in diameter); within the range of this variety it has been reported from hills, slopes, bajadas, alluvial fans, flats and alluvial soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The species change in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains in Sclerocactus (accessed 041506). *5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 63 (062406), 108 (recorded as Echinocactus visnaga)*

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Ferocactus covillei (see Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus cylindraceus (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt (Ferocactus acanthodes (C. Lemaire) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, California Barrel Cactus, California fire Barrel, Compass Barrel Cactus, Compass Plant, Spiny Barrel, Mountain Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, ridges, hills, hillsides, bajadas, slopes, alluvial fans, valleys and along washes, occurring from 200 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18, 24, 26 (gen.), 45, 46, 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Ferocactus cylindraceus (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. eastwoodiae (G. Engelmann) N.P. Taylor (Ferocactus acanthodes (C. Lemaire) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. eastwoodiae L. Benson, Ferocactus eastwoodiae (L. Benson) L. Benson): Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, California Barrel Cactus, Cliff Barrel Cactus, Eastwood Barrel Cactus, Compass Plant (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within range reported from ledges, occurring from 1,300 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18 (sp.), 26 (gen.), 27 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 86 (sp.), 91*

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt (Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Red-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, flats, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 24, 26 (gen.), 27, 45, 46, 91*

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26 (gen.), 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 91, 108*

 

Grusonia kunzei (J.N. Rose) D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia kunzei J.N. Rose): Desert Club Cholla, Devil’s Cholla, Kunze Club Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 12 inches in height and 5 to 15 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from broad valleys in sandy and clay soils, occurring from 300 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 91*

 

Grusonia parishii (C.R. Orcutt) D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia parishii C.R. Orcutt): Matted Cholla, Parish Cholla, Parish Club Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 2 to 3 inches in length forming mats 6 to 12 inches in height and up to several yards in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, flats, valleys and sandy soils, occurring from 3,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 91*

 

Lemaireocereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Lophocereus schottii (see Pachycereus schottii)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Fishhook Pincushion, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 27 (sp.), 28, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86 (sp.)*

 

Mammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii) 

 

Mammillaria tetrancistra G. Engelmann: Common Fishhook Cactus, Corkseed Fishhook Cactus, Corky-seed Fishhook (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy hills, plains and valleys, occurring from 400 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18 (gen.), 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Mammillaria thornberi C.R. Orcutt: Clustered Fishhook, Thornber Clustered Pincushion Cactus, Thornber’s Nipple Cactus, Thornber Pincushion (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 4 or 10½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, flats, valleys and along washes, occurring from 600 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental and is very attractive in both flower and fruit. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18 (gen.), 24, 27, 45, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis (see Cylindropuntia  acanthocarpa var. coloradensis) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. major (see Cylindropuntia  acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa (see Cylindropuntia  acanthocarpa var. major) 

 

Opuntia arbuscula (see Cylindropuntia arbuscula)

 

Opuntia bigelovii (see Cylindropuntia bigelovii)

 

Opuntia chlorotica G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Dollarjoint Pricklypear, Nopal, Nopal Rastrera, Pancake Pear, Pancake Prickly-pear, Silver-dollar Cactus, Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, hills, hillsides, flats, valleys and rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck: Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 4 to 5 feet in height and 10 feet or more in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, along washes, gullies and arroyos and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental.  *5, 6, 12, 15, 27, 28, 45 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91, 108*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 4 to 5 feet in height and 10 feet or more in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, along washes, gullies and arroyos and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental.  *5, 6, 12, 15, 24, 27, 28, 45 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. flavispina (L. Benson) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. flavispina L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Yellow-spined Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 3 feet in height and 3 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,200 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental.  *5, 6, 8, 24, 27, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.)*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia lindheimeri G. Engelmann var. linguiformis (D. Griffiths) L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Cow’s Tongue, Cow’s-tongue Pricklypear, Lengua de Vaca, Prickly Pear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub; within range reported from bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,200 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Opuntia fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. mammillata (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. mammillata)

 

Opuntia kunzei (see Grusonia kunzei)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis (see Cylindropuntia leptocaulis) 

 

Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis (see Opuntia engelmannii var. linguiformis)  

 

Opuntia parishii (see Grusonia parishii) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. flavispina (see Opuntia engelmannii var. flavispina) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superflouous autonym]): Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 5 feet in height and 8 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, and valleys and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91*

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. major (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. phaeacantha (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia ramosissima (see Cylindropuntia ramosissima) 

 

Opuntia spinosior (see Cylindropuntia  spinosior)

 

Opuntia versicolor (see Cylindropuntia  versicolor) 

 

Pachycereus schottii (G. Engelmann) D.R. Hunt (Cereus schottii G. Engelmann, Lophocereus schottii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Old Man, Senita, Senita Cactus, Sina, Sinita, Whisker Cactus (perennial succulent shrub or tree (6 to 21 feet in height with stems clustering 6 to 15 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky hillsides, plains, flats, valleys, dunes, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 53, 63 (091206), 91, 108*

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann): Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ½ inch in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The seeds are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when planted with other desert shrubs and trees such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 63 (091206), 77, 86, 108*

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann var. transmontanus G. Engelmann): Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ½ inch in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The seeds are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when planted with other desert shrubs and trees such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant.*5, 6, 12, 15, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 63 (091206), 77, 86*

 

Peniocereus striatus (T.S. Brandegee) F. Buxbaum (Cereus striatus T.S. Brandegee, Wilcoxia diguetii (G.H. Weber) R.H. Peebles): Cardoncillo, Dahlia Rooted Cactus, Dahlia-rooted Cereus, Dahlia-rooted Gear-stem Cactus, Jacamatraca, Thread-cereus, Gearstem Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (10 inches to 6 feet in height and ¼ inch in diameter); within range reported from hills, slopes, plains, flats, valleys, washes, alluvial bottoms, bottomlands and sandy and silty soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The seeds are eaten by birds. *5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 27, 45, 46, 63 (091206)*

 

Sclerocactus erectocentrus (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Stenocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) F. Buxbaum (Cereus thurberi G. Engelmann, Lemaireocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Marismena, Mehuele, Organo, Organpipe Cactus, Pitahaya, Pitahaya Dulce, Pitayo Dulce (Spanish) (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (9 to 25 feet in height and 5 to 8 inches in diameter with stems clustering to 6 to 18 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, cliff ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas, plains, flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,700 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers, pollinated by bats and bees, fruits are eaten by ants, bats, Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis (Shaw) subsp. mexicana) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica). This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is sensitive to frosts. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 53, 63 (091206), 91, 108*

 

Wilcoxia diguetii (see Peniocereus striatus) 

 

 

Family Campanulaceae: The Bellflower Family

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson var. orientalis R. McVaugh: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77 (sp.)*

 

Triodanis biflora (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) E.L. Greene (Triodanis perfoliata (C. Linnaeus) J.A. Nieuwland): Clasping-leaf Venus’-looking-glass, Clasping Venus’ Looking-glass, Venus Looking Glass (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky banks, plains, along washes and streambeds, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Triodanis perfoliata (see Triodanis biflora)

 

 

Family Capparaceae (Capparidaceae): The Caper Family

 

Atamisquea emarginata J. Miers ex W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott (Capparis atamisquea C.E. Kuntze, non Capparis emarginata A. Richard nec A. Zippelius ex J.B. Spanoghe): Atamisquea, Palo Zorrillo, Sol es Suegro del la Lena, Vomitbush (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, rocky hilltops, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, sand hills, dunes, gravelly and sandy plains, gravelly flats, playas, coastal plains, washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and fine textured, saline and sandy soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 46, 63 (062406), 85, 91*

 

Capparis atamisquea C.E. Kuntze, non Capparis emarginata (see Atamisquea emarginata) 

 

Polanisia dodecandra (C. Linnaeus) A.P. de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis (Polanisia trachysperma (J. Torrey & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis): Roughseed Clammy Weed, Sandyseed Clammyweed, Western Clammyweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 86*

 

Polanisia trachysperma (see Polanisia dodecandra subsp. trachysperma) 

 

Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (Wislizenia refracta subsp. refracta)

 

Wislizenia refracta G. Engelmann subsp. refracta (Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson): Jackass Clover, Spectacle Fruit, Spectacle Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, streambeds and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46*

 

 

Family Caryophyllaceae: The Pink Family

 

Achyronychia cooperi J. Torrey & A. Gray: Sand Mat, Frost Mat, Onyxflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy soil, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is reported to be an attractive, mat forming plant with green foliage and white flowers. *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Cerastium texanum N.L. Britton: Mouse-ear Chickweed, Texas Chickweed, Texas Mouse-ear Chickweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, slopes, crevices, among rocks, seeps, along streams and creeks, gravelly and sandy washes, occurring from 1,500 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (090806), 85 (090806)*

 

Herniaria cinerea (see Herniaria hirsuta subsp. cinerea) 

 

Herniaria hirsuta C. Linnaeus subsp. cinerea (A.P. de Condolle) A.X. Coutinho (Herniaria cinerea A.P. de Candolle): Burstwort, Hairy Rupturewort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, bajadas, gravelly flats, valley plains, washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation. in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Loeflingia squarrosa T. Nuttall: Spreading Pygmyleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Silene antirrhina C. Linnaeus: Catchfly, Desert Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Silene (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and waste places, occurring below 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Allenrolfea occidentalis (S. Watson) Kuntze: Chico, Ink Weed, Iodinebush, Picleweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, meadows, sandy plains. alkali and flats, sand dunes, beaches, shorelines, tidal flats, tidal marshes, riparian areas and wet, moist, damp, sandy, alkali clay and saline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 46, 63 (070106), 85 (070106), 108*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall var. canescens: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 24, 26 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (sp.), 58, 77 (sp.), 82, 91*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall var. linearis (S. Watson) P.A. Munz (Atriplex canescens subsp. linearis (S. Watson) W. Hall & F.E. Clements, Atriplex linearis S. Watson): Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats and alkaline soils, occurring below 2,900 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 24, 26 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (sp.), 77, 82, 91*

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 26 (gen.), 46, 68*

 

Atriplex lentiformis (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Big Saltbush, Lens-scale, Quail-brush, Quailbush, White-thistle (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (3 to 12 feet in height and 6 to 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial plains, valley bottoms, along washes and streams, river banks and bottoms, floodplains, playas, disturbed areas and moist, dry, alkaline and sandy soils, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant provides food and cover for birds and mammals, is browsed by cattle and may have potential as a commercial livestock fodder. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 26, 46, 48, 77, 91, 108*

 

Atriplex linearis (see Atriplex canescens var. linearis) 

 

Atriplex pacifica A. Nelson: Davidson’s Saltbush, Pacific Orache (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert pavement and rocky soils, occurring from 600 to 700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 26 (gen.)*

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: All-scale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush, Littleleaf Saltbush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, valley bottoms, along washes, floodplains, playa margins and alkaline and non-alkaline soils, occurring from 400 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cattle Saltbush is a very important browse plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 26 (gen.), 28, 46, 48, 77, 91, 108*

 

Chenopodium murale C. Linnaeus: Chual, Chuana Soap, Cuhal, Goosefoot, Green Fat Hen, Green Goosefoot, Lamb’s Quarters, Nettleleaf Goosefoot, Nettle Leaved Fat Hen, Rauniosavikka, Round Leaved Fat Hen, Sowbane, Swinebane, Wall Goosefoot, Wheat bush (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Chenopodium watsonii A. Nelson: Watson’s Goosefoot (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, meadows, boulder fields, flats, roadsides, draws, along washes and rivers, disturbed areas and gravelly, sandy, silty and gravelly clay loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,900 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85*

 

Monolepis nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) E.L. Greene: Annual Povertyweed, Monolepis, Nutall Monolepis, Nuttall’s Povertyweed, Papago Spinach, Patata, Patota, Patote, Poverty Weed, Suolasavikka (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 8 inches in height and/or 3 to 15 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, alkaline depressions, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80*

 

Nitrophila occidentalis (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) S. Watson: Boraxweed, Western Niterwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (stems to 12 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from salt flats and wet, moist and alkaline soils, occurring below 1,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (062606), 85 (062606)*

 

Salsola kali var. tenuifolia (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola kali subsp. tragus (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Suaeda moquinii (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene (Suaeda nigra (Rafenesque) J.F. MacBride, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson var. ramosissima (P.C. Standley) P.A. Munz): Bush Seepweed, Desert Seepweed, Inkweed, Iodineweed, Mojave Seablite, Quelite Salado, Torrey Sea-blite (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, alkali flats, floodplains and coastal salt marshes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46*

 

Suaeda nigra (see Suaeda moquinii)

 

Suaeda torreyana (see Suaeda moquini) 

 

Suaeda torreyana var. ramosissima (see Suaeda moquinii)  

 

 

Family Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Evolvulus alsinoides (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus var. angustifolius J. Torrey (Evolvulus alsinoides (C. Linnaeus) C. Linnaeus (var. acapulcensis (C.L. von Willdenow) S.J. van Ooststroom is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Acapulco Evolvulus, Arizona Blue Eyes, Dio de Vibora, Slender Dwarf Morning-glory (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, dry plains and along washes, occurring from 2,200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Evolvulus alsinoides var. acapulcensis (see Evolvulus alsinoides var. angustifolius)  

 

Ipomoea costellata J. Torrey: Crestrib Morning-glory (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, plains and sandy washes, occurring from 3,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Ipomoea cristulata E.H. Hallier f.: Scarlet Creeper, Scarlet Morning Glory, Star Glory Morning-glory, TransPecos Morning-glory (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (3 to 7 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 3,400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 48 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Ipomoea desertorum (see Ipomoea hederacea) 

 

Ipomoea hederacea N.J. von Jacquin (Ipomoea desertorum H.D. House, Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f. [misapplied]): Blue Morning-glory, Desert Morning-glory, Entireleaf Morningglory, Ivyleaf Morning-glory, Mexican Morningglory, Morning Glory, Trompillo Morado (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (to 20 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, along streams and washes, arroyos, mesquite bosques, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly sandy and silty soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081106), 68, 77, 85 (081106), 101*

 

Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f. (see Ipomoea hederacea)  

 

Jacquemontia pringlei A. Gray: Pringle’s Clustervine (terrestrial perennial vine, subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky hills, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among rocks, rocky crevices, draws, along streams, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 46, 85*

 

 

Family Crassulaceae: The Stonecrop Family

 

Crassula connata J. Miers (Tillaea erecta W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott): Pygmy Stonecrop, Pygmy Weed, Sand Pygmyweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, seeps, washes, streambeds and moist and damp soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Dudleya arizonica (see Dudleya pulverulenta subsp. arizonica)

 

Dudleya pulverulenta (T. Nuttall) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose subsp. arizonica (J.N. Rose) R.E. Moran (Dudleya arizonica J.N. Rose, Echeveria pulverulenta T. Nuttall subsp. arizonica (J.N. Rose) I.W. Clokey): Arizona Chalk-lettuce, Arizona Liveforever, Chalk Dudleya (terrestrial perennial succulent forb/herb (to 2½ inches in height, rosettes growing to 10 inches in width with a flowering stalk reaching 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, cliff faces, rock ledges, crevices and rocky slopes, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46*

 

Echeveria pulverulenta subsp. arizonica (see Dudleya pulverulenta subsp. arizonica) 

 

Echeveria rusbyi (see Graptopetalum rusbyi)

 

Graptopetalum rusbyi (E.L. Greene) J.N. Rose (Echeveria rusbyi (E.L. Greene) A. Nelson & J.F. MacBride): San Francisco Leatherpetal, San Francisco River Leatherpetal (terrestrial perennial succulent forb/herb (to 1½ inches in height with a flowering stalk reaching 10 inches in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, rocky ledges, rocky hillsides, rocky outcrops, rocky slopes, rock crevices, among rocks, ravines, along streams, riparian woodlands and rocky and rocky loam soils, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 85*

 

Tillaea erecta (see Crassula connata)  

 

 

Family Crossosomataceae: The Crossosoma Family

 

Crossosoma bigelovii S. Watson: Bigelow Ragged Rock-flower, Crossosoma, Ragged Rockflower, Rhyolite Bush (terrestrial perennial shrub (20 inches to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, crevices of cliff faces, rocky slopes, rocky hillsides and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Brandegea bigelovii (S.Watson) C.A. Cogniaux.: Desert Starvine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, bajadas, plains, desertscrubs, arroyos, along washes, gravelly river beds, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (trailing stems reaching 3 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, hills, sandy benches, dry plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gulches, sandy washes, floodplains, waste places and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 68*

 

Echinopepon wrightii (A Gray) S Watson: Wright Mockcucumber, Wild Balsam Apple, Wild Balsamapple (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, draws, along washes and streams, floodplains, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,600 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Marah gilensis E.L. Greene: Big Root, Gila Manroot, Wild Cucumber (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountainsides, canyons, among boulders, rocky slopes, seeps, springs, gorges, along washes and streams, bosques and silty soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58*

 

Tumamoca macdougalii J.N. Rose: Globeberry, MacDougal Tumamoc Globeberry, Tumamoc Globeberry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (to 5 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, hillsides, bajadas, slopes, among rocks, gravelly flats, valleys, coastal plains, mesquite bosques, along sandy washes, gullies, arroyos, stream terraces and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub regional formations) The flowers are pollinated by moths; cardinals, thrashers, Gambel Quail (Callipepla gambelii) and Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) feed on the fruits and seeds, and Javelinas (Peccari tajacu) feed on the tuberous roots. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, vines bear small pale yellow flowers and berry-like bright red fruits, plants remains dormant during winter and early spring, vines die back after fruiting or are killed by frost, plant beneath shrubs and low growing tree that will give support to the vines. *5, 6, 8, 9, 16, 24, 46, 77, 85, 91*

 

 

Family Cuscutaceae: The Dodder Family

 

Cuscuta californica W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott: Chaparral Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Abronia spp., Ambrosia (Fransera) spp., Andenostoma spp., Asclepias spp., Baileya spp., Calliandra spp., Dalea spp., Eriogonum spp. Foeniculum spp. and Polygonum spp., occurring from 600 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.)*

 

Cuscuta salina G. Engelmann var. salina: Golden Thread, Saltmarsh Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Allenrolfea spp., Atriplex spp., Bassia spp., Cressa spp., Haplopappus spp., Nitrophila spp., Salicornia spp., Salsola spp., Suaeda spp., Xanthium spp., occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.)*

 

Cuscuta tuberculata K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Tubercle Dodder, Tuber Dodder, Umbrella Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Allionia spp., Baccharis spp., Bebbia spp., Boerhavia spp., Euphorbia spp., Tidestroemia lanuginosa, Zizyphus spp. and other hosts, occurring from 400 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.)*

 

Cuscuta umbellata K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Big-flower Dodder, Flatglobe Dodder, Umbrella Dodder (terrestrial annual parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Alternanthera spp., Amaranthus spp., Atriplex spp., Boerhavia spp., Euphorbia spp., Kallstoremia spp., Polygonum spp., Suaeda spp., Sesuvium spp., Trianthema spp. and Tribulus spp., occurring from 1,000 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 68, 80 (gen.)*

 

 

Family Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Acalypha californica G. Bentham (Acalypha pringlei S. Watson): California Copperleaf, Copperleaf, Hierba del Cancer, Pringle Three-seeded Mercury (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky slopes, ravines and along washes occurring from 1,500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 46, 108*

 

Acalypha pringlei (see Acalypha californica) 

 

Argythamnia claryana W.L. Jepson (Ditaxis adenophora auct. non (A. Gray) F.A. Pax & K. Hoffmann [misapplied]): Desert Silverbush, Glandular Silverbush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, among rocks and springs, occurring from 300 to 2,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Argythamnia lanceolata (G. Bentham) J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis lanceolata (G. Bentham) F.A. Pax & K. Hoffmann: Lanceleaf Ditaxis, Lance-leaved Argythamnia, Narrowleaf Silverbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas, occurring from 350 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

Argythamnia neomexicana J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis neomexicana (J. Müller Argoviensis) F.X. Heller): Ditaxis, New Mexico Ditaxis, New Mexico Silverbush, New Mexico Wild Mercury (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Chamaesyce abramsiana (L.C. Wheeler) D.L. Koutnik (Euphorbia abramsiana L.C. Wheeler): Abrams’ Sandmat, Abram Spurge, Golondrina (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 150 to 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce albomarginata (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.K. Small (Euphorbia albomarginata J. Torrey & A. Gray): Golondrina, Rattlesnake Weed, White Margin Euphorbia, Whitemargin Sandmat, White Margin Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to ½ inch in height and 10 to 21 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86*

 

Chamaesyce arizonica (G. Engelmann) J.C. Arthur (Euphorbia arizonica G. Engelmann): Arizona Euphorbia, Arizona Sandmat, Arizona Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce capitellata (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia capitellata G. Engelmann): Golondrinia, Head Euphorbia, Head Sandmat, Head Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce florida (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia florida G. Engelmann): Chiricahua Mountain Sandmat, Florida Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (C. Linnaeus) J.K. Small (Euphorbia hyssopifolia C. Linnaeus): Hyssopleaf Euphorbia, Hyssopleaf Sandmat, Hyssop Spurge, (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, soil pockets on rock outcrops, gravelly flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce melandenia (J. Torrey) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia melanadenia J. Torrey): Red-gland Spurge, Squaw Spurge, Squaw Sandmat, Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, hillsides and flats, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce micromera (P.E. Bossier) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley (Euphorbia micromera P.E. Boissier): Golondrina, Littleleaf Spurge, Pitseed Euphorbia, Sonoran Sandmat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats and washes, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley var. pediculifera (Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann): Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish (Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham): Desert Spurge, Golondrina, Smallseed Sandmat, Smallseed Spurge (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb, within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, gravelly and sandy plains, sandy flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 63 (080506), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce prostrata (W. Aiton) J.K. Small (Euphorbia chamaesyce C. Linnaeus, Euphorbia prostrata W. Aiton): Celidonia (Hispanic), Golondrina (Hispanic), Groundfig Spurge, Hierba de la Golondrina (Hispanic), Kanab-mukuy (Maya), Prostrate Sandmat, Prostrate Spurge (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (stems 3 to 7 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, dry stream beds, around stock tanks, rivers, cienegas, bosques, riparian areas, disturbed areas and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 30, 46, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce setiloba (G. Engelmann ex J. Torrey) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish (Euphorbia setiloba G. Engelmann): Bristlelobe Sandmat, Bristlelobe Spurge, Golondrina, Fringed Spurge, Yuma Sandmat, Yuma Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Croton sonorae J. Torrey: Rama Blanca, Sonora Croton, Sonoran Croton, Vera Prieta (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation. Plants in this genus are probably more or less poisonous.) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46*

 

Ditaxis adenophora (see Argythamnia claryana) 

 

Ditaxis lanceolata (see Argythamnia lanceolata) 

 

Ditaxis neomexicana (see Argythamnia neomexicana) 

 

Euphorbia abramsiana (see Chamaesyce abramsiana)

 

Euphorbia albomarginata (see Chamaesyce albomarginata)  

 

Euphorbia arizonica (see Chamaesyce arizonica)

 

Euphorbia capitellata (see Chamaesyce capitellata)  

 

Euphorbia chamaesyce (see Chamaesyce prostrata) 

 

Euphorbia eriantha G. Bentham: Beetle Spurge, Desert Poinsettia, Threaded Spurge, Woollyflower Euphorbia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 300 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in the genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Euphorbia florida (see Chamaesyce florida)  

 

Euphorbia heterophylla C. Linnaeus: Catalina, Japanese Poinsettia, Mexican Fireplant, Painted Spurge, Picachalih, Summer Poinsettia, Wild Poinsettia (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, soil pockets in rocky outcrops and along washes, occurring from 2,400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 24, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Euphorbia hyssopifolia (see Chamaesyce hyssopifolia)

 

Euphorbia melanadenia (see Chamaesyce melandenia)  

 

Euphorbia micromera (see Chamaesyce micromera)  

 

Euphorbia pediculifera (see Chamaesyce pediculifera)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa var. polycarpa)  

 

Euphorbia prostrata (see Chamaesyce prostrata)

 

Euphorbia setiloba (see Chamaesyce setiloba)  

 

Jatropha cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis: Limber Bush, Limberbush, Matacora, Nettlespurge, Sangre de Cristo, Sangre-de-drago, Sangregrado, Sangrengado, Torote (terrestrial perennial deciduous semi-succulent shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, hills, rocky hillsides, foothills, bajadas, dry plains and along washes, sandy arroyos, floodplains, riparian areas and rocky soils, occurring from 100 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland  and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, emerald green leaves appear around the time of the first rains and then provide color when the leaves turn gold in the fall. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 46, 48, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 91, 108*

 

Jatropha cinerea (C.G. de Ortega) J. Müller Argoviensis: Arizona Nettlespurge, Ashy Jatropha, Ashy Limberbush, Mexican Nettlespurge, Sangre de Drago (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous semi-succulent shrub (3 to 14 feet in height, and trees to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, sandy slopes, bajadas, dry plains, sandy flats, sand dunes, roadsides, valleys along washes, sandy arroyos, coastal plains, disturbed soils and rocky, sandy and sandy silty soils, occurring below 1,800 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 46, 80 (gen.), 85, 91, 108*

 

Jatropha cuneata I.L. Wiggins & R.C. Rollins: Limber Bush, Matacora, Physicnut, Sange-de-drago, Sangrengado, Shrubby Limberbush (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous semi-succulent shrub (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky mesas, canyons, rocky benches, foothills, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, sandy knolls, plains, sandy flats, sand dunes, washes, arroyos and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 2,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 80 (gen.), 85, 91*

 

Sapium biloculare (see Sebastiania bilocularis)

 

Sebastiania bilocularis S. Watson (Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) F.A. Pax): Arizona Jumping Bean, Arrow Poison Plant, Hierba de la Flecha (Herb of the Arrow), Hierba Malla (Bad Herb), Jumping Bean Sapium, Mago, Mexican Jumping Bean, Yerba de Fleche, Yerba Mala (terrestrial perennial deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, flats, desert pavement, valleys and sandy washes and watercourses, occurring from 800 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The sap is poisonous, wind may release sufficient toxin to cause stinging eyes and congested lungs. *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 53, 91, 108*

 

Stillingia linearifolia S. Watson: Linearleaf Sand Spurge, Narrowleaf Stillinga, Noseburn, Queen’s-root, Quemadore (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, canyons, rocky ridges, sand hills, slopes, sand dunes, sand hummocks, sandy plains, sandy flats, sandy washes and sandy soils, gravelly silty soils and sandy clay loam soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 24, 31, 46, 63 (080606), 80 (gen.), 85 (080606)*

 

Tragia nepetifolia A.J. Cavanilles: Catnip Noseburn, Ortiguilla (Hispanic), Ra´oke (Purépecha), Ra´uli (Purépecha) (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky hillsides, buttes, rocky slopes, benches, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, riparian areas, disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 30, 46, 58, 77, 85 (080106)*

 

 

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia angustissima (P. Miller) C.E. Kuntze var. suffructescens (J.N. Rose) P.T. Isely (Acacia cuspidata D.F. von Schlechtendal): Barbus de Chivo, Cantemo, Fern Acacia, Guajillo, Palo de Pulque (Hispanic), Prairie Acacia, Siraku K’amataraku (Purépecha), Timbe (Hispanic), Timben (Hispanic), Timbre (Hispanic), Whiteball Acacia (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountain sides, rocky canyons, rocky slopes, rocky hills, hillsides, bajadas, roadsides, valleys. washes, along streams, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly and clay soils, occurring from 2,200 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Quail feed on the seeds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the leaves are fernlike. *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 28 (sp.), 30 (sp.), 46, 48 (sp.), 91 (sp.)*

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous (drought and cold) shrub or tree (2 to 18 feet in height and to 18 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be fragrant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 68, 77, 80, 91, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Acacia cuspidata (see Acacia angustissima var. suffructescens) 

 

Acacia greggii var. arizonica (see Acacia greggii var. greggii)  

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Acacia, Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg’s Acacia, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (5 to 25 feet in height and 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 80, 91, 108*

 

Astragalus didymocarpus W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott (var. dispermus (A. Gray) W.L. Jepson is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Desert Dwarf Locoweed, Dwarf Loco, Dwarf White Milkvetch, Hierba Loca, Two-seeded Milkvetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky hillsides, among rocks, plains, flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, disturbed areas and gravelly, sandy and clay loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

Astragalus lentiginosus D. Douglas ex W.J. Hooker var. australis R.C. Barneby: Freckled Milkvetch, Speckledpod Milkvetch (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

Astragalus lentiginosus D. Douglas ex W.J. Hooker var. yuccanus M.E. Jones: Blue Loco, Crazyweed, Hierba Loca, Loco, Locoweed, Mottled Locoweed, Poisonvetch, Rattleweed, Yucca Milkvetch (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, hills, gravelly hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and sandy and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85*

 

Astragalus nuttallianus A.P. de Candolle var. austrinus (J.K. Small) R.C. Barneby: Locoweed, Nuttall Locoweed, Nuttall Milkvetch, Small-flowered Milkvetch (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46 (sp.), 63 (083006), 77*

 

Astragalus nuttallianus A.P. de Condolle var. imperfectus (P.A. Rydberg) R.C. Barneby: Locoweed, Nuttall Locoweed, Nuttall Milkvetch, Smallflowered Milkvetch, Turkeypeas (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham var. eriophylla: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 4 feet in height and 4 to 5 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Fairyduster is browsed by wildlife and is highly palatable to Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48 (sp.), 58, 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

Cassia covesii (see Senna covesii)  

 

Cercidium floridum (see Parkinsonia florida)   

 

Cercidium microphyllum (see Parkinsonia microphylla)   

 

Coursetia glandulosa A. Gray (Coursetia microphylla A. Gray): Arí (Hispanic), Baby Bonnets, Chino, Chipile, Chipilillo, Coursetia, Cousamo, Lac Bush, Rosary Babybonnets, Samo (Tarahumara), Samo Prieto, Samota, Sámu (Hispanic), Tepechipile, Zamota (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly alluvial fans, flats, among rocks and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) An orange-colored lac may be observed on the stems of the plant that is produced by the feeding of an insect in the genus Tachardia. The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthis latirostris) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 24, 28, 30, 46, 77, 91*

 

Coursetia microphylla (see Coursetia glandulosa)  

 

Dalea mollis G. Bentham: Hairy Prairie-clover, Silk Dalea, Soft Dalea (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, foothills, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, flats, dunes, arroyos and rocky, gravelly, sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Dalea parryi (see Marina parryi)  

 

Dalea pogonathera A. Gray var. poganthera: Bearded Dalea, Bearded Prairie Clover, Herba del Corazon, Heirba del Corazo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, hills bajadas, flats, roadsides, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.)*

 

Dalea pringlei A. Gray var. pringlei: Pringle Indigo Bush, Pringle’s Prairie Clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, hills, sandy banks and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 24, 46 (sp.), 77 (sp.)*

 

Dalea spinosa (see Psorothamnus spinosus)  

 

Desmodium procumbens (P. Miller) A.S. Hitchcock var. procumbens: Tick Clover, Western Trailing Ticktrefoil (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, gravelly slopes, cliff bases, sandy washes, ravines, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.), 85*

 

Galactia wrightii A. Gray: Cliff Bean, Wright’s Milkpea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or, vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, along washes and streams and rocky soils, occurring from 700 to 7,600 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Lotus humistratus E.L. Greene: Foothill Deervetch, Hill Deervetch, Hill Lotus, Foothill Deervetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 inches in height and 4 to 18 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86*

 

Lotus rigidus (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene: Desert Rock Pea, Shrubby Deervetch, Wiry Lotus (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91*

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene (var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Lotus strigosus (T. Nuttall) E.L. Greene (var. tomentellus P.T. Isely is the variety reported from Arizona, Lotus tomentellus E.L. Greene): Annual Lotus, Desert Deervetch, Desert Lotus, Greene’s Desert Deervetch, Hairy Deer Vetch, Hairy Lotus, Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, among boulders, along sandy washes and sandy and gravelly soils, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Lotus tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lupinus arizonicus (S. Watson) S. Watson: Arizona Lupine, Lupino (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and sandy washes, occurring below 3000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (gen.)*

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 108*

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Desert Lupine, Mojave Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 108*

 

Marina parryi (J. Torrey & A. Gray) R.C. Barneby (Dalea parryi J. Torrey & A. Gray): Parry Dalea, Parry Indigo Pea, Parry Marina, Parry’s False Prairie-clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 or more feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and roadsides, occurring from 2,200 to 4,700 feet in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Medicago hispida (see Medicago polymorpha)     

 

Medicago polymorpha C. Linnaeus (Medicago hispida J. Gaertner, Medicago polymorpha C. Linnaeus var. vulgaris (G. Bentham) L.H. Shinners): Burclover, California Bur Clover, Carretilla (Hispanic), Medic, Uirhijpiku Sapichu (Purépecha) (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or vine (to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, cienegas and moist soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 30, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80*

 

Medicago polymorpha var. vulgaris (see Medicago polymorpha)  

 

Melilotus indicus (C. Linnaeus) J. Allioni: Alfalfilla, Annual Yellow Sweetclover, Sour Clover (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (18 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, creeks, cienegas, ditches, ponds, waste places and moist disturbed areas, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 80 (gen.)*

 

Mimosa distachya A.J. Cavanilles var. laxiflora (G. Bentham) R.C. Barneby (Mimosa laxiflora G. Bentham): Arizona Mimosa, Culion, Curca, Garabatillo, Gastuna, Iguano (terrestrial perennial cold and drought deciduous shrub (5 to 23 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, alluvial flats, arroyos and along washes, occurring from 400 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The seeds of the plant are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 46, 77, 91*

 

Mimosa laxiflora (see Mimosa distachya var. laxiflora)

 

Nissolia schottii (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Schott’s Yellowhood (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Comitin, Arizona Ironwood, Desert Ironwood, Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 30 feet in height and 15 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, rocky canyons, rocky foothills, hills, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, floodplains and along washes, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; the trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and the seeds are an important food of desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 91, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Parkinsonia aculeata C. Linnaeus: Bacapore, Bagota, Espinillo, Guacoporo, Horse Bean, Jerusalem Thorn, Junco, Long-leaf Paloverde, Mexican Paloverde, Mezquite Verde, Retama (terrestrial perennial drought and possibly cold deciduous shrub or tree (15 to 40 feet in height and 15 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, hills, bajadas, gravelly and sandy alluvial fans, sandy plains, flats, roadsides, floodplains, along washes and arroyos, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Jerusalem Thorn is native to the Castle Dome Mountains (Yuma County) and the foothills of the Coyote and Baboquivari Mountains (Pima County) in Arizona. The foliage and pods are browsed by wildlife. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 80, 91*

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree) (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; has a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 86, 91, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree), Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, rocky and gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and gravelly flats, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 86, 91, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray var. acutifolius: Frijol, Tepary, Tepary Bean, Wild Tepary Bean (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, moist swales, washes, mesquite bosques, riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and wetland ecological formations) Growing this plant may increase soil fertility. *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (081206), 85 (081206)*

 

Phaseolus filiformis G. Bentham (Phaseolus wrightii A. Gray): Desert Bean, Slimjim Bean, Wright Bean (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms and rocky slopes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Phaseolus wrightii (see Phaseolus filiformis)   

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey var. glandulosa (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. glandulosa (J. Torrey) T.D. Cockerell): Common Mesquite, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mizquitl (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, plains, valleys, floodplains and along washes and streams, occurring from 2,300 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Costa’s hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers, this plant provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 26, 28 (sp.), 46, 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 63 (083106), 101 (sp.), 108*

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C. Johnston (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle. var. torreyana L. Benson): Algarroba, Chachaca, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Western Honey Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 30 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes, streams and rivers and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Povides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 63 (083106), 68, 80, 91, 101 (sp.)*

 

Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa (see Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) 

 

Prosopis juliflora var. torreyana (see Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana) 

 

Prosopis juliflora var. velutina (see Prosopis velutina)  

 

Prosopis pubescens G. Bentham: Fremont Screwbean, Screwbean, Screwbean Mesquite, Screwpod Mesquite, Tornillo (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (7 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys, bottomlands, floodplains, seeps, along streams, rivers, ponds and water holes, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Screwbean Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 91*

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 56 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert water courses have been lost to fuel wood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields and commercial and residential development. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53 (sp.), 58, 63 (083106), 68, 77, 80, 91, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Psorothamnus spinosus (A. Gray) R.C. Barneby (Dalea spinosa A. Gray): Corona de Cristo, Indigo Bush, Indigo Thorn, Mangle, Smoke Thorn, Smokethorn Dalea, Smoketree (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (4 to 27 feet in height and 10 to 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy washes and arroyos and in sandy and gravelly soils, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is very frost sensitive. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 86, 91, 108*

 

Rhynchosia senna J. Gillies ex W.J. Hooker var. texana (J. Torrey & A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Rhynchosia texana J. Torrey & A. Gray): Rosary Bean, Texas Snoutbean (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, slopes, plains, roadsides, along creeks, floodplains and riparian areas, occurring from 2,400 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as a ground cover. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Rhynchosia texana (see Rhynchosia senna var. texana)  

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, sandy river bottoms and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cove Cassia is a larval food plant for the Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae) and Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 68, 77, 82*

 

Tephrosia tenella (see Tephrosia vicioides)

 

Tephrosia vicioides D.F. Schlechtendal (Tephrosia tenella A. Gray): Red Hoarypea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons and canyon bottoms, bases of cliffs, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, hills, hillsides, among boulders and rocks, soil pockets on rocky outcrops, roadsides, arroyos and gravelly, sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring from 160 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is suspected of being poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77, 85*

 

Trifolium arizonicum (see Trifolium mucronatum subsp. lacerum)

 

Trifolium mucronatum C.L. von Wildenow ex C.P. Sprengel subsp. lacerum (E.L. Greene) J.M. Gillett (Trifolium arizonicum E.L. Greene, Trifolium wormskioldii (also wormskjoldii) Lehmann var. arizonicum (E.L. Greene) R.C. Barneby): Cusp Clover, Spinytooth Clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, meadows, hills, coastal dunes, streambanks, riparian areas and wet soils, occurring from 2,400 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is reported to be beneficial to the soil. *5, 6, 24, 46, 58, 80 (gen.), 86*

 

Trifolium wormskioldii (also wormskjoldii) var. arizonicum (see Trifolium mucronatum subsp. lacerum)

 

Vicia exigua (see Vicia ludoviciana subsp. ludoviciana)  

 

Vicia ludoviciana T. Nuttall subsp. ludoviciana (Vicia exigua T. Nuttall): Louisiana Vetch, Slender Vetch, Slim Vetch, Vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms, ridge tops, foothills, hills, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock outcrops, basins, along washes and streambeds and sandy, gravelly and rocky loam soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 85, 80 (gen.)*

 

 

Family Fagaceae: The Beech Family

 

Quercus ajoensis C.H. Muller (Quercus turbinella E.L. Greene var. ajoensis (C.H. Muller) E.L. Little): Ajo Mountain Scrub Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hilltops, along stream beds and washes and moist soils, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (070106), 83 (070106), 108*

 

Quercus grisea F.M. Liebmann: Encino (Hispanic), Gray Oak, Scrub Oak, Shin Oak: (terrestrial perennial deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (7 to 65 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, foothills, hills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, valleys, along streams and washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 4,200 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 30, 46, 52, 53, 63 (090806), 68 (gen.), 85 (090806), 108*

 

Quercus turbinella E.L. Greene (Quercus turbinella E.L. Greene subsp. turbinella): California Scrub Oak, Desert Scrub Oak, Scrub Oak, Scrub Live Oak, Shrub Live Oak, Sonoran Scrub Oak, Turbinella Oak, Tucker Oak (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (5 to 23 feet in height and generally about as wide as tall); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky canyons, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, rocky ravines and ravine bottoms and riparian areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The leaves are browsed by wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 63 (062406), 68 (gen.), 77, 108*

 

Quercus turbinella var. ajoensis (see Quercus ajoensis) 

 

Quercus turbinella subsp. turbinella (see Quercus turbinella) 

 

 

Family Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial deciduous drought and cold) moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 6 to 100 stems 6 to 33 feet in height and 5 to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, rocky and stony slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly and sandy plains, gravelly flats and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers and is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 91, 108*

 

 

Family Gentianaceae: The Gentian Family

 

Centaurium calycosum (S.B. Buckley) M.L. Fernald: Arizona Centaury, Buckley’s Centaury, Canchalgua, Centaury, Rosita (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (5 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hillsides, moist meadows, prairies, seeps, springs, along washes, streams and creeks, river bottoms, prairies, flats, floodplains, sand bars, around pools and stock tanks, cienegas, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist, damp and sandy soils, occurring from 150 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 77, 86*

 

Eustoma exaltatum (C. Linnaeus) R.A. Salisbury ex G. Don (subsp. exaltatum is the variety reported from Arizona; forma albilflorum H.C. Benke (?) has been reported from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument): Alkali Chalice, Catchfly-gentian, Catchfly Prairie Gentian (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, cienegas, boggy and swampy areas, along streams, stream beds, rivers and ditches, around ponds and lakes, riparian areas and moist and wet and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 28, 46 (sp.)*

 

 

Family Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Agujitas (Hispanic), Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfirerillo (Hispanic), Arete (Hispanic), Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heronbill, Pikuku Jasi (Purépecha), Pin-clover, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill, Semuchi (Hispanic), Storksbill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 24 inches or more in height or length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gravelly and sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500+ feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 24, 28, 30, 46, 58, 77, 80, 86, 101, 108*

 

Erodium texanum A. Gray: Alfilerilla, Desert Stork’s Bill, False Filaree, Large-flowered Stork’s Bill, Texas Stork’s Bill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, prairies, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Geranium carolinianum C. Linnaeus: Carolina Crane’s-bill, Carolina Geranium (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, slopes, springs, along washes, stream beds and creeks, riparian areas and moist, damp, rocky, sandy and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 1,800 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

 

Family Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene var. bipinnatifida (J. Torrey) L. Constance: Common Eucrypta, Spotted Hideseed, Torrey Eucrypta (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Eucrypta micrantha (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Dainty Desert Hideseed, Peluda, Smallflower Eucrypta, Small-flowered Eucrypta (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Hohr-oohit (Seri), Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Roll-leaf, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 12 inches in height and to 16 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, lava flows, bajadas, alluvial terraces, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, dunes, sand hummocks, sandy draws, roadsides, along sandy streambeds, washes and dry river bottoms, floodplains, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and rocky cobble, sandy, sandy loam and loamy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This small annual forb may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been described as being lavender, purple, violet-blue and sometimes with a white throated corolla. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 63 (091606), 77, 85 (091606), 108*

 

Nama hispidum var. spathulatum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Phacelia affinis A. Gray: Limestone Phacelia, Limestone Scorpion-weed, Purple Bell Phacelia, Purple Bell (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mesas, canyons, hills, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, valleys, seeps, along streams and sandy washes and rocky, sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring from 400 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 63 (090806), 77, 85 (090806)*

 

Phacelia ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia caerulea E.L. Greene (Phacelia coerulea E.L. Greene [orthographic variant]): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Weed, Skyblue Phacelia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,800 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Phacelia coerulea (see Phacelia caerulea)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson: Caterpillar Weed, Cleftleaf Wildheliotrope, Common Phacelia, Desert Heliotrope, Scalloped Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 46, 77, 80, 108*

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. ambigua (M.E. Jones) J.F. Macbride (Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones): Caterpillar Weed, Notch-leaf Phacelia, Phacelia, Purplestem Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills and plains, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 80 (sp.) *

 

Phacelia distans G. Bentham (Phacelia distans G. Bentham var. australis A. Brand): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Phacelia, Distant Phacelia, Fern-leaf Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Phacelia distans var. australis (see Phacelia distans) 

 

Phacelia neglecta W. Jones: Alkali Phacelia, Alkali Scorpion-weed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes, lava flow,  talus slopes, gravelly flats, desert pavement, desert varnish and stony soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46*

 

Phacelia pedicellata A. Gray: Pedicellate Phacelia, Pedicellate Scorpion-weed, Specter Phacelia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, dry rocky slopes, talus slopes, among boulders and rocks, rocky washes and creeks, around lakes, riparian areas and alluvial gravels and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 80*

 

Phacelia ramosissima D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann (var. latifolia (J. Torrey) A.J. Cronquist is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Branched Scorpion-weed, Branching Phacelia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, cliffs, talus slopes, rocky slopes, along streams, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,800 to 8,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 63 (062606), 58, 85 (062606)*

 

Pholistoma auritum (J. Lindley) N. Lilja (var. arizonicum (W. Jones) L. Constance is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Arizona Fiestaflower, Arizona Pholistoma, Blue Fiesta Flower, Sticky Waterleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and along washes, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, dry plains, gravelly flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Krameria parviflora (see Krameria erecta)  

 

 

Family Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Hedeoma nana (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet subsp. macrocalyx W.S. Stewart (Hedeoma nanum (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet subsp. macrocalyx W.S. Stewart): Dwarf False Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Low Hedeoma, Mock-pennyroyal, Oregano (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and flats, occurring from 650 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Hedeoma nanum subsp. macrocalyx (see Hedeoma nana subsp. macrocalyx)

 

Hyptis emoryi J. Torrey: Bee Sage, Desert Lavender, Lavender, Salvia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 15 feet in height and 3 to 8 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, among boulders and along sandy washes, occurring, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Native bees and hummingbirds visit the flowers and the seeds provide food for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, but is sensitive to frosts. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 77, 91*

 

Monardella arizonica C.C. Epling: Arizona Monardella, Arizona Mountainbalm, Bee Balm (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ledges in canyons and springs, occurring from 2,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46*

 

Salazaria mexicana J. Torrey: Bladder Sage, Mexican Bladdersage, Paper-bag Bush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers and fruit are reported to be attractive. *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 48, 86*

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham (var. columbariae is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): California Chia, California Sage, Chia, Desert Chia, Desert Sage (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Salvia pinguifolia (M.L. Fernald) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Rock Sage (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, below cliffs, hillsides, rocky slopes, woodlands, desertscrubs, rocky draws, gulches, rocky arroyos, riparian areas  and rocky clay loam soils, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin var. densum (Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin subsp. depressum (J.K. Small) McClintock & C.C. Epling): Combleaf Germander, Small Coast Germander, Small Coastal Germander (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and sandy washes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16 (sp.), 24, 46, 77*

 

Teucrium cubense subsp. depressum (see Teucrium cubense var. densum)

 

Teucrium glandulosum A. Kellogg: Common Germander, Germader (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, arroyos, washes, riparian areas, occurring from 1,400 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) *5, 6, 24 46*

 

 

Family Linaceae: The Flax Family

 

Linum lewisii F.T. Pursh (var. lewisii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Linum perenne C. Linnaeus subsp. lewisii (F.T. Pursh) O.E. Hulten): Blue Flax, Lewis Flax, Prairie Flax, Western Blue Flax (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, flats and roadsides, occurring from 2,400 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Linum perenne subsp. lewisii (see Linum lewisii var. lewisii) 

 

 

Family Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Eucnide rupestris (H.E. Baillon) H.J. Thompson & W.R. Ernst (Sympeteleia rupestris (H.E. Baillon) A. Gray: Flor de la Piedra, Rock Nettle, Rock Stingbush, Velcro Plant (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, rocky cliffs and cliff faces, rocky slopes, among rocks, above coves, washes, tanks and rocky soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 24, 46, 85*

 

Mentzelia affinis E.L. Greene: Blazing Star, Pega Pega, Stickleaf, Triangle-seed, Yellowcomet (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Watson: Bracted Blazing Star, Desert Blazing Star, Sand Blazing Star, Blazing Star, Whitebract Blazingstar, Whitebract Stickleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, talus slopes, rocky and gravelly hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, among boulders, terraces, desert flats, along washes and rivers and dry and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081106), 85 (081106)*

 

Mentzelia isolata H.S. Gentry: Isolated Blazingstar (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, talus slopes, rock outcrops, springs, washes, riparian areas and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 3,500 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 48 (gen.)*

 

Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray: Adonis Blazingstar, Adonis Stickleaf, Blazingstar, Desert Blazingstar, Desert Mentzelia, Manyflowered Mentzelia (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly flats, sand dunes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 600 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 48 (gen.), 63 (070606)*

 

Petalonyx linearis E.L. Greene: Longleaf Sandpaper Plant, Long-leaved Sandpaper Plant, Narrowleaf Sandpaper Plant (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, cliff faces, rocky hills, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, washes, floodplains and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 46, 91*

 

Petalonyx thurberi A. Gray (subsp. thurberi is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Sandpaper Plant, Thurber‘s Sandpaper Plant (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, plains, dunes, arroyos, sandy washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 24, 46 (sp.), 91*

 

Sympeteleia rupestris (see Eucnide rupestris)

 

 

Family Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or vine (18 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, rocky canyons, canyon bottoms, rocky hills, gravelly ridges, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among rocks, volcanic plugs, gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and canyons, gravelly flats, along perennial streams, sandy washes and creeks, rocky stream beds and banks, gullies, rocky arroyo bottoms, flood plains, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky clay loam and clay loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Slender Janusia is a food plant of the Sonoran Desert Tortoise. (Gopherus agassizi) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are yellow and the fruit wings are reddish. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 63 (090206), 77, 85 (090206)*

 

 

Family Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon abutiloides (N.J. von Jacquin) C.A. Garcke ex N.L. Britton & W.M. Wilson [Abutilon californicum G. Bentham sensu Kearney and Peebles, Arizona Flora]: Berlandier Abutilon, Indian Mallow, Shrubby Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas and along washes, occurring between 2,000 and 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Shrubby Indian Mallow is a food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Arizona Powdered-skipper (Systaceae zampa). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 77*

 

Abutilon incanum (J.H. Link) R. Sweet: Hoary Abutilon, Hoary Indian Mallow, Indian Mallow, Pelotazo, Pelotazo Chico, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly plains and along arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 91*

 

Abutilon malacum S. Watson: Indian Mallow, Yellow Abutilon, Yellow Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, rocky slopes, rocky ravines, bajadas, hilltops, along washes, floodplains and rocky soils, occurring from 1,700 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 77*

 

Abutilon palmeri A. Gray: Indian Mallow, Palmer’s Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial shrub (6 to 8 feet in height and to 5 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky hills and rocky slopes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation; useful as an ornamental in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 28, 46*

 

Anoda abutiloides A. Gray: False Indian Mallow, Indian Anoda (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5¼ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, among rocks, valleys, along washes and streambeds, around pools and riparian areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 15, 46, 58*

 

Anoda pentaschista A. Gray: Field Anoda (terrestrial summer annual herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, fields, roadsides, along washes, cienegas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Eremalche exilis (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Malvastrum exile A. Gray): Five Spot, White Mallow (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains and mesas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Gayoides crispum (see Herissantia crispa)

 

Herissantia crispa (C. Linnaeus) G.K. Brizicky (Gayoides crispum (C. Linnaeus) J.K. Small): Bladdermallow, Curly Abutilon, False Indian Mallow, Netvein Herissantia (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb, vine or subshrub (to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Bladdermallow is a food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Erichson’s White-skipper (Heliopetes domicella). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Hibiscus biseptus S. Watson: Arizona Rosemallow, Malvita, Sonoran Rose Mallow (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hills and rocky slopes, occurring from 3,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Hibiscus coulteri W.H. Harvey ex A. Gray: Coulter Hibiscus, Desert Rosemallow, Pelotazo (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86*

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Naked Hibiscus, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24 (recoded as Hibiscus denudatus Bentham var. denudatus), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Horsfordia alata (S. Watson) A. Gray: Big Feltplant, Malva Blanca, Mariola, Pink Felt Plant, Pink Velvetmallow (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 to 14 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders, sandy washes, arroyos, dry river bottoms, stock tanks, riparian areas rocky, pebbly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 63 (062506), 85 (062506), 91*

 

Horsfordia newberryi (S. Watson) A. Gray: Newberry’s Velvetmallow, Orange Velvet-mallow, Yellow Felt Plant (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 46, 77, 91*

 

Malva parviflora C. Linnaeus: Cheese Weed, Cheeseweed Mallow, Little Mallow, Malva, Small-flowered Malva, Small-whorl Mallow (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Malvastrum bicuspidatum (S. Watson) J.N. Rose: Malva Peluda, Mexican Shrub Mallow, Shrubby False Mallow, Tachi (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides and rocky slopes, occurring from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 13, 24 (recorded as Malvastrum bicuspidatum (S. Watson) Rose subsp. bicuspidatum), 46, 77*

 

Malvastrum exile (see Eremalche exilis) 

 

Rhynchosida physocalyx (A. Gray) P.A. Fryxell (Sida physocalyx A. Gray): Buffpetal, Spearleaf Sida, Tuberous Rhynchosida (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, gravelly bajadas, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Sida abutifolia P. Miller (Sida filicaulis J. Torrey & A. Gray, Sida procumbens E.J. Schwartz): Spreading Fanpetals, Spreading Sida (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly and sandy flats, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Sida filicaulis (see Sida abutifolia) 

 

Sida physocalyx (see Rhynchosida physocalyx)

 

Sida procumbens (see Sida abutifolia)  

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray subsp. ambigua: Apricot Globemallow, Apricot Mallow, Desert Hollyhock, Desert Globemallow, Desert Mallow, Globe Mallow, Mal de Ojo, Mountain Apricot Mallow, Plantas Muy Malas, Sore-eye Poppy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (20 to 40 inches in height and 2 to 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Apricot Mallow is browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 24, 28, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (S. Watson) A. Gray: Coulter’s Globemallow (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 60 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly and sandy flats and roadsides, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray (Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. californica (S.B. Parish) L.H. Shinners, Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. variabilis (T.D. Cockerell) T.H. Kearney): Emory’s Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, flats and roadsides, occurring below 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 77*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. californica (see Sphaeralcea emoryi) 

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. variabilis (see Sphaeralcea emoryi)

 

Sphaeralcea laxa E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Caliche Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 68, 77*

 

 

Family Molluginaceae: The Carpetweed Family

(genus Mollugo formerly placed in Aizoaceae)

 

Mollugo cerviana (C. Linnaeus) N.C. Seringe: Threadstem Carpetweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, occurring from about 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Moraceae: The Mulberry Family

 

Ficus carica C. Linnaeus: Common Fig, Edible Fig, Ficu, Fig, Picu (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (15 to 30 feet in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, hillsides, near springs, riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 18, 24, 26, 63 (062506), 85 (0602506)*

 

Morus microphylla S.B. Buckley: Dwarf Mulberry, Mexican Mulberry, Mountain Mulberry, Small-leaved Mulberry, Texas Mulberry, Western Mulberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, below cliffs, along washes and streams and moist soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The fruits are eaten by wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 52, 53, 58, 77, 108*

 

 

Family Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Abronia villosa S. Watson: Desert Sand Verbena, Hairy Sand Verbena, Sand Verbena (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches in height with stems trailing to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, dunes, roadsides and sandy soils, occurring, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 28, 46, 63 (070306), 108*

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 inches in height and with stems 6 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, sandy plains, along washes, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravely and sandy soils, occurring from below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86*

 

Boerhavia coccinea P. Miller: Indian Boerhaavia, Red Spiderling, Scarlet Spiderling, Wine-fower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (stems trailing 1 to 6 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 108*

 

Boerhavia erecta C. Linnaeus: Erect Spiderling, Five Winged Spiderling, Hamip Caacöl  (Seri), Mochi, Spiderling (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, soil pockets in rocky outcrops, alluvial fans, rocky bottomland, valley plains and bottoms, roadsides, along sandy washes, rocky arroyos and stream beds, flood plains, riparian areas, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 63 (081206), 85 (090806)*

 

Boerhavia intermedia W. Jones: Fivewing Spiderling, Five-winged Ringstem, Mochi, Spreading Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, damp soil in floodplains, along washes and streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58*

 

Boerhavia megaptera P.C. Standley: Tucson Mountain Spiderling, Winged Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,300 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Boerhavia pterocarpa S. Watson: Apache Pass Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, roadsides, flood plains and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 63 (090806), 85 (090806)*

 

Boerhavia scandens C. Linnaeus (Commicarpus scandens (C. Linnaeus) P.C. Standley): Bush Spiderling, Climbing Wartclub, Miona, Pega-polla (terrestrial perennial subshrub or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Boerhavia spicata J.D. Choisy: Creeping Spiderling, Mochi (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Boerhavia wrightii A. Gray: Creeping Stickstem, Fourwing Spiderling, Large-bracted Boerhaavia, Largebract Spiderling, Mochi, Spiderling, Wright Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Commicarpus scandens (see Boerhavia scandens) 

 

Mirabilis bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa) 

 

Mirabilis bigelovii var. bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa)

 

Mirabilis laevis (G. Bentham) M.C. Curran var. villosa (A. Kellogg) R.W. Spellenberg (Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray, Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray var. bigelovii): Bigelow Four O’clock, Desert Wishbone Bush, Wishbone-bush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains and rocky mountainsides, canyons, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats, along washes and arroyos, stream beds and rocky and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 77*

 

Mirabilis multiflora (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Colorado Four O’Clock, Desert Four O’Clock, Manyflowered Four O’Clock, Maravilla, Showy Four O’Clock, Wild Four O’Clock (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (10 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, bases of cliffs, meadows, foothills, hillsides, slopes, among rocks, roadsides, springs, washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48, 77, 86*

 

 

Family Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Forestiera phillyreoides (see Forestiera shrevei) 

 

Forestiera shrevei P.C. Standley (Forestera phillyreoides (G. Bentham) J. Torrey): Desert Olive, Desert-olive Forestiera, Forestiera, Palo de Tucublate, Shreve Desert Olive, Tanglebrush, Tanglebush, Wild Olive, Twinberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous to nearly evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 25 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 24, 28, 30, 46, 52, 53, 58, 77, 108*

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit, Yellow Menodora (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Rough Menodora is an important browse plant for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48, 63 (062706), 77, 86*

 

Menodora scoparia (see Menodora scabra) 

 

 

Family Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Camissonia boothii (D. Douglas) J.E. Raven subsp. condensata (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven (Oenothera decorticans (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene (var. condensata P.A. Munz is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona)): Booth Evening-primrose, Booth Suncop, Shredding Suncup, Woody Bottle-washer (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert hills, flats, valleys, open deserts, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene): California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening-primrose (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray): Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. aurantiaca (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. aurantiaca (S. Watson) P.A. Munz): Brown-eyed Primrose, Browneyes, Clavate-fruited Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats, sandy places and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. peeblesii (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. peeblesii P.A. Munz): Peebles’ Browneyes (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky hillsides, desertscrubs, flats, along washes, riparian areas, sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. rubescens (J.E. Raven) J.E. Raven (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. rubescens J.E. Raven): Brown-eyed Primrose, Browneyes, Clavate-fruited Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, dunes, lava flows, desert valleys and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 1,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 48 (gen.)*

 

Epilobium canum (E.L. Greene) J.E. Raven subsp. latifoliium (W.J.Hooker) J.E. Raven (Zauschneria californica K. Presl subsp. latifolia (W.J. Hooker) K. Keck, Zauschneria latifolia (W.J. Hooker) E.L. Greene var. arizonica (A. Davidson) M.L. Hilend) is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona)): Arizona Trumpet, California Firechalice, California Fuchsia, Hummingbird Trumpet (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, among rocks, along washes and damp soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The flowers produce a nectar which serves as an important food source for hummingbirds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 28, 46, 58, 86 (sp.)*

 

Eulobus californicus (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann (Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. glabra P.A. Munz, Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. lachnocarpa C.A. Weatherby): Butterfly Weed, Downy Gaura, Lizard Tail, Lizardtail Gaura, Small-flowered Gaura, Tall Gaura, Velvet Leaf Gaura, Velvet Leaved Gaura, Velvetweed, Velvety Gaura, Willow Gaura (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101*

 

Gaura parviflora var. glabra (see Gaura parviflora)

 

Gaura parviflora var. lachnocarpa (see Gaura parviflora)

 

Oenothera arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.L. Wagner (Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.E. Klein, Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. arizonica P.A. Munz): Arizona Primrose, California Evening-primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height with stems 4 to 40 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridges, sandy flats, desertscrub, dunes, washes, sandy river bottoms, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 1,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Oenothera californica subsp. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)   

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes (see Camissonia chamaenerioides) 

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. aurantiaca (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. aurantiaca)

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. peeblesii (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. peeblesii)

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. rubescens (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. rubescens)

 

Oenothera decorticans var. condensata (see Camissonia boothii subsp. condensata)

 

Oenothera deltoides var. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)

 

Oenothera leptocarpa (Camissonia californica)

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray: Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Zauschneria californica subsp. latifolia (see Epilobium canum subsp. latifolium) 

 

Zauschneria latifolia var. arizonica (see Epilobium canum subsp. latifoliium)

 

 

Family Orobanchaceae: The Broom-rape Family

 

Orobanche cooperi (A. Gray) A.A. Heller: Broom Rape, Burro Weed Strangler, Cancer-root, Desert Broomrape, Flor de Tierra, Louisiana Broomrape (terrestrial annual (root parasitic) forb/herb (4 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, sand dunes, flats, sandy washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy and sandy clay soils, occurring from 200 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 63 (082406), 77, 85 (090806)*

 

Orobanche fasciculata T. Nuttall (Orobanche fasciculata T. Nuttall var. lutea (C.C. Parry) D.B. Achey): Cancer-root, Clustered Broomrape, Purple Broomrape, Tufted Broomrape (terrestrial annual (root parasitic) forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, slopes, craters, meadows, volcanic cinders, sand dunes, sandy washes and gravelly and sandy clay soils, occurring from 3,800 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 63 (090806), 85 (090806)*

 

Orobanche fasciculata var. lutea (see Orobanche fasciculata)

 

 

Family Oxalidaceae: The Wood-sorrel Family

 

Oxalis albicans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Radishroot Woodasorrel (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rock faces, cave openings, ravines, springs, washes, streambeds, creeks, mesquite bosques, riparian woodlands and moist soils, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (gen.)*

 

 

Family Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Argemone gracilenta E.L. Greene: Cardo, Crested Pricklepoppy, Crested Prickly Poppy, Prickly Poppy, Sonoran Pricklypoppy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert flats, roadsides, along arroyos and washes, disturbed areas and rocky and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 900 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 80*

 

Argemone mexicana var. ochroleuca (see Argemone ochroleuca) 

 

Argemone ochroleuca R. Sweet (Argemone mexicana R. Sweet var. ochroleuca (R. Sweet) J. Lindley): Cardo, Pale Mexican Pricklypoppy, Prickle Poppy, Yellow Pricklepoppy, Yellow Prickly Poppy (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, arroyos and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,300 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 80*

 

Eschscholzia californica L.K. von Chamisso subsp. mexicana (E.L. Greene) J.C. Clark (Eschscholtzia mexicana E.L. Greene): Amapola, Amorilla, Amopola del Campo (Poppy of the Countryside), California Poppy, Desert Gold Poppy, Gold Poppy, Mexican Gold Poppy (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridge tops, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and roadsides, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 86, 108*

 

Eschscholtzia mexicana (see Eschscholzia californica subsp. mexicana) 

 

Eschscholzia minutiflora S. Watson: Little Gold Poppy, Pygmy Goldenpoppy, Pygmy Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, among rocks, sandy flats, gravelly and sandy washes, riverbeds, floodplains and sandy soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46*

 

 

Family Pedaliaceae (Martyniaceae): The Sesame Family

 

Proboscidea althaeifolia (G. Bentham) J. Decaisne (Proboscidea arenaria (G. Engelmann) J. Decaisne): Cuernitos, Desert Devil’s-claw, Desert Unicorn-plant, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-horn, Elephant Tusks, Gato, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Roundbrack Devil’s Claw, Sand Devil’s Claw, Torito, Una de Gato (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height and 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, sandy washes and sandy soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Proboscidea arenaria (see Proboscidea althaeifolia)

 

Proboscidea parviflora (E.O. Wooton) P.C. Standley subsp. parviflora: Cuernitos, Devil’s Claw, Doubleclaw, Elephant Tusks, New Mexico Devil’s-claw, Small-flowered Devil’s-claw, Elephant Tusks, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Small-flowered Unicorn Plant, Torito, Una de Gato, Unicorn Plant (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Phytolaccaceae: Pokeweed Family

 

Rivina humilis C. Linnaeus: Bloodberry Rougeplant, Coralito, Hierba del Cáncer (Hispanic), Pigeon Berry, Rougeplant (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or vine (to 60 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders, along washes and creeks, ravines and riparian areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 30, 46, 58*

 

 

Family Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago fastigiata (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago insularis (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago ovata P. Forsskal (Plantago fastigiata J. Morris, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood var. fastigiata (J. Morris) W.L. Jepson): Blond Psyllium, Desert Indianwheat, Fleaseed, Fleawort, Indian Wheat, Psyllium (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 77, 108*

 

Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin (Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin var. gnaphaloides (T. Nuttall) A. Gray, Plantago purshii J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes): Bristle Bract Plantain, Indian Wheat, Pastora, Pursh Plantain, Woolly Plantain (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 28, 48 (gen..), 58, 77, 101*

 

Plantago patagonica var. gnaphaloides (see Plantago patagonica)

 

Plantago purshii (see Plantago patagonica)

 

 

Family Plumbaginaceae: The Leadwort Family

 

Plumbago zeylanica C. Linnaeus: White Leadwort, Wild Leadwort (terrestrial perennial vine or shrub (3 to 10 feet in height)) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 24, 63 (062506), 85 (062506 - no records)*

 

 

Family Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) F. Mason: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Eriastrum eremicum (W.L. Jepson) F. Mason: Desert Eriastrum, Desert Woolstar, Desert Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, mesas, sandy ridges, knolls, hillsides, slopes, dry plains, sandy flats, sandy washes, along creeks, gravelly and moist sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Gilia bigelovii (see Linanthus bigelovii) 

 

Gilia flavocincta A. Nelson subsp. australis (V. Grant & A.D. Grant) M.A. Day & V. Grant (Gilia ophthalmoides A. Brand var. australis V. Grant & A.D. Grant): Gilia, Gily-flower, Lesser Yellowthroat Gilia, Yellowthroat Gily-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rocky hills, hillsides, rocky outcrops, flats, along washes and streams, floodplains, riparian areas, rocky or sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,800 to 6,900 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Gilia multiflora (see Ipomopsis multiflora)

 

Gilia ophthalmoides var. australis (see Gilia flavocincta subsp. australis)

 

Gilia stellata A.A. Heller: Star Gilia, Star Gily-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, canyons, rocky and sandy slopes, hills, gravelly hillsides, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, rocky and gravelly roadsides, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 77*

 

Ipomopsis multiflora (T. Nuttall) V. Grant (Gilia multiflora T. Nuttall): Many-flower Gilia, Manyflowered Gilia, Manyflowered Ipomopsis (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and rocky canyon walls, mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders, roadsides, along streams and washes, gulches, ravines, rocky drainages, lake beds, and rocky, sandy, sandy silty, gravelly clay and gravelly loam and sandy loam soils, occurring from 3,200 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Langloisia setosissima (J. Torrey & A. Gray ex J. Torrey) E.L. Greene subsp. setosissima: Great Basin Langloisia, Moth Langloisia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, rocky hillsides, bajadas, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement and rocky gravelly, sandy and clay loam soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Linanthus aureus (T. Nuttall) E.L. Greene: Desert Gold, Golden Linanthus, Yellow Linanthus (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, dry plains, flats and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Gilia bigelovii A. Gray): Bigelow Gilia, Bigelow’s Linanthus (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Linanthus demissus (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Desertsnow, Linanthus (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46*

 

Phlox tenuifolia E. Nelson.: Desert Phlox, Santa Catalina Mountain Phlox, Vine Phlox (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and banks of washes, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Polygalaceae: The Milkwort Family

 

Polygala macradenia A. Gray: Glandleaf Milkwort, Milkwort (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, ridges and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey var. brevicornu: Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

Chorizanthe corrugata (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Corrugated Spiny-herb, Wrinkled Chorizanthe, Wrinkled Spineflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the reange of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, hills, lava flows, sandy flats, dunes, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement, rocky, gravelly and sandy and silt loam soils, occurring below 1,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Chorizanthe rigida (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Devil’s Spineflower, Devil’s Spiny-herb, Rigid Spineflower, Rigid Spiny Herb, Turk’s Rug (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey (Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey var. abertianum [superfluous autonym], Eriogonum abertianum J. Torrey var. cyclosepalum (E.L. Greene) F.R. Fosberg): Abert’s Buckwheat, Abert Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, foothills, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Eriogonum abertianum var. abertianum (see Eriogonum abertianum) 

 

Eriogonum clutei (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey (var. deflexum is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg, Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. turbinatum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal): Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places, disturbed areas and rocky soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 77*

 

Eriogonum deflexum var. turbinatum (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum fasciculatum G. Bentham var. polifolium (G. Bentham) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Eriogonum polifolium G. Bentham): Bladderstem, California Buckwheat, Desert Trumpet, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat-brush, Indian Pipe-weed, Maderista (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been reported to be slightly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen. & sp.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Eriogonum inflatum J. Torrey & J.C. Fremont var. inflatum: Bladder Stem, Desert Trumpet, Indian Pipe-weed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and sandy slopes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 86*

 

Eriogonum polifolium (see Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium) 

 

Eriogonum thomasii J. Torrey: Thomas Buckwheat, Thomas’ Buckwheat, Thomas Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, hillsides, bajadas, sandy flats, arroyos, along sandy washes, floodplains, disturbed areas and rocky, gravelly, sandy and silt soils, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Eriogonum trichopes J. Torrey (var. trichopes is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Little Desert Buckwheat, Little Deserttrumpet, Little Trumpet, Yellow Trumpet (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Eriogonum wrightii J. Torrey ex G Bentham var. nodosum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal: Bastardsage, Bastardsage, Wright Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat Brush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (6 inches 3 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky hillsides, ridge tops, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky outcrops, rock crevices, among boulders, springs, rocky banks of washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,400 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is an important browse plant for deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Polygonum argyrocoleon E.G. von Steudel ex Kunz: Persian Knotweed, Silversheath, Silversheath Knotweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, draws, sand bars, riparian areas, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Weed. *5, 6, 24, 46, 68, 80, 101*

 

Pterostegia drymarioides F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey: Spreading Buckwheat, Woodland Pterostegia, Woodland Threadstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and recesses beneath boulder, occurring below 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46*

 

Rumex hymenosepalus J. Torrey: Canaigra, Canaigre Dock, Desert Rhubarb, Dock; Sorrel, Wild Rhubarb (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds, stagnant pools, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 80*

 

 

Family Portulacaceae: The Purselane Family

 

Calandrinia ciliata (L.H. Ruiz & J.A. Pavon) A.P. de Candolle (Calandrinia ciliata (L.H. Ruiz & J.A. Pavon) A.P. de Candolle var. menziesii (W.J. Hooker) J.F. Macbride): Desert Rock Purslane, Fringed Redmaids, Red Maids, Rock Purslane (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hills, plains, gravelly flats, seeps, along washes, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86, 101*

 

Calandrinia ciliata var. menziesii (see Calandrinia ciliata) 

 

Calyptridium monandrum (see Cistanthe monandra) 

 

Cistanthe monandra (T. Nuttall) M.A. Hershkovitz (Calyptridium monandrum T. Nuttall): Common Pussypaws, Sand Cress (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridgetops, sandy bajadas, slopes, plains, gravelly and sandy flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Claytonia perfoliata J. Donn ex C.L. von Wildenow subsp. mexicana (P.A. Rydberg) J.M. Miller & K.L. Chambers: Indian Lettuce, Miner’s Lettuce (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms and among boulders, occurring from 2,400 to 3,565 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 80 (sp.)*

 

Phemeranthus aurantiacus (G. Engelmann) Kiger (Talinum angustissimum (A. Gray) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley, Talinum aurantiacum G. Engelmann): Flame Flower, Orange Flame Flower, Talinum, Yellow Flame Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 14 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky outcrops, plains, flats, streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 2,200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Portulaca coronata (see Portulaca umbraticola subsp umbraticola)

 

Portulaca halimoides C. Linnaeus (Portulaca parvula A. Gray): Dwarf Purslane, Silkcotton Purslane, Sinkerleaf Purselane (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, plains, flats, valleys, roadsides, washes, floodplains, disturbed areas and sandy and rocky loam soils, occurring below 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46*

 

Portulaca lanceolata (see Portulaca umbraticola) 

 

Portulaca oleracea C. Linnaeus (Portulaca retusa G. Engelmann by E.D. Hatch et al): Chamó (Tarahumara), Chamokó (Hispanic), Common Purslane, Little Hogweed, Pursley, Pusley, Roughseed Purslane, Sa´luchi (Tarahumara), Verdolaga (Hispanic), Verdolagas (Hispanic), Verdolaguilla (Hispanic), Western Pulsey, Wild Portulaca, Xakua Tsirakua (Purépecha), Yiwa Xiquitú (Hispanic), (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 16 inches in height and 2 inches to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky slopes, clearings in forests, meadows, bajadas, plains, flats, streambeds, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 4,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18, 24, 28, 30, 46, 68, 77, 80, 86, 101*

 

Portulaca parvula (see Portulaca halimoides) 

 

Portulaca retusa (see Portulaca oleracea) 

 

Portulaca suffrutescens G. Engelmann: Shrubby Purslane (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, sandy bajadas, plains and along roadways, occurring from 3,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Portulaca umbraticola subsp lanceolata (see Portulaca umbraticola subsp umbraticola)

 

Portulaca umbraticola K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth subsp umbraticola (Portulaca lanceolata G. Engelmann non A.H. Haworth, Portulaca umbraticola K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth subsp lanceolata (G. Engelmann) J.H. Matthews & D.W. Ketron): Purslane, Wingpod Purslane (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky slopes, among boulders, cracks and crevices in rocks, plains, flats, roadsides, streambeds, tinajas and dry soils, occurring from 2,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.), 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Talinum angustissimum (see Phemeranthus aurantiacus) 

 

Talinum aurantiacum (see Phemeranthus aurantiacus)

 

Talinum paniculatum (N.J. von Jacquin) J. Gaertner: Jewels of Opar, Pink Baby Breath, Rama del Sapo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, among rocks, flats, washes and rich soils, occurring from 2,900 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Primulaceae: The Primrose Family

 

Anagallis arvensis C. Linnaeus: Hierba del Pájaro (Hispanic), Jaboncillo (Hispanic), Pimpernel, Poorman’s-westherglass, Saponaria (Hispanic), Scarlet Pimpernel, Xukurhi Xapu (Michoacán) (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (stems 4 to 20 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, meadows, roadsides, gulches, along streams and dry river beds, around pools, riparian areas, disturbed areas and wet and moist soils, occurring from 900 to 9,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. This plant is poisonous. *5, 6, 24, 30, 46, 63 (081906), 85 (081906), 86*

 

Androsace occidentalis F.T. Pursh: Rock Jasmine, Western Rockjasmine (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, ephemeral seeps and along washes and streams, streambeds and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Punicaceae: The Pomegranate Family

 

Punica granatum C. Linnaeus: Pomegranate (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (8 to 20 feet in height and to about 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes, around ponds, riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 18, 24, 26*

 

 

Family Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Anemone tuberosa P.A. Rydberg (var. tuberosa is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Desert Anemone, Desert Thimbleweed, Desert Windflower, Tuber Anemone, Windflower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, among rocks and flats, occurring from 2,100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 58, 80 (gen.), 77, 85 (080106), 86*

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine, subshrub or woody climber (10 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 80 (gen.)*

 

Delphinium amabile (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium amabile subsp. apachense (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium parishii A. Gray var. parishii (Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom): Ocean-blue Larkspur, Paleface Delphinium, Paleface Larkspur, Parish Desert Larkspur, Parish’s Larkspur (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, desert mesas, plateaus, canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky outcrops, rocky knolls, rocky slopes, talus slopes, among rocks, sandy flats, sandy desert plains, along streams, washes, creeks and creek beds and rivers and rocky, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and rocky clay and gravelly clay loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (090206), 85 (090206)*

 

Delphinium scaposum E.L. Greene: Bare-stem Larkspur, Espuelita, Low Larkspur, Naked Delphinium, Tall Mountain Larkspur, Tcoro’si, Wild Delphinium (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Myosurus cupulatus S. Watson: Arizona Mousetail (terrestrial annual herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, seeps, springs, streambeds, along creeks and moist soils, occurring from 2,400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46 foothills, hillsides,, 77*

 

Myosurus minimus C. Linnaeus: Little Mousetail, Mousetail, Tiny Mousetail (terrestrial annual forb/herb: within the range of this species it has been reported from seeps, springs, streams, vernal pools, around stock tanks and lakes and wet soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 58*

 

 

Family Resedaceae: The Mignonette Family

 

Oligomeris linifolia (M.H. Vahl) J.F. Macbride: Desert Cambess, Linearleaf Cambess, Lineleaf Whitepuff, Oligomeris, Slender-leaf Cambess (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, gravelly bajadas, lava flows, sand dunes, sandy plains, gravelly and sandy flats, sandy roadsides, seeps, springs, along streams and washes, playas, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and dry and moist soils, desert pavement, sandy, sandy clay, sandy silty, silty clay and gravelly loam soils and saline soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 63 (090306), 77, 85 (090306)*

 

 

Family Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Condalia correllii M.C. Johnston (historically known in Arizona as Condalia mexicana D.F. von Schlechtendal [excluded]): Bluewood, Correll’s Snakewood, Mexican Blue-wood, Mexican Condalia (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (6 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, along streams and washes, gravelly floodplains, riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 3,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 46, 58, 63 (070406), 77, 85 (070406), 108*

 

Condalia globosa I.M. Johnston (var. pubescens I.M. Johnston is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Bitter Condalia, Bitter Snakewood, Crucerilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or small tree (7 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, sandy plains and along sandy washes and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be sweet-scented. *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 52 (sp.), 53, 91*

 

Condalia lycioides var. canescens (see Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens)

 

Condalia mexicana (see note in Condalia correllii) 

 

Frangula betulifolia (E.L. Greene) V.I. Grubov var. betulifolia (Rhamnus betulifolia E.L. Greene):  Beechleaf Frangula, Birchleaf Buckthorn, Coffeeberry, Ramno (terresrtial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (8 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, ravines, along streams and creeks, riparian areas and loamy and clay loam soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife and the fruits are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 53*

 

Rhamnus betulifolia (see Frangula betulifolia var. betulifolia) 

 

Rhamnus crocea (see footnote under Rhamnus ilicifolia)

 

Rhamnus crocea var. ilicifolia (see Rhamnus ilicifolia) 

 

Rhamnus ilicifolia A. Kellogg (Rhamnus crocea (T. Nuttall) var. ilicifolia (A. Kellogg) E.L. Greene): Holly-leaf Buck-thorn, Hollyleaf Redberry, Hollyleaf Redberry Buckthorn, Redberry Buckthorn (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height and about as wide); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, along washes, creeks and rocky river beds and rocky loam and silty soils, occurring from 2,800 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is browsed by bighorn sheep and deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (sp.), 53, 108 (recorded as Rhamnus crocea)*

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or small tree (3 to 13 feet in height); within range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii), Band-tailed Pigeons (Columba fasciata), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds feed on the fruit. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77, 91*

 

 

Family Rosaceae: The Rose Family

 

Vauquelinia californica (J. Torrey) C.S. Sargent: Arizona Rosewood, Torrey Vauquelinia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or small tree (10 to 30 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides and rocky slopes, occurring from 2,500 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 91, 108*

 

Vauquelinia californica (J. Torrey) C.S. Sargent subsp. sonorensis W.J. Hess & J.S. Henrickson: Arizona Rosewood, Arizona Sororan Rosewood, Sonora Rosewood, Sonoran Mountain Rosewood, Sonora Rosewood (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or small tree (10 to 30 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mountainsides, rocky slopes, hillsides and flats, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations; useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 8, 9, 13 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 24, 28 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (sp.), 52 (sp.) , 53 (sp.), 91*

 

 

Family Rubiaceae: The Madder Family

 

Galium aparine C. Linnaeus: Bedstraw, Catchweed Bedstraw, Cleavers, Goosegrass, Goosegrass Bedstraw, Stickwilly (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (36 to 80 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, springs and along streams and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 101*

 

Galium microphyllum A. Gray: Bedstraw, Bracted Bedstraw (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rock walls and along streams, streambeds and washes, occurring below 5,300 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58*

 

Galium stellatum A. Kellogg (var. eremicum (M.L. Hilend & J.T. Howell) F. Ehrendorfer is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Desert Bedstraw, Starry Bedstraw (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or  subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides, canyons, rock crevices, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Rutaceae: The Rue Family

 

Ptelea angustifolia var. cognata (see Ptelea trifoliata subsp. pallida var. cognata) 

 

Ptelea trifoliata C. Linnaeus: Cola de Zorrillo, Common Hoptree, Hop Tree, Narrowleaf Hoptree, Pallid Hoptree, Skunkbush, Waterash (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 27 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky ledges, rocky slopes, rocky ravines, valleys, along streams, stream beds, sandy washes and rivers, riparian areas, and stony silty loam soils, occurring from 3,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental; however, the crushed leaves and twigs have a strong and unpleasant (skunky) odor. *5, 6, 15, 28 (sp.), 46, 52, 53, 63 (090906), 80, 85 (090906)*

 

Ptelea trifoliata C. Linnaeus subsp. pallida (E.L. Green) V.L. Bailey (var. cognata (E.L. Greene) T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles is the variety reported as occurring in southern Arizona, Ptelea angustifolia G. Bentham var. cognata (E.L. Greene) T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles): Cola de Zorrillo, Common Hoptree, Hop Tree, Narrowleaf Hoptree, Pallid Hoptree, Skunkbush, Waterash (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (6 to 27 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon walls, rocky slopes, ravines, valleys, rocky roadsides, sandy washes, occurring from 3,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental; however, the crushed leaves and twigs have a strong and unpleasant (skunky) odor. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 52, 53, 63 (090906), 80, 85 (090906)*

 

 

Family Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus arizonica (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent Populus fremontii S. Watson var. arizonica (C.S. Sargent) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. toumeyi C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Arizona Cottonwood, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet in height and 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and streams, cienegas, bottomlands, water holes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. Consider planting male trees if the “cotton” produced by female trees is objectionable. The leaves are colorful in autumn. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 108*

 

Populus fremontii var. arizonica (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii var. macdougalii (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii)

 

Populus fremontii var. pubescens (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii var. thornberi (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii)

 

Populus fremontii var. toumeyi (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Salix gooddingii J. Ball (Salix gooddingii J. Ball  var. variabilis J. Ball, Salix nigra H. Marshall var. vallicola W.R. Dudley): Dudley Willow, Goodding Black Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Western Black Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (20 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and streams, cienegas, lakeshores, floodplains and wet soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The bark is eaten by beavers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a re-vegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. This plant is important in stream-bank protection. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 52, 53, 58, 77*

 

Salix gooddingii var. variabilis (see Salix gooddingii) 

 

Salix nigra var. vallicola (see Salix gooddingii)

 

 

Family Sapindaceae: The Soapberry Family

 

Dodonaea viscosa (N.J. von Jacquin) C. Linnaeus (Dodonaea viscosa N.J. von Jacquin var. angustifolia (C. Linnaeus f.) G. Bentham): A’ali’i, Airia, Akeake, Chapuliztle, Cuerno de Cabra, Florida Hopbush, Granadina, Guayabillo, Hierba de la Cucaracha, Hop Bush, Jarilla, Munditos, Pirimu, Switch-sorrel, Tarachico, Varal (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 15 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, along washes and alkaline, heavy and rocky soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations; useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 13, 15, 18 (sp.), 24, 26, 28 (sp.), 46, 48, 58, 77 (sp.), 91*

 

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (see Dodonaea viscosa) 

 

Sapindus marginatus (see Sapindus saponaria var. saponaria) 

 

Sapindus saponaria C. Linnaeus var. saponaria (Sapindus marginatus C.L. von Wildenow): Wingleaf Soapberry (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (7 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, plains, along washes and streams, floodplains and moist and sandy soils, occurring from 2,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46 (sp.), 91*

 

 

Sapotaceae: The Sapodilla Family

 

 

Bumelia lanuginosa var. rigida (see Sideroxylon lanuginosum subsp. rigidum)

 

Bumelia rigida (see Sideroxylon lanuginosum subsp. rigidum)

 

Sideroxylon lanuginosum A. Michaux (subsp. rigidum (A. Gray) T.D. Pennington is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona, Bumelia lanuginosa (A. Michaux) C.H. Persoon var. rigida A. Gray, Bumelia rigida J.K. Small): Chittamwood, False Buckthorn, Gum Bully, Gum Bumelia, Gum Elastic, Sapote, Spiny Bumelia, Woolly Buckthorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (4 to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, along streams, arroyos, washes and watercourses, mesquite bosques, riparian areas, floodplains, valley floors and sandy soils, occurring form 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers are reported to be very fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 46, 52 (sp.), 53, 58 (sp.), 63 (070307), 85 (070306), 108*

 

 

Family Saururaceae: The Lizard’s-tail Family

 

Anemopsis californica (T. Nuttall) W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott (Anemopsis californica (T. Nuttall) W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott (var. subglabra L.H. Kelso is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Yerba Mansa (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (12 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from swales, seeps, springs and salt springs, sedge meadows, cienegas, along streams, creeks and rivers, bogs, around ponds, riparian areas and wet, moist, saline, alkaline and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 58, 86*

 

Anemopsis californica var. subglabra (see Anemopsis californica)

 

 

Family Saxifragaceae: The Saxifrage Family

 

Ribes quercetorum E.L. Greene: Oak Gooseberry, Oak-belt Gooseberry, Oakwoods Gooseberry, Rock Gooseberry, Yeloow-flowered Gooseberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon walls and rocky slopes, occurring from 3,400 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is browsed by deer and the fruits are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 108*

 

 

Family Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Antirrhinum cyathiferum (see Pseudorontium cyathiferum)

 

Antirrhinum filipes (see Neogaerrhinum filipes) 

 

Antirrhinum kingii (see Sairocarpus kingii) 

 

Antirrhinum nuttallianum subsp. subsessile (see Sairocarpus pusillus) 

 

Antirrhinum watsonii (see Sairocarpus watsonii) 

 

Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & L.R. Heckard subsp. exserta (Orthocarpus purpurascens G. Bentham var. palmeri A. Gray): Common Owl’s Clover, Escobita (Little Broom), Escobita Owlclover, Exserted Indian Paintbrush, Mohave Owl Clover, Owl’s Clover (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 80, 86, 108*

 

Castilleja lanata A. Gray: Painted Cup, Sierra Woolly Indian Paintbrush, Woolly Paintbrush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or  subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, below cliffs, hillsides, rocky limestone slopes, rocky outcrops, along streams, rocky and sandy washes, ravines and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,300 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 80*

 

Keckiella antirrhinoides (G. Bentham) R.M. Straw subsp. microphylla (A. Gray) R.M. Straw (Penstemon microphyllus A. Gray): Bush Penstemon, Littleleaf Penstemon, Shrubby Penstemon, Snapdragon Penstemon, Yellow Beardtongue (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (2 to 8 feet in height and 3 feet or more in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky canyons, cliffs, hills, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, terraces, rock outcrops, springs, washes and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 800 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 80, 108*

 

Linaria canadensis var. texana (see Nuttallanthus texanus) 

 

Linaria texana (see Nuttallanthus texanus) 

 

Maurandella antirrhiniflora (F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow) W.H. Rothmaler (Maurandya antirrhiniflora F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow): Blue Snapdragon Vine, Little Snapdragon Vine, Roving Sailor, Snapdragon Maurandya, Snapdragon Vine, Twining Snapdragon, Vine Blue Snapdragon, Violet Twining, Violet Twining Snapdragon (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (7 to 8 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rock walls, flats, along washes, streambeds, watercourses and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86*

 

Maurandya antirrhiniflora (see Maurandella antirrhiniflora) 

 

Mimulus cardinalis D. Douglas ex G. Bentham: Crimson-monkey Flower, Scarlet Monkeyflower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height and width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, wet canyons, meadows, rock crevices, seeps, springs, along flowing steams, washes and creeks, gulches and arroyo bottoms, marshes and wet and moist sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 9,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (090906), 85 (090906), 108*

 

Mimulus guttatus A.P. de Candolle: Common Monkey Flower, Monkey-flower, Seep Monkeyflower, Seep-spring Monkey Flower, Spotted Monkey Flower, Yellow Monkey Flower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, seeps, springs, pools, along brooks and streams and wet, moist and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 9,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86*

 

Mimulus rubellus A. Gray: Little Redstem Monkeyflower, Red Monkeyflower, Redstem Monkeyflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly and sandy flats, along streams and washes and in damp, rocky and sandy soils, riparian areas and damp, rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 7,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Neogaerrhinum filipes (A. Gray) W.H. Rothmaler (Antirrhinum filipes A. Gray): Filipes Snapdragon, Yellow Twining-snapdragon (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy slopes and sandy plains, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 86*

 

Nuttallanthus texanus (G.H. Scheele) D.A. Sutton (Linaria canadensis (C. Linnaeus) B.C. Dumortier var. texana (G.H. Scheele) F.W. Pennell, Linaria texana G.H. Scheele): Blue Toad Flax, Oil Field Toad Flax, Texas Toadflax (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (14 to 32 inches in height); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rock crevices, plains, roadsides, seeps, along washes, streambeds, creeks and river bottoms, disturbed areas and moist and damp soils, occurring from 1,200 to 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77*

 

Orthocarpus purpurascens var. palmeri (see Castilleja exserta var. exserta) 

 

Penstemon microphyllus (see Keckiella antirrhinoides subsp. microphylla) 

 

Penstemon parryi (A. Gray) A. Gray: Parry Beardtongue, Parry’s Penstemon, Pichelitos, Varita de San Jose, Wind’s Flower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 1 to 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been range reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) and Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 86*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones: Arizona Penstemon, Desert Penstemon, Mohave Beardtongue, Nevada Penstemon, Rosey Desert Beardtongue (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hills and hillsides, rocky slopes, ,bedrock outcrops, among rocks, ravines, roadsides, along washes, creeks and rivers, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist and dry soils, cinder, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 80 (gen.), 85 (081206)*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones var. pseudospectabilis (Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones var. typicus K. Keck): Arizona Penstemon, Desert Beardtongue, Desert Penstemon, Mohave Beardtongue, Nevada Penstemon, Rosey Desert Beardtongue (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, among boulders, bajadas, roadsides, riparian areas and gravelly sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 18 (sp.), 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (070806), 80 (gen.), 85 (081206)*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis var. typicus (see Penstemon pseudospectabilis var. pseudospectabilis) 

 

Pseudorontium cyathiferum (G. Bentham) W.H. Rothmaler (Antirrhinum cyathiferum G. Bentham): Desert Snapdragon, Dog’s-mouth, Frog Snapdragon (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, stony talus slopes, rocky hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, dunes, arroyos, washes and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46*

 

Sairocarpus kingii (S. Watson) D.A. Sutton (Antirrhinum kingii S. Watson): King Snapdragon, Least Snapdragon, Least Toad’s-mouth (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from cinder soils, occurring from below 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 46, 63 (090906), 85 (090906)* 

 

Sairocarpus pusillus (T.S. Brandegee) D.A. Sutton (Antirrhinum nuttallianum G. Bentham subsp. subsessile (A. Gray) D.M. Thompson): Lesser Snapdragon (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountainsides, canyons and canyon bottoms, cliffs, rocky hillsides, slopes, among boulders, ravines, along gravelly and sandy washes and along streams occurring from 2,100 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 85*  

 

Sairocarpus watsonii (G. Vasey & J.N. Rose) D.A. Sutton (Antirrhinum kingii S. Watson var watsonii (G. Vasey & J.N. Rose) P.A. Munz), Antirrhinum watsonii G. Vasey & J.N. Rose): Watson’s Snapdragon (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, cliffs, foothills, rocky hills, slopes, bajadas, dunes, arroyos, occurring below 300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46* 

 

Stemodia durantifolia (C. Linnaeus) O. Swartz: Whitewoolly Twintip (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, among rocks, rock crevices, along streams, streambeds and wet and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 46, 77*

 

Veronica peregrina C. Linnaeus (subsp. xalapensis (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.W. Pennell is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Hairy Purslane Speedwell, Jalapa Speedwell, Necklace Speedwell, Necklace Weed, Neckweed, Purselane Speedwell (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, seeps, along streams and washes, around tanks and lakes and wet and damp soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 77, 101*

 

 

Family Simaroubaceae: The Quassia-wood Family

 

Castela emoryi (A. Gray) R.V. Moran & R.S. Felger (Holacantha emoryi A. Gray): Cascara Amarga, Castela, Chaparro Amargosa, Corona de Cristo (Spanish), Crucifixion Thorn, Emory Crucifixion Thorn, Holacantha, Rosario (terrestrial perennial deciduous (leafless) shrub or tree (6 to 12 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, bajadas, alluvial desert plains, flats, sand dunes, along rocky and gravelly desert washes alluvial bottomlands, floodplains and gravelly, sandy, clay and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it is heavily armed with thorns. *5, 6, 8, 13, 24, 28, 46, 48, 53, 91, 108*

 

Holacantha emoryi (see Castela emoryi) 

 

 

Family Simmondsiaceae: The Jojoba Family

 

Simmondsia chinensis (J.H. Link) C.K. Schneider (Simmondsia californica T. Nuttall): California Jojoba, Coffee Berry, Coffee Bush, Deernut, Goat Nut, Goatnut, Gray Box Bush, Jojoba, Pignut, Quinine Plant, Sheepnut, Wild Hazel (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet in height and 6 or more feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly hillsides, bajadas, alluvial fans and along washes and runnels, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grasslands and desertscrub ecological formations) Jojoba is an  important browse plant for wildlife including deer and Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant is useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 108*

 

Simmondsia californica (see Simmondsia chinensis) 

 

 

Family Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Calibrachoa parviflora (A.L. de Jussieu) W.G. D’Arcy (Petunia parviflora A.L. de Jussieu): Seaside Petunia, Wild Petunia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, cienegas and wet, moist, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (see Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum)

 

Capsicum annuum C. Linnaeus var. glabriusculum (M.F. Dunal) C.B. Heiser & B. Pickersgill (Capsicum annuum C. Linnaeus var. aviculare (J.H. Dierbach) W.G. D’Arcy & W.H. Eshbaugh, Capsicum baccatum auct. non C. Linnaeus [misapplied]): Aji, Bird Pepper, Cayenne, Cayenne Pepper, Chillipiquin, Chiltepe, Chiltepin, Pequin,  (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (5 inches to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, slopes, drainages, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly soils, occurring from 1,100 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the berries are bright red. *5, 6, 8, 24, 30 (unable to access), 46, 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Capsicum baccatum (see Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) 

 

Datura discolor G. Bernham: Desert Thorn-apple, Small Datura, Poisonous Nightshade, Tolache, Toloache (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 68, 77*

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. andersonii: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Cacaculo, Desert Wolfberry, Manzanita, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Salicieso, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 24, 28 (sp.), 46 (sp.)*

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal var. longistylum C.L. Hitchcock: Bachata, Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Salicieso, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills and alluvial plains, occurring from 2,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13 (sp.), 18 (gen.), 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 77*

 

Lycium brevipes G. Bentham (Lycium richii A. Gray): Baja Desert-thorn, Hahös an Quinelca (Seri) (terrestrial perennial shrub (3 to 12 feet in height and almost the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, slopes, sandy flats, pockets of sandy soil among rocks, dunes, riparian canyons, coastal plains, rocky coasts, islands and sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Anthophorid bees, beeflies, beetles, butterflies and honey bees visit the flowers, birds feed on the berries. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 85*

 

Lycium californicum T. Nuttall ex A. Gray var. californicum: California Desert-thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes and saline soils, occurring from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 24, 46*

 

Lycium exsertum A. Gray: Arizona Desert-thorn, Desert Thorn, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, alluvial outwash plains, flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray: Frémont’s Desert-thorn, Frémont Lycium, Frémont Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and alluvial plains, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 28, 46, 48, 77, 108*

 

Lycium macrodon A. Gray: Desert Thorn, Desert Wolfberry, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from alluvial outwash plains and alkaline soils, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 77*

 

Lycium parishii A. Gray: Parish’s Desert-thorn, Parish Thornberry, Parish Wolfberry, Salicieso (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky hills, foothills, slopes, alluvial fans, sandy plains, valleys, along sandy washes and arroyos, flood plains and rocky soils, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are lavender and the fruit is red *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 63 (090206), 85 (var.  parishii was also recorded - 080206)*

 

Lycium richii (see Lycium brevipes) 

 

Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray: Cleveland’s Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Tobaco del Coyote (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky volcanic mounds, bajadas, flats, dunes, roadsides, gravelly and sandy washes, lake margins and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 46, 85*

 

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham: Buena Mosa, Gigante, Rape, Mustard Tree, Shrub Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (6 to 26 feet in height and to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, roadsides, along streambeds and washes, ditch banks, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). This plant is reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 68, 77, 80, 86, 97, 108*

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche (a Punch), Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (Little Tobacco) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 108*

 

Nicotiana trigonophylla (see Nicotiana obtusifolia var. obtusifolia) 

 

Petunia parviflora (see Calibrachoa parviflora)

 

Physalis acutifolia (J. Miers) N.Y. Sandwith (Physalis wrightii A. Gray): Groundcherry, Irrigation Groundcherry, Sharpleaf Groundcherry, Tomatillo, Wright Groundcherry (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 101*

 

Physalis crassifolia G. Bentham var. versicolor (P.A. Rydberg) U.T. Waterfall (Physalis versicolor P.A. Rydberg): Desert Ground Cherry, Thick-leaved Ground Cherry, Tomate de Culebra, Yellow Nightshade Groundcherry (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 24, 28 (sp.), 46, 80 (gen.)*

 

Physalis lobata (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Physalis lobata var. albiflora (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Physalis versicolor (see Physalis crassifolia var. versicolor) 

 

Physalis wrightii (see Physalis acutifolia) 

 

Quincula lobata (J. Torrey) C.S. Rafinesque (Physalis lobata J. Torrey, Physalis lobata J. Torrey var. albiflora U.T. Waterfall): Chinese Lantern, Purple Quincula, Purple Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, desert plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 77, 80 (gen. - Physalis), 86*

 

Solanum americanum P. Miller: American Nightshade, American Black Nightshade, Chichikarita (Tarahumara), Hierba Mora (Hispanic), Hierba Mora Negra (Hispanic), Pichecua (Purépecha), Pitsekua Blanca (Purépecha), Pitsekua Urapitu (Purépecha), Purple Nightshade, Quelite Cimarrón (Hispanic), Smallflower Nightshade (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 36 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, canyons, among rocks, flats, bosques, seeps, springs, arroyos, washes, streams, creeks, rivers, playas, bottom lands, roadsides, disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 30, 46*

 

Solanum douglasii M.F. Dunal: Douglas Nightshade, Greenspot Nightshade (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, dry rocky slopes, among rocks and along watercourses, occurring from 1,500 to 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Solanum hindsianum G. Bentham: Hapitopxen (Seri), Hinds’ Nightshade (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, alluvial fans, flats, sand dunes, rocky arroyos, washes, floodplains, occurring below 2,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 85, 91*

 

Solanum xanti A. Gray: Chaparral Nightshade, Purple Nightshade (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, bouldery, rocky and gravelly slopes, among boulders, washes, riparian areas and gravelly, rocky and sandy loam and rocky clay soils, occurring from 800 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 24, 28, 46, 63 (070806)*

 

 

Family Sterculiaceae: The Cacao Family

 

Ayenia filiformis S. Watson: Desert Ayenia, TransPecos Ayenia (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and flats, occurring from 2,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 77*

 

Ayenia microphylla A. Gray: Ayenia, Dense Ayenia, Littleleaf Ayenia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, dry rocky slopes, gravelly flats and washes, occurring from 2,000 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Tamaricaceae: The Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix aphylla (C. Linnaeus) W.H. Karsten: Athel, Athel Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarisk, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous (appears evergreen) shrub or tree (30 to 50 feet in height and 25 to 50 or more feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, floodplains, irrigation ditches and alkaline bottomlands, in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 13, 18, 24, 26, 46, 52, 53*

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (5 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rivers, creeks, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, marshy areas, lakes, reservoirs and tanks, occurring from 2,100 to 3,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 13, 22, 24, 58, 77, 91, 101*

 

 

Family Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis laevigata C.L. von Wildenow var. reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson (Celtis reticulata (J. Torrey) L. Benson): Canyon Hackberry, False Elm, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugar-berry, Western Hackberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 53 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from moist soils of canyons, hillsides, flats, fencerows and along washes and streams, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The fruit is eaten by wildlife;. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the leaves turn yellow in the fall. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58*

 

Celtis ehrenbergiana  (J.F. Klotzsch) F.M. Liebmann (Celtis pallida J. Torrey): Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Desert Hackberry is a larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), provides a nesting site for the White-wing Dove (Zenaida asiatica) and cover for many birds. The fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 58, 91, 108*

 

Celtis pallida (see Celtis ehrenbergiana) 

 

Celtis reticulata (see Celtis laevigata var. reticulata) 

 

 

Family Urticaceae: The Nettle Family

 

Parietaria floridana T. Nuttall: Desert Pellitory, Florida Pellitory, Pellitory (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, bajadas, tinajas, rocky slopes, desert plains, along washes, watercourses, stock tanks and wet and moist and gravelly soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 63 (080906), 85 (080906)*

 

Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton (var. hespera is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Rillita Pellitory (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, recesses beneath boulders and rocks, gravelly and sandy washes and riparian woodlands, occurring from 800 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 58*

 

 

Family Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Aloysia wrightii (A. Gray) A.A. Heller ex L. Abrams (Lippia wrightii A. Gray ex J. Torrey): Altamisa, Beebrush, Oreganillo, Vara Dulce, Wright Aloysia, Wright’s Beebrush, Wright Lippia (terrestrial perennial deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub (3 to 6½ feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 46, 58, 77, 91*

 

Glandularia bipinnatifida (T. Nuttall) T. Nuttall var. bipinnatifida (Verbena bipinnatifida T. Nuttall, Verbena bipinnatifida T. Nuttall var. latilobata M.C. Perry): Alfombrilla (Hispanic), Alfombrilla de Campo (Hispanic), Azul Chichique (Hispanic), Dakota Mock Vervain, Dakota Verbena, Hierba del Ojo (Hispanic), Moradilla (Hispanic), Small-flowered Verbena, Tatsundiku Moradu (Purépecha), Vervain (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 18 inches in height and 18 inches or more in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountainsides, mesas, canyons, foothills, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, clearings in forests, meadows, rocky outcrops, bajadas, flats, roadsides, along washes, stream beds, creeks and rivers and sandy and silty clay soils, occurring from 1,600 to 10,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been described as being rose-purple. *5, 6, 15, 18, 24, 28, 30 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain, Verbena (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry rocky slopes, roadsides and along streambeds and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Lantana camara C. Linnaeus: Achamasiri-uandaku (Purépecha), Alfombrillo (Hispanic), Alfrombrilla Hedionda (Hispanic), Bush Lantana, Cambara de Espinho, Cariaquillo, Chichietlacotl (Hispanic), Cinco Negritos (Hispanic), Confituría (Hispanic), Confiturilla (Hispanic), Corona (Hispanic), Corona de Sol (Hispanic), Cuasquito, Doradillo (Oaxaca), Frutilla (Hispanic), Gobernadora (Hispanic), Granadilla (Hispanic), Hedgeflower, Hierba de Cristo (Hispanic), Hierba de Pedro Antonio (Hispanic), Hierba de San Pedro (Hispanic), Hierba Negra, Laurel (Hispanic), Lantana, Largeleaf Lantana, Mesehua (Hispanic), Morita Negra (Hispanic), Moscete (Hispanic), Ojo de Pescado (Hispanic), Orégano del Monte (Hispanic), Orosus (Hispanic), Palabra de Caballero (Hispanic), Palabra de Hombre (Hispanic), Pionía (Hispanic), Pionía de Cerro (Hispanic), Qita Pesal (Hispanic), Quelite de Arroyo (Hispanic), Red-flowered Sage, Rinyonina (Hispanic), Salverreal (Hispanic), Salvia (Hispanic), Shrub Verbena, Siete Colores (Hispanic), Siete Negritos Macho (Hispanic), Tootskumot (Oax), Tres Colores (Hispanic), Uña de gato (Hispanic), White Sage, Wild Sage (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, streams, washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,200 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. All parts of this plant are reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 24, 26, 30, 77, 80, 97*

 

Lippia wrightii (see Aloysia wrightii)

 

Tetraclea coulteri A. Gray: Coulter Tetraclea, Coulter’s Wrinklefruit (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 24, 46, 58, 77*

 

Verbena bipinnatifida (see Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida) 

 

Verbena bipinnatifida var. latilobata (see Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida) 

 

Verbena gooddingii (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

Verbena halei J.K. Small (Verbena officinalis C. Linnaeus subsp. halei (J.K. Small) E.A. Barber): Slender Verbena, Texas Verbena, Texas Vervain (terrestrial perennial forb/her or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, roadsides, draws, river banks, playas, disturbed areas and sandy and silty soils, occurring below 5,400 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 24, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) J.K. Small: Hillside Vervain, New Mexico Vervain, Verbena (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills and rocky slopes, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 24, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Verbena officianalis C. Linnaeus subsp. halei (see Verbena halei) 

 

 

Family Viscaceae (Loranthaceae): The Christmas Mistletoe Family

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite American Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter); partial parasite observed growing on Blue Paloverde, Desert Ironwood, Foothill Paloverde, Velvet Mesquite an Whitethorn Acacia, commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp., occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations)  The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants and Verdins nest in the stems. The fragrant flowers attract insects. This plant is reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 24, 28, 46, 58, 77, 80, 97, 108, WTK (1105)*

 

Phoradendron californicum var. distans (see Phoradendron californicum) 

 

 

Family Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Fagonia californica subsp. laevis (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia laevis P.C. Standley (Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. laevis (P.C. Standley) I.L. Wiggins, Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. longipes (P.C. Standley) R.S. Felger, Fagonia longipes P.C. Standley): California Fagonbush, Smooth-stemmed Fagonia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky hills, dry rocky slopes, flats, washes and desert pavement, occurring below 2,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 24, 28, 46, 77, 86 (sp. - Fagonia californica)*

 

Fagonia longipes (see Fagonia laevis) 

 

Kallstroemia californica (S. Watson) A.M. Vail: California Caltrop, Little Summer Poppy, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 24, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86*

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Caltrop, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height and to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, open plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 24, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 108*

 

Larrea divaricata subsp. tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 12 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, dry rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats and heavy and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Creosote bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelina. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 24, 26, 28, 46, 48, 63 (083106), 80, 91, 101, 108*

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  ANIMALS FROM

COLLECTION AND FROM BEING DISTURBED OR KILLED

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

 

Phylum Mollusca: The Mollusks

 

 

 

CLASS GASTROPODA: The SNAILS and Their ALLIES

 

 

Family Hydrobiidae: The Spring Snail and Allies Family

 

Tryonia quitobaquitae (R. Hershler & J.J. Landye): Quitobaquito Tryonia, Quitobaquito Tryonia Snail (within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, occurring from 1,000 to 1,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14*

 

 

 

Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods

 

Subphylum Chilicerata: The Spiders and Their Allies

 

 

 

CLASS ARACHNIDA: The HARVESTMEN, MITES,

PSEUDOSCORPIONS, SCORPIONS, SPIDERS, TICKS and Their ALLIES

 

 

ORDER SCORPIONES: The SCORPIONS

 

Small children are at highest risk of severe reactions. They can show jerky body and

wild eye movements. If a child under 5 has been bitten or if an older patient is experiencing more than minor discomfort, call the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.  *97*

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

 

Hadrurus hirsutus (Wood): Desert Hairy Scorpion *108*

 

 

 

Subphylum Mandibulata: The Mandibulates

 

 

 

CLASS INSECTA: The INSECTS

 

 

ORDER COLEOPTERA: The BEETLES

 

 

Family Cicindelidae: The Tiger Beetle Family

 

Cicindela lemniscata (5): Tiger Beetle *8, 14 (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *

 

Cicindela sedecimpunctata: Tiger Beetle *8, 14 (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *

 

 

ORDER HEMIPTERA: The TRUE BUGS

 

 

Family Reduviidae: The Assassin Bugs

 

Triatoma rubida Uhler: Cone-nose, Conenose Bug, Kissing Bug, Mexican Bed Bug, Walapai Tiger (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *106 (gen. 071006), 108*

 

 

ORDER HYMENOPTERA: The ANTS, BEES, SAWFLIES, WASPS and Their ALLIES

 

 

Family Apidae: The Honeybee Family

 

If stung, remove the stinger as soon as possible, call 1-800-222-1222 for additional information

 and/or consider transport to a medical facility, it may take hundreds of bee stings to inflict a fatal toxic

dose of venom in a healthy adult; however, one sting can cause a fatal allergic

(anaphylactic)  reaction in a hypersensitive person. *97* 

If stung contact the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

Apis mellifera C. Linnaeus: African Honeybee, European Honeybee, Honeybee, Western Honeybee (found in bee boxes, buildings, water boxes and holes in ground, caves, cavities in saguaros, crevices, hollow trees and logs; within the range of this species it has been reported from grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Introduced EXOTIC Invasive Species, the Honeybee is an exotic domesticated animal kept for crop pollination and for the production of honey and beeswax. *60, 97, 106 (071006), 108*

 

 

ORDER ISOPTERA: The TERMITES

 

 

Amitermes sp.: Desert Termite, Termite, White Ant (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *106 (order - 071006), 108*

 

Kalotermes sp.: Termite, White Ant (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *106 (order - 071006), 108*

 

Reticulitermes sp.: a Subterranean Termite, Termite, White Ant (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *106 (order - 071006), 108*

 

 

ORDER LEPIDOPTERA: The BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS AND SKIPPERS

 

 

Family Apaturidae: Goatweed and Hackberry Butterflies

 

Asterocampa leilia (W.H. Edwards): Cocles’s Emporer, Desert Hackberry, Empress Leilia, Empress Leilia Butterfly, Leilia (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071306)*

 

 

Family Hesperiidae: The Skipper Family

 

Agathymus gentryi: Gentry’s Giant Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8*

 

Amblyscirtes nysa (W.H. Edwards): Mottled Skipper, Mottled Little Skipper, Mottled Roadside Skipper, Nysa Roadside Skipper, Nysa Skipper, Texas Brown Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Amblyscirtes prenda Evans: Prenda Roadside Skipper, Spotted Little Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Cogia hippalus (W.H. Edwards): Acacia Brown Wing, Acacia Skipper, Hippalus Skipper, White-edged Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071506)*

 

Copaeodes aurantica (Hewitson): Hewitson’s Skipper, Orange Skipperling, Orange Skipperling Skipper, Waco Skipper, Western Tiny Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071506)*

 

Erynnis funeralis (Scudder & Burgess): Funereal Duskywing Skipper, Funereal Dusky Wing, Morning Brown, Streamlined Dusky Wing (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Erynnis tristis (W.H. Edwards): Mournful Dusky Wing, Mournful Duskywing Skipper, Tatius Dusky Wing, White-edged Dusky Wing (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. tatius - 071206)*

 

Heliopetes domicella (Erichson) (Heliopyrgus domicella): Banded White Skipper, Erichson’s Skipper, Erichson’s White Skipper, White-banded Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)* 

 

Heliopyrgus domicella (see Heliopetes domicella)

 

Lerodea arabus (W.H. Edwards): Arabus Skipper, Arizona Brown Skipper, Blotchy Gray Skipper, Violet-clouded Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Lerodea eufala (W.H. Edwards): Eufala Skipper, Gray Skipper, Greenish-brown Skipper, Rice Leafroller (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Pholisora catullus (Fabricius): Black Skipper Butterfly, Common Sootywing Skipper, Common Sooty Wing, Pigweed Skipper, Roadside Rambler, Sooty Skipper, Sooty Wing, White-dotted Black Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Polygonus leo (Gmelin): Hammock Skipper, Key West Skipper, Violet Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Pyrgus albescens Plotz (Pyrgus communis subsp. albescens): Southern Checkered Skipper, Western Checkered Skipper, White Checkered Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Pyrgus communis subsp. albescens (see Pyrgus albescens) 

 

Pyrgus philetas W.H. Edwards: Desert Checkered Skipper, Philetas Checkered Skipper, Philetas Skipper, Texas Checkered Skipper (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Staphylus ceos (W.H. Edwards): Ceos Skipper, Golden-headed Scallopwing Skipper, Golden-headed Sooty Wing, Red-head Sooty Wing (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Urbanus dorantes (Stoll): Brown-tailed Skipper, Dorantes Skipper, Lilac-banded Longtail (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. durantes - 071606), 60*

 

 

Family Lycaenidae: The Blue, Copper and Hairstreak Family

 

Brephidum exile (Boisduval): Boisduval’s Pygmy Blue, Pygmy Blue, Western Pygmy Blue, Western Pygmy Blue Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071406)*

 

Euphilotes bernadino (Barnes & McDunnough): Bernadino Blue, Bernardino Blue Butterfly, San Bernardino Blue (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071506)*

 

Hemiargus ceraunus (W.H. Edwards): Antillean Blue, Ceraunus Blue, Ceraunus Blue Butterfly, Edward’s Blue, Gyas Blue, Southern Blue (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. gyas - 071606)*

 

Hemiargus isola (W.H. Edwards): Isola Blue, Mexican Blue, Reakirt’s Blue, Reakirt’s Blue Butterfly, Solitary Blue (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. alce - 071606)*

 

Leptotes marina (Reakirt): Marine Banded Blue, Marine Blue, Marine Blue Butterfly, Striped Blue (larvae feed on leadwort, sweet pea, vetch and wisteria; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071206)*

 

Ministrymon leda (W.H. Edwards): Ines Hairstreak, Leda Hairstreak, Leda Hairstreak Butterfly, Mesquite Hairstreak (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Strymon melinus (Hubner): Gray Hairstreak, Gray Hairstreak Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. franki - 071206), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

 

Family Nymphalidae: The Brush-footed Butterfly Family

 

Adelpha bredowii (Doubleday & Hewiston) (subsp. eulalia is the only subspecies recognized as occurring in Arizona): Arizona Sister, Arizona Sister Butterfly, Bredow’s Sister, California Sister, Californian Sister, Sister, Sisters (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Chlosyne californica (W.G. Wright): California Patch, California Patch, California Patch Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071406), 106 (fam. - 071406)*

 

Chlosyne lacinia (W.H. Edwards): Bordered Patch, Bordered Patch Butterfly, Crocale Patch, Crocale Patch Butterfly, Geyer’s Patch Butterfly, Sunflower Patch (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. crocale - 071506)*

 

Cynthia cardui (see Vanessa cardui) 

 

Danaus gilippus (P. Cramer): Desert Queen, Mexican Queen, Queen, Queen Butterfly, Striated Queen (larvae feed on milkweed; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. strigosus - 071306), 60 (subspp. berenice and strigosus), 106 (sp. - 053006)*

 

Danaus plexippus (C. Linnaeus): Archippus, Milkweed Butterfly, Monarch, Monarch Butterfly, Storm Fritillary, Wanderer (larvae feed on milkweed; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071306), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

Dymasia dymas (W.H. Edwards): Dymas Checkerspot, Dymas Checkerespot Butterfly, Small Checkerspot, Tiny Checkerspot (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. dymas - 071506)*

 

Euptoieta claudia (Cramer): Common Variegated Fritillary, Pale Red Butterfly, Variegated Fritillary, Variegated Fritillary Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071506)*

 

Myscelia cyananthe Mengel: Blackened Bluewing, Cyananthe Blue Wing, Dark Blue Wave, Large Purple wing, Mengel’s Myscelia, Mengel’s Myscelia Butterfly, Mexican Purple Wing (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. skinneri - 071606)*

 

Nymphalis antiopa (C. Linnaeus): Antiope Vaness, Antiopa Butterfly, Camberwell Beauty, Grand Surprise, Morio, Mourning Cloak, Mourning Cloak Butterfly, Spiny Elm Caterpillar, Trauermantel, White-border, White Petticoat, Willow Butterfly, Yellow Bordered Butterfly, Yellow Edge (larvae feed on the foliage of birch, elm, hackberry, poplar and willow; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071606), 60, 106 (071606)*

 

Texola elada (W.H. Edwards): Callina Checkerspot, Elada Checkerspot, Elada Checkerspot Butterfly, Pearse Checkerspot Butterfly, Small Checkerspot, Tiny Checkerspot, Ulrica Checkerspot, Ulrica Checkerspot Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subspp. perse and ulrica - 071606)*

 

Thessalia fulvia (W.H. Edwards): Checkerspot, Fulvia Checkerspot, Fulvia Checkerspot Butterfly, Fulvia Crescent, Fulvous Checkerspot, Orange Paintbrush (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. fulvia - 071606)*

 

Vanessa annabella (Field): Malva butterfly, West Coast Lady, West Coast Lady Butterfly, Western Lady, Western Painted Lady (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Vanessa atalanta (C. Lannaeus): Alderman, Atalanta Butterfly, Atalanta Vaness, Nettle Butterfly, Red Admirable, Red Admiral, Red Admiral Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. rubia (Frustorfer) - 071606), 106 (071606)*

 

Vanessa cardui (C. Linnaeus) (Cynthia cardui (C. Linnaeus)): Cosmopolitan, Cosmopolite, Cynthia of the Thistle, Painted Beauty, Painted Lady, Painted Lady Butterfly, Thistle Butterfly, Thistle Cynthy (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071006), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

Vanessa virginiensis (Drury): American Lady Butterfly, American Painted Lady, Hunter’s Butterfly, Hunter’s Cynthy, Hunter’s Painted Lady, Marbled Cynthia, Painted Lady, Scarce Painted Lady, Virginia Lady (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071006), 106 (071006)*

 

 

Family Papilionidae: The Swallowtail Family

 

Battus philenor (C. Linnaeus): Blue Swallowtail, Green Swallowtail, Pipevine Swallowtail, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly (larvae feed on Virginia Snakeroot and Dutchman’s Pipe (Aristolochia watsoni); within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (071006), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

Heraclides crephontes (Cramer) (Papillo cresphontes): Giant Swallowtail, Giant Swallowtail Butterfly, Orange Dog (larvae), Orange Puppy (larvae) (larvae feed on citrus, hop trees and prickly ash; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071006), 60*

 

Papillo cresphontes (see Heraclides crephontes) 

 

Papillo multicaudatus (see Pterourus multicaudatus) 

 

Papilio polyxenes J.C. Fabricius subsp. asterius (Stoll): American Swallowtail, Black Swallowtail, Black Swallowtail Butterfly, Carawayworm, Celeryworm, Common American Swallowtail, Common Eastern Swallowtail, Eastern Black Swallowtail, Parsley Swallowtail, Parsleyworm, Parsnip Swallowtail (larvae feed on the foliage of members of the Carrot Family; within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071006), 60, 106 (053006)*

 

Pterourus multicaudatus (W.F. Kirby) (Papillo multicaudatus): Daunus, Daunus Butterly, Daunus Swallowtail, Three-tailed Swallowtail, Two-tailed Swallowtail, Two-tailed Swallowtail Butterfly, Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071006)*

 

 

Family Pieridae: The Sulfur Butterfly and White Family

 

Anthocharis cethura (C. & R. Felder): Cethura, Cethura Orange Tip, Desert Orangetip, Desert Orangetip Butterfly, Felder's Orange Tip Butterfly, Felder’s Orangetip Cethura (feeds on buds (larvae) and pods (larvae) of Crucifers (Brassicaceae); within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071006), 106 (053006)*

 

Appias drusilla: Capperwhite, Florida White Butterfly, Tropical White, Tropical White Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. poeyi Butler - 071306)*

 

Anthocharis thoosa (S.H. Scudder): Sara Orange Tip, Southwestern Orangetip (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 106 (053006)*

 

Colias eurytheme (Boisduval): Alfalfa Caterpillar, Alfalfa Sulfur, Boisduval’s Sulfur, Eurytheme, Eurytheme Sulfur, Orange Clover Butterfly, Orange Sulfur Butterfly, Roadside Sulfur (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations)*8, 14 (071106)*

 

Eurema mexicanum (Boisduval): Mexican Sulfur, Mexican Yellow, Mexican Yellow Butterfly, Wolf Face Sulfur (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106) *

 

Eurema nicippe (Crammer): Black-bordered Orange, Black-bordered Yellow, Nicippe, Nicippe Sulfur, Nicippe Yellow, Rambling Orange, Sleepy Orange, Sleepy Orange Buttlerfly, Sleepy Orange Sulfur, Sleepy Sulfur, Small Orange (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Eurema proterpia (Fabricius): Gundlach’s Orange, Gundlach’s Sulfur, Jamaican Orange, Proterpia, Proterpia Orange, Proterpia Sulfur, Proterpia Yellow, Tailed Orange, Tailed Orange Butterfly, Tailed Sulfur (within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Kricogonia lyside (Godart): Castalia, Castalia Sulfur, Grey Sulfur,Godart’s Sulfur, Guayacan Sulfur, Lignum Vitae Yellow, Lyside, Lyside Sulfur Butterfly (within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071606)*

 

Nathalis iole Boisduval: Dainty Dwarf, Dainty Dwarf Sulfur, Dainty Sulfur, Dainty Sulfur Butterfly, Dwarf Yellow, Yellow Dwarf (within the range of this species it has been reported as occurring in the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (071106)*

 

Phoebis sennae (C. Linnaeus): Cloudless Giant Sulfur, Cloudless Sulfur, Cloudless Sulfur Butterfly, Common Sulfur, Giant Sulfur (larvae feed on members of the Pea Family, within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (071106), 60, 106 (071106)*

 

 

Family Riodinidae: The Metalmark Family

 

Apodemia palmerii Austin: Arizona Mesquite Metalmark, Gray Metalmark, Mesquite Metalmark, Margined Metalmark, Palmer’s Metalmark, Palmer’s Metalmark Butterfly, Skinner’s Metalmark (within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14 (subsp. arizona - 071106)*

 

 

 

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

 

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

 

 

 

CLASS AMPHIBIA: The AMPHIBIANS

A Checklist of the Mammals, Amphibians and Reptiles of Organ Pipe Cactus

National Monument is available at the Visitor Center for $0.50 (November 2005)

 

 

Family Bufonidae: The Toad Family

 

Bufo alvarius C.F. Girard in S.F. Baird (5): Colorado River Toad, Sonoran Desert Toad (feeds on beetles, grasshoppers, lizards, mice, snails, spiders and other toads; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding corresponds to spring and summer rains when they congregate at temporary pools and other bodies of water; within the range of this species it has been reported from near springs, streams, reservoirs, and pools in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Skin secretions are toxic to dogs and other animals and the mouthing a Colorado River Toad may cause temporary paralysis or death. *14, 37, 55, 73, 83, 87, 106 (052506)*

 

Bufo cognatus (T. Say): Great Plains Toad (feeds on algae (larvae), arachnids, insects, mites (juveniles) and snails; takes shelter by burrowing into soil; breeding takes place in streams, irrigation ditches, temporary pools, and fields under irrigation; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 83, 87, 106 (052506)*

 

Bufo punctatus S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard: Red-spotted Toad (feeds on algae (larvae), arachnids, carrion (larvae), cyanobacteria (larvae), organic detritus (larvae), insects; takes shelter in underground burrows and rock crevices; breeding takes place in springs, reservoirs, and temporary pools associated with intermittent streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky areas in arroyos, canyons, flats, floodplains and oases near water in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 83, 87, 106 (052506), 108*

 

Bufo retiformis Smith & Sanders: Pima Green Toad, Sonora Green Toad, Sonoran Green Toad (feeds on arthropods; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding takes place at rain-formed ponds, pools, sumps and wash bottoms with adjacent grass and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 83 (reported, but lacks verified populations - check HDMS records), 87*

 

 

Family Microhylidae: The Microhylid Family

 

Gastrophryne olivacea E. Hallowell: Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad, Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad, Sinaloan Narrow-mouthed Toad, Western Narrow-mouthed Toad (feeds on ants and other insects; takes shelter in underground burrows, crevices and under bark and rocks; breeding takes place in temporary rain pools, ponds, and other aquatic habitats; within the range of this species it has been reported from moist areas, pools along intermittent streams, cattle tanks, and spring seepages in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 73, 87, 106 (052506)*

 

 

Family Pelobatidae: The Spadefoot Toad Family

 

Scaphiopus couchi S.F. Baird: Couch’s Spadefoot (feeds on amphibians (larvae), ants, arachnids, beetles, carrion (larvae), centipedes, crickets, cyanobacteria (larvae), organic detritus (larvae), millipedes, plant matter, tadpoles and termites; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding takes place in temporary ponds, rain pools, irrigation ditches, reservoirs, and slow moving streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 83, 87, 108*

 

 

 

CLASS AVES: The BIRDS

A Checklist of the Birds of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument is

available at the Visitor Center for $0.75 (November 2005)

 

 

Family Accipitridae: The Eagle, Hawk, Kite and Allies Family

 

Accipiter cooperii (L.C. Bonaparte) (5): Cooper’s Hawk, Galvilan Palomero (Hispanic), Galvilan Pollero (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds and mammals; nest is a platform of sticks located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Accipiter striatus L.J. Vieillot: Galvilan Pajerero (Hispanic), Sharp-shinned Hawk; Wishag (feeds on birds and small mammals; nest is a platform of twigs located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aquila chrysaetos (C. Linnaeus): Aguila Real (Hispanic), American War Bird, Bird of Jupiter, Black Eagle, Brown Eagle, Calumet Bird, Calumet Eagle, Golden Eagle, Gray Eagle, Jackrabbit Eagle, King of Birds, Mountain Eagle, Ring-tailed Eagle, Royal Eagle, War Bird, White-tailed Eagle (feeds on birds, rabbits and larger rodents; nest is a bulky mass of sticks located on cliffs, ledges or in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Buteo albicaudatus (L.J. Vieillot): Sennett’s White-tailed Hawk, White-tailed Hawk (feeds on insects, lizards, rabbits and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks lined with grass located in cacti, bushes, scrub trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 106 (fam. - 071706)*

 

Buteo albonotatus (J.J. Kaup): Aguilill Cola Cinchada (Hispanic), Zone-tailed Hawk (feeds on small birds, lizards, and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks and green twigs located on cliffs or in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Buteo jamaicensis (J.F. Gmelin): Buzzard, Buzzard Hawk, Chicken Hawk, Eastern Redtail, Gavilan Cola Roja (Hispanic), Hen Hawk, Mouse Hawk, Red Hawk, Redtail, Red-tailed Buzzard, Red-tailed Hawk, Western Redtail (feeds on birds, lizards and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs and in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. calurus, fuertesi and harlani - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071706)*

 

Buteo jamaicensis subsp. calurus (J.F. Gmelin): Buzzard, Buzzard Hawk, Chicken Hawk, Eastern Redtail, Gavilan Cola Roja (Hispanic), Hen Hawk, Mouse Hawk, Red Hawk, Redtail, Red-tailed Buzzard, Red-tailed Hawk, Western Redtail (feeds on birds, lizards and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs and in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071706), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69, 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 071706), 108*

 

Buteo regalis (G.R. Gray): Ferruginous Hawk, Ferruginous Rough-legged Hawk (feeds on prairie dogs, ground squirrels and other rodents, birds, crickets and locusts; nest is a platform of sticks located in bushes and trees, or on cliffs, ground, hillsides, ledges and riverbanks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Buteo swainsoni C.L. Bonaparte: Gavilan Chapulinero (Hispanic), Swainson’s Hawk (feeds on grasshoppers, locusts and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs or ground, or in bushes, tall cacti, trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Buteogallus anthracinus (F. Deppe): Aguililla-negra Menor (Spanish), Black Hawk, Common Black-hawk, Crab Hawk, Gavilon Negro Comun (Hispanic), Lesser Black Hawk, Mexican Black Hawk, Sparrowhawk Black Crab Seller, Sparrowhawk Cracb Seller, (feeds on birds, crabs, crayfish, fishes, frogs, insects, rodents and snakes; nest is a platform of sticks lined with bark locate high up in cottonwood, mangrove and mesquite trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (subsp. anthracinus (F. Deppe) - 090906), 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Circus cyaneus (C. Linnaeus): Gavilan Norteno (Hispanic), Hen Harrier, Marsh Hawk, Northern Harrier (feeds on birds, mice and other small mammals; nest is made of grasses, reeds and stalks located on the ground in grasses or marsh; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Elanus leucurus (L.J. Vieillot): Black-winged Kite, Black-shouldered Kite, White Hawk, White-tailed Kite (feeds on large insects, mice and reptiles; nest is made of twigs lined with roots and grasses located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pandion haliaetus (C. Linnaeus): Fish Eagle, Fish Hawk, Marsh Hawk, Osprey (feeds on fish; nest is a massive platform of sticks located in tall cacti, trees, cliff ledges, rock pinnacles or the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodlands, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Parabuteo unicinctus C.J. Temminck: Aguililla Cinchada (Hispanic), Aguililla Roja (Hispanic), Bay-winged Hawk, Harris Hawk, Harris’s Hawk (feeds on rodents, rabbits and birds; nest is a platform of sticks located in mesquites, small trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Aegithalidae: The Bushtit Family

 

Psaltriparus minimus (J.K. Townsend): Black-eared Bushtit, Black-tailed Bushtit, Bushtit, Coast Bushtit, Common Bushtit, Lead-colored Bushtit, Lloyd’s Bushtit, Sastrecito (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and larvae, including the Western Spruce Budworm and Douglas-fir Tussock Moth, and spiders; nests are hanging long woven cups or pouches made of lichens, plant wool and spider webs located in bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Alaudidae: The Lark Family

 

Eremophila alpestris (C. Linnaeus): Alondra Cuermuda (Hispanic), Horned Lark, Shore Lark (feeds on insects, seeds and spiders; nests are made of grasses located on the ground in depressions and scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Alcidinidae: The Kingfisher Family

 

Ceryle alcyon (C. Linnaeus) (Megaceryle alcyon (C. Linnaeus)): Belted Kingfisher, Halcyon, Lazy Bird, Martin Pescador (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, birds, crustaceans, small fishes, insects, lizards and mammals; eggs are laid at the end of burrows located on the banks of creeks, rivers, lakes and ponds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Megaceryle alcyon (see Ceryle alcyon)

 

 

Family Anatidae: The Duck, Goose and Swan Family

 

Aix sponsa (C. Linnaeus): Pato Arbolero (Hispanic), Wood Duck (feeds on acorns, algae, amphibians, arachnids, fishes, gastropods, insects, mollusks, plants and seeds; nests are lined with down located in cavities in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 8484 (sighting considered to be far from the normal range of this species), 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Anas acuta C. Linnaeus: Northern Pintail, Northern Pintail Duck, Pato Golondrino (Hispanic), Pintail, Sprig (feeds on aquatic plants and insects; nests are down-lined hollows located in marshes and on prairies; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas americana J.F. Gmelin (“Mareca” americana J.F. Gmelin): American Wigeon, American Wigeon Duck, Baldpate, Pato Chalcuan (Hispanic), Widgeon (feeds on aquatics plants, crustaceans, grasses, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are lined with down located on the ground in depressions and hollows in grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Anas clypeata C. Linnaeus (Spatula clypeata C. Linnaeus): Northern Shoveler, Northern Shoveler Duck, Pato Cucharon (Hispanic), Shoveler, Spoonbill (feeds on bulrushes, crustaceans, decapods, gastropods, insects, grasses, mollusks, sedges and zooplankton; nests are hollows lined with down located on the ground in grasses, sedges and under bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas crecca C. Linnaeus: Cerceta de Alas Verdes (Hispanic), Common Teal, Green-winged Teal, Green-winged Teal Duck, Teal (feeds on aquatic plants, arthropods, grasses, insects and mollusks; nests are down and grass lined hollows located in marshes and under shrubs or small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas cyanoptera L.J. Vieillot: Cerceta Cafe (Hispanic), Cinnamon Teal, Cinnamon Teal Duck (feeds on aquatic plants, grasses, insects and mollusks; nests are down lined hollows located in bulrushes, grasses and reeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas discors C. Linnaeus: Blue-winged Teal, Blue-winged Teal Duck, Cerceta de Alas Azules (Hispanic) (feeds on annelid worms, aquatic plants, crustaceans, decapods, grasses, insects and larvae, plants, mollusks and snails; nests are  shallow depressions and hollows lined with dry grasses and down located on the ground near water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formation within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. discors C. Linnaeus - 090906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 106 (090906)*

 

Anas platyrhynchos C. Linnaeus: Common Mallard, Common Wild Duck, Curly-tail, Domestic Duck, English Duck, French Duck, Gray Duck, Gray Mallard, Greenhead, Mallard, Mallard Duck, Mexican Duck, Mottled Duck, Pato de Collar (Hispanic), Stock Duck, Wild Duck (feeds on acorns, aquatic plants and earthworms; nests are down-lined hollows located in grass and reeds and under shrubs, saplings and deadfalls, rarely in crotches in trees and abandoned crow, hawk and magpie nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Anas strepera C. Linnaeus: Gadwall, Gadwall Duck, Pato Pinto (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, crustaceans, gastropods, grasses and other plants, insects and mollusks; nests are lined with down located on the ground in depressions and hollows in grass and under shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aythya affinis (T.C. Eyton): “Bluebill”, Lesser Scaup, Lesse Scaup Duck, Pato Boludo Chico (Hispanic), Western Scaup (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, decapods, gastropods, insects, pondweed, mollusks; nests are depressions lined with down and grasses located on the ground in grasses and tall vegetation; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Aythya americana (T.C. Eyton): Redhead, Redhead Duck (feeds on algae (muskgrass), gastropods, grasses, mollusks, pondweed seeds and tubers and sedges; nests are baskets made of reeds and lined with down located in marshes in bulrushes, reeds and tules; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Aythya collaris (E. Donovan): Pato Chaparro (Hispanic), Ring-necked Duck (feeds on annelid worms, aquatic plants, arachnids, arthropods, fishes, gastropods, insects and larvae and mollusks; nests are bowl-shaped cups of made of aquatic vegetation and grasses and reeds and lined with down located in marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (090906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Aythya valisineria (A. Wilson): Canvasback, Canvasback Duck, Pato Coacoxtle (Hispanic) (feeds on algae, fish, aquatic insects, mollusks and aquatic plants; nests are baskets constructed of grass and reeds lined with down constructed over water in bulrushes, cattails, reeds and sedges in marshes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071706)*

 

Branta canadensis (C. Linnaeus): Cackling Goose, Canada Goose, Ganzo Canadensis (Hispanic), Greater Canada, “Hutchins’ Goose” (feeds on grasses; nests are plant masses located on islets, lakeshores, in marshes, river bottoms with oxbows and sloughs and in large abandoned platform nests located on cliffs and in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55 (gen.), 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Bucephala albeola (C. Linnaeus): Bufflehead, Bufflehead Duck, Pato Chillon Chico (Hispanic) (feeds on aquatic plants, crustaceans, fishes, gastropods, insects and larvae, mollusks and plants; nests are located in tree cavities; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Bucephala clangula (C. Linnaeus): American Goldeneye, Common Goldeneye, Common Goldeneye Duck, “Whistler” (feeds on crustaceans, decapods, fishes, gastropods, insects, pondweed and sedges; nests are lined with down located in snags, rotted out stumps and woodpecker nesting holes and cavities in large trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formation within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. americana (C.L. Bonaparte) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Lophodytes cucullatus (C. Linnaeus): Hooded Merganser, Hooded Merganser Duck, Mergo Copeton (Hispanic), “Sawbill” (feeds on amphibians, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, insects and larvae and plants; nests are lined with down located in cavities in hollow trees and stumps; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (090906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Mareca americana (see Anas americana)

 

Mergus merganser C. Linnaeus: Common Merganser, Common Merganser Duck, Goosander (European), Mergo Comun (Hispanic), “Sawbill” (feeds on arthropods, young birds, small fishes, frogs, insects, leeches, mollusks, mussels, salamanders, shrimps, snails and worms; nests are down lined located in tree cavities and well concealed hollows on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formation within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. americanus (J. Cassin) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (subspp. - 090906)*

 

Mergus serrator C. Linnaeus: Mergo Pecho Rojo (Hispanic), Red-breasted Merganser, Red-breasted Merganser Duck (feeds on crustaceans, decapods, fishes, frogs and insects; nests are hollows lined with down located in burrows and among brush, rocks and tree roots; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. serrator (C. Linnaeus) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Oxyura jamaicensis (J.F. Gmelin): Pato Tepalcate (Hispanic), Ruddy Duck (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, gastropods, insects, aquatic plant roots and seeds, pondweed and sedges; nests are baskets made of woven grass located attached to reeds over water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsup. rubida (Wilson) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (090906)*

 

Spatula clypeata (see Anas clypeata)

 

 

Family Apodidae: The Swift Family

 

Aeronautes saxatalis (S.W. Woodhouse): White-throated Swift, Vencejo Montanes (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of saliva cemented twigs located in caves and crevices in mountain and sea cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Chaetura vauxi (J.K. Townsend): Vaux’s Swift (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of small sticks cemented together with saliva and attached to the inside of the hollows of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Vaux’s Swift is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Ardeidae: The Bittern, Egret and Heron Family

 

Ardea alba C. Linnaeus (Casmerodius albus (C. Linnaeus): American Egret, Common Egret, Garza Grande (Hispanic), Great Egret, Great White Egret, “Great White Heron”, Kotuku (New Zealand), White Heron (feeds on fishes, frogs, insects and snakes; nests are bulky platforms made of stems and sticks located in trees, dead brush and tule marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (subsp. egretta (J.F. Gmelin) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (subspp. - 091006)*

 

Ardea herodias C. Linnaeus: Garza (Hispanic), Garza Ceniza (Hispanic), Great Blue Heron, Great White Heron (white morph of the Great Blue Heron), Treganza’s Heron, Wurdemann’s Heron (intermediate morph of the Great Blue Heron which has a white head) (feeds on amphibians, small birds, crayfish, decapods, fishes, frogs, insects, mice, mollusks, reptiles, rodents, spiders and turtles; nest is a bulky platform made up of sticks located on cliffs, islets, rocky islands, swamps and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) If disturbed, adults may abandon nests and roosting sites and quit feeding nestlings.*14 (subspp. herodius and tregansai (Court) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Bubulcus ibis (C. Linnaeus) (this species is sometimes placed in the genus Egretta): Cattle Egret, Garza Garrapatera (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, birds, fishes, insects and insect larvae, mammals and reptiles; nests are platforms made of sticks located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodlands, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *14 (subsp. ibis (C. Linnaeus) - 082106), 20, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Butorides striatus (see Butorides virescens) 

 

Butorides virescens (C. Linnaeus) (Butorides striatus C. Linnaeus): Garza Espalda Verde (Hispanic), Green-backed Heron, Green Heron, Little Heron, Mangrove Heron Striated Heron (feeds on annelid worms, crayfish, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, frogs, gastropods, insects, mice, mollusks, reptiles and spiders; nest is a flimsy platform made up of grasses and sticks located in clumps of grass, shrubs, thickets or in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subspp. anthonyi (Mearns) and virescens (C. Linneaus) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Casmerodius albus (see Ardea alba) 

 

Egretta thula (G.I. Molina) (Leucophoyx thula (G.I. Molina): Garza Nevado (Hispanic), Brewster’s Egret, Snowy Egret, Snowy Heron (feeds on smaller amphibians, annelid worms, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, gastropods, insects, mammals and reptiles; shallow nests are platforms made of dead bullrushes and sticks and lined with fine twigs located in tules, mash grasses shrubs or trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (subsp. brewsteri (Thayer & Bangs) - 082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Egretta tricolor (L.S. Müller) (Hydranassa tricolor (L.S. Müller): Garza Tres Colores (Hispanic), Louisiana Heron, Tricolored Heron (feeds on annelid worms, arachnids, crustaceans, fishes, frogs, gastropods, insects, mollusks and reptiles; nests are platforms constructed of sticks located on the ground, among reeds or in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. ruficollis (Gosse) - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84 (sighting considered to be far from the normal range of this species), 106 (091006)*

 

Hydranassa tricolor (see Egretta tricolor) 

 

Ixobrychus exilis (J.F. Gmelin): Garcita Chica (Hispanic), Least Bittern, Western Least Bittern (feeds on amphibians, annelid worms, birds, fishes, gastropods, insects and mollusks; nests are well concealed platforms constructed from cattails, grasses, reeds, sticks and twigs located above water among cattails, reeds and rushes in marshes and reedy ponds; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subspp. exilis and hesperis - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006), *

 

Leucophoyx thula (see Egretta thula) 

 

Nycticorax nycticorax (C. Linnaeus): Black-crowned Night-heron, Garza Copete Negro (Hispanic), Night Heron (Europe) (feeds on annelid worms, the young of other water birds crustaceans, decapods, small fishes, frogs, insects, small mammals, mollusks and reptiles; nests are loose platforms made of canes, stalks and sticks and lined with marsh grasses or twigs located on the ground in marshes in thickets and tules and in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Black-crowned Night-heron is sensitive to human disturbance. *14 (subsp. hoacti (J.F. Gmelin) - 082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

 

Family Bombycillidae: The Waxwing Family

 

Bombycilla cedrorum L.J. Vieillot: Cedar Waxwing, Chinito Bolera (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, insects and seeds; nest is a bulk cup of grass, moss and twigs woven onto the horizontal branches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Caprimulgidae: The Nighthawk, Nightjar and Allies Family

 

Caprimulgus ridgwayi (E.W. Nelson): Aguador de Ridgway (Hispanic), Buff-collard Nightjar, Cookacheea, Preste-me-tu-cuchillo, Ridgway’s Whip-poor-will (feeds on insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on open ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 93*

 

Chordeiles acutipennis (J. Hermann): Aquador Tapacamino Chico (Hispanic), Lesser Nighthawk, Nehpod (Tohono O’Odham), Texas Nighthawk (feeds on insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on open ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93*

 

Phalaenoptilus nuttalli (J.J. Audubon): Aquador (Hispanic), Common Poorwill, Kohlo’Ogam (Tohono O’Odham), Nuttall’s Poor-will, Poor-will (feeds on nocturnal insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on bare ground, gravel or rock; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93*

 

 

Family Cardinalidae: The Bunting, Cardinal and Grosbeak Family

 

Cardinalis cardinalis (C. Linneaus) (Richmondena cardinalis (C. Linneaus)): Cardenal (Hispanic), Cardenal Rojo (Hispanic), Northern Cardinal, Sipuk (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of shredded bark and twigs located in a low shrubs or thickets; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108 (recorded as Richmondena cardinalis subsp. superba)*

 

Cardinalis sinuatus C.L. Bonaparte (Pyrrhuloxia sinuata C.L. Bonaparte): Bichpod (Tohono O’odham), Cardenal Gris, Cardinal Torito (Hispanic), Desert Cardinal, Pyrrhuloxia (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are neat cups located in thorny bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108 (recorded as Pyrrhuloxia sinuata fulvescens)*

 

Guiraca caerulea (see Passerina caerulea)

 

Passerina amoena (T. Say): Jaspeado (Hispanic), Lazuli Bunting (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are loose cups made of grasses and leaves located in low bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerina caerulea (C. Linnaeus) (Guiraca caerulea (C. Linnaeus)): Blue Grosbeak, Pico Gordo Azul (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses, rootlets and snakeskin located in a bushes or low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93*

 

Passerina ciris (C. Linnaeus): Nonpareil (French), Mariposa Pintada (Painted Butterfly - Spanish), Painted Bunting, Siete Colores (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are woven cups lines with grasses, hair  and leaves located in low crotches of bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerina cyanea (C. Linneaus): Indigo Bunting (feeds on berries, buds, small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are woven cups made of grass and weeds located low in the crotch of bushes, dense shrubs and low growing trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Passerina versicolor (C.L. Bonaparte): Beautiful Bunting, Varied Bunting (feeds on insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grass located in shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pheucticus ludovicianus (C. Linnaeus): Pepitero Pico Rojo (Hispanic), Rose-breasted Grosbeak (feeds on berries, small fruits, insects and seeds nests are frail flat saucers made of plant stems and twigs located in bushes, large shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland and wetland ecological formations including those within the desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (091006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Pheucticus melanocephalus (W. Swainson): Black-headed Grosbeak, Rocky Mountain Grosbeak, Tigrillo (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are frail saucers made of plant stems and twigs located in bushes and tree forks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata (see Cardinalis sinuatus)

 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata subsp. fulvescens (see footnote under Cardinalis sinuatus)

 

Richmondena cardinalis (see Cardinalis cardinalis)

 

Richmondena cardinalis subsp. superba (see footnote under Cardinalis cardinalis)

 

Spiza americana (J.F. Gmelin): Dickcissel (feeds on insects and insect larvae, seeds and spiders; nests are made of course forbs, grasses, hair, leaves and rootlets located on the ground forbs, grasses and tall vegetation and low in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland and wetland ecological formations, sightings in the desertscrub ecological formation are out of the normal range for this species and considered to be accidental) *14 (091006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84 (sighting considered to be far from the normal range of this species), 106 (091006)*

 

 

Family Cathartidae: The New World Vulture Family

 

Cathartes aura (C. Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on cliffs, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. septentrionalis and teter - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Cathartes aura (C. Linnaeus) subsp. teter: Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on cliffs, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071706), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 84 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Coragyps atratus (J.M. Bechstein): American Black Vulture, Black Vulture (feed on carrion, new born calves and lambs and young herons and ducks; no nests, eggs are laid in caves, crevices in rock, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

 

Family Certhiidae: The Creeper Family

 

Certhia americana C.L. Bonaparte (Certhia familiaris C. Linnaeus): American Tree Creeper, Brown Creeper, Carpinterito Cafe (Hispanic), Mexican Creeper, Rocky Mountain Creeper (feeds on insects and insect eggs, larvae and pupae, pseudoscorpions, seeds and spiders; nests are cup-shaped or hammock-like made of bark, moss, spider webbing and twigs located under a strip of bark low on the trunk of a dead tree and in tree cavities; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. americana, albescens (Berlepsch) and montana (R. Ridgway) - 091006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (091006)*

 

Certhia familiaris (see Certhia americana)

 

 

Family Charadriidae: The Lapwing and Plover Family

 

Charadrius semipalmatus (C.L. Bonaparte): Ringed Plover, Semipalmated Plover (feeds on crustaceans, insects, mollusks and worms; nests are shallow scrapes lined with pebbles, plant material and shell fragments or in depressions in sand located on the ground on beaches and dunes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Charadrius vociferus (C. Linnaeus): Chiwi-Chuhch (Tohono O’odham), Killdeer, Tildio (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, insects, marine invertebrates and worms; eggs are laid in a scrape on bare ground in fields and shores; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. vociferous - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806), 108*

 

 

Family Ciconiidae: The Wood Ibis and Stork Family

 

Mycteria americana C. Linnaeus: “Wood Ibis”, Wood Stork (feeds on fishes, frogs, invertebrates and snakes; nests are bulky and made of sticks located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (072206), 108*

 

 

Family Columbidae: The Dove and Pigeon Family

 

Columba fasciata (T. Say): Band-tailed Pigeon, Blue Pigeon, Blue Rock, Paloma Pellotera (Hispanic), White-collard Pigeon (feeds on acorns, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are flat stick platforms located on branches and twigs of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Columba livia J.F. Gmelin: Domestic Pigeon, Feral Pigeon, Pigeon, Paloma Domestica (Hispanic), Rock Dove, Rock Pigeon (feeds on insects, green plant matter and seeds; nests on buildings and cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *14, 20, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Columbigallina passerina (see Columbina passerina)

 

Columbina inca (R.P. Lesson) (Scardafella inca (R.P. Lesson)): Gugu (Tohono O’odham), Inca Dove, Tortola (Hispanic), Tortolita Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; saucer shaped nests are made of mixed vegetation and located in shrubs and low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Columbina passerina (C. Linnaeus) (Columbigallina passerina (C. Linnaeus)): Common Ground-dove, Ground Dove, Torcacita (Hispanic) (feeds on seeds; nests are made flimsy saucers of twigs located low to the ground in cacti, shrubs, trees and vines or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Scardafella inca (see Columbina inca)

 

Zenaida asiatica (C. Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on berries, fruit, gastropods, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are flimsy stick platforms located in thickets and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. asiatica, grandis (Saunders), mearnsi (R. Ridgway) and monticola (Saunders) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806),*

 

Zenaida asiatica (C. Linnaeus) subsp. mearnsi: Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on berries, fruit, gastropods, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are flimsy stick platforms located in thickets and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 071806), 108*

 

Zenaida macroura (C. Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (C. Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose platforms made of forbs, grasses, leaves, rootlets, sticks and twigs located in cacti, shrubs, trees and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. carolinensis (C. Linnaeus) and marginella (S.W. Woodhouse)- 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*         

 

Zenaida macroura (C. Linnaeus) subsp. marginella (Zenaidura macroura (C. Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose platforms made of forbs, grasses, leaves, rootlets, sticks and twigs located in cacti, shrubs, trees and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 071806), 108*        

 

Zenaidura macroura (see Zenaida macroura)

 

 

Family Corvidae: The Crow, Jay, Magpie and Raven Family

 

Aphelocoma californica (N.A. Vigors) (Aphelocoma coerulescens subsp. californica Schmitt): California Jay, Pajaro Azul (Hispanic), Santa Cruz Jay, Scrub Jay, Western Scrub-jay (feeds on acorns, berries, insects, nuts and seeds; nests are bowls made of grass, rootlets and twigs located in shrubs and trees; through the burying of acorns they play an important role in the regeneration of oak woodlands lost to drought and fire; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aphelocoma coerulescens subsp. californica (see Aphelocoma californica)

 

Corvus corax C. Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Cyanocitta stelleri (J.F. Gmelin): Azulejo Copeton (Hispanic), Long-crested Jay, Mountain Jay, Pine Jay, Steller’s Jay (feeds on acorns, berries, insects, nuts and seeds; nests are bowls made of pine needles and twigs and lined with feathers, fibers, moss or rootlets located in conifers; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Nucifraga columbiana (A. Wilson): Clark’s Crow, Clark’s Nutcracker (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, bird eggs and fledglings, carrion, insects, small mammals and seeds; nests are bowls made of bark, leaves and sticks and line with grasses located on tree branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Geococcyx californianus (R.P. Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Roadrunner, Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

 

Family Emberizidae: The Junco, Longspur, Sparrow and Towhee Family

 

Aimophila carpalis (E. Coues): Rufous-winged Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of woven course and fine grasses located low bushes and cacti, in young mesquite trees and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aimophila cassinii (S.W. Woodhouse): Cassin’s Sparrow, Gorrion Cassin (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are deep cups made of grasses located on the ground and at the bases of bushes and cacti; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aimophila ruficeps (J. Cassin) (subsp. rupicola (van Rossem) is the only subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Yuma Rufous-crowned Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruits and insects; nests are cups lined with grass and plant fibers located on or near the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (091006), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 84, (sp.), 106 (sp. - 091006)*

 

Ammodramus savannarum (J.F. Gmelin): Gorrion Chapulinero (Hispanic), Grasshopper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located on the ground in grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Amphispiza belli (J. Cassin): Sage Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of fur, grasses and sagebrush located in shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Amphispiza bilineata (J. Cassin): Ba’ I-Chukulim (Tohono O’odham), Black-throated Sparrow, Desert Sparrow, Gorrion Garganta Negra (Hispanic), Zacatonaro Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses located in cacti and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. deserticola (R. Ridgway) and opuntia (Burleigh & Lowery) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Amphispiza bilineata (J. Cassin) subsp. deserticola: Ba’ I-Chukulim (Tohono O’odham), Black-throated Sparrow, Desert Sparrow, Gorrion Garganta Negra (Hispanic), Zacatonaro Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses located in cacti and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 84 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 0514-2606), 108*

 

Calamospiza melanocorys L.H. Stejneger: Lark Bunting (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses and plant down located in tussocks of grass on the ground and in scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Chlorura chlorura (see Pipilo chlorurus)

 

Chondestes grammacus (T. Say): Gorrion Alondra (Hispanic), Lark Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and lined with fine fibers and hairs located on the groun and in small bushes and vines; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Junco hyemalis (C. Linnaeus): “Cassiar” Junco, Dark-eyed Junco, Gorrion Ojas Negros (Hispanic), Gray-headed Junco, Grey-headed Junco, Oregon Junco, Slate-colored Junco, White-winged Junco (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of shreds of bark, grasses, mosses, rootlets and twigs lined with hairs located on the ground in protected areas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84 (3 forms reported), 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Melospiza georgiana (J. Latham): Gorrion de la Cieneja (Hispanic), Swamp Sparrow (sparrows in general feed on insects, seeds and small fruits; nests are cups made of grasses located in marsh hummocks and tussocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 20, 55 (reported from Tucson), 69, 73, 84, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Melospiza lincolnii (J.J. Audubon): Gorrion Lincoln (Hispanic), Lincoln’s Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in bogs and muskegs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Melospiza melodia (A. Wilson): Gorrion Cantor (Hispanic), Song Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located on the ground and in low bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerculus sandwichensis (J.F. Gmelin): Belding’s Sparrow, Chihuahua Savanna Sparrow, Gorrion Zanjero (Hispanic), Large-billed Savannah Sparrow, Large-billed Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow (feeds on gastropods, insects, seeds and spiders; nests are made of grasses located on the ground in depressions, hollows and scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerella iliaca (B. Merrem): Ferruginous Finch, Fox-colored Sparrow, Fox Sparrow, Fox-tail, Foxy Finch and Gorrion de la Zorra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and lined with feathers located low in bushes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pipilo chlorurus (J.J. Audubon) (Chlorura chlorura (J.J. Audubon)): Green-tailed Towhee, Toqui Cola Verde (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are made of shredded bark and grasses located under brush and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (see Pipilo maculatus)

 

Pipilo fuscus W. Swainson: Bichput (Tohono O’odham), Brown Towhee, Canyon Towhee, Hichput; Toqui Pinto (Hispanic), Vieja (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are large deep cups made of grasses and rootlets located in bushes and low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

Pipilo maculatus W. Swainson (Pipilo erythrophthalmus (C. Linnaeus)): Bullfinch, Bush-bird, Chewink, Eastern Towhee, Ground Robin, Joree, Low-ground-Stephen, Marsh Robin, Mountain Towhee, Nevada Towhee, Rufous-sided Towhee, Spotted Towhee, Spurred Towhee, Swamp Robin, Turkey Sparrow, White-eyed Towhee (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of shredded bark and leaves located low in dense bushes on or close to the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pooecetes gramineus (J.F. Gmelin): Vesper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects, seeds and small fruit; nests are grass lined cups located on the ground in grass and low vegetation; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Rhyncophanes mccownii (see Calcarius mccownii)

 

Spizella atrogularis (J.L. Cabanis): Black-chinned Sparrow, Gorrion (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are compact, neat, grass lined cups located in low bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Spizella breweri (J. Cassin): Brewer’s Sparrow, Gorrion Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in low conifers, sagebrush or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. breweri and taverneri - 071806), 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Spizella breweri (J. Cassin) subsp. breweri: Brewer’s Sparrow, Gorrion Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in low conifers, sagebrush or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (071806), 108*

 

Spizella pallida (W. Swainson): Clay-colored Sparrow (feeds on insects and seeds; nests are bulky cups made of grasses and lined with hair located on the ground or near the ground in bushes, forbs, grasses or shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Spizella passerina (J.M. Bechstein): Chipping Sparrow, “Hairbird” (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and rootlets and lined with hair located in bushes, trees and  vines or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Chipping Sparrow is a predators of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm.  *14 (subsp. arizonae  (S.F. Baird) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Spizella passerina (J.M. Bechstein) subsp. arizonae: Chipping Sparrow, “Hairbird” (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and rootlets and lined with hair located in bushes, trees and  vines or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Chipping Sparrow is a predators of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm.  *14 (071806), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 84 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 071806), 108*

 

Zonotrichia albicollis (J.F. Gmelin): Gorrion Garganta Blanca (Hispanic), White-throated Sparrow (members of this family feed on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of bark fiber, grasses, hairs, mosses and rootlets located under bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Zonotrichia atricapilla (J.F. Gmelin): Golden-crowned Sparrow, Gorrion Copete de Oro (Hispanic) (members of this family feed on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasess and lined with rootlets located on the ground or close to the ground in clumps of vegetation, bushes and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071806), 55, 73, 84, 93, 106 (071806)*

 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (J.R. Forster): Gambel’s Sparrow, Gorrion Copete Blanco (Hispanic), Gorrion Corona Blanca (Hispanic), Intermediate Sparrow, Nuttall’s Sparrow, Tomtol (Tohono O’odham), White-crown, White-crowned Sparrow (members of this family feed on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in bushes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606), 108*

 

 

Family Falconidae: The Caracara and Falcon Family

 

Caracara cheriway (see Caracara plancus subsp. audubonii)

 

Caracara plancus (J.F. Miller) subsp. audubonii (J. Cassin) (Caracara cheriway (Jacquin)): Audubon’s Caracara, Caracara, Common Caracara, Crested Caracara, Mexican Buzzard, “Mexican Eagle”, Northern Caracara (feeds on carrion and small vertebrates; nests are bowls made of reeds and sticks located on the ground and in saguaro cacti, trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 84, 93, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Falco columbarius (C. Linnaeus): Merlin, Pig