September 17, 2006 Update

 

 

 

WESTERN PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA, INCLUDING

THE CABEZA PRIETA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE

 

 

Major Contributors and Sources of Information: William T. Kendall **WTK*. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Heritage Data Management System - Special Status Species Reports *8*. Checklist of Vascular Plants of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, prepared by Richard S. Felger, 1997 *31*. The  United States Department of the Interior, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge listings of Amphibians, Birds, Mammals, Plants, Reptiles and Amphibians *94*; Endangered Species on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, October 1998 *94 (ES 1998)*; Endangered, Threatened and Candidate Species Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, June 1994 *94 (ETCS 1994)*.

 

 

 

The Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge headquarters is located at 1611 North Second Avenue in Ajo, Arizona. Before entering this refuge, you must first obtain a valid Refuge Entry Permit and sign a Military Hold Harmless Agreement. This refuge was established in 1939 and covers 860,010 acres in western Pima County and eastern Yuma County.  This refuge has been set aside for the protection and preservation of all animals and plants found there. It is illegal to harm, harass or disturb wildlife found on this refuge. WTK November 2005

 

 

“An increasing need for careful husbandry of the earth’s natural resources has renewed interest

in the classification and mapping of ecosystems. The inventory of our remaining biotic entities is particularly urgent because the increased aspirations of a constantly growing world population

are placing ever greater stress on these generous, but finite, living resources.”

 

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 

Species Distribution Lists are being developed to encourage and promote the conservation of local native animals and plants. They are developed for legally defined geographic areas, and larger bodies of water. They are provided to environmental consultants, property owners, and government agencies interested in promoting conservation. Listings include species reported as having been observed in or reported from the described area. Due to continuing additions and corrections the listings should be considered a work in progress.

 

Individual species records are presented alphabetically by family and genus. Following the scientific name is the authority, common synonym(s), common name(s), a general description of the species habitat and the biotic communities in which it has reportedly been observed, and the bibliography for the comments and sources of additional information. Species once reported as having occurred within the described area, but that no longer occurs there are shown are having been EXTIRPATED. This list includes species that are not native to Arizona (EXOTIC). Exotic plants are not recommended for use in landscaping or restoration projects. Disjunct species, outliers and plants on the edge of the main population, as observed by the surveyor, are noted as being PERIPHERAL PLANT(S). Landscaped plants are not included in the listings unless they have become naturalized into the surrounding native environment.

 

Local native vegetation is recommended for use in landscaping and restoration projects. To determine what could be considered as local native vegetation look at both the project township and the eight contiguous townships for plants of similar habitat and elevation. Plants should be planted in their approximate original habitat and density. Use of native plants encourages native animals to remain in the area and helps to retain the areas natural beauty, unique identity and heritage.

 

Appreciation is expressed to the officers and staff of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Pima County and local government offices for the protection provided to our native animals and plants.

 

Species Distribution Lists are periodically updated and revised. These listings have been created and maintained by William T. Kendall. Comments, the reporting of corrections, the reporting of unrecorded species in townships and the reporting of information relating to the historical distribution of species would be greatly appreciated, and may be sent by mail to: Kendall Environmental Surveys, P.O. Box 87967, Tucson, Arizona 85754-7967, or E-mail to: KendallEnvironmentalSurveys@msn.com.

 

 

DISCLAIMER: The information presented as township notes has been obtained from large scale mapping and should be used only as a general guide. Information used in these lists is accepted from biologists and individuals interested in helping to promote the conservation of our natural resources. Mistakes are made in the identification of species and in the recording of information, and changes in nomenclature occur. For these reasons I can not and do not warrant the accuracy of these listings.

 

 

CAUTION: Many native desert plants have sharp thorns and spines. Care should be given when handling them and consideration should be given to public safety at sites where they are to be planted. Range plants having a known toxic or poisonous property may be so noted. Major and secondary poisonous range plants as reported by Schmutz, Freeman and Reed 1968 (*80*) are noted “... has/have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968)” in red lettering). Footnotes (*00*) for plants whose sources may have cautionary statements, comments and information on rarely poisonous or suspected poisonous range plants may also be shown in red. Many poisonous plants are similar in appearance to edible ones. No field collected plant should be eaten unless you know for a fact that it is safe for you to do so.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Listing Area Notes

 

Listing of Plants

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

Division Lycopodiophyta: The Lycopods

Class Lycopodiopsida: The Clubmosses, Firmosses and Spikemosses

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

Class Filicopsida: The Ferns

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

Class Gnetopsida: The Gnetops

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

Class Liliopsida: The Monocots

Class Magnoliopsida: The Dicots

 

Listing of Animals

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Mollusca: The Mollusks

                                                                Class Gastropoda: The Snails and Their Allies

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

Class Amphibia: The Amphibians

Class Aves: The Birds

Class Mammalia: The Mammals

Class Reptilia: The Reptiles

 

Acknowledgements

 

Species Distribution Listings Footnotes and References

 

 

 

 

LISTING AREA NOTES

 

 

Location

 

The listing area is located in Pima and Yuma Counties in southwestern Arizona. The area is bounded on the north, in part by the Pima/Maricopa County Line and on the south by the international border with Mexico. Much of the refuge is located within the Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range. The historic site of the Tohono O’odham Community of Chico Shunie is located on the refuge.

 

Historic Ranching Activities: Named historic stock tanks include the Antelope Tank (Pima County), Bassarigo Tank (Pima County), Buckhorn Tank (Yuma County), Buck Peak Tank (Yuma County), Cabeza Prieta Tanks (Yuma County), Eagle Tank (Yuma County), Granite Pass Tank (Pima County), Halfway Tank (Yuma County), Heart Tank (Yuma County), Jose Juan Tank (Pima County), Little Tule Tank (Pima County), North Pinta Tank (Yuma County), Redtail Tank (Pima County), Senita Tank (Yuma County), Sheep Tank (Pima County), Tule Tank (Yuma County) and the Tuseral Tank (Yuma County).

 

Historic Mining Activities: Named historic mines include the Bell Mine (Pima County), Bluebird Mine (Pima County), McMillan Mine (Yuma County), Papago Mine (Pima County), Rasmussan Mine (Yuma County), San Antonio Mine (Pima County), Stone Wall Mine (Pima County) and the Venegas Prospects (Yuma County).

 

Named wells include the Adobe Windmill (Pima County), Bluebird Mine Well (Pima County), Charlie Bell Well (Pima County), Chico Shune Well (Pima County), Corner Well (Pima County), Jacks Well (Pima County), Little Tule Well (Pima County), Lower Well (Pima County), Monreal Well (Dry - Yuma County)Papago Well (Pima County), Pozo Salado (Pima County), Saguaro Gap Well (Pima County), Salt Well (Pima County) and the Tule Well (Yuma County).

 

 

Landmarks

 

Named mountains, peaks, bluffs, canyons, passes, gaps and hills located on the refuge include Agua Dulce Mountains (Pima County), Agua Dolce Pass (Pima County), Antelope Hills (1,474 feet - Pima County), Bean Pass (Yuma County), Bryan Mountains (Yuma County), Buck Peak (2,629 feet - Yuma County), Cabeza Prieta Mountains (Yuma County), Cabeza Prieta Pass (Yuma County), Cabeza Prieta Peak (2,559 feet - Yuma County), Charlie Bell Pass (Pima County), Chia Canyon (Yuma County), Chico Shunie Hills (Pima County), Childs Mountain (2,862 feet, western portion - Pima County), Christmas Pass (Yuma County), Copper Canyon (Pima County), Davidson Canyon (Pima County), Davidson Hills (1,256 feet - Pima County), Devil Hills (1,096 feet - Yuma County), Drift Hills (1,427 feet - Yuma County), Eagle Canyon (Yuma County), Granite Mountains (Pima County), Growler Mountains (Pima County), Growler Peak (3,027 feet - Pima County), Hummingbird Canyon (Yuma County), Isla Pinta (2,007 feet - Yuma County), Mohawk Mountains (2,411 feet, southern portion - Yuma County), Monument Bluff (1,009 feet - Yuma County), Pack Rat Hill (1,540 feet - Pima County), O’Neil Hills (Yuma County), O’Neil Pass (Yuma County), Papago Mountain (2,141 feet - Pima County), Paradise Canyon (Yuma County), Point of the Pintas (Yuma County), Saguaro Gap (Pima County), Scarface Mountain (2,546 feet - Pima County), Sheep Mountain (1,977 feet - Pima County), Sheep Peak (2,217 feet - Pima County), Sierra Arida (1,737 feet - Yuma County), Sierra Pinta (2,950 feet - Yuma County), Sunday Pass (Yuma County), Surprise Canyon (Yuma County), Tepee Butte (1,936 feet - Pima County), Temporal Pass (Pima County), Tordillo Mountain (2,170 feet - Yuma County), Tule Mountains (2,307 feet - Yuma County) and the What Fo Canyon (Yuma County).

 

Named lava flows, deserts, basins and valleys located on the refuge include the A-1 Basin (Yuma County), Chinaman Flat (Pima County), Growler Valley (Pima County), Lechuguilla Desert (eastern portion - Yuma County), Mohawk Valley (Pima & Yuma Counties), Hohawk Valley Sand Dunes (Yuma County), Pinacate Lava Flows (Yuma County), Pinta Sands (Yuma County), San Cristobal Valley (Pima and Yuma Counties) and the Tule Desert (Yuma County).

 

Named springs include the Agua Dulce Spring (Pima County).

 

Named arroyos, washes and playas include the Chico Shunie Arroyo (Pima County), Coyote Wash (Yuma County), Daniels Arroyo (Pima County), Deer Hollow Wash (Pima County), Dos Playas (807 feet - Yuma County), Growler Wash (Pima County), La Jolla Wash (Yuma County), Las Playas (679 feet - Yuma County), Mohawk Wash (Yuma County), Pinta Playa (758 feet - Yuma County), San Cristobal Wash (Pima and Yuma Counties) and the Smoke Tree Wash (Yuma County).

 

 

Elevation

 

Elevations range from approximately 670 feet in the San Cristobal Wash on the north refuge line in Yuma County to approximately 3,293 feet at an unnamed peak in the Growler Mountains in Pima County (1).

 

 

Physiographic Province

 

This listing area is located within the Sonoran Desert Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (2).

 

 

Soils

 

Soils in that portion of the refuge located in Pima County are described as hyperthermic (very hot) arid soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Gilman-Antho-Valencia Association (deep soils on floodplains and alluvial fans), Mohall-Laveen-Coolidge Association (deep soils on the valley plains and old terraces), Gunsight-Rillito-Harqua Association (deep, gravelly, calcareous soils on the upper slopes) and the Rock Outcrop-Lomitas-Cherioni Association (rock outcrop and very shallow and shallow soils on low hills and mountains) with isolated areas of Rock Outcrop and shallow soils.

 

Soils in that portion of the refuge located in Yuma County are described as hyperthermic (very hot) arid soils (soils with mean annual soil temperatures of more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Centigrade) and less than 10 inches (25 cm) mean annual precipitation) of the Gunsight-Rillito-Pinal Association (deep and shallow, limy, gravelly medium and moderately course-textured, nearly level to strongly sloping soils on alluvial surfaces and valley plains), Lithic Camborthids-Rock Outcrop-Lithic Haplargids Association (shallow, gravelly and cobbly, moderately course to moderately fine-textured, gently sloping to very steep soils and Rock Outcrop on hills and mountains), Tremant-Coolidge-Mohall Association (deep, moderately course and gravelly, moderately fine-textured, nearly level and gently sloping soils on low fan surfaces and valley plains) and Superstition-Rositas Association (deep, course-textured, nearly level and undulating soils on terraces) with isolated areas of Rock Outcrop and shallow soils (3).

 

 

Biotic Community

 

Portions of this listing area are located within the Lower Colorado River and Arizona Upland Subdivisions of the Sonoran Desertscrub Regional Formation of the Desertscrub Ecological Formation with associated Wetland Ecological Formations (4).

 

 

Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic

 

Map of Western Pima County, Arizona, including the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge

and Adjacent Townships

 

 

 

A FEW OF THE NATIVE PLANTS REPORTED AS OCCURRING IN THIS LISTING AREA THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

 

 

Trees and Large Shrubs

(over 7 feet in height)

 

Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii), Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Western Honey Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana), Blue Paloverde (Parkinsonia florida), Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Desert Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Smoketree (Psorothamnus spinosus), Catclaw Acacia (Acacia greggii var. greggii), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis subsp. arcuata), Little Leaf Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla), Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), Senita (Pachycereus schottii), Screwbean Mesquite (Prosopis pubescens), Bitter Snakewood (Condalia globosa var. pubescens), Desert Hackberry (Celtis pallida), Kearney Sumac (Rhus kearneyi), Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi), Chain-fruit Cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida), Schott Pygmycedar (Peucephyllum schottii), Whitestem Milkweed (Asclepias albicans), Staghorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia versicolor), Emory Crucifixion-thorn (Castela emoryi), Greythorn (Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens), Whitethorn Acacia (Acacia constricta), Las Animas Nakedwood (Colubrina californica), Anderson Lycium (Lycium andersonii var. andersonii), Berlandier Lycium (Lycium berlandieri var. longistylum), Buckhorn Cholla (Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa), Rush Milkweed (Asclepias subulata), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Cane Cholla (Cylindropuntia spinosior), Fishhook Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni), California Compass Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus), Teddybear Cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii), Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens var. canescens), Ragged Rockflower (Crossosoma bigelovii) and Emory Barrel Cactus (Ferocactus emoryi).

 

 

Vines and Climbers

 

Fingerleaf Gourd (Cucurbita digitata), Drummond Clematis (Clematis drummondii), Coyote Gourd (Cucurbita palmata), Hartweg Twinevine (Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum), Pipevine Flower (Aristolochia watsoni), Blue Snapdragon Vine (Maurandella antirrhiniflora) and Slender Janusia (Janusia gracilis).

 

 

Shrubs and Large Grasses

(2 to 7 feet in height)

 

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), Beargrass (Nolina microcarpa), Wright Beebrush (Aloysia wrightii), Shrubby Limberbush (Jatropha cuneata), Red Barberry (Mahonia haematocarpa), Desert Saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa), Desert Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii), Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia chlorotica), Golden Cholla (Cylindropuntia echinocarpa), Arizona Jointfir (Ephedra fasciculata), Rough Jointfir (Ephedra aspera), Diamond Cholla (Cylindropuntia ramosissima), Chuparosa (Justicia californica), Sand Dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), Plains Bristlegrass (Setaria vulpiseta), Arizona Cottontop (Digitaria californica), Alkali Sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus), White Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa var. farinosa), American Threefold (Trixis californica), Big Galleta (Pleuraphis rigida), Canyon Ragweed (Ambrosia ambrosioides), Desert Christmas Cholla (Cylindropuntia leptocaulis), Bush Muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri), Wiggin Cholla (Cylindropuntia wigginsii), Coulter Hibiscus (Hibiscus coulteri), Desert Penstemon (Penstemon pseudospectabilis var. pseudospectabilis), Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla var. eriophylla), Desert Agave (Agave deserti subsp. simplex), Turpentine Broom (Thamnosma montana), Yellow Menodora (Menodora scabra), Triangleleaf Bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea), White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa), Nichol Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus nicholii), White Ratany (Krameria grayi), Whitestem Paperflower (Psilostrophe cooperi)  and Rock Hibiscus (Hibiscus denudatus).

 

 

Subshrubs, Herbs and Small Succulents

 

Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus), Parish Larkspur (Delphinium parishii var. parishii), Wild Delphinium (Delphinium scaposum), California Suncup (Camissonia californica), Many-headed Barrel Cactus (Echinocactus polycephalus var. polycephalus), Desert Lily (Hesperocallis undulata), Desert Senna (Senna covesii), Brownfoot (Acourtia wrightii), Blue Sand Lily (Triteleiopsis palmeri), Beavertail Pricklypear Cactus (Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris), Southwestern Mock Vervain (Glandularia gooddingii), Hollyleaf Gilia (Gilia latifolia), Hoary Tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. canescens), Desert Goldenpoppy (Eschscholzia glyptosperma), Woolly Desert Marigold (Baileya pleniradiata), San Felipe Dogweed (Adenophyllum porophylloides), Covena (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum), Yellow Spiny Daisy (Machaeranthera gracilis), Largeflower Onion (Allium macropetalum), Desert Unicorn-plant (Proboscidea althaeifolia), Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii var. chrysocentrus), Goodding Tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii), Woody Crinklemat (Tiquilia canescens var. canescens), Arizona Poppy (Kallstroemia grandiflora), Arid Tansyaster (Machaeranthera arida), Common Dogweed (Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta), Hispid Nama (Nama hispidum), Graham Pincushion Cactus (Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii), Corkseed Fishhook Cactus (Mammillaria tetrancistra), Desert Spinystar (Escobaria vivipara var. deserti), Desert Evening-primrose (Oenothera primiveris subsp. primiveris) and Desert Fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchella).

 

 

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY

http://aznps.org/

 

The ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY is a statewide nonprofit organization devoted to Arizona's native plants. Its mission is to promote knowledge, appreciation, conservation, and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats. They work with the Southwest Rare Plant Task Force to develop strategies for protecting rare species and their habitats; they keep abreast of conservation issues concerning native plants species and responds to those through their Conservation Committee; they promote the use of native species in residential and commercial landscapes; they publish the Plant Press, support the publication of scholarly works and maintains a website with information and links about native plant, and they host a series of statewide events that provide forums to learn from professionals. Member activities and benefits include chapter and statewide gatherings; field trips and educational presentations; conservation through education, outreach and restoration; habitat restoration projects; informative website, newsletters and journals, and interactions with plant experts and enthusiasts.

 

Contact: Arizona Native Plant Society, PO Box 41206, Tucson, Arizona 85717.

 

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY

http://www.tucsoncactus.org/

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating, teaching and learning about cacti and succulent plants. Their monthly programs feature knowledgeable individuals who can educate you and help you understand more about these fascinating plants. They conduct and sponsor native cactus and succulent rescue operations, plant sales, field trips, nursery and garden visits, conventions and conferences as well as other activities throughout the year. 

 

NATIVE PLANT RESCUE NOTICE

(The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society puts a tremendous amount of time and effort  into the

organizing and overseeing of their rescue events. The native plant rescues carried out by the dedicated

members of the Society provide an immeasurable service to our community.)

 

The TUCSON CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY organizes native plant rescues in areas being cleared for development. If interested in rescuing plants and/or obtaining local native plants for your landscaping or restoration project join the Society and become a rescue crew member.

 

Contact: Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society, PO Box 64759, Tucson, Arizona 85728-4759, 520-885-6367.

 

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY

http://www.desertsurvivors.org/nursery.asp

 

The DESERT SURVIVORS NATIVE PLANT NURSERY sells many local native plants and is willing to consider growing any native plant for which there is a buyer.

 

Contact: Desert Survivors Native Plant Nursery, 1020 West Starr Pass Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85713, 520-791-9309.

 

 

The TOHONO CHUL PARK GREENHOUSE

http://www.tohonochulpark.org/

 

The TOHONO CHUL PARK GREENHOUSE offers for sale a wide variety of native and arid adapted plants. Many of these plants require minimal watering once they are established. Flowers, trees, bushes and seeds are sold throughout the year.

 

Contact: Tohono Chul Park, 7366 North Paseo  del Norte, , Tucson, Arizona 85704-4415,  Information: 520-742-6455 (Greenhouse ext. 239), FAX: 520-797-1213, Russ Buhrow, Curator of Plants, 520-742-6455 ext. 234, russbuhrow@tohonochulpark.org

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF PLANTS

 

(this listing has been developed, in part, using the listing s of plants created for the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge which is located within of several townships in Pima and Yuma Counties in Arizona.

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  PLANTS FROM

COLLECTION, MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Plantae: The Plant Kingdom

Subkingdom Tracheobionta: The Vascular Plants

 

Division Lycopodiophyta: The Lycopods

 

 

 

CLASS LYCOPODIOPSIDA: The CLUBMOSSES, FIRMOSSES

and SPIKEMOSSES

 

 

Family Selaginellaceae: The Spike-moss Family

 

Selaginella arizonica W.R. Maxon (5): Arizona Selaginella, Arizona Spikemoss, Desert Spike-moss, Flor de Piedra (terrestrial perennial herb (½ to 1½ inches in forb/height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky ledges, cliffs and soil pockets on bedrock, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46, 51, 77*

 

Selaginella eremophila W.R. Maxon: Desert Selaginella, Desert Spikemoss, Flor de Piedra (terrestrial perennial herb (1/2 inch in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, hills, rocky slopes and rock crevices, occurring from 1,200 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46, 51, 94*

 

 

 

Division Pteridophyta: The Ferns

 

 

 

CLASS FILICOPSIDA: The FERNS

 

 

Family Marsileaceae: The Water-clover Family

 

Marsilea mucronata (see Marsilea vestita subsp. vestita)

 

Marsilea vestita W.J. Hooker & R.K. Greville subsp. vestita (Marsilea mucronata A. Braun) (5): Clover Fern, Hairy Pepperwort, Hairy Waterclover, Water Clover,  (terrestrial, semi-aquatic or aquatic perennial forb/herb (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from streams, creeks and rivers, banks of draws, reservoirs, ponds, pools, stock tanks and banks of tanks and charcos, playas, floodplains and wet ground, mud, clay, silty and sandy soils, occurring from below 7,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 31 (recorded as Marsilea vestita), 46, 63 (062506), 85 (062506)*

 

 

Family Pteridaceae: The Maidenhair Fern Family

 

Astrolepis cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. cochisensis (Notholaena cochisensis L.N. Goodding, Notholaena sinuata (O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (L.N. Goodding) C.A. Weatherby): Cloak Fern, Cochise’s Cloak Fern, Cochise Scaly Cloakfern, Helechillo, Jimmyfern, Narrow Cloakfern, Scaly Star Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 11½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky ledges, on boulders and among rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 51, 77, 80*

 

Astrolepis sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) R.W. Benham & M.D. Windham subsp. sinuata (Notholaena sinuata (M. Lagasca y Segura ex O. Swartz) G.F. Kaulfuss): Bulb Cloakfern Canaguala (Hispanic), Helecho (Hispanic), Kalawala (Tarahumara), Wavy Cloak Fern, Wavy Scaly Cloakfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 4½ to 22 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among rocks, crevices and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 30, 46, 51, 58, 94*

 

Cheilanthes feei T. Moore: Fee Lip Fern, Slender Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2 to 7 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, ridges, rock crevices, ledges, hills, hill sides, rock outcrops, rocky slopes, arroyos and riparian areas, occurring from 1,900 to 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 51, 85, 94*

 

Cheilanthes parryi D.C. Eaton (Notholaena parryi (D.C. Eaton) K. Domin): Parry’s Cloak Fern, Parry’s Lipfern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountain sides, mesas, canyons and canyon walls, hillsides, rock crevices, among boulders and rocks, rocky slopes and rocky draws, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 51, 77, 94*

 

Cheilanthes standleyi (see Notholaena standleyi) 

 

Notholaena californica D.C. Eaton subsp. californica: California Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 1½ to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, hills, rocky slopes and among rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 51, 94*

 

Notholaena cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis) 

 

Notholaena parryi (see Cheilanthes parryi) 

 

Notholaena sinuata (see Astrolepis sinuata subsp. sinuata)

 

Notholaena sinuata var. cochisensis (see Astrolepis cochisensis subsp. cochisensis)  

 

Notholaena standleyi W.R. Maxon (Cheilanthes standleyi W.R. Maxon): Standley Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 2½ to 13 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, crevices on cliffs, rocky slopes and in shaded areas among boulders and rocks, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 51, 58, 94*

 

Pentagramma triangularis (G.F. Kaulfuss) G.A. Yatskievych, M.D. Windham & E. Wollenweber subsp. maxonii (C.A. Weatherby) G.A. Yatskievych, M.D. Windham & E. Wollenweber (Ptyrogramma triangularis G.F. Kaulfuss var. maxonii C.A. Weatherby): Goldback Fern, Goldfern, Maxon’s Goldback Fern (terrestrial perennial evergreen forb/herb (fronds are 3 to 15½ inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rock ledges, crevices and among boulders, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 46, 51, 94*

 

Ptyrogramma triangularis var. maxonii (see Pentagramma triangularis subsp. maxonii) 

 

 

 

Superdivision Spermatophyta: The Seed Plants

 

Division Gnetophyta: The Gnetophytes

 

 

 

CLASS GNETOPSIDA: The GNETOPS

 

 

Family Ephedraceae: The Mormon-tea Family

 

Ephedra aspera G. Engelmann ex S. Watson (Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson var. aspera (G. Engelmann) L. Benson) (5): Boundary Ephedra, Canatillo, Canutillo, Mormon Tea, Nevada Ephedra, Nevada Joint-fir, Pitamo Real, Popotillo, Rough Jointfir, Sanguinaria, Tepopote (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (3 to 5 feet in height and 3 to 5 feet in width) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife, food plant of the Bighorn Sheep. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 31, 46, 48, 77, 91, 94 (recorded as Ephedra aspera and Ephedra nevadensis)

 

Ephedra fasciculata A. Nelson: Arizona Jointfir (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, hillsides, slopes, flats, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 4,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is browsed by wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 46, 48, 94*

 

Ephedra nevadensis var. aspera (see Ephedra aspera)

 

 

 

Division Magnoliophyta: The Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CLASS LILIOPSIDA: The MONOCOTS

 

 

Family Agavaceae: The Century-plant Family

 

Agave deserti G. Engelmann subsp. simplex H.S. Gentry (5): Agave, Amul, Desert Agave, Desert Century Plant, Single-rosette Desert Agave, Mescal (terrestrial perennial evergreen succulent forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height and 16 to 32 inches in diameter with a flowering stem reaching to 20 feet in height) (6); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas, outcrops and sandy flats, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 17, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 91, 94*

 

 

Family Cyperaceae: The Sedge Family

 

Cyperus aristatus (see Cyperus squarrosus)  

 

Cyperus esculentus C. Linnaeus var. esculentus: Bebollin, Chufa, Cebollin (Hispanic), Chufa Flatsedge, Coquillo (Hispanic), Coquillo Amarillo (Hispanic), Northern Nut Grass, Sai´ (Hispanic), Yellow Nut Grass, Yellow Nut Sedge, Zacate (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from road sides, along washes, marshes, stream banks, stock tanks, disturbed areas and wet grounds, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30 (sp.), 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 101*

 

Cyperus squarrosus C. Linnaeus: (Cyperus aristatus C.F. Rottboll). Awned Cyperus, Awned Flat Sedge, Bearded Flatsedge, Dwarf Sedge, Umbrella Sedge (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes and wet and moist ground, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Liliaceae: The Lily Family

 

Allium macropetalum P.A. Rydberg: Arizona Onion, Cebollin, Desert Onion, Largeflower Onion, Large-petal Onion, Wild Onion (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, among rocks, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and heavy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Dichelostemma capitatum (G. Bentham) W. Wood subsp. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) G. Keator (Dichelostemma pulchellum (R.A. Salisbury) A.A. Heller var. pauciflorum (J. Torrey) R.F. Hoover): Bluedicks, Brodiaea, Covena, Coveria, Desert Hyacinth, Few-flowered Covena, Grass Nuts, Papago Lily, Purplehead, Wild Hyacinth terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 30 inches in height; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Dichelostemma pulchellum var. pauciflorum (see Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. pauciflorum)

 

Hesperocallis undulata A. Gray: Ajo, Ajo Lily, Ajo Sylvestre, Desert Lily, Hesperocallis (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, plains, flats, valleys, sand dunes, washes and fine sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 86, 94*

 

Nolina bigelovii (J. Torrey) S. Watson: Bigelow Nolina, Bigelow’s Nolina, Desert Tree-beargrass (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub, shrub or tree (4 to 16 feet in height and 6 feet in width with a flowering spike reaching 3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky outcrops and rocky and gravelly hillsides, occurring from 500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 94*

 

Triteleiopsis palmeri (S. Watson) R.F. Hoover: Baja Sand-lily, Blue Sand Lily, Palmer’s Bajalily (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (8 to 20 inches in height with a flowering stem 12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, hills, slopes, sand dunes, sand sheets, sandy flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 1,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 9, 31, 46, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Poaceae (Gramineae): The Grass Family

 

Achnatherum speciosum (C.B. von Trinius & F.J. Ruprecht) M.E. Barkworth (Stipa speciosa (C.B. von Trinius & F.J. Ruprecht) M.E. Barkworth): Desert Needlegrass (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rocky hills and plains, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31 (recorded as [Stipa speciosa var. speciosa], 33, 46, 48, 77, 94*

 

Andropogon barbinodis (see Bothriochloa barbinodis)

 

Aristida adscensionis C. Linnaeus: Sixweeks Threeawn, Six-weeks Three-awn Grass, Zacate Cola de Zorra, Zacate Tres Barbas (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Aristida californica G. Thurber ex S. Watson var. californica: California Threeawn, Tres Barbas de California, Mojave Threeawn (terrestrial perennial graminoid (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, slopes, dry sandy plains, dunes, sandy flats, roadsides and sandy soils, occurring below 1,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46*

 

Aristida glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)  

 

Aristida hamulosa (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)

 

Aristida parishii (see Aristida purpurea var. parishii)

 

Aristida purpurea var. glauca (see Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi)

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall: Perennial Three-awn, Purple Needle-grass, Purple Threeawn, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 48, 58, 94*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. nealleyi (G. Vasey) K.W. Allred (Aristida glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) W.G. Walpers, Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. glauca (C.G. Nees von Esenbeck) A. Holmgren & N. Holmgren): Blue Threeawn, Nealley Three-awn, Reverchon Threeawn, Tres Barbas, Tres Barbas Purpurea (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and roadsides, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48 (sp.), 77*

 

Aristida purpurea T. Nuttall var. parishii (A.S. Hitchcock) K.W. Allred (Aristida parishii A.S. Hitchcock): Parish’s Threeawn, Threeawn (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been range reported from rocky slopes, hills and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48 (sp.), 77*

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. gentilis (J.S. Henrickson) K.W. Allred (Aristida hamulosa J.S. Henrickson, Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. hamulosa (J.S. Henrickson) J.S. Trent): Hook Threeawn, Mesa Threeawn, Poverty Threeawn, Spidergrass, Threeawn, Wild Oat, Zacate Arana de Tres (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 33, 46 , 58, 77, 94*

 

Aristida ternipes A.J. Cavanilles var. ternipes: Spidergrass, Zacate Arana (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, hills, gravelly and sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46*

 

Aristida ternipes var. hamulosa (see Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)  

 

Avena fatua C. Linnaeus: Flaxgrass, Oatgrass, Wheat Oats, Wild Oat (terrestrial annual graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy bajadas, roadsides, along washes, low-lying areas and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,250 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Bothriochloa barbinodis (M. Lagasca y Segura) W.G. Herter (Andropogon barbinodis M. Lagasca y Segura): Algodonero, Bristlejoint Bluestem, Cane Beard Grass, Cane Bluestem, Perforated Bluestem, Pinhole Beardgrass, Pinhole Bluestem, Popotillo, Zacate Popotillo, Zacatón (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 30, 31, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Bouteloua aristidoides (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.H. Grisebach: Aceitilla, Navajita, Needle Grama, Pasto Cabra (Hispanic), Six-weeks Needle Grama, Tochite (Hispanic), Zacate Saitillo (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes and streambeds, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 30, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94, 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura (Bouteloua barbata M. Lagasca y Segura var. barbata [superfluous autonym]): Navajita Annual, Sixweeks Grama, Zacate Liebrero (terrestrial annual graminoid (2 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, sandy bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94, 105*

 

Bouteloua barbata var. barbata (see Bouteloua barbata) 

 

Bouteloua trifida G. Thurber: China, Navajita, Navajita Roja, Red Grama, Three-awn Grama (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky and sandy slopes, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 77*

 

Brachiaria arizonica (see Urochloa arizonica)  

 

Bromus arizonicus (C.L. Shear) G.L. Stebbins (Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott var. arizonicus C.L. Shear): Arizona Brome (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, arroyos, along sandy washes and banks of washes, streambeds, sandbars, floodplains, ditch banks, disturbed areas and moist sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 58, 80, 94*

 

Bromus carinatus W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott: Arizona Brome, Basiawari (Hispanic), Basicuáare (Hispanic), Bromo de California (Hispanic), California Brome, Camaloti (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Masiyague (Hispanic), Mountain Brome, Pipillo (Hispanic), Pipilo (Hispanic),  Tigrillo (Hispanic), Tupikua (Purépecha),  Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bromo (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial graminoid (16 to 48 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, moist meadows, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, near ponds and damp soils, occurring from 2,200 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 30, 33, 46, 58, 77, 80, 94, 101*

 

Bromus carinatus var. arizonicus (see Bromus arizonicus)

 

Bromus rubens C. Linnaeus: Bromo, Bromo Rojo, Foxtail Brome, Foxtail Chess, Red Brome (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,300 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. Bromes (Bromus sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 94, 105*

 

Cenchrus ciliaris (see Pennisetum ciliare) 

 

Cenchrus incertus (see Cenchrus spinifex)

 

Cenchrus palmeri G. Vasey: Palmer Sandbur (terrestrail graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy hills, rocky slopes, dunes, sand hummocks, sandy flats and sandy soils, occurring below 500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The barbed spines of the burs are painful to humans beings and animals, sometimes causing inflammation and infection. *5 (no record - 072906), 46 (gen.), 63 (no record - 072806), 85 (072806), 94*

 

Cenchrus pauciflorus (see Cenchrus spinifex) 

 

Cenchrus spinifex Cavanilles (Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis, Cenchrus pauciflorus G. Bentham): Coastal Sandbur, Field Sandbur, Huipapore (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid; within range reported from rocky canyons, hillsides, swales, flats, roadsides, along creeks, streambeds, riparian woodlands, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from below 6,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The barbed spines of the burs are painful to humans beings and animals, sometimes causing inflammation and infection. *5, 6, 15, 31, 33, 46, 58*

 

Chloris elegans (see Chloris virgata) 

 

Chloris virgata O. Swartz (Chloris elegans K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Barbas de Indio (Hispanic), Cola de Zorra, Feather Fingergrass, Plumerito (Hispanic), Showy Chloris, Verdillo (Hispanic), Zacate de Cola de Zorra (Hispanic), Zacate Lagunero (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds, ditches, swales, waste places, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31, 33, 46, 57, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Cynodon dactylon (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Acabacahuiztle (Hispanic), Acacahuitzli (Nahuatl), Bermudagrass, Bramilla (Hispanic), Canzuuc (Maya), Devil Grass, European Bermuda Grass, Gallitos (Hispanic), Grama (Hispanic), Grama de la Costa (Hispanic), Gramilla (Hispanic), Grana (Hispanic), Guix-biguiñi (Zapoteco), Lan-suuk (Maya), Pasto Bermuda (Hispanic), Pasto Estrella (Hispanic), Pata de Gallo (Hispanic), Pata de Perdiz (Hispanic), Pata de Pollo (Hispanic), Tsakam Toom (Hispanic), Zacate (Hispanic), Zacate Bermuda (Hispanic), Zacate Borrego (Hispanic), Zacate Chino (Hispanic), Zacate del Conejo (Hispanic), Zacate Inglés (Hispanic), Zacate Pilillo (Hispanic), Zaruue (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (low-growing sodgrass); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, roadsides, seeps, moist soil along washes and banks of washes, streambeds, cienegas and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 22, 30, 31 (recorded as Cynodon dactylon var dactylon), 33, 46, 58, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 80, 94, 101, 105*

 

Cynodon dactylon var dactylon (see footnote under Cynodon dactylon)

 

Dasyochloa pulchella (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) C.L. von Wildenow x P.A. Rydberg (Erioneuron pulchellum (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) T. Tateoka, Tridens pulchellus (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) A.S. Hitchcock): Desert Fluffgrass, Fluffgrass, Low Woollygrass, Zacate Borreguero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (3 to 6 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring  below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Digitaria californica (G. Bentham) J.S. Henrickson (Trichachne californica (G. Bentham) M.A. Chase): Arizona Cottontop, California Cottontop, Cotton-top, Zacate Punta Blanca (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Echinochloa colona (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Echinocloa colonum (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link): Arroz del Monte (Hispanic), Junglegrass, Jungle Rice, Jungle Ricegrass, Leopard Grass, Watergrass, Zacate Pinto, Zacate Rayado, Zacate Tigre (terrestrial annual graminoid (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from pockets of soil on rocky outcrops, swales, streambeds, ditch banks, muddy shores, disturbed areas and moist, damp and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31 (recorded as Echinocloa colonum var. colonum), 33, 46, 63 (072906), 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Echinocloa colonum var. colonum (see footnote under Echinochloa colona) 

 

Echinochloa colona var. zonale (see Echinochloa colona) 

 

Echinocloa colonum (see Echinochloa colona)

 

Echinocloa colonum var. zonale (see Echinochloa colona) 

 

Echinochloa crus-galli (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois var. crus-galli): Barnyardgrass, Grama Morada (Hispanic), Japanese Millet, Pasto Alemán (Hispanic), Pasto Mijillo (Hispanic) Zacate de Agua (Hispanic), Zacate de Corral (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 50 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from swales, ditch banks, cienegas, waste places and disturbed areas moist or marshy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 30, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 80, 101*

 

Enneapogon desvauxii A.M. Palisot de Beauvois: Feather Pappusgrass, Nineawn Pappusgrass, Spike Pappusgrass, Wright Pappusgrass, Zacate Ladera, Zacate Lobero (terrestrial perennial graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 15, 31, 33, 46, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Eragrostis cilianensis (C. Allioni) F. Vignolo-Lutati ex E.E. Janchen (Eragrostis megastachya (G.L. Koeler) J.H. Link: Amoresco (Hispanic), Candygrass, Lovegrass, Stinkgrass, Stinking Lovegrass, Strong-scented Lovegrass, Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Apestoso (Hispanic), Zacate Borreguero (Hispanic), Zacate de Amor Hediondo (Hispanic), Zacate Estepario (Hispanic) (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, stream beds, bottomlands, waste places, disturbed areas and damp and gravelly soils; occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 68, 77, 80, 94, 101*

 

Eragrostis lehmanniana C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Lehmann Lovegrass, Zacate Africano, Zacate de Amor (terrestrial perennial graminoid (18 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and disturbed areas in woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Eragrostis megastachya (see Eragrostis cilianensis) 

 

Eriochloa aristata G. Vasey: Awned Cup Grass, Bearded Cupgrass, Zacate Taza Aristida (terrestrial annual graminoid (20 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, swales, roadsides, sandy washes, along streams, streambeds, riparian areas and damps and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,400 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 33, 46, 94*

 

Eriochloa aristata G. Vasey var. aristata: Awned Cup Grass, Bearded Cupgrass, Zacate Taza Aristida (terrestrial annual graminoid (12 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, swales, roadsides, sandy washes, along streams, riparian areas and damps and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,400 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46*

 

Erioneuron pulchellum (see Dasyochloa pulchellah)

 

Festuca arizonica G. Vasey: Arizona Fescue, Camuela Borreguera (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, meadows, dry plains, roadsides, along streams, lake shores and damp, dry, rocky, gravelly, sandy and clay loam soils, occurring from 2,500 to 10,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5 (072906), 6, 33, 46, 63 (072906), 85 (072906), 94, 105*

 

Festuca octoflora (see Vulpia octoflora)

 

Festuca octoflora var. hirtella (see Vulpia octoflora var. hirtella) 

 

Heteropogon contortus (C. Linnaeus) A.M. Palisot de Beauvois ex J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes: Barba Negra, Common Tangleweed, Tanglehead, Tanglehead Grass, Retorcido Moreno, Zacate Colorado (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, ravines, plains, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Hilaria rigida (see Pleuraphis rigida) 

 

Hordeum murinum C. Linnaeus subsp. glaucum (E.G. von Steudel) N.N. Tzvelev (Hordeum stebbinsii G. Covas): Barley, Smooth Barley, Wild Barley (terrestrial annual graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, valleys, along washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Hordeum stebbinsii (see Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum)

 

Leptochloa filiformis (see Leptochloa panicea subsp. brachiata)

 

Leptochloa mucronata (see Leptochloa panicea subsp. mucronata)

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. brachiata E.G. von Steudel) N. Snow (Leptochloa filiformis (J.B. de Lamarck) A.M. Palisot de Beauvpis): Mucronate Sprangletop, Red Sprangletop (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, buttes, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and streams, stock tanks, playas, bosques, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist, rocky, gravelly, sandy, silty and clay soils, occurring from 500 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 85, 94*

 

Leptochloa panicea (A.J. Retzius) J. Ohwi subsp. mucronata (A. Michaux) R. Nowack (Leptochloa mucronata (A. Michaux) H.B. Kunth): Desparramo Rojo, Mucronate Sprangletop, Slendergrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, dry rocky slopes, roadsides, along sandy washes and streams, ditch banks, tanks and moist disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46, 94*

 

Leptochloa viscida (F.L. Scribner) W.J. Beal: Sticky Sprangletop, Zacate Salado Pagajoso (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, swales, bottomlands and waste places, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46*

 

Muhlenbergia microsperma (A.P. de Candolle) C.B. von Trinius: Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Liendrilla Fina y Liendrilla Chica (Hispanic), Littleseed Muhly (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31, 33, 46,  63 (083006), 77, 94*

 

Muhlenbergia porteri F.L. Scribner ex W.J. Beal: Bakú (Tarahumara), Bush-grass, Bush Muhly, Liendrilla Amacollada (Hispanic), Mesquitegrass, Telaraña (Hispanic), Zacate Aparejo (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid or subshrub (12 to 44 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Panicum alatum F.O. Zuloaga & O. Morrone var. alatum: Winged Panicgrass (terrestrial annual or perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from dry lake beds and playas, occurring from 600 to 700 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (081006), 80 (gen.), 85 (081006)*

 

Panicum arizonicum (see Urochloa arizonica)

 

Panicum hirticaule J.S. Presl var. hirticaule (Panicum capillare C. Linnaeus var. hirticaule (J.S. Presl) F.W. Gould): Mexican Panicgrass, Roughstalk Witchgrass, Witchgrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides, seeps,  along sandy washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 30 (sp.), 31, 33, 46, 77, 80*

 

Panicum capillare var. hirticaule (see Panicum hirticaule var. hirticaule)

 

Pennisetum ciliare (C. Linnaeus) J.H. Link (Cenchrus ciliaris C. Linnaeus): African Foxtail, Anjangrass, Buffelgrass, Bufle, Cadillo Buffel (Hispanic), Huizapol (Hispanic), Sandbur, Zacate Buffle (Hispanic) (terrestrial perennial graminoid (10 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,200 to 2,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22, 30, 31, 33, 46, 77, 94*

 

Pennisetum ruppelii (see Pennisetum setaceum)

 

Pennisetum setaceum (P. Forsskal) E. Chiovenda (Pennisetum ruppelii E.G. von Steudel): African Fountain Grass, Annual Fountain Grass, Crimson Fountaingrass, Fountain Grass, Plumitas, Purple Fountain Grass Tender Fountain Grass, Zacate de la Fuente (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, washes, streams, creeks and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 77, 94*

 

Phalaris minor A.J. Retzius: Alpisillo, Alpiste Silvestre, Littleseed Canarygrass (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 36 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, along washes, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring from 150 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 31, 33, 46, 77, 94, 101*

 

Pleuraphis rigida G. Thurber (Hilaria rigida (G. Thurber) G. Bentham): Big Galleta, Galleta Grande, Tobosa (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1  to 4 feet in height and to 6 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, buttes, foothills, rocky hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and sandy plains, sand dunes, washes, depressions, disturbed areas and rocky sandy, gravelly sandy, sandy and heavy alluvial soils, occurring below 4,600 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31, 33, 46, 48, 63 (081006), 80, 85 (081006), 94, 105*

 

Poa bigelovii G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner: Bigelow’s Bluegrass, Zacate Azule Nativo (terrestrial annual or biennial graminoid (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Bluegrasses (Poa sp.) can be hosts of the Ergot Fungus (Claviceps sp.) which has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80*

 

Schismus arabicus C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: Arabiangrass, Arabian Schismus, Zacate Arabe (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 68, 77, 94*

 

Schismus barbatus (P. Loefling ex C. Linnaeus) A. Thellung: Common Mediterranean Grass, Mediterraneangrass, Zacate Mediterrane Comun (terrestrial annual graminoid (4 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Setaria leucopila (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) J. Schumann: Bristlegrass, Plains Bristlegrass, Streambed Bristlegrass, White-haired Bristlegrass, Zacate Tempranero (terrestrial perennial graminoid; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,100 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31, 46, 48, 77*

 

Setaria macrostachya (see Setaria vulpiseta) 

 

Setaria vulpiseta (J.B. de Lamarck) J.J. Roemer & J.A. Shultes (Setaria macrostachya K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth): Assaak, Plains Bristlegrass, Xikkaa Kiix, Zacate Tempranero, Zacate Temprano (terrestrial perennial graminoid (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 2,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94, 105*

 

Sorghum halepense (C. Linnaeus) C.H. Persoon: Johnsongrass, Zacate Johnson (terrestrial perennial graminoid (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, ditch banks, cienegas, low-lying areas, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 6,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 94, 101, 105*

 

Sporobolus airoides (J. Torrey) J. Torrey: Alkali Sacaton, Sacaton, Zacaton, Zacaton Alcalino (terrestrial perennial graminoid (24 to 42 inches in height and 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, mesas, canyons, hills, rocky slopes, meadows, flats, sand hummocks, roadsides, springs, along sandy washes, bosques, floodplains, bottomlands, swampy areas, cienegas, edges of pools, playas, disturbed areas and moist, rocky, gravelly, clay and silty soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 31, 33, 46, 48, 77, 85, 94, 105*

 

Sporobolus cryptandrus (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Covered-spike Dropseed, Sand Dropseed, Zacate de Arena (terrestrial perennial graminoid (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, meadows, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, swales, roadsides, along washes, arroyos, draws, riverbeds, disturbed areas and moist and gravelly clay and sandy loam soils, occurring below 7,200 feet in elevation: useful as an ornamental in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48, 58, 77, 85, 105*

 

Stipa speciosa (see Achnatherum speciosum)

 

Stipa speciosa var. speciosa (see footnote under Achnatherum speciosum)

 

Trichachne californica (see Digitaria californica)

 

Tridens eragrostoides (G. Vasey & F.L. Scribner) G.V. Nash: Lovegrass Tridens (terrestrial perennial graminoid (14 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, dry slopes, along washes and rocky loam and sandy soils, occurring from 2,600 to 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 33, 46, 77, 94*

 

Tridens muticus (J. Torrey) G.V. Nash var. muticus: Slim Tridens, Tridente (terrestrial perennial graminoid (12 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 48, 77, 94, 105*

 

Tridens pulchellus (see Dasyochloa pulchella)

 

Urochloa arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) O. Morrone & F.O. Zuloaga (Brachiaria arizonica (F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill) S.T. Blake, Panicum arizonicum F.L. Scribner & E.D. Merrill): Arizona Panicgrass, Arizona Panicum, Arizona Signalgrass, Piojillo de Arizona (terrestrial annual graminoid (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy flats, roadsides, ephemeral seeps and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 33, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg (Festuca octoflora T. Walter): Sixweeks Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, soil pockets in rock outcrops, gravelly flats, streambeds and damp soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 33, 46, 58, 94*

 

Vulpia octoflora (T. Walter) P.A. Rydberg var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) J.T. Henrard (Festuca octoflora T. Walter var. hirtella (C.V. Piper) C.V. Piper ex A.S. Hitchcock): Eight-flowered Fescue, Fescua, Hairy Sixweeks Fescue, Sixweeks Fescue (terrestrial annual graminoid (3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 33, 46, 77*

 

 

Family Typhaceae: The Cat-tail Family

 

Typha angustifolia (see note in Typha domingensis)

 

Typha domingensis C.H. Persoon (Arizona specimens historically referred to as Typha angustifolia C. Linnaeus): Narrow-leaf Cattail, Southern Cattail, Tule (semi-aquatic perennial forb/herb (4 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, along streams and streambeds, creeks and rivers, sloughs, pools, marshy areas, in shallow water, at the edges of lakes and ponds and moist soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

 

 

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA: The DICOTS

 

 

Family Acanthaceae: The Acanthus Family

 

Beloperone californica (see Justicia californica)

 

Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray (5): Arizona Carlowrightia, Arizona Wrightwort, Chuparosa, Desert Honeysuckle, Hummingbird Bush, Lemilla, Rama de Toro, Wrightwort (terrestrial annual or perennial subshrub or shrub (6); within the range of this species it has been range reported from rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 2,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Justicia californica (G. Bentham) D. Gibson (Beloperone californica G. Bentham): Beloperone, California Beloperone, California Justicia, Chuparosa, Desert Hummingbird Bush, Honeysuckle, Hummingbird-bush, Rama Parda, Water-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and along gravelly and sandy washes and watercourses, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The nectar-rich flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds and eaten by linnets and sparrows. The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, recovers quickly from damage. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Aizoaceae: The Fig-marigold Family

 

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum C. Linnaeus: Slender-leaf Iceplant (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, floodplains, disturbed areas and low wet areas, occurring from 1,100 to 1,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 22, 31, 46*

 

Trianthema portulacastrum C. Linnaeus: Black Pigweed, Desert Horsepurslane, Desert Purslane, Giant Pigweed, Horse Purslane, Phak Bia Hin, Pigweed, Purslane, Verdolaga Blanca, Verdolaga Rastrera (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Amaranthaceae: The Amaranth Family

 

Amaranthus crassipes D.F. von Schlechtendal (var. crassipes is the only variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Spreading Amaranth (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert flats, roadsides, swales, washes, playas, edges of charcos, disturbed areas and wet mud and dry and clay soils, occurring from 600 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 31, 63 (072906), 85 (072906), 94*

 

Amaranthus fimbriatus (J. Torrey) G. Bentham ex S. Watson: Bledo, Fringed Amaranth, Fringed Pigweed, Quelite, Quelitillo, Toothed Amaranth (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, sandy flats and sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 68, 94*

 

Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: Bledo, Carelessweed, Palmer Amaranth, Palmer Pigweed, Pigweed, Red-root Pigweed, Quelite, Quiltite de las Aguas (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height, sometimes taller to 15 feet); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock  (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 94, 101*

 

Tidestromia lanuginosa (T. Nuttall) P.C. Standley: Espanta Vaqueras, Herba Lanuda, Hierba Ceniza, Honeysweet, Woolly Honeysweet, Woolly Tidestromia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 18 inches in height, up to 5 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Anacardiaceae: The Sumac Family

 

Rhus kearneyi T.M. Barkley (Rhus kearneyi T.M. Barkley subsp. kearneyi is the only subspecies known to occur in Arizona): Desert Sumac, Kearney Sumac, Kearney’s Sumac (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (5 to 18 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, slopes and along drainages, occurring from 1,000 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 13, 31, 46, 53, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae): The Carrot Family

 

Bowlesia incana H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon: American Bowlesia, Hairy Bowlesia, Hoary Bowlesia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Daucus pusillus A. Michaux: American Carrot, American Wild Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed, Southwestern Carrot, Wild Carrot, Zanahoria Silvestre (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Eryngium nasturtiifolium A.L. de Jussieu ex A. Delarbre f.: Hierba del Sapo, Nasturtium Leaf (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, arroyos, channels, tanks, lakes, playas and silty clay soils, occurring below 1,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 31, 63 (072906), 85 (072906), 94*

 

Spermolepis echinata (T. Nuttall ex A.P. de Condolle) A.A. Heller: Beggar’s Lice, Bristly Scaleseed, Scaleseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

 

Family Aristolochiaceae: The Birthwort Family

 

Aristolochia watsoni E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley: Dutchman’s Pipe, Dutchman’s Pipevine, Hierba del Indio, Indian-root, Pipevine Flower, Raiz del Indio, Watson’s Dutchman’s Pipe, Watson Indian Root (terrestrial perennial deciduous (?) forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Asclepiadaceae: The Milkweed Family

 

Asclepias albicans S. Watson: Wax Milkweed, Whtiestem Milkweed, White-stemmed Milkweed, Yamata Hierba Lechosa (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky mountainsides, cliffs, slopes, bajadas, sandy flats and washes, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46 (gen.), 86, 91, 94*

 

Asclepias erosa J. Torrey: Desert Milkweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, roadsides, dry banks, gravelly and sandy washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy silty soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31, 46 (gen.), 63 (072906), 85 (072906), 94*

 

Asclepias subulata J. Decaisne: Ajamete, Bedstraw Milkweed, Cadenilla Bronca, Desert Milkweed, Junete, Leafless Milkweed, Rush Milkweed, Yamate (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within range reported from mesas, rocky slopes, sandy and gravelly plains, flats, roadsides and in washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This palnt may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 28, 46 (gen.), 86, 91, 94*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter (Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne): Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Climbing Milkweed, Fringed Twinevine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (8 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains and along washes, arroyos and streams, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 28, 46, 68, 86, 94*

 

Funastrum cynanchoides (J. Decaisne) F.R. Schlechter subsp. heterophyllum (A.M. Vail) J.T. Kartesz (Funastrum heterophyllum (G. Engelmann) P.C. Standley, Sarcostemma cynanchoides J. Decaisne subsp. hartwegii (A.M. Vail) L.H. Shinners): Climbing Milkweed, Guirote Lechosa, Hartweg Climbing Milkweed, Hartweg’s Twinevine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (8 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Funastrum heterophyllum (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

Gonolobus productus (see Matelea producta)

 

Matelea parvifolia (J. Torrey) R.E. Woodson (Gonolobus parvifolius J. Torrey): Anglepod, Littleleaf Matelea, Little Leaf Milk Vine, Milkweed Vine, Small-leaf Anglepod, Small-leaved Milkvine, Spearleaf (terrestrial perennial shrub or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Sarcostemma cynanchoides (see Funastrum cynanchoides)

 

Sarcostemma cynanchoides subsp. hartwegii (see Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum)

 

 

Family Asteraceae (Compositae): The Aster Family

 

Acourtia wrightii (A. Gray) J.L. Reveal & G. King (Perezia wrightii A. Gray): Brownfoot, Desert Holly, Perezia, Pink Perezia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly bajadas and flats, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Adenophyllum porophylloides (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia porophylloides A. Gray): San Felipe Adenophyllum, San Felipe Dogweed, San Felipe Dyssodia, San Felipe Fetid Marigold (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Ambrosia ambrosioides (A.J. Cavanilles) F.W. Payne (Franseria ambrosioides A.J. Cavanilles): Ambrosia Leaf Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed, Chicura, Leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial perennial evergreen (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rock crevices, roadsides, sandy washes and streambeds, occurring below 4,500 feet elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 31, 46, 77, 91, 94*

 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia C. Linnaeus: Altramisa (Hispanic), Artemis (Hispanic), Amargosa (Hispanic), Annual Ragweed, Common Ragweed, Low Ragweed, Ragweed, Roman Wormwood, Short Ragweed, Small Ragweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (10 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, meadows, occurring from 3,400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 30, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (073006), 94*

 

Ambrosia confertiflora A.P. de Candolle (Franseria confertiflora (A.P. de Candolle) P.A. Rydberg): Altamisa de Playa, Bursage Ragweed, Estafiate, Field Ragweed, Slimleaf Bursage, Weakleaf Burr Ragweed, Weak-leaved Burweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, roadsides, washes, floodplains, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and rocky soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58,  63 (083006), 68, 77, 94*

 

Ambrosia deltoidea (J. Torrey) F.W. Payne (Franseria deltoidea J. Torrey): Burrobush, Bursage, Chamizo Forrajero, Chicurilla, Rabbit Bush, Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangle-leaf Bursage, Triangle-leaf Burr Ragweed (terrestrial evergreen perennial subshrub or shrub (12 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, runnels and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant acts as a nurse plant for Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 91, 94*

 

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) F.W. Payne (Franseria dumosa A. Gray): Burrobush, Burro Weed, Chamizo, Chicurilla, Hierba del Burro, White Bursage, White Burrobush (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (7 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, alluvial fans, gravelly plains, gravelly flats and dunes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae), acts as a nurse plant for Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and other woody plants and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 91, 94*

 

Ambrosia ilicifolia (A. Gray) F.W. Payne (Franseria illicifolia A. Gray): Hollyleaf Burr Ragweed, Holly-leaf Bur-sage, Holly-leaved Bursage (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (12 to 41 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyon bottoms, crevices in boulders and along washes, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 91, 94*

 

Antheropeas lanosum (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Eriophyllum lanosum (A. Gray) A. Gray): White Easterbonnets, Woolly Daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 1½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Aplopappus acredenius (see Isocoma acradenia var. acradenia)

 

Aplopappus cuneatus var. spathulatus (see Ericameria cuneata var. spathulata)

 

Aplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Aplopappus laricifolius (see Ericameria laricifolia)

 

Aplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Artemisia ludoviciana T. Nuttall: Ajenjo (Hispanic), Ajenjo del País (Hispanic), Ambf (Otomí), Artemisia (Hispanic), Altamiza (Hispanic), Azumate de Puebla (Hispanic), Cola de Zorrillo (Hispanic), Epazote de Castilla, Estafiate (Hispanic), Estomiate (Hispanic), Gray Sagewort, Hierba Maestra (Hispanic), Incieso Verde (Hispanic), Istafiate (Hispanic), Iztauhyatl (Náhuatl), Kamaistra (Popoloca), Louisiana Cudweed Sagewort, Louisiana Sagewort, Louisiana Wormwood, Mugwort Wormwood, Prairie Sage, Ros' Sabl' I (Rarámuri), Sagewort, Silver Wormwood, White Sage, White Sagebrush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, ridges, valleys, fence rows, stream beds, along washes, gulches, floodplains and rocky and sandy and rocky clay loam soils, occurring from 2,400 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 30, 46, 58, 63 (080106), 85 (073006), 94*

 

Aster canescens (see Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. canescens)

 

Aster subulatus (see Symphyotrichum subulatum)

 

Baccharis brachyphylla A. Gray: Shortleaf Baccharis, Short-leaved Baccharis (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, alluvial plains, gravelly flats, washes, floodplains and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Baccharis glutinosa (see Baccharis salicifolia)

 

Baccharis salicifolia (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) C.H. Persoon (Baccharis glutinosa C.H. Persoon): Azumiate (Hispanic), Bachomo (Hispanic), Baldag Shi (Hispanic), Batamote (Hispanic), Broom Baccharis, Chamiso (Hispanic), Chamiso del Rio (Hispanic), Chilca, Cucamoarisha (Cora), Cuerepillo (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Ro (Hispanic), Dsea Miis Tee (Hispanic), False Willow, Gila Willow, Groundsel Tree, Guamate, Guatamote (Hispanic), Guatarote (Hispanic), Hierba del Pasmo (Hispanic), Huamate, Jara, Jara Amarilla (Hispanic), Jara Mexicana (Hispanic), Jaral (Hispanic), Jarilla (Hispanic), Mule’s Fat, Rosin Brush, Seep Willow, Seepwillow Baccharis, Sticky Baccharis, Togzten (Hispanic), Tu Ta’ Vi (Hispanic), Water Motie, Water Wally, Water Willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (32 inches  to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes, streams and streambeds, rivers and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is useful in controlling watercourse erosion and slowing stream flow and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 30, 31, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray: Amargo, Broom Baccharis, Desert Broom, Desertbroom, Escoba, Hierba del Pasmo, Mexican Broom, Romerillo, Rosin Brush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, flats, roadsides, along gravelly and sandy washes, along streams, streambeds, floodplains, bottomlands and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, consider planting only male plants to eliminate seed production. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94*

 

Baileya multiradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Baileya del Desierto, Cloth-of-gold, Desert Baileya, Desert Marigold, Hierba Amarilla, Many-flowered Desert-marigold, Paper Daisy, Wild Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18, 28, 31, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 94*

 

Baileya pauciradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray: Laxflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, roadsides, sand dunes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring below 1,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (080106), 94*

 

Baileya pleniradiata W.H. Harvey & A. Gray: Tecomblate, Desertmarigold Baileya, Woolly Desert Marigold, Woolly Marigold (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (12 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, bajadas, plains, sandy flats, alkali flats, sand hills, sand hummocks, dunes, sandy roadsides, sandy washes, arroyos, sandy river beds, disturbed areas and gravelly, sandy and silty soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (073006), 94*

 

Bebbia juncea (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene var. aspera: Chuckwalla Delight, Junco, Rush Bebbia, Sweetbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Brickellia atractyloides A. Gray (Brickellia atractyloides A. Gray var. atractyloides): Brickellbush, Hollyleaf Brickellbush, Spearleaf Brickellbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, cliff faces, rocky slopes and rocky hillsides, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Brickellia coulteri A. Gray (Brickellia coulteri A. Gray var. coulteri): Brickellbush, Coulter’s Brickellbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, floodplains and along washes and streambeds, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Brickellia desertorum F.V. Coville: Desert Brickellbush, Desert Brickellia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, cracks in boulders, rock outcrops, hills, bajadas and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Calycoseris wrightii A. Gray: White Cupfruit, White Tackstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hillsides, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Centaurea melitensis C. Linnaeus: Cardo, Malta Centaurea, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Maltese Cockspur, Malta Starthistle, Maltese Star-thistle, Napa Starthistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along ditch banks and washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 31, 41, 46, 68, 77, 101*

 

Chaenactis carphoclinia A. Gray (var. carphoclinia is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Broadleaved Chaenactis, False Yarrow, Pebble False-yarrow, Pebble Pincushion, Pincushion Flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains and along washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46, 63 (062606), 77, 94*

 

Chaenactis macrantha D.C. Eaton: Bighead Dustymaiden, Bighead Pincushion, Large-flower Pincushion (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from ridges, below cliffs, hills, talus slopes, slopes, bajadas, plains, roadsides, along washes and rivers and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 94*

 

Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott (Chaenactis stevioides W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott var. stevioides): Broad-leaved Chaenactis, Desert Pincushion, Esteve False Yarrow, Esteve Pincushion, Pincushion Flower, Steve’s Dustymaiden (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Conyza canadensis (C. Linnaeus) A.J. Cronquist var. glabrata (A. Gray) A.J. Cronquist (Erigeron canadensis C. Linnaeus var. glabrata A. Gray): Canadian Horseweed, Horseweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, desertscrub, roadsides along streams, sandy washes, dry creeks and rivers, riparian areas, and disturbed areas, occurring from 800 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (073006)*

 

Conyza coulteri (see Laennecia coulteri)

 

Dyssodia cocinna (see Thymophylla concinna)

 

Dyssodia pentachaeta (see Thymophylla pentachaeta var. pentachaeta)

 

Dyssodia porophylloides (see Adenophyllum porophylloides)

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 86, 91, 94*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. farinosa: Brittlebush, Button Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba Cenisa, Hierba de Gusano, Hierba de las Animas, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso, Rama Blanca, White Brittlebush (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation)  This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 15, 18 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (sp.), 77, 91 (sp.)*

 

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex J. Torrey var. phenicodonta (J. Blake) I.M. Johnston: Brown-center Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Hierba del Vaso, Incienso (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (18 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and washes, occurring below 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 31, 46, 48 (sp.), 91, 94*

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial (leaves are drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (3 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 28, 15, 46 (sp.), 77, 91, 94*

 

Encelia frutescens (A. Gray) A. Gray var. frutescens: Button Brittlebush, Green Brittlebush, Rayless Encelia (terrestrial perennial (leaves are drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (3 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, flats, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 28, 15, 31, 46 (sp.), 77, 91*

 

Ericameria cuneata (A. Gray) A.J. McClatchie var. spathulata (A. Gray) W. Hall (Haplopappus cuneatus A. Gray var. spathulatus (A. Gray) J. Blake ex P.A. Munz): Cliff Goldenbush, Desert Rock Goldenbush, Desert Rock Golden Weed, Wedgeleaf Golden Weed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ledges, rocks and crevices in boulders and rocks, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13 (sp.), 15, 46, 77, 94*

 

Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus (Aplopappus) laricifolius A. Gray): Larch-leaf Goldenweed, Turpentine Bush, Turpentine Brush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains and flats, occurring from 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Erigeron canadensis var. glabrata (see Conyza canadensis var. glabrata)

 

Erigeron divergens J. Torrey & A. Gray: Diffuse Daisy, Fleabane, Fleabane Daisy, Green Rabbit Bush, Spreading Fleabane (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Erigeron lobatus A. Nelson: Desert Fleabane, Fleabane, Lobed Daisy, Lobed Fleabane (terrestrial biennial forb/herb (4 to 9 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, lava flows, plains, seeps, stream beds, along sandy washes, arroyos and rivers, occurring from 600 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080106), 77, 85 (073006), 94*

 

Eriophyllum lanosum (see Antheropeas lanosum)

 

Eriophyllum pringlei A. Gray: Pringle Eriophyllum, Pringle’s Woollyleaf, Pringle’s Woolly Sunflower, Woolly Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly mesas, canyon bottoms, rocky hills, bajadas, slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 46, 94*

 

Evax multicaulis (see Evax verna var. verna)

 

Evax verna C.S. Rafinesque var. verna C.S. Rafinesque (Evax multicaulis A.P. de Candolle): Cotton-rose, Evax, Manystem Evax, Rabbit Tobacco, Roundhead Rabbit-tobacco, Spring Pygmycudweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 94*

 

Filago arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Cottonrose, Arizona Filago, Arizona Fluffweed, Arizona Herba Impia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges and rocky and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 77*

 

Filago californica T. Nuttall: California Cottonrose, California Filago, California Fluffweed, Herba Impia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 500 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Franseria ambrosioides (see Ambrosia ambrosioides)

 

Franseria confertiflora (see Ambrosia confertiflora)

 

Franseria deltoidea (see Ambrosia deltoidea)

 

Franseria dumosa (see Ambrosia dumosa)

 

Gaillardia arizonica A. Gray: Arizona Blanketflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, plains, sandy flats and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Geraea canescens J. Torrey & A.Gray: Desert Gold, Desert Sunflower, Hairy Desertsunflower, Hairy-headed Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rock outcrops, gravelly and sandy hillsides, sand dunes, sandy flats, desert pavement, sandy roadsides, along arroyos, disturbed areas gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 86, 94*

 

Greenella arizonica (see Gutierrezia arizonica)

 

Gutierrezia arizonica (A. Gray) M.A. Lane (Greenella arizonica A. Gray): Arizona Snakeweed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in  elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Gutierrezia bracteata (see Gutierrezia californica)

 

Gutierrezia californica (A.P. de Candolle) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Gutierrezia bracteata L. Abrams): California Matchweed, San Joaquin Snakeweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes and stony plains, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 46, 63 (083006), 94*

 

Gutierrezia microcephala (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray: Broomweed, Little-head Sankeweed, Resinweed, Sticky Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Threadleaf Snakeweed, Three-leaf Snakeweed, Turpentineweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, stony plains, washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 3,500 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 68, 77, 80, 94*

 

Gutierrezia sarothrae (F.T. Pursh) N.L. Britton & H.H. Rusby: Broombrush, Broom Snakeweed, Broomweed, Cayaye, Hierba de la Vibora, Hierba de San Nicolas, Matchbrush, Matchweed, Perennial Broomweed, Perrenial Snakeweed, Resinweed, Round-head Broomweed, Sheepweed, Stinkweed, Snakeweed, Turpentineweed, Yellowtop, Yellow-weed, Yerba de San Nicholas (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, clearings in forests, stony plains, flats, roadsides, along washes and gravelly, sandy, loam and clayey soils, occurring from 2,800 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 80, 86, 94, 101*

 

Gymnosperma glutinosum (C.P. Sprengel) C.F. Lessing (Selloa glutinosa C.P. Sprengel): Cola de Zorro, Escobilla, Glutinous Gymnosperma, Gumhead, Hierba Pegajosa, Jarilla, Jucu Ndede, Mariquita, Motita, Moto, Nakedseed Weed, Pegajosa, Tatalencho, Tata Lencho, Xonequilitl, Zazal (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,000 feet to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Haplopappus acredenius (see Isocoma acradenia var. acradenia)

 

Haplopappus cuneatus var. spathulatus (see Ericameria cuneata var. spathulata)

 

Haplopappus gracilis (see Machaeranthera gracilis)

 

Haplopappus spinulosus var. gooddingii (see Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii var. gooddingii)

 

Helianthus annuus C. Linnaeus: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Isoauringonkukka, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Wild Artichoke, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, creeks, ditch banks, waste places, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 18, 28, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 94, 101*

 

Helianthus niveus (G. Bentham) T.S. Brandegee: Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Dune Sunflower, Kansas Sunflower, Mirasol, Sunflower, Showy Sunflower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, lava fields, dunes, sandy flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 63 (083006), 85, 94*

 

Helianthus niveus (G. Bentham) T.S. Brandegee subsp. tephrodes (A. Gray) C.B. Heiser (Helianthus tephrodes A. Gray): Algodones Sunflower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, dunes, sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 1,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 85, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Helianthus petiolaris T. Nuttall: Girasol, Narrowleaf Sunflower, Pikkuauringonkukka, Plains Sunflower, Prairie Sunflower, Sand Sunflower, Wild Sunflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, slopes, dunes, sandy hummocks, plains, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, riverbeds, riparian areas, floodplains, disturbed areas and gravelly clay, cinder and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 77, 85, 94*

 

Helianthus tephrodes (see Helianthus niveus subsp. tephrodes)

 

Hoffmeisteria pluriseta (see Pleurocoronis pluriseta)

 

Hymenoclea monogyra J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Jecota, Leafy Burrobush, Leafy Burrobrush, Romerillo, Singlewhorl Burrobrush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy washes, streambeds and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in controlling erosion and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 91, 94*

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray: Burrobrush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, alluvial plains, flats, arroyos, sandy washes, streambeds. alluvial plains, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in the revegetation of disturbed sites and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 91, 94*

 

Hymenoclea salsola J. Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray var. pentalepis: Burrobrush, Cheesebush, Cheeseweed, Jecota, Romerillo, White Burrobrush, White Cheesebush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats, arroyos, gravelly and sandy washes, streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is useful in the revegetation of disturbed sites and may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91*

 

Hymenothrix wislizeni A. Gray: Golden Ragweed, TransPecos Thimblehead, Wislizenus Beeflower (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

Hymenoxys odorata A.P. de Candolle: Bitter Rubberweed, Bitterweed, Poison Rubberweed, Western Bitterweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, roadsides, ditches, river bottoms, marshes, cienegas, aquatic areas, riparian scrublands, charcos, floodplains, lakebeds, playas and moist alluvial, sandy and clayey soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ands wetland ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (083006), 68, 80, 85, 94*

 

Isocoma acradenia (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. acradenia (Aplopappus acredenius (E.L. Greene) J. Blake, Haplopappus acredenius (E.L. Greene) J. Blake: Alkali Goldenbush, Alkali Golden Weed, Alkali Jimmyweed (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet high); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, saline flats, terraces, roadsides, along washes, creeks and streams, riparian scrublands, alkaline and sandy and moist loam soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 80, 94*

 

Lactuca serriola C. Linnaeus: China Lettuce, Compass Plant, Horse Thistle, Milk Thistle, Prickly Lettuce, Wild Lettuce, Wild Opium (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom (Conyza coulteri A. Gray): Conyza, Coulter Conyza, Coulter Marshtail (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, plains, washes, river bottoms, floodplains, moist soils, adjacent to riparian areas and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,500 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 80, 94*

 

Lygodesmia exigua (see Prenanthella exigua)

 

Machaeranthera arida B.L. Turner & J. Horne (Machaeranthera coulteri (A. Gray) B.L. Turner & J. Horne var. arida (B.L. Turner & J. Horne) B.L. Turner, Psilactis coulteri A. Gray): Arid Spiny Daisy, Arid Tansyaster, Silver Lake Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, roadsides, floodplains and riverbanks and bottoms, occurring from 200 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 80, 94*

 

Machaeranthera canescens (F.T. Pursh) A. Gray subsp. canescens var. canescens (Aster canescens F.T. Pursh, Machaeranthera spinulosa (E.L. Greene) V.L. Cory, non Amellus spinulosa F.T. Pursh): Hoary Tansyaster (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, hillsides, cinder flats, gravelly washes, disturbed areas and damp and dry soils, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 80, 85, 94, 101*

 

Machaeranthera coulteri var. arida (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Machaeranthera gracilis (T. Nuttall) L.H. Shinners (Haplopappus gracilis (T. Nuttall) A. Gray): Goldenweed, Slender Goldenweed, Yellow Daisy, Yellow Spiny Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, dry plains and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 94*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners: Cutleaf Ironplant Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus Yellow Spiny Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 14 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (080106), 77, 80, 86, 94*

 

Machaeranthera pinnatifida (W.J. Hooker) L.H. Shinners subsp. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & C.J. Hartman var. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & C.J. Hartman (Aplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. gooddingii A. Nelson, Haplopappus spinulosus (F.T. Pursh) A.P. de Candolle var. gooddingii A. Nelson): Cutleaf Ironplant, Goodding’s Tansyaster, Lacy Tansyaster, Spiny Haplopappus (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (083006), 80*

 

Machaeranthera spinulosa (see Machaeranthera canescens subsp. canescens var. canescens)

 

Malacothrix californica var. glabrata (see Malacothrix glabrata)

 

Malacothrix clevelandii A. Gray: Annual Malacothrix, Cleveland’s Desertdandelion, Cleveland Yellow Saucers, Yellow Saucers (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and streams, occurring from 2,500 to 4,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Malacothrix fendleri A. Gray: Desert Dandelion, Fendler’s Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, hills, rocky slopes, sandy plains, flats, roadsides, along washes, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Malacothrix glabrata (A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton) A. Gray (Malacothrix californica var. glabrata A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton): California Desert-dandelion, Desert Dandelion, Smooth Desertdandelion (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, washes and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Matricaria discoidea A.P. de Condolle (Matricaria matricarioides (C.F. Lessing) T.C. Porter): Disc Mayweed, False Chamomile, Manzanilla, Pineapple Weed, Rayless Chamomile (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, river bottoms, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94, 101*

 

Matricaria matricarioides (see Matricaria discoidea)

 

Microseris lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) A. Gray (Microseris linearifolia (T. Nuttall) C.H. Schultz: Hierba de Pasmo, Uropappus lindleyi (A.P. de Candolle) T. Nuttall, Uropappus linearifolius T. Nuttall): Lindley’s Silverpuffs, Linearleaf Microseris, Narrowleaf Microseris, Silver Puffs, Starpoint (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, plains, roadsides, sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 94*

 

Microseris linearifolia (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Monoptilon bellioides (A. Gray) H.M. Hall: Desert Daisy, Mohave Desertstar, Rock Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height and 1 to 10 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and sandy slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 86, 94*

 

Palafoxia arida B.L. Turner & J. Morris var. arida (Palafoxia linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) M. Lagasca y Segura): Desert Needles, Desert Palafox, Desert Palafoxia, Spanish Needles (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, sandy plains, sand dunes, roadsides, alluvial plains, sandy flats, sandy washes, bottomlands, sandy and gravelly soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 85, 94*

 

Palafoxia arida B.L. Turner & J. Morris var. gigantea (M.E. Jones) B.L. Turner & J. Morris (Palafoxia linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) M. Lagasca y Segura) var. gigantea M.E. Jones): Desert Palafox, Giant Spanish Needle, Palafox, Spanish Needles (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (to 28? inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 85, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Palafoxia linearis (see Palafoxia arida var. arida)

 

Palafoxia linearis var. gigantea (see Palafoxia arida var. gigantea)

 

Pectis papposa W.H. Harvey & A. Gray var. papposa: Chinchweed, Chinchweed Fetidmarigold, Desert Chinchweed, Fetid Marigold, Limoncillo, Manybristle Chinchweed, Manzanilla de Coyote (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, streambeds and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46 (sp.), 86, 94*

 

Perezia wrightii (see Acourtia wrightii)

 

Perityle ajoensis T.K. Todsen: Ajo Rock Daisy, Ajo Rockdaisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 12 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rock faces, benches and crevices, occurring from 2,600 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 9, 85, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Perityle emoryi J. Torrey: Desert Rock Daisy, Emory’s Rockdaisy, Emory Rocklily, Rock Daisy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from cliffs, rocky slopes, crevices in boulders and washes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Peucephyllum schottii A. Gray: Desert Fir, Fir Leaf, Pygmy Cedar, Romero, Schott’s Pygmycedar (terrestrial evergreen perennial shrub or tree (3 to 13 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyon walls, cliffs, ridge tops, hills, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, craters, gravelly and sandy washes, rocky arroyos, river banks, rocky coastlines and gravelly soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 85, 91, 94*

 

Pleurocoronis pluriseta (A. Gray) G. King & B.L. Robinson (Hoffmeisteria pluriseta A. Gray): Arrow-leaf, Bush Arrowleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sides of canyons, rocky cliffs, rocky slopes, lava slides, crevices, outcrops, among boulders and rocky hillsides, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 85, 94*

 

Porophyllum gracile G. Bentham: Deerweed, Hierba del Venado, Odora, Poreleaf, Slender Poreleaf (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Prenanthella exigua (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg (Lygodesmia exigua A. Gray) Brightwhite, Feeble Prenanthella: (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky outcrops, gravelly ridges, talus slopes, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, lava flows and slides, desert pavement, desert varnish, roadsides, sandy washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, gypsum soils, silty soils and clay loam soils, occurring from 700 to 5,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 77, 80, 85 (080106), 94*

 

Psathyrotes ramosissima (J. Torrey) A. Gray: Desert Velvet, Turtleback, Velvet Turtleback (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy mesas, rocky slopes, gypsum hills, plains, sandy flats, desert pavement, roadways, washes, disturbed areas and sandy and gravelly soils, silty sandy soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 2,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (080106)*

 

Psilactis coulteri (see Machaeranthera arida)

 

Psilostrophe cooperi (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Cooper Paperflower, Paper Daisy, Paper Flower, Whitestem Paperflower, Yellow Paper Daisy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 inches to 2 feet in height and 8 to 20 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 80, 86, 94*

 

Rafinesquia californica T. Nuttall: California Chicory, California Plumeseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and washes, occurring from 3,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46, 77, 80*

 

Rafinesquia neomexicana A. Gray: Desert-hicory, Desert Dandelion, Goatsbeard, New Mexico Plumeseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes and plains, occurring from 200 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Selloa glutinosa (see Gymnosperma glutinosum)

 

Senecio lemmonii A. Gray: Groundsel; Lemmon Butterweed, Lemmon Groundsel, Lemmon’s Ragwort (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountain slopes, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

Senecio mohavensis A. Gray: Mojave Groundsel, Mojave Ragwort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, crevices in boulders, rocky hillsides, bajadas, flats, draws, along washes and riparian areas, occurring below 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill (Sonchus asper (C. Linnaeus) J. Hill subsp. asper [superfluous autonym]): Achicoria Dulce, Cerraja, Chinita, Prickly Sowthistle, Rough Sowthistle, Sow Thistle, Spinyleaf Sowthistle, Spiny Sowthistle (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, slopes, roadsides, washes, ditch banks, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 30, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 101*

 

Sonchus asper subsp. asper (see Sonchus asper) 

 

Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson (Stephanomeria pauciflora (J. Torrey) A. Nelson var. pauciflora): Brownplume Wirelettuce, Desert Straw, Small-flowered Wirelettuce (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, sandy plains, roadsides, along washes and floodplains, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

Stephanomeria schottii A. Gray: Schott Wire Lettuce, Schott’s Wire-lettuce (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 1,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46*

 

Stylocline micropoides A. Gray: Desert Neststraw, Woollyhead Fambract, Woollyhead Neststraw (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77*

 

Symphyotrichum subulatum (A. Michaux) G.L. Nesom (Aster subulatus A. Michaux): Eastern Annual Saltmarsh Aster, Hierba del Marrano, Small-flowered Aster (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (32 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, springs, streams, arroyos, creeks, edges of ponds, cienegas, swamps, coastal plains, riparian areas and wet soils, occurring below 5,100 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 63 (080106), 85 (073006), 94*

 

Thymophylla concinna (A. Gray) J.L. Strother (Dyssodia cocinna (A. Gray) P.A. Robins): Dogweed, Manzanilla de Coyote, Sonoran Pricklyleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, valleys and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to 2,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 77, 85 (073006), 94*

 

Thymophylla pentachaeta (A.P. de Candolle) J.K. Small var. pentachaeta (Dyssodia pentachaeta (A.P. de Candolle) B.L Robinson): Common Dogweed, Dogweed, Five-needle Fetid Marigold, Fiveneedle Pricklyleaf, Golden Dogweed, Golden Dyssodia, Parralena, Parvialena, Scale Glandbush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 8 inches in height and width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, rocky plains, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant of the Dainty Sulfur (Nathalis iole) and may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 16, 18, 28, 31, 46, 58, 63 (083006), 77, 82, 86*

 

Trichoptilium incisum A. Gray: Yellowdome, Yellow Head (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 8 inches); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, hillsides, ridge tops, slopes, rocky banks, along arroyos and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 86, 94*

 

Trixis californica A. Kellogg (Trixis californica A. Kellogg var. californica [superfluous autonym]): American Threefold, American Trixis, Arizona Green Plant, California Trixis (terrestrial perennial (leaves are cold and drought deciduous) subshrub or shrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Trixis californica var. californica (see Trixis californica)

 

Uropappus lindleyi (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Uropappus linearifolius (see Microseris lindleyi)

 

Viguiera deltoidea var. parishii (see Viguiera parishii)

 

Viguiera parishii E.L. Greene (Viguiera deltoidea A. Gray var. parishii (E.L. Greene) G. Vasey & J.N. Rose): Ariosa, Golden Eye, Parish’s Goldeneye, Parish Viguiera (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy plains, among boulders, bajadas and along washes and arroyos, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 91*

 

 

Family Berberidaceae: The Barberry Family

 

Berberis haematocarpa (see Mahonia haematocarpa)

 

Mahonia haematocarpa (E.O. Wooton) F.K. Fedde (Berberis haematocarpa E.O. Wooton): Algerita, Arizona Algerita, Mexican Barberry, Red Barberry, Red Mahonia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains and mountain slopes, mesas, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hills and hillsides, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, dry rocky stream beds and banks, gravelly sandy washes, sandy arroyos, disturbed areas and rocky, gravelly soils and rocky silty soils, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils, occurring from 1,400 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The berries are eaten by birds and mammals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; the flowers are reported to be fragrant. This plant is a secondary host of the black stem rust of cereal grains. This plant is reputed to be sometimes poisonous to livestock. *5, 6, 13, 28 46, 63 (081206), 77, 85 (081206), 94*

 

 

Family Bignoniaceae: The Trumpet-creeper Family

 

Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet subsp. arcuata (F.R. Fosberg) J.S. Henrickson (Chilopsis linearis (A.J. Cavanilles) R. Sweet var. arcuata F.R. Fosberg): Desert Catalpa, Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, Jano, Mimbre, Western Desert-willow (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 25 feet or more in height and 10 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from drainages, roadsides and along washes and streams located in mesas, foothills and plains, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful in erosion control and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (sp.), 26 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46, 52 (sp.), 53, 58, 74 (sp.), 91 (sp.), 94*

 

 

Family Boraginaceae: The Borage Family

 

Amsinckia echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia intermedia var. echinata (see Amsinckia menziesii var, intermedia)

 

Amsinckia menziesii (J.G. Lehmann) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbride var, intermedia (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) F.R. Ganders (Amsinckia echinata A. Gray, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey, Amsinckia intermedia F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey var. echinata (A. Gray) I.L. Wiggins): Coast Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Fiddleneck, Finger Weed, Kurttukeltalemmikki, Menzies Fiddleneck, Ranchers Fireweed, Sacoto Gordo, Tarweed, Yellow Burnweed, Yellow Burrweed, Yellow Forget Me Not, Yellow Tarweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 2½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 94, 101*

 

Amsinckia tessellata A. Gray: Bristly Fiddleneck, Checker Fiddleneck, Checkered Fiddleneck, Devil’s Lettuce, Tessellate Fiddle Neck, Western Fiddleneck (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, bajadas, gravelly flats, along sandy washes, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77, 80, 94*

 

Coldenia canescens (see Tiquilia canescens var. canescens)

 

Coldenia palmeri (see Tiquilia palmeri)

 

Coldenia plicata (see Tiquilia plicata)

 

Cryptantha angustifolia (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Bristlelobe Cryptantha, Cat’s-eye Panamint, Desert Cryptantha, Narrow-leaf Cryptantha, Narrow-leaved Forget-me-not, Narrow-leaved Nievitas, Narrow-leaved Popcorn Flower, Panamint Cryptantha, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Cryptantha barbigera (A. Gray) E.L. Greene: Bearded Cat’s-eye, Bearded Cryptantha, Bearded Forget-me-not, Bearded Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Cryptantha ganderi I.M. Johnston: Dune Cryptantha, Gander’s Cat’s-eye, Gander Cryptantha, Gander’s Cryptantha (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, sand dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 1,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 94*

 

Cryptantha holoptera (A. Gray) J.F. Macbride: Rough-stemmed Cryptantha, Winged Cat’s-eye, Winged Cryptantha (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, talus slopes, slopes, ridges, rocky hillsides, gravelly flats, road cuts, washes and riparian areas and rocky, gravelly, cinder and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 6,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. martima: Guadalupe Cat’s-eye, Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, flats and washes, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46 (sp.)*

 

Cryptantha maritima (E.L. Greene) E.L. Greene var. pilosa I.M. Johnston: Guadalupe Cryptantha, White-haired Cryptantha, Whitehair Nievitas (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, flats and washes, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Cryptantha micrantha (J. Torrey) I.M. Johnston var. micrantha: Dwarf Cryptantha, Purpleroot Pick-me-not, Purple-rooted Nievitas, Redroot Cat’s-eye, Redroot Cryptantha (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy mesas, hillsides, foothills, gravelly slopes, flats, sand dunes, sandy benches, along washes and creeks, floodplains, riparian areas and sandy soils, occurring from 300 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46 (sp.)*

 

Cryptantha nevadensis A. Nelson & G.G. Kennedy var. rigida I.M. Johnston:  Nevada Cat’s-eye, Nevada Cryptantha (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, banks of washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15 (sp.), 46, 58 (sp.), 63 (080106), 77 (sp.), 85 (080106), 94*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene: Wing-fruited Forget-me-not, Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Cryptantha pterocarya (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene var. cycloptera (E.L. Greene) J.F. Macbride: Wingnut Cat’s-eye, Wingnut Cryptantha, Wingnut Nievitas, Peluda (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes and rocky and gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46*

 

Cryptantha racemosa (S. Watson) E.L. Greene: Bushy Cat’s-eye, Bushy Cryptantha, Woody Cryptantha, Woody Forget-me-not (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 94*

 

Heliotropium curassavicum C. Linneaus: Alkali Heliotrope, Chinese-pusley, Cola del Mico (Monkey Tail), Hierba del Sapo, Monkey-tail, Quail-plant, Salt Heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 16 inches high); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys and moist saline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The fruits are eaten by quail. *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 68, 80, 86*

 

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis (Lappula redowski auct. non (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene [misapplied], Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. desertorum (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. occidentalis (S. Watson) P.A. Rydberg, Lappula redowskii (J.W. Hornemann) E.L. Greene var. redowskii E.D. Hatch et all): Beggar’s Tick, Bluebur, Flatspine Stickseed, Redowski Stickseed, Stickseed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94, 101*

 

Lappula redowskii (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Lappula redowskii var. desertorum (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Lappula redowskii var. occidentalis (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis) 

 

Lappula redowskii var. redowskii (see Lappula occidentalis var. occidentalis)

 

Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston: Chuckwalla Combseed, Chuckwalla Pectocarya, Hairyleaf Combbur, Hairy-leaved Combbur, Mixed-nut Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides, washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Pectocarya platycarpa P.A. Munz & I.M. Johnston: Broadfruit Combseed, Broadnut Combbur, Broad-nutted Combbur, Broad-wing Comb-bur (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Pectocarya recurvata I.M. Johnston: Arched Bomb-bur, Archnut Combbur, Arch-nutted Combbur, Curvenut Combseed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, flats and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Tiquilia canescens (A.P. de Candolle) A. Richardson var. canescens (Coldenia canescens A.P. de Candolle): Crinkle Mats, Gray Coldenia, Hierba de la Virgin, Oreja de Perro, Shrubby Coldenia, Woody Crinklemat (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 8 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, dry mesas, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, dirt roads and rocky and calcareous soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 63 (083006), 77, 94*

 

Tiquilia palmeri (A. Gray) A. Richardson (Coldenia palmeri A. Gray): Palmer Coldenia, Palmer’s Crinklemat, Palmer’s Tiquilia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, flats, sand dunes, gravelly and sandy washes, gravel bars, sandy soils and sandy disturbed areas, occurring below 1,100 feet and also at 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Tiquilia plicata (J. Torrey) A. Richardson (Coldenia plicata (J. Torrey) F.V. Coville: Crinkle Mats, Fanleaf Crinklemat, Plicate Coldenia, Fanleaf Tiquilia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 10 inches in height), subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridges, sandy flats, gravelly and sandy floodplains, banks of rivers and river bottoms and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 2,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae). *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 94*

 

 

Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): The Mustard Family

 

Brassica tournefortii A. Gouan: African Mustard, Asian Mustard, Mostaza, Mostaza Africana, Mostaza del Sahara, Sahara Mustard, Wild Turnip (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and disturbed areas, occurring from 2,100 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. Linnaeus) F.K. Medikus: Bosa de Pastor, Paniquesillo, Shepherd’s Purse (terrestrial annual forb/herb 3 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, disturbed areas and waste places, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86, 94, 101*

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. lasiophyllus (see footnote under Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. utahensis (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Descurainia pinnata (T. Walter) N.L. Britton: Green Tansy Mustard, Pamita, Pinnate Tansy Mustard, Sirolitutilli, Tansy Mustard, Western Tansymustard, Yellow Tansy Mustard (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Dimorphocarpa pinnatifida R.C. Rollins: Dune Spectacle Pod, Tansy Spectaclepod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, flats, lava fields, dune fields, dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 1,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 31, 63 (080106), 85 (080106), 94*

 

Dimorphocarpa wislizeni (G. Engelmann) R.C. Rollins (Dithyrea wislizeni G. Engelmann, Dithyrea wislizeni G. Engelmann var. griffithsii (E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley) E.B. Payson): Touristplant, Wislizenus Spectaclepod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 86, 94*

 

Dithyrea californica W.H. Harvey: California Shieldpod, California Spectaclepod, Spectacle Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plateaus, sand hills, desert plains, dunes, roadsides, washes, arroyos and stony and sandy soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (080106), 94*

 

Dithyrea wislizeni (see Dimorphocarpa wislizeni)

 

Dithyrea wislizeni var. griffithsii (see Dimorphocarpa wislizeni)

 

Draba cuneifolia T. Nuttall ex J Torrey & A. Gray var. integrifolia S. Watson: Wedgeleaf Draba, Wedgeleaf Whitlow Grass, Whitlow-grass, Whitlow-wort (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, seeps and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46 (sp.), 94*

 

Guillenia lasiophylla (W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott) E.L. Greene (Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson, Caulanthus lasiophyllus (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.B. Payson var. utahensis (P.A. Rydberg) E.B. Payson, Thelypodium lasiophyllum (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene): California Mustard, Cutleaf Thelypody, Wild Cabbage (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31 (recorded as Caulanthus lasiophyllus var. lasiophyllus), 46, 77, 94*

 

Lepidium densiflorum H.A. Schrader: Common Pepperweed, Greenflower Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperweed, Miner’s Pepperwort, Peppergrass, Prairie Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from ledges, slopes, meadows, washes and riverbeds, riparian areas, rocky and sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring from 900 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 94*

 

Lepidium lasiocarpum T. Nuttall: Hairypod Pepperweed, Sand Peppergrass, Shaggyfruit Pepperweed (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (1 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats, along washes, floodplains and disturbed sites, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 68, 77, 94*

 

Lesquerella gordonii (A. Gray) S. Watson: Arizona Bladderpod Mustard, Beanpod, Bladderpod Mustard, Gordon’s Bladderpod, Yellow Bladderpod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 inches to 24 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, bajadas, dry plains, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Lesquerella tenella A. Nelson: Delicate Bladderpod, Moapa Bladderpod, Palmer Bean Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, sand hills, flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,200 to 3,900 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Lyrocarpa coulteri W.J. Hooker & W.H. Harvey ex & W.H. Harvey var. coulteri: Coulter Lyrefruit, Coulter’s Lyrepod, Lyre Pod (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains canyons, sand dunes, washes and sandy rocky soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Sisymbrium irio C. Linnaeus: London Rocket, Pamita, Pamiton, Rocket Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Sisymbrium orientale C. Linnaeus: Indian Hedgemustard, Oriental Hedgemustard, Tumble Mustard (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, springs, washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy clayish soils, occurring from 1,500 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 31 (reported from the Refuge Headquarters), 77, 85, 94*

 

Streptanthella longirostris (S. Watson) P.A. Rydberg: Long-beaded Twist Plant, Longbeak Fiddle Mustard, Longbeak Streptanthella, Long-beaked Twist Flower (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, gypsum hills, sandy flats, lava flows, sand dunes and moist soils, sandy soils, sandy loam soils and gypsum soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080106), 85 (080106), 94*

 

Thelypodium lasiophyllum (see Guillenia lasiophylla)

 

Thysanocarpus amplectens (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker (Thysanocarpus curvipes W.J. Hooker var. elegans (F.E. von Fischer & C.A. Mey) B.L. Robinson; Thysanocarpus amplectens E.L. Greene): Lace Pod, Lacepod, Sand Fringepod (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, meadows, flats, along washes and floodplains, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Thysanocarpus curvipes var. elegans (see Thysanocarpus curvipes)

 

 

Family Burseraceae: The Frankincense Family

 

Bursera microphylla A. Gray: Copal, Elephant Bursera, Elephant Tree, Little Leaf Elephant Tree, Torote, Torote Colorado (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, cliffs, foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly plains, flats and washes, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is frost sensitive. *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Cactaceae: The Cactus Family

 

Carnegiea gigantea (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus giganteus G. Engelmann): Giant Cactus, Saguaro, Sahuaro (terrestrial perennial succulent tree (9 to 50  feet or more in height and 1 to 2½ feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyon walls, rocky and gravelly slopes, ridges, foothills, rocky and gravelly hills, rocky hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 600 to 5,100 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Curved-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. Coyotes (Canis latrans), Javelina (Peccari tajacu) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) as well as other birds and animals feed on the saguaro fruit and seeds. Gila Woodpeckers (Melanerpes uropygialis) and Gilded Flickers (Colaptes chrysoides) make holes in this plant for their nests which are later utilized by Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), Elf Owls (Micrathene whitneyi), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Lucy’s Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Purple Martins (Progne subis), and Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds nest on the arms of the plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. One of the largest known saguaros, located in Saguaro National Monument was reported to be 52 feet in height, had 52 arms, weighed an estimated 10 tons and was thought to be 235 years of age. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26, 27, 28, 31, 38, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 63 (091206), 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Cereus greggii (see Peniocereus greggii) 

 

Cereus greggii var. transmontanus (see Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) 

 

Cereus giganteus (see Carnegiea gigantea)

 

Cereus schottii (see Pachycereus schottii) 

 

Cereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Coryphantha vivipara var. deserti (see Escobaria vivipara var. deserti) 

 

Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia acanthocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow): Buck-horn Cholla, Deer-horn Cactus, Yellow-flowered Cane Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent treelike shrub (18 inches to 9 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia acanthocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 94*

 

Cylindropuntia  bigelovii (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia bigelovii G. Engelmann): Arizona Jumping Cactus, Ball Cholla, Cholla Guera, Jumping Cholla, Silver Cholla, Teddy Bear Cactus, Teddybear Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 5, or to 9 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, canyons, rocky slopes, talus slopes, hillsides, bajadas, plains, flats, along washes and arroyos and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia bigelovii (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 18, 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Cylindropuntia echinocarpa (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia echinocarpa G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow, Opuntia wigginsii L.D. Benson): Golden Cholla, Silver Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hills, slopes, benches, flats, dunes, desert pavement, along washes and ravines and in gravelly loam and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia echinocarpa (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 94 (recorded as Opuntia wigginsii - ETCS 1994)*

 

Cylindropuntia  fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. fulgida): Chain Cholla, Chain-fruit Cholla, Cholla, Cholla Brincadora, Choya, Jumping Cholla, Sonora Jumping Cholla, Velas de Ccoyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 27 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 77, 91*

 

Cylindropuntia fulgida (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth  var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg (Opuntia fulgida G. Engelmann var. mammillata (H.W. Schott ex G. Engelmann) T. Coulter): Cholla Brincadora, Cholla, Jumping Cholla, Smooth Chain-fruit Cholla, Velas de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils,  occurring from 1,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia fulgida (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16 (sp.), 27, 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 53 (sp.), 58, 77, 91, 94*

 

Cylindropuntia  leptocaulis (A.P. de Candolle) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia leptocaulis A.P. de Candolle): Agujilla, Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Darning Needle Cactus, Desert Christmas Cactus, Desert Christmas Cholla, Diamond Cactus, Holycross Cholla, Pencil-joint Cholla, Pipestem Cactus, Rattail Cactus, Tajasilla, Tasajillo, Tesajo (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 3 feet in height and width); within the range for this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos, bottomlands and floodplains, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia leptocaulis (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (083006), 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Cylindropuntia ramosissima (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia ramosissima G. Engelmann): Branched Pencil Cholla, Darning Needle Cholla, Diamond Cholla, Diamond Plated Pencil Cholla, Holy Cross Cholla, Rattail Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia ramosissima (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080506), 91, 94 (recorded as Cylindropuntia ramosissima wigginsii)*

 

Cylindropuntia ramosissima wigginsii (see footnote under Cylindropuntia ramosissima)

 

Cylindropuntia  spinosior (G. Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia spinosior (G. Engelmann) J.W. Toumey): Cane Cholla, Cardenche, Handgrip Cholla, Spiny Cholla, Tasajo, Walkingstick Cactus, Walking Stick Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent subshrub, shrub or tree (8 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, canyons, hills, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, valleys, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 1,000 to over 6,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia spinosior (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 53, 58, 77*

 

Cylindropuntia  versicolor (G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter) F.M. Knuth (Opuntia versicolor G. Engelmann ex T. Coulter): Deer Horn Cactus, Deer Horn Cholla, Staghorn Cholla, Tree Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 15 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes and arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, varied flower colors between plants and the  cascading sometimes purplish to reddish colored branches with pendulous bright yellow fruits make this an attractive plant. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains as Opuntia versicolor (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Echinocactus polycephalus G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Biznaga-tonal Amacollada (Spanish), Clustered Barrel Cactus, Cottontop Barrel Cactus, Cottontop Cactus, Cotton-top Cactus, Many-headed Barrel Cactus, Many-headed Cactus, Woolly-headed Barrel (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 12 to 24 inches in height and 4 to 8 inches in diameter, forming a clustered mound to 2 feet in height and 4 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats, valleys and rocky, gravelly and clay soils, occurring from 230 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is fed on by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Javelina (Peccari tajacu). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18 (gen.), 27, 45, 46, 91, 94*

 

Echinocactus polycephalus G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow var. polycephalus: Biznaga-tonal Amacollada (Spanish), Clustered Barrel Cactus, Cottontop Barrel Cactus, Cottontop Cactus, Cotton-top Cactus, Many-headed Barrel Cactus, Many-headed Cactus, Woolly-headed Barrel (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 12 to 24 inches in height and 4 to 8 inches in diameter, forming a clustered mound to 2 feet in height and 4 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats and valleys, occurring from 230 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is fed on by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Javelina (Peccari tajacu). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18 (gen.), 27 (sp.), 31, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 91*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire: Engelmann’s Cactus, Engelmann Hedgehog, Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Hedgehog Cactus, Strawberry Cactus, Strawberry Echinocereus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus, Torch Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 6 to 18 inches in height in clusters of 5 to 15 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon, hillsides, plains along washes and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 12, 18, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. chrysocentrus (G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow) K.T. Rümpler: Dagger-spine Hedgehog, Engelmann’s Hedgehog Cactus, Needle-spined Hedgehog Cactus, Saints Cactus, Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 5 to 15 inches in height in clusters of 3 to 10, or as many as 50 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky ridges, gravelly and sandy hills, slopes, plains, rocky and sandy flats, valleys and along washes, occurring from 3,000 to 7,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18 (sp.), 27, 28 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.)*

 

Echinocereus engelmannii var. nicholii (see Echinocereus nicholii) 

 

Echinocereus nicholii (L. Benson) E. Parfitt (Echinocereus engelmannii (C.C. Parry ex G. Engelmann) C. Lemaire var. nicholii L. Benson): Golden Hedgehog, Nichol’s Hedgehog Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (stems 12 to 24 inches high (running stems up to 5 feet in length have been observed) in clusters of 10 to 30 stems); within the range of this species it has been reported from ridges, bajadas, slopes, flats and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Sclerocactus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.P. Taylor): Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 5 inches in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from knolls, ridges, hills, bajadas, slopes, alluvial fans and flats, occurring from 1,200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations); includes Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. acunensis (W.T. Marshall) L. Benson: Acuna Cactus, Bisnagitas, Redspine Fishhook Cactus, Red Pineapple Cactus, Red-spined Pineapple Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 4 inches in width); within the range of this variety it has been reported from hills, knolls, gravelly ridges bajadas and flats, occurring from 1,200 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Pollinated by Polylectic Bees (Megachile palmensis and Diadasia rinconis), small mammals and the larvae of the Opuntia Borer (Moneilema gigas) feed on the stems and the Pyralith Moth (Yosemitia graciella) feeds on the seeds), and Echinomastus erectocentrus (T. Coulter) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. erectocentrus: Bisnagitas, Needle-spined Pineapple Cactus, Red-spine Butterfly-cactus, Redspine Fishhook Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height and 3 to 5 inches in diameter); within the range of this variety it has been reported from hills, slopes, bajadas, alluvial fans, flats and alluvial soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The species change in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, species remains in Sclerocactus (accessed 041506). *5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 27, 45, 46, 63 (062406), 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Echinomastus erectocentrus var. erectocentrus (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Escobaria vivipara (T. Nuttall) F. Buxbaum var. deserti (G. Engelmann) D.R. Hunt (Coryphantha vivipara (T. Nuttall) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. deserti (G. Engelmann) W.T. Marshall): Ball Cactus, Beehive Cactus, Desert Beehive Cactus, Desert Spinystar, Cushion Cactus, Spinystar, Spiny Star Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring from 1,000 to 5,400 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18 (sp.), 27, 58, 94*

 

Ferocactus acanthodes (see Ferocactus cylindraceus)

 

Ferocactus acanthodes var. acanthodes (see Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus) 

 

Ferocactus covillei (see Ferocactus emoryi) 

 

Ferocactus cylindraceus (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt (Ferocactus acanthodes (C. Lemaire) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, California Barrel Cactus, California fire Barrel, Compass Barrel Cactus, Compass Plant, Spiny Barrel, Mountain Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, ridges, hills, hillsides, bajadas, slopes, alluvial fans, valleys and along washes, occurring from 200 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18, 26 (gen.), 31, 45, 46, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Ferocactus cylindraceus (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt var. cylindraceus (Ferocactus acanthodes (C. Lemaire) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. acanthodes): Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, California Barrel Cactus, California fire Barrel, Compass Barrel Cactus, Compass Plant, Desert Barrel Cactus, Spiny Barrel, Mountain Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, ridges, hills, rocky and gravelly hillsides, bajadas, slopes, sandy alluvial fans and plains, valleys and wash margins, occurring from 200 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) The  fruits and seeds are eaten by birds, rodents, Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Javelina (Peccari tajacu), cactus beetles (including Moneilema gigas and others), jackrabbits, pack rats and Javelina (Peccari tajacu) feed on the plants. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18 (sp.), 26 (gen.), 27 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 86 (sp.), 91*

 

Ferocactus emoryi (G. Engelmann) C.R. Orcutt (Ferocactus covillei N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Bisnaga, Biznaga, Coville Barrel, Emory’s Barrel Cactus, Red-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills, hillsides, bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, flats, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 26 (gen.), 27, 31, 45, 46, 91, 94*

 

Ferocactus wislizeni (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose: Arizona Barrel Cactus, Barrel Cactus, Bisnaga, Biznaga, Biznaga de Agua, Biznagre, Candy Barrel, Candy Barrelcactus, Compass Barrel, Compass Plant, Fishhook Barrel, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Southwest Barrel Cactus, Southwestern Barrel Cactus, Visnaga, Wislizenus Barrel, Yellow-spined Barrel Cactus (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (2 to 11 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon walls, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, alluvial fans, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and in rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18, 26 (gen.), 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 91*

 

Grusonia kunzei (J.N. Rose) D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia kunzei J.N. Rose): Desert Club Cholla, Devil’s Cholla, Kunze Club Cholla (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 12 inches in height and 5 to 15 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from broad valleys in sandy and clay soils, occurring from 300 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 12, 27, 31, 45, 46, 91, 94*

 

Lemaireocereus thurberi (see Stenocereus thurberi)  

 

Lophocereus schottii (see Pachycereus schottii)

 

Mammillaria grahamii G. Engelmann (Mammillaria microcarpa G. Engelmann): Arizona Fishhook Cabeza de Viejo Cekida, Cactus, Biznaguita, Fishhook Cactus, Fishhook Pincushion, Graham Fishhook, Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Graham Pincushion Cactus, Lizard Catcher (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (2 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rock outcrops, rocky hillsides, boulder crevices, gravelly flats, valleys and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Mammillaria microcarpa (see Mammillaria grahamii) 

 

Mammillaria tetrancistra G. Engelmann: Common Fishhook Cactus, Corkseed Fishhook Cactus, Corky-seed Fishhook (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy hills, plains and valleys, occurring from 400 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18 (gen.), 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Opuntia acanthocarpa (see Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa)

 

Opuntia basilaris G. Engelamnn & J. Bigelow var. basilaris: Beavertail Cactus, Beavertail Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (16 to 24 inches in height clumping to 6 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hillsides, plains, valleys, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 86, 91, 94*

 

Opuntia basilaris G. Engelamnn & J. Bigelow var. basilaris: Beavertail Cactus, Beavertail Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (16 to 24 inches in height clumping to 6 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hillsides, plains, valleys, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 18, 27 (sp.), 31, 45 (sp.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 86 (sp.), 91 (sp.)*

 

Opuntia bigelovii (see Cylindropuntia bigelovii)

 

Opuntia chlorotica G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow: Dollarjoint Pricklypear, Nopal, Nopal Rastrera, Pancake Pear, Pancake Prickly-pear, Silver-dollar Cactus, Smooth Clock-face Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, hills, hillsides, flats, valleys and rocky and sandy soils, occurring from 1,800 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 12, 15, 27, 31, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91*

 

Opuntia echinocarpa (see Cylindropuntia echinocarpa)

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. engelmannii (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. discata (D. Griffiths) L. Benson & D.L. Walkington): Abrojo, Cactus Apple, Desert Pricklypear Cactus, Engelmann Pricklypear, Flaming Pricklypear, Joconostle, Nopal, Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps 4 to 5 feet in height and 10 feet or more in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, ridges, bajadas, slopes, benches, rocky and gravelly flats, valleys, along washes, gullies and arroyos and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental.  *5, 6, 12, 15, 27, 28, 31, 45 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91*

 

Opuntia engelmannii J.F. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck var. flavispina (L. Benson) E. Parfitt & D.J. Pinkava (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. flavispina L. Benson): Cactus Apple, Yellow-spined Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 3 feet in height and 3 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, bajadas, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,200 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant many be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 27, 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Opuntia fulgida var. fulgida (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida)

 

Opuntia fulgida var. mammillata (see Cylindropuntia fulgida var. mammillata)

 

Opuntia kunzei (see Grusonia kunzei)

 

Opuntia leptocaulis (see Cylindropuntia leptocaulis) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata (see Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. flavispina (see Opuntia engelmannii var. flavispina) 

 

Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann (Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. major G. Engelmann, Opuntia phaeacantha G. Engelmann var. phaeacantha [superflouous autonym]): Abrojo, Joconostle, Major Pricklypear, Mojave Pricklypear, Nopal, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Vela de Coyote, Yellow Pricklypear (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (forms clumps to 5 feet in height and 8 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, hills, bajadas, flats, and valleys and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant provides cover for many desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. The change in nomenclature in USDA NRCS *5* has not been recognized in BONAP *5*, varieties remain as varieties of Opuntia phaeacantha (accessed 041806). *5, 6, 12, 27, 45, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 91, 94*

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. major (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. phaeacantha (see Opuntia phaeacantha)

 

Opuntia ramosissima (see Cylindropuntia ramosissima) 

 

Opuntia spinosior (see Cylindropuntia spinosior)

 

Opuntia versicolor (see Cylindropuntia versicolor) 

 

Opuntia wigginsii (see Cylindropuntia echinocarpa)

 

Pachycereus schottii (G. Engelmann) D.R. Hunt (Cereus schottii G. Engelmann, Lophocereus schottii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Old Man, Senita, Senita Cactus, Sina, Sinita, Whisker Cactus (perennial succulent shrub or tree (6 to 21 feet in height with stems clustering 6 to 15 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky hillsides, plains, flats, valleys, dunes, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 12, 27, 28, 31 (reorded as Lophocereus schottii var. schottii), 45, 46, 48, 53, 63 (091206), 91, 94*

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann): Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ½ inch in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The seeds are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when planted with other desert shrubs and trees such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant. *5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 45, 46, 48, 63 (091206), 77, 86, 94*

 

Peniocereus greggii (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose var. transmontanus (G. Engelmann) C. Backeberg (Cereus greggii G. Engelmann var. transmontanus G. Engelmann): Arizona Queen of the Night, Chaparral Cactus, Deerhorn Cactus, Desert Night-blooming Cereus, Desert Threadcereus, Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night, Reina de la Noche (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub (1 to 8 feet in height and ½ inch in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The seeds are eaten by birds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when planted with other desert shrubs and trees such as the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata var. tridentata), Foothill Paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) and Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) for support and protection, the large (2-3 inch) flowers are very fragrant.*5, 6, 12, 15, 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48, 63 (091206), 77, 86*

 

Sclerocactus erectocentrus (see Echinomastus erectocentrus)

 

Stenocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) F. Buxbaum (Cereus thurberi G. Engelmann, Lemaireocereus thurberi (G. Engelmann) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose): Marismena, Mehuele, Organo, Organpipe Cactus, Pitahaya, Pitahaya Dulce, Pitayo Dulce (Spanish) (terrestrial perennial succulent shrub or tree (9 to 25 feet in height and 5 to 8 inches in diameter with stems clustering to 6 to 18 feet in diameter); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, cliff ledges, rocky slopes, ridges, hills, bajadas, plains, flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,700 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers, pollinated by bats and bees, fruits are eaten by ants, bats, Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis (Shaw) subsp. mexicana) and White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica). This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is sensitive to frosts. *5, 6, 8, 12, 18, 27, 28, 31, 45, 46, 48, 53, 63 (091206), 91, 94*

 

 

Family Campanulaceae: The Bellflower Family

 

Nemacladus glanduliferus W.L. Jepson var. orientalis R. McVaugh: Glandular Nemacladus, Glandular Threadplant, Silver Stem Threadplant, Thread Plant, Threadstem (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77 (sp.,) 94*

 

 

Family Capparaceae (Capparidaceae): The Caper Family

 

Cleome multicaulis A.P. de Condolle (Cleome sonorae A. Gray): Many Stemmed Spider-flower, Playa Spider Flower, Playa Spider Plant, Slender Spiderflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, alkaline sinks and saline playas, occurring from 3,600 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 9, 31, 46, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Cleome sonorae (see Cleome multicaulis) 

 

Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (Wislizenia refracta subsp. refracta)

 

Wislizenia refracta G. Engelmann subsp. refracta (Wislizenia refracta var. melilotoides (E.L. Greene) I.M. Johnson): Jackass Clover, Spectacle Fruit, Spectacle Pod (terrestrial annual forb/herb (16 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, washes, streambeds and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) has been observed visiting the flowers. *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 94*

 

 

Family Caryophyllaceae: The Pink Family

 

Achyronychia cooperi J. Torrey & A. Gray: Sand Mat, Frost Mat, Onyxflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy soil, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is reported to be an attractive, mat forming plant with green foliage and white flowers. *5, 6, 31, 94

 

Drymaria viscosa S. Watson: Drymary, Sticky Drymary (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from washes, sand dunes and gravelly sandy soils, occurring below 800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 63 (080506), 85 (080506), 94*

 

Loeflingia squarrosa T. Nuttall var. cactorum R.C. Barneby & E.C. Twisselmann: Spreading Pygmyleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46 (sp.) , 94*

 

Silene antirrhina C. Linnaeus: Catchfly, Desert Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Catchfly, Sleepy Silene (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and waste places, occurring below 7,400 feet in elevation in the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Chenopodiaceae: The Goosefoot Family

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall: Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiso Cenizo, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 77, 82, 91, 94*

 

Atriplex canescens (F.T. Pursh) T. Nuttall var. linearis (S. Watson) P.A. Munz (Atriplex canescens subsp. linearis (S. Watson) W. Hall & F.E. Clements, Atriplex linearis S. Watson): Cenizo, Chamiso, Chamiza, Costilla de Vaca, Four-wing Saltbush, Narrow-leaf Saltbush, Narrowleaf Wingscale, Thinleaf Fourwing Saltbush, Grey Sage Brush, Orache, Saladillo, Wngscale (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, slopes, gravelly flats and alkaline soils, occurring below 2,900 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a larval food plant for the Pygmy Blue (Brefidium exile). This plant may be useful in controlling erosion and as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16 (sp.), 18 (sp.), 26 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46, 48 (sp.), 77, 82, 91, 94*

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 26 (gen.), 46, 68, 94*

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich subsp. elegans: Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, margins of stock tanks, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly soils, occurring below 5,300 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 26 (gen.), 31, 58, 46, 68 (sp.), 77*

 

Atriplex elegans (C.H. Moquin-Tandon) D.N. Dietrich subsp. fasciculata (S. Watson) M.E. Jones (Atriplex fasiculata S. Watson): Chamiso Cenizo, Fasciculata Saltbush, Salton Fasciculata, Salton Saltbush, Wheelscale, Wheelscale Saltbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from woodlands, river banks and floodplains, occurring below 4,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 26 (gen.), 31, 46, 68*

 

Atriplex fasiculata (see Atriplex elegans subsp. fasciculata)  

 

Atriplex linearis (see Atriplex canescens var. linearis) 

 

Atriplex pacifica A. Nelson: Davidson’s Saltbush, Pacific Orache (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert pavement and rocky soils, occurring below 700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 26 (gen.), 31, 63 (081106), 85 (081106), 94*

 

Atriplex polycarpa (J. Torrey) S. Watson: All-scale, Cattle Saltbush, Cattle Spinach, Cenizo, Chamizo, Chamiso Cenizo, Cow Spinach, Desert Sage, Desert Saltbush, Littleleaf Saltbush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, gravelly flats, dunes, valley bottoms, along washes, floodplains, playa margins and alkaline and non-alkaline soils, occurring from 400 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cattle Saltbush is a very important browse plant. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48, 77, 91, 94*

 

Chenopodium murale C. Linnaeus: Chual, Chuana Soap, Cuhal, Goosefoot, Green Fat Hen, Green Goosefoot, Lamb’s Quarters, Nettleleaf Goosefoot, Nettle Leaved Fat Hen, Rauniosavikka, Round Leaved Fat Hen, Sowbane, Swinebane, Wall Goosefoot, Wheat bush (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Monolepis nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) E.L. Greene: Annual Povertyweed, Monolepis, Nutall Monolepis, Nuttall’s Povertyweed, Papago Spinach, Patata, Patota, Patote, Poverty Weed, Suolasavikka (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 8 inches in height and/or 3 to 15 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, washes, floodplains, alkaline depressions, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 7,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 94*

 

Salsola australis (see Salsola tragus)

 

Salsola kali var. tenuifolia (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola kali subsp. tragus (see Salsola tragus) 

 

Salsola tragus C. Linnaeus (Salsola australis R. Brown, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus var. tenuifolia (H. Tausch) P. Aellen, Salsola kali C. Linnaeus subsp. tragus (C. Linnaeus) P. Aellen): Cardo Ruso, Chamiso, Chamiso Valador, Coast Saltwort, Common Russian Thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle, Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Tumbling Thistle, Volador, Wind Witch (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 inches to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, floodplains and disturbed areas, occurring from 150 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 63 (080506), 68, 77, 80, 94, 101*

 

Suaeda moquinii (J. Torrey) E.L. Greene (Suaeda nigra (Rafenesque) J.F. MacBride, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson, Suaeda torreyana S. Watson var. ramosissima (P.C. Standley) P.A. Munz): Bush Seepweed, Desert Seepweed, Inkweed, Iodineweed, Mojave Seablite, Quelite Salado, Torrey Sea-blite (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand hills, alkali flats, floodplains and coastal salt marshes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46*

 

Suaeda torreyana (see Suaeda moquini) 

 

Suaeda torreyana var. ramosissima (see Suaeda moquinii)  

 

 

Family Convolvulaceae: The Morning-glory Family

 

Ipomoea desertorum (see Ipomoea hederacea) 

 

Ipomoea hederacea N.J. von Jacquin (Ipomoea desertorum H.D. House, Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f. [misapplied]): Blue Morning-glory, Desert Morning-glory, Entireleaf Morningglory, Ivyleaf Morning-glory, Mexican Morningglory, Morning Glory, Trompillo Morado (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine (to 20 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, along streams and washes, arroyos, mesquite bosques, floodplains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly sandy and silty soils and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 400 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081106), 68, 77, 85 (081106), 94, 101*

 

Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non N.J. von Jacquin f. (see Ipomoea hederacea)  

 

Ipomoea triloba C. Linnaeus: Littlebell (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from marshes and coastal plains in wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

 

Family Crassulaceae: The Stonecrop Family

 

Crassula connata J. Miers (Tillaea erecta W.J. Hooker & G.A. Arnott): Pygmy Stonecrop, Pygmy Weed, Sand Pygmyweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, seeps, washes, streambeds and moist and damp soils, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Dudleya arizonica (see Dudleya pulverulenta subsp. arizonica)

 

Dudleya pulverulenta (T. Nuttall) N.L. Britton & J.N. Rose subsp. arizonica (J.N. Rose) R.E. Moran (Dudleya arizonica J.N. Rose, Echeveria pulverulenta T. Nuttall subsp. arizonica (J.N. Rose) I.W. Clokey): Arizona Chalk-lettuce, Arizona Liveforever, Chalk Dudleya (terrestrial perennial succulent forb/herb (to 2½ inches in height, rosettes growing to 10 inches in width with a flowering stalk reaching 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, cliff faces, rock ledges, crevices and rocky slopes, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 94*

 

Echeveria pulverulenta subsp. arizonica (see Dudleya pulverulenta subsp. arizonica) 

 

Tillaea erecta (see Crassula connata)  

 

 

Family Crossosomataceae: The Crossosoma Family

 

Crossosoma bigelovii S. Watson: Bigelow Ragged Rock-flower, Crossosoma, Ragged Rockflower, Rhyolite Bush (terrestrial perennial shrub (20 inches to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, crevices of cliff faces, rocky slopes, rocky hillsides and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 15, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Cucurbitaceae: The Cucumber Family

 

Brandegea bigelovii (S.Watson) C.A. Cogniaux.: Desert Starvine (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, bajadas, plains, desertscrubs, arroyos, along washes, gravelly river beds, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Cucurbita digitata A. Gray: Calabachilla, Chichi Coyota, Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon, Fingerleaf Gourd (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (trailing stems reaching 3 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyon bottoms, hills, sandy benches, dry plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gulches, sandy washes, floodplains, waste places and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 68, 94*

 

Cucurbita palmata S. Watson: Coyote Gourd, Coyote Melon (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, lava outcrops, plains, sandy flats, valley floors, roadsides, washes, river beds, riparian areas, waste places, disturbed areas and among rocks and in gravelly sandy and sandy soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080606), 85 (081106), 94*

 

 

Family Cuscutaceae: The Dodder Family

 

Cuscuta denticulata G. Engelmann: Desert Dodder, Small-tooth Dodder, Toothed Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Coleogyne spp., Euphorbia spp., Larrea spp., Nicotiana spp., Tamarix spp., and various species within the Asteraceae, occurring from 800 to 4,900 feet elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 63 (081106), 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 85 (081106), 94*

 

Cuscuta indecora J.D. Choisy: Bigseed Alfalfa Dodder, Largeseed Dodder, Pretty Dodder (terrestrial perennial parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Acacia spp., Aster spp., Baccharis spp., Condalia spp., Crosossoma spp., Datura spp., Eschscholtzia spp., Hymenoclea spp., Pluchea spp., Prosopis spp., Sapindus spp. and Solidago spp., occurring below 5,400 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 46, 63 (081106), 68, 80 (gen.), 85 (081106), 94*

 

Cuscuta umbellata K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth: Big-flower Dodder, Flatglobe Dodder, Umbrella Dodder (terrestrial annual parasitic forb/herb or vine; reported as growing on Alternanthera spp., Amaranthus spp., Atriplex spp., Boerhavia spp., Euphorbia spp., Kallstoremia spp., Polygonum spp., Suaeda spp., Sesuvium spp., Trianthema spp. and Tribulus spp., occurring from 1,000 to 7,100 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 68, 80 (gen.), 94*

 

 

Family Euphorbiaceae: The Spurge Family

 

Acalypha californica G. Bentham (Acalypha pringlei S. Watson): California Copperleaf, Copperleaf, Hierba del Cancer, Pringle Three-seeded Mercury (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky slopes, ravines and along washes occurring from 1,500 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 94*

 

Acalypha pringlei (see Acalypha californica) 

 

Argythamnia brandegeei C.F. Millspaugh var. intonsa (I.M. Johnston) C. Ingram ex L.C. Wheeler (Ditaxis brandegei C.F. Millspaugh var. intonsa I.M. Johnston is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Sonoran Silverbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly soils, occurring from 500 to 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 63 (080506), 94*

 

Argythamnia lanceolata (G. Bentham) J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis lanceolata (G. Bentham) F.A. Pax & K. Hoffmann: Lanceleaf Ditaxis, Lance-leaved Argythamnia, Narrowleaf Silverbush (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas, occurring from 350 to 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Argythamnia neomexicana J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis neomexicana (J. Müller Argoviensis) F.X. Heller): Ditaxis, New Mexico Ditaxis, New Mexico Silverbush, New Mexico Wild Mercury (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Argythamnia serrata (J. Torrey) J. Müller Argoviensis (Ditaxis serrata (J. Torrey) F.X. Heller): Saw-toothed Ditaxis, Silverbush, Yuma Silverbush (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 300 feet elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31 (recorded as Ditaxis serrata var. serrrata), 46, 94*

 

Chamaesyce abramsiana (L.C. Wheeler) D.L. Koutnik (Euphorbia abramsiana L.C. Wheeler): Abrams’ Sandmat, Abram Spurge, Golondrina (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 150 to 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce albomarginata (J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.K. Small (Euphorbia albomarginata J. Torrey & A. Gray): Golondrina, Rattlesnake Weed, White Margin Euphorbia, Whitemargin Sandmat, White Margin Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to ½ inch in height and 10 to 21 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Chamaesyce arizonica (G. Engelmann) J.C. Arthur (Euphorbia arizonica G. Engelmann): Arizona Euphorbia, Arizona Sandmat, Arizona Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce florida (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia florida G. Engelmann): Chiricahua Mountain Sandmat, Florida Spurge, Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (C. Linnaeus) J.K. Small (Euphorbia hyssopifolia C. Linnaeus): Hyssopleaf Euphorbia, Hyssopleaf Sandmat, Hyssop Spurge, (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (4 inches to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, soil pockets on rock outcrops, gravelly flats, roadsides and along sandy washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce micromera (P.E. Bossier) E.O. Wooton & P.C. Standley (Euphorbia micromera P.E. Boissier): Golondrina, Littleleaf Spurge, Pitseed Euphorbia, Sonoran Sandmat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats and washes, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley (Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann): Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce pediculifera (G. Engelmann) J.N. Rose & P.C. Standley var. pediculifera (Euphorbia pediculifera G. Engelmann): Carrizo Mountain Sandmat, Carrizo Mountain Spurge, Golondrina, Spurge, Louse Spurge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce petrina (S. Watson) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia petrina S. Watson): Golondrina (terrestrial; within the range of this species it has been reported from among rocks, sand hills, sand hummocks, sandy flats, desertscrubs, dunes and dune fields and sandy soils, occurring below 300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *18 (gen.), 31, 63 (no record - 070606), 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 85 (Euphorbia petrina 070606), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce platysperma (G. Engelmann ex S. Watson) L.H. Shinners (Euphorbia platysperma G. Engelmann ex S. Watson): Dune Spurge, Flatseed Sandmat, Flatseed Sandmat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sand dunes, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring below 500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 8, 18 (gen.), 46, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

Chamaesyce polycarpa (G. Bentham) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish (Euphorbia polycarpa G. Bentham): Desert Spurge, Golondrina, Smallseed Sandmat, Smallseed Spurge (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb, within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, gravelly and sandy plains, sandy flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 500 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 63 (080506), 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Chamaesyce setiloba (G. Engelmann ex J. Torrey) C.F. Millspaugh ex S.B. Parish (Euphorbia setiloba G. Engelmann): Bristlelobe Sandmat, Bristlelobe Spurge, Golondrina, Fringed Spurge, Yuma Sandmat, Yuma Spurge (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 200 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 58, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Chamaesyce trachysperma (G. Engelmann) C.F. Millspaugh (Euphorbia trachysperma G. Engelmann): Sandmat, San Pedro River Sandmat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, valleys, along rivers, playas and disturbed areas, occurring from 300 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 63 (060608), 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 85 (080606), 86 (gen.), 94*  

 

Croton californicus J. Müller Argoviensis: California Croton (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, sand hills, sand dunes, roadsides, coastal dunes, along creeks and rivers, floodplains and gravelly sandy and sandy soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Plants in this genus are probably more or less poisonous. *5, 6, 46, 63 (080606), 85 (060608), 94*

 

Croton sonorae J. Torrey: Rama Blanca, Sonora Croton, Sonoran Croton, Vera Prieta (terrestrial perennial shrub (to 7 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, occurring from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus are probably more or less poisonous. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 94*

 

Croton wigginsii L.C. Wheeler: Dune Croton, Wiggins’ Croton (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand dunes and sandy arroyos, occurring below 800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in this genus are probably more or less poisonous. *5, 6, 8, 9, 31, 46 (gen.), 94*

 

Ditaxis lanceolata (see Argythamnia lanceolata) 

 

Ditaxis neomexicana (see Argythamnia neomexicana) 

 

Ditaxis serrata (see Argythamnia serrata)   

 

Euphorbia alta (see Euphorbia spathulata)

 

Euphorbia abramsiana (see Chamaesyce abramsiana)

 

Euphorbia albomarginata (see Chamaesyce albomarginata)  

 

Euphorbia arizonica (see Chamaesyce arizonica)

 

Euphorbia eriantha G. Bentham: Beetle Spurge, Desert Poinsettia, Threaded Spurge, Woollyflower Euphorbia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 300 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Plants in the genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 68 (gen.), 77, 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.), 94*

 

Euphorbia florida (see Chamaesyce florida)  

 

Euphorbia hyssopifolia (see Chamaesyce hyssopifolia)

 

Euphorbia micromera (see Chamaesyce micromera)  

 

Euphorbia pediculifera (see Chamaesyce pediculifera)  

 

Euphorbia petrina (see Chamaesyce petrina)

 

Euphorbia platysperma (see Chamaesyce platysperma)  

 

Euphorbia polycarpa (see Chamaesyce polycarpa var. polycarpa)  

 

Euphorbia setiloba (see Chamaesyce setiloba)  

 

Euphorbia spathulata J.B. de Lamarck (Euphorbia alta J.B. Norton): Roughpod Spurge, Warty Spurge (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rock outcrops, ridge tops, hills, slopes, shaded flats, washes, playas, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 8,400 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Plants in this genus have properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 68 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 86 (gen.)*

 

Euphorbia trachysperma (see Chamaesyce trachysperma)  

 

Jatropha cuneata I.L. Wiggins & R.C. Rollins: Limber Bush, Matacora, Physicnut, Sange-de-drago, Sangrengado, Shrubby Limberbush (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous semi-succulent shrub (2 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky mesas, canyons, rocky benches, foothills, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, sandy knolls, plains, sandy flats, sand dunes, washes, arroyos and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 2,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 80 (gen.), 85, 91, 94*

 

Sapium biloculare (see Sebastiania bilocularis)

 

Sebastiania bilocularis S. Watson (Sapium biloculare (S. Watson) F.A. Pax): Arizona Jumping Bean, Arrow Poison Plant, Hierba de la Flecha (Herb of the Arrow), Hierba Malla (Bad Herb), Jumping Bean Sapium, Mago, Mexican Jumping Bean, Yerba de Fleche, Yerba Mala (terrestrial perennial deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, flats, desert pavement, valleys and sandy washes and watercourses, occurring from 800 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The sap is poisonous, wind may release sufficient toxin to cause stinging eyes and congested lungs. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 53, 91*

 

Stillingia linearifolia S. Watson: Linearleaf Sand Spurge, Narrowleaf Stillinga, Noseburn, Queen’s-root, Quemadore (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, plateaus, canyons, rocky ridges, sand hills, slopes, sand dunes, sand hummocks, sandy plains, sandy flats, sandy washes and sandy soils, gravelly silty soils and sandy clay loam soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46, 63 (080606), 80 (gen.), 85 (080606), 94*

 

Stillingia spinulosa J. Torrey: Annual Stillinga, Annual Toothleaf, Broad-leaved Stillinga (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, sandy desertscrubs, dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 80 (gen.), 94*

 

 

Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae): The Pea Family

 

Acacia constricta G. Bentham: Chaparro Prieto, Common Whitethorn, Garabato, Gigantillo, Huisache, Largoncillo, Mescat Acacia, Twinthorn Acacia, Vara Prieta, Vinorama, Whitethorn Acacia, White Thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous (drought and cold) shrub or tree (2 to 18 feet in height and to 18 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, ridges, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, along washes and arroyos and floodplains, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported tobe fragrant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 68, 77, 80, 91, 94*

 

Acacia greggii var. arizonica (see Acacia greggii var. greggii)  

 

Acacia greggii A. Gray (var. greggii is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona, Acacia greggii A. Gray var. arizonica P.T. Isley): Acacia, Algarroba, Catclaw, Catclaw Acacia, Devil’s Catclaw, Devil’s Claw, Gatuno, Gregg’s Acacia, Gregg Catclaw, Tear Blanket, Tepame, Tesota, Texas Mimosa, Una de Gato (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (5 to 25 feet in height and 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders, floodplains and along sandy washes and streams, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 80, 91, 94*

 

Astragalus insularis A. Kellogg var. harwoodii P.A. Munz & J. McBurney ex P.A. Munz: Harwood’s Milkvetch, Milkvetch, Rattleweed, Sand Flat Milk-vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy hills, sandy flats, sand dunes and sandy soils, occurring below 5,600 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46, 85, 94*

 

Astragalus nuttallianus A.P. de Candolle var. imperfectus (P.A. Rydberg) R.C. Barneby: Locoweed, Nuttall Locoweed, Nuttall Milkvetch, Smallflowered Milkvetch, Turkeypeas (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (083006), 94*

 

Caesalpinia glauca (see footnote under Hoffmannseggia glauca)

 

Calliandra eriophylla G. Bentham: Cabelleto de Angel, Cabeza Angel, Fairyduster, False Mesquite, False Mesquite Calliandra, Guajillo, Hairy-leaved Calliandra, Huajillo, Mesquitilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 4 feet in height and 4 to 5 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Fairyduster is browsed by wildlife and is highly palatable to Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 28, 31, 46, 48, 58, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Cassia covesii (see Senna covesii)  

 

Cercidium floridum (see Parkinsonia florida)   

 

Cercidium microphyllum (see Parkinsonia microphylla)   

 

Dalea emoryi (see Psorothamnus emoryi var. emoryi)  

 

Dalea mollis G. Bentham: Hairy Prairie-clover, Silk Dalea, Soft Dalea (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, foothills, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, flats, dunes, arroyos and rocky, gravelly, sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Dalea neomexicana (A. Gray) V.L. Cory: Downy Prairie Clover, New Mexico Dalea, New Mexican Indigo Pea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, slopes, ridges, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 46, 77, 94*

 

Dalea parryi (see Marina parryi)  

 

Dalea spinosa (see Psorothamnus spinosus)  

 

Dalea wrightii A. Gray: Wright Dalea, Wright’s Prairie Clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, rocky outcrops, ridge tops, rock crevices, hillsides, ridge tops, rocky slopes, among rocks and gravelly flats, occurring from 2,200 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 46, 77, 94*

 

Hoffmannseggia glauca (C.G. de Ortega) I.J. Eifert (Hoffmanseggia densiflora G. Bentham): Camote de Raton (Mouse’s Sweet Potato), Hog Potato, Indian Rushpea, Pignut, Sicklepod Rushpea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (4 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, sandy roadsides, ditch banks, along washes, waste places and alkaline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 31 (recorded as Caesalpinia glauca), 46, 68, 77, 86, 101*

 

Hoffmanseggia densiflora (Hoffmannseggia glauca)  

 

Lotus rigidus (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene: Desert Rock Pea, Shrubby Deervetch, Wiry Lotus (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 91, 94*

 

Lotus salsuginosus E.L. Greene (var. brevivexillus A.M. Ottley is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Coastal Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Coastal Lotus, Deer Vetch (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, hills and flats, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Lotus strigosus (T. Nuttall) E.L. Greene (var. tomentellus P.T. Isely is the variety reported from Arizona, Lotus tomentellus E.L. Greene): Annual Lotus, Desert Deervetch, Desert Lotus, Greene’s Desert Deervetch, Hairy Deer Vetch, Hairy Lotus, Strigose Bird’s-foot Trefoil (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, among boulders, along sandy washes and sandy and gravelly soils, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Lotus tomentellus (see Lotus strigosus var. tomentellus) 

 

Lupinus arizonicus (S. Watson) S. Watson: Arizona Lupine, Lupino (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides and sandy washes, occurring below 3000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 80 (gen.), 94*

 

Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh: Annual Lupine, Bajada Lupine, Bluebonnet, Elegant Lupine, Lupine, Scarlet Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas, gravelly and sandy flats and along washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 94*

 

Lupinus sparsiflorus G. Bentham: Arizona Lupine, Coulter Lupine, Desert Lupine, Mojave Lupine (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, bajadas, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Marina parryi (J. Torrey & A. Gray) R.C. Barneby (Dalea parryi J. Torrey & A. Gray): Parry Dalea, Parry Indigo Pea, Parry Marina, Parry’s False Prairie-clover (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 or more feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and roadsides, occurring from 2,200 to 4,700 feet in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Olneya tesota A. Gray: Comitin, Arizona Ironwood, Desert Ironwood, Ironwood, Palo de Hierro, Palo Fierro, Tesota (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (15 to 30 feet in height and 15 to 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy mesas, rocky canyons, rocky foothills, hills, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, floodplains and along washes, occurring below 3,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; the trees are browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and the seeds are an important food of desert animals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 91, 94*

 

Parkinsonia florida (G. Bentham ex A. Gray) S. Watson (Cercidium floridum G. Bentham): Blue Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree) (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, hills, bajadas, slopes, flats, valleys, roadsides, floodplains and along sandy washes, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The twigs and seed pods are browsed by wildlife and the seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. The Blue Paloverde is useful in controlling erosion. This plant may be useful as an ornamental; has a very showy display of yellow flowers in the spring. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31 (recorded as Cercidium floridum subsp. floridum), 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Parkinsonia microphylla J. Torrey (Cercidium microphyllum (J. Torrey) J.N. Rose & I.M. Johnston): Dipua, Foothill Paloverde, Hillside Paloverde, Horsebean, Little Horsebean, Little Leaf Horsebean, Little Leaf Paloverde, Palo Verde (Green Tree), Yellow Paloverde (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (10 to 26 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, rocky and gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and gravelly flats, occurring from 500 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray: Frijol, Tepary, Tepary Bean, Texas Bean, Wild Tepary Bean (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, talus slopes, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, moist swales, roadsides, along streams and stream beds, washes, arroyos and creeks, flood plains, mesquite bosques, riparian areas, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 900 to 6,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Growing this plant may increase soil fertility. *5, 6, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081206), 94*

 

Phaseolus filiformis G. Bentham (Phaseolus wrightii A. Gray): Desert Bean, Slimjim Bean, Wright Bean (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon bottoms and rocky slopes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Phaseolus wrightii (see Phaseolus filiformis)   

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey: Common Mesquite, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mizquitl (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 50 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, plains, valleys, floodplains and along washes and streams, occurring from 2,300 to 6,100 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Costa’s hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers, this plant provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 26, 28 (sp.), 46, 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 63 (083106), 94, 101 (sp.)*

 

Prosopis glandulosa J. Torrey var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C. Johnston (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Candolle. var. torreyana L. Benson): Algarroba, Chachaca, Honey Mesquite, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Western Honey Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 30 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, sandy flats, valleys, roadsides, along washes, streams and rivers and floodplains, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46, 52 (sp.), 53 (sp.), 63 (083106), 68, 80, 91, 101 (sp.)*

 

Prosopis juliflora var. torreyana (see Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana) 

 

Prosopis juliflora var. velutina (see Prosopis velutina)  

 

Prosopis pubescens G. Bentham: Fremont Screwbean, Screwbean, Screwbean Mesquite, Screwpod Mesquite, Tornillo (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (7 to 33 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys, bottomlands, floodplains, seeps, along streams, rivers, ponds and water holes, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Screwbean Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 91, 94*

 

Prosopis velutina E.O. Wooton (Prosopis juliflora (O. Swartz) A.P. de Condolle var. velutina (E.O. Wooton) C.S. Sargent): Algarroba, Chachaca, Mesquite, Mezquite, Mizquitl, Velvet Mesquite (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (20 to 56 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, bajadas, rocky slopes, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and streams and floodplains, occurring from 500 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Velvet Mesquite provides food and shelter for many species of wildlife. Much of the mesquite forest (bosques) originally found along the desert water courses have been lost to fuel wood cutting and clearing for agricultural fields and commercial and residential development. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53 (sp.), 58, 68, 77, 80, 91, 94*

 

Psorothamnus emoryi (A. Gray) P.A. Rydberg var. emoryi (Dalea emoryi A. Gray): Dyebush, Emory Dalea, Emory Indigo-bush, White Dalea (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy mesas, plains, sandy flats, dunes and along washes, occurring below 500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant is a host for the parasitic Sand Root (Pholisma sonorae) and Thurber Stemsucker (Pilostyles thurberi). *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 91, 94*

 

Psorothamnus spinosus (A. Gray) R.C. Barneby (Dalea spinosa A. Gray): Corona de Cristo, Indigo Bush, Indigo Thorn, Mangle, Smoke Thorn, Smokethorn Dalea, Smoketree (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or tree (4 to 27 feet in height and 10 to 15 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy washes and arroyos and in sandy and gravelly soils, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental but is very frost sensitive. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 31, 46, 48, 52, 53, 86, 91, 94*

 

Senna covesii (A. Gray) J.B. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (Cassia covesii A. Gray): Coves’ Cassia, Cove Senna, Dais, Daisillo, Desert Senna, Hojasen, Rosemaria, Rattlebox, Rattleweed (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, sandy river bottoms and disturbed areas, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Cove Cassia is a larval food plant for the Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae) and Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe). This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 68, 77, 82, 94*

 

 

Family Fouquieriaceae: The Ocotillo Family

 

Fouquieria splendens G. Engelmann: Albarda, Barda, Candle Bush, Candle Wood, Coach Whip, Flamingsword, Jacob’s Staff, Monkey-tail, Ocotillo, Ocotillo del Corral, Slimwood, Vine Cactus (terrestrial perennial deciduous drought and cold) moderately succulent shrub (cluster of 6 to 100 stems 6 to 33 feet in height and 5 to 10 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, mesas, rocky and stony slopes, hills, bajadas, gravelly and sandy plains, gravelly flats and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris), Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa californica), Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers and is a preferred food plant of the Costa’s Hummingbird. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Geraniaceae: The Geranium Family

 

Erodium cicutarium (C. Linnaeus) C.L. L'Héritier de Brutelle: Afilaree, Agujitas (Hispanic), Alfilaria, Alfilerilla, Alfirerillo (Hispanic), Arete (Hispanic), Clocks, Common Stork’s Bill, Filaree, Heronbill, Pikuku Jasi (Purépecha), Pin-clover, Red-stem Filaree, Redstem Stork’s Bill, Semuchi (Hispanic), Storksbill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb (4 to 24 inches or more in height or length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, hillsides, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, gravelly and sandy washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 8,500+ feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 22, 28, 30, 31, 46, 58, 77, 80, 86, 94, 101*

 

Erodium texanum A. Gray: Alfilerilla, Desert Stork’s Bill, False Filaree, Large-flowered Stork’s Bill, Texas Stork’s Bill (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, prairies, plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

 

Family Hydrophyllaceae: The Waterleaf Family

 

Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (G. Bentham) E.L. Greene var. bipinnatifida (J. Torrey) L. Constance: Common Eucrypta, Spotted Hideseed, Torrey Eucrypta (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 63 (080606), 77, 94*

 

Eucrypta micrantha (J. Torrey) A.A. Heller: Dainty Desert Hideseed, Peluda, Smallflower Eucrypta, Small-flowered Eucrypta (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 10 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Nama demissum A. Gray: Leafy Nama, Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Nama (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 3 inches in height with stem reaching to 8 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, slopes, gravelly flats, roadways, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 77, 86, 94*

 

Nama hispidum A. Gray (Nama hispidum A. Gray var. spathulatum (J. Torrey) C.L. Hitchcock): Bristly Nama, Hispid Nama, Hohr-oohit (Seri), Morada, Purple Mat, Purple Roll-leaf, Rough Nama, Sand Bells (terrestrial annual forb/herb (7 to 12 inches in height and to 16 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, lava flows, bajadas, alluvial terraces, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, dunes, sand hummocks, sandy draws, roadsides, along sandy streambeds, washes and dry river bottoms, floodplains, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and rocky cobble, sandy, sandy loam and loamy soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This small annual forb may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been described as being lavender, purple, violet-blue and sometimes with a white throated corolla. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 63 (091606), 77, 85 (091606), 94*

 

Nama hispidum var. spathulatum (see Nama hispidum)  

 

Phacelia ambigua (see Phacelia crenulata var. ambigua)

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. ambigua (M.E. Jones) J.F. Macbride (Phacelia ambigua M.E. Jones): Caterpillar Weed, Notch-leaf Phacelia, Phacelia, Purplestem Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills and plains, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28 (sp.), 31, 46, 80 (sp.), 94*

 

Phacelia crenulata J. Torrey ex S. Watson var. minutiflora (J.W. Voss) W.L. Jepson (Phacelia minutiflora J.W. Voss): Caterpillar Weed, Cleftleaf Wildheliotrope, Phacelia, Purplestem Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild-heliotrope (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills and plains, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28 (sp.), 46, 80 (sp.), 94*

 

Phacelia distans G. Bentham (Phacelia distans G. Bentham var. australis A. Brand): Blue Phacelia, Caterpillar Phacelia, Distant Phacelia, Fern-leaf Phacelia, Scorpion-weed, Wild Heliotrope (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 32 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Phacelia distans var. australis (see Phacelia distans) 

 

Phacelia minutiflora (see Phacelia crenulata var. minutiflora)  

 

Phacelia neglecta W. Jones: Alkali Phacelia, Alkali Scorpion-weed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, slopes, lava flow, talus slopes, gravelly flats, desert pavement, desert varnish and stony soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 28, 31, 46, 94*

 

Pholistoma auritum (J. Lindley) N. Lilja var. arizonicum (W. Jones) L. Constance: Arizona Fiestaflower, Arizona Pholistoma, Blue Fiesta Flower, Sticky Waterleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb or vine; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, among boulders and along washes, occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Krameriaceae: The Ratany Family

 

Krameria erecta C.L. von Wildenow (Krameria parviflora G. Bentham): Chacate, Coashui, Littleleaf Ratany, Pima Ratany, Purple Heather, Range Ratany, Small-flower Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (12 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Krameria grayi J.N. Rose & W.H. Painter: Chacate, Cosahui, Crimson-beak, Gray Ratany, White Ratany (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, dry plains, gravelly flats and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Krameria parviflora (see Krameria erecta)  

 

 

Family Lamiaceae (Labiatae): The Mint Family

 

Hedeoma namum (see footnote under Hedeoma nana)

 

Hedeoma nana (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet: Dwarf False Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Low Hedeoma, Mock-pennyroyal, Oregano (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring from 650 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (080606), 94 (recorded as Hedeoma namum)*

 

Hedeoma nana (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet subsp. macrocalyx W.S. Stewart (Hedeoma nanum (J. Torrey) J.I. Briquet subsp. macrocalyx W.S. Stewart): Dwarf False Pennyroyal, False Pennyroyal, Low Hedeoma, Mock-pennyroyal, Oregano (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes and flats, occurring from 650 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080606)*

 

Hedeoma nanum subsp. macrocalyx (see Hedeoma nana subsp. macrocalyx)

 

Hyptis emoryi J. Torrey: Bee Sage, Desert Lavender, Lavender, Salvia (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (2 to 15 feet in height and 3 to 8 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, foothills, rocky slopes, among boulders and along sandy washes, occurring, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) Native bees and hummingbirds visit the flowers and the seeds provide food for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental, but is sensitive to frosts. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 31, 46, 48, 77, 91, 94*

 

Salazaria mexicana J. Torrey: Bladder Sage, Mexican Bladdersage, Paper-bag Bush (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers and fruit are reported to be attractive. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 48, 86, 94*

 

Salvia columbariae G. Bentham (var. columbariae is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): California Chia, California Sage, Chia, Desert Chia, Desert Sage (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly bajadas, slopes, gravelly flats and along sandy washes, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 94*

 

Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin var. densum (Teucrium cubense N.J. von Jacquin subsp. depressum (J.K. Small) McClintock & C.C. Epling): Combleaf Germander, Small Coast Germander, Small Coastal Germander (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from along streams and sandy washes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16 (sp.), 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Teucrium cubense subsp. depressum (see Teucrium cubense var. densum)

 

Teucrium glandulosum A. Kellogg: Common Germander, Germader (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, arroyos, washes, riparian areas, occurring from 1,400 to 4,200 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46, 94*

 

 

Family Lennoaceae: The Sandfood Family

 

Ammobroma sonorae (see Pholisma sonorae)

 

Pholisma sonorae (J. Torrey ex A. Gray) G.A. Yatskievych (Ammobroma sonorae J. Torrey ex A. Gray): Biatatk, Sand Food, Sand Root, Sand Sponge (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (appears as a low saucer-shaped plant 1 to 5½ inches in diameter with a succulent stem 1½ to 5 feet in length that is buried in sand); within the range of this species it has been reported from sand dunes, drifting sand, sandy areas and fine sandy soils, occurring below 1,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) A root parasite found growing on Arrow-weed (Pluchea sericea), White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa), Desert Eriogonum (Eriogonum deserticola), Emory Psorothamnus (Psorothamnus emoryi), Fan-leaf Tiquilia (Tiquilia plicata) and Palmer Tiquilia (Tiquilia palmeri). *5, 6, 8, 9, 46, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

 

Family Loasaceae: Blazingstar Family

 

Eucnide rupestris (H.E. Baillon) H.J. Thompson & W.R. Ernst (Sympeteleia rupestris (H.E. Baillon) A. Gray: Flor de la Piedra, Rock Nettle, Rock Stingbush, Velcro Plant (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, rocky cliffs and cliff faces, rocky slopes, among rocks, above coves, washes, tanks and rocky soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 46, 85, 94*

 

Mentzelia affinis E.L. Greene: Blazing Star, Pega Pega, Stickleaf, Triangle-seed, Yellowcomet (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, roadsides and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Mentzelia albicaulis (D. Douglas ex W.J Hooker) D. Douglas ex J. Torrey & A. Gray: Small-flowered Blazingstar, Whitestem Blazingstar (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31 (recorded as a species complex that includes Mentzellia desertorum), 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77*

 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Watsonrizona): Bracted Blazing Star, Desert Blazing Star, Sand Blazing Star, Blazing Star, Whitebract Blazingstar, Whitebract Stickleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, talus slopes, rocky and gravelly hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, among boulders, terraces, desert flats, along washes and rivers and dry and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (081106), 85 (081106), 94*

 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Watson var. megalantha I.M. Johnston: Blazing Star, Bracted Blazing Star, Desert Blazing Star, Pega Pega, Sand Blazing Star, Silver Blazing Star, Stickleaf, Whitebract Blazingstar, White Bract Stickleaf (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry hillsides, flats, washes and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (081106) , 85 (sp. - 081106), 86*

 

Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray: Adonis Blazingstar, Adonis Stickleaf, Blazingstar, Desert Blazingstar, Desert Mentzelia, Manyflowered Mentzelia (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly flats, sand dunes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 600 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 48 (gen.), 63 (070606), 94*

 

Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray subsp. longiloba (J. Darlington) J.T. Kartesz (Mentzelia multiflora (T. Nuttall) A. Gray var. longiloba (J. Darlington) R.S. Felger): Adonis Blazingstar, Adonis Stickleaf, Blazingstar, Desert Blazingstar, Desert Mentzelia, Manyflowered Mentzelia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, desertscrubs, sand dunes and sandy and gravelly soils, occurring from 600 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 48 (gen.), 63 (070606)*

 

Mentzelia oreophila (Mentzelia puberula J. Darlington): Argus Blazingstar, Blazingstar, Rough-stemmed Blazing Star (terrestrial biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, talus slopes, rocky and gravelly slopes, rock crevices, foothills and riverbanks, occurring from 500 to 3,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Mentzelia puberula (see Mentzelia oreophila)

 

Petalonyx thurberi A. Gray (subsp. thurberi is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Sandpaper Plant, Thurber‘s Sandpaper Plant (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, plains, dunes, arroyos, sandy washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 31, 46 (sp.), 91, 94*

 

Sympeteleia rupestris (see Eucnide rupestris)

 

 

Family Malpighiaceae: The Barbados-cherry Family

 

Janusia gracilis A. Gray: Desert Vine, Fermina, Slender Janusia (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or vine (18 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, rocky canyons, canyon bottoms, rocky hills, gravelly ridges, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among rocks, volcanic plugs, gravelly bajadas, alluvial fans and canyons, gravelly flats, along perennial streams, sandy washes and creeks, rocky stream beds and banks, gullies, rocky arroyo bottoms, flood plains, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils and rocky clay loam and clay loam soils, occurring from 500 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Slender Janusia is a food plant of the Sonoran Desert Tortoise. (Gopherus agassizi) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are yellow and the fruit wings are reddish. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 63 (090206), 77, 85 (090206), 94*

 

 

Family Malvaceae: The Mallow Family

 

Abutilon incanum (J.H. Link) R. Sweet: Hoary Abutilon, Hoary Indian Mallow, Indian Mallow, Pelotazo, Pelotazo Chico, Tronadora (terrestrial perennial evergreen subshrub or shrub (20 inches to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, gravelly plains and along arroyos, occurring from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 91, 94*

 

Abutilon malacum S. Watson: Indian Mallow, Yellow Abutilon, Yellow Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, cliffs, rocky slopes, rocky ravines, bajadas, hilltops, along washes, floodplains and rocky soils, occurring from 1,700 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 77, 94*

 

Abutilon palmeri A. Gray: Indian Mallow, Palmer’s Indian Mallow (terrestrial perennial shrub (6 to 8 feet in height and to 5 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky hills and rocky slopes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation; useful as an ornamental in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 31, 46, 94*

 

Eremalche exilis (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Malvastrum exile A. Gray): Five Spot, White Mallow (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains and mesas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Gayoides crispum (see Herissantia crispa)

 

Herissantia crispa (C. Linnaeus) G.K. Brizicky (Gayoides crispum (C. Linnaeus) J.K. Small): Bladdermallow, Curly Abutilon, False Indian Mallow, Netvein Herissantia (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb, vine or subshrub (to 2 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Bladdermallow is a food and nesting plant of the caterpillar of the Erichson’s White-skipper (Heliopetes domicella). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Hibiscus coulteri W.H. Harvey ex A. Gray: Coulter Hibiscus, Desert Rosemallow, Pelotazo (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons and canyon walls, hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly bajadas, occurring from 1,500 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Hibiscus denudatus G. Bentham: Naked Hibiscus, Paleface, Pale Face Mallow, Paleface Rosemallow, Rock Hibiscus (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and washes, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31 (recorded as Hibiscus denudatus var. denudatus), 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 86, 94*

 

Horsfordia alata (S. Watson) A. Gray: Big Feltplant, Malva Blanca, Mariola, Pink Felt Plant, Pink Velvetmallow (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (6 to 14 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, among boulders, sandy washes, arroyos, dry river bottoms, stock tanks, riparian areas rocky, pebbly and sandy soils, occurring from 200 to 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 63 (062506), 85 (062506), 91, 94*

 

Horsfordia newberryi (S. Watson) A. Gray: Newberry’s Velvetmallow, Orange Velvet-mallow, Yellow Felt Plant (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (7 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 31, 46, 77, 91, 94*

 

Malvastrum exile (see Eremalche exilis) 

 

Malvella leprosa (C.G. de Ortega) A. Krapovickas (Sida hederacea (D. Douglas) J. Torrey, Sida leprosa (C.G. de Ortega) K.M. Schumann, Sida leprosa (C.G. de Ortega) K.M. Schumann var. hederacea): Alkali Mallow, Alkali Sida, Dollar Weed, Meloncilla (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 15 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from near streams, along ditch banks, disturbed areas and moist, alkaline or saline soils, occurring from 100 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 58, 68, 101*

 

Malvella sagittifolia (A. Gray) P.A. Fryxell (Sida lepidota A. Gray var. sagittaefolia A. Gray): Arrowleaf Mallow, Scurfy Sida (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from valleys, roadsides, washes, playas, bosques, floodplains, occurring from 600 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46*

 

Sida hederacea (see Malvella leprosa)

 

Sida lepidota var. sagittaefolia (see Malvella sagittifolia)

 

Sida leprosa (see Malvella leprosa)

 

Sida leprosa var. hederacea (see Malvella leprosa)

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray subsp. ambigua: Apricot Globemallow, Apricot Mallow, Desert Hollyhock, Desert Globemallow, Desert Mallow, Globe Mallow, Mal de Ojo, Mountain Apricot Mallow, Plantas Muy Malas, Sore-eye Poppy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (20 to 40 inches in height and 2 to 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Apricot Mallow is browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 28, 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 86*

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray subsp. rosacea (P.A. Munz & G. Johnston) T.H. Kearney (Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray var. rosacea (P.A. Munz & G. Johnston) T.H. Kearney): Rose Globemallow (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (20 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Apricot Mallow is browsed by Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 86 (sp.), 94*

 

Sphaeralcea ambigua var. rosacea (see Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. rosacea) 

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (S. Watson) A. Gray: Coulter’s Globemallow (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 60 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly and sandy flats and roadsides, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 86, 94*

 

Sphaeralcea coulteri (S. Watson) A. Gray var. coulteri: Coulter’s Globemallow (terrestrial annual forb/herb or subshrub (8 to 60 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported rom mesas, gravelly and sandy flats and roadsides occurring, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 86 (sp.)*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray (Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. californica (S.B. Parish) L.H. Shinners, Sphaeralcea emoryi J. Torrey ex A. Gray var. variabilis (T.D. Cockerell) T.H. Kearney): Emory’s Globemallow, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, flats and roadsides, occurring below 3,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. californica (see Sphaeralcea emoryi) 

 

Sphaeralcea emoryi var. variabilis (see Sphaeralcea emoryi)

 

Sphaeralcea orcuttii J.N. Rose: Carrizo Creek Globemallow, Orcutt Globemallow (terrestrial annual or biennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring below 500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 94*

 

 

Family Molluginaceae: The Carpetweed Family

(genus Mollugo formerly placed in Aizoaceae)

 

Glinus radiatus (H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon) P. Rohrbach (Mollugo radiata H. Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavon): Spreading Sweetjuice (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from washes, arroyos, around reservoirs, dry pond bottoms, charcos and banks of stock tanks, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *5, 6, 31, 58, 63 (081106), 85 (081106)*

 

 

Family Nyctaginaceae: The Four-o’clock Family

 

Abronia villosa S. Watson: Desert Sand Verbena, Hairy Sand Verbena, Sand Verbena (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches in height with stems trailing to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, dunes, roadsides and sandy soils, occurring, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 28, 46, 63 (070306), 94*

 

Abronia villosa S. Watson var. villosa: Desert Sand Verbena, Hairy Sand Verbena, Sand Verbena (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches in height with stems trailing to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, dunes, roadsides and sandy soils, occurring, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be fragrant. *5, 6, 28 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.), 63 (070306)*

 

Acleisanthes longiflora A. Gray: Angel-trumpet, Angel’s Trumpets, Yerba-de-la-Rabia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 8 inches in height and 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky slopes, among rocks and plains, occurring from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The plant is reported to be night-blooming with fragrant flowers. *5, 6, 31, 46, 86*

 

Allionia incarnata C. Linnaeus: Guapile, Herba de la Hormiga, Pink Three-flower, Trailing Allionia, Trailing Four O’Clock, Trailing Windmills, Umbrella Wort, Windmills (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (to 4 inches in height and with stems 6 inches to 10 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, sandy plains, along washes, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravely and sandy soils, occurring from below 6,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 86, 94*

 

Boerhavia coccinea P. Miller: Indian Boerhaavia, Red Spiderling, Scarlet Spiderling, Wine-fower (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (stems trailing 1 to 6 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from foothills, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and streambeds and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77*

 

Boerhavia erecta C. Linnaeus: Erect Spiderling, Five Winged Spiderling, Hamip Caacöl  (Seri), Mochi, Spiderling (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, hills, rocky slopes, soil pockets in rocky outcrops, alluvial fans, rocky bottomland, valley plains and bottoms, roadsides, along sandy washes, rocky arroyos and stream beds, flood plains, riparian areas, waste places, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 100 to 5,800 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31 (recorded as Boerhavia erecta var. erecta), 46, 58, 63 (081206), 85 (090806)*

 

Boerhavia erecta subsp. erecta (see footnote under Boerhavia erecta)

 

Boerhavia erecta var. erecta (see footnote under Boerhavia erecta)

 

Boerhavia erecta var. intermediia (see Boerhavia intermedia)

 

Boerhavia intermedia W. Jones (Boerhavia erecta C. Linnaeus var. intermediia (W. Jones) T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles): Fivewing Spiderling, Five-winged Ringstem, Jone’s Boerhavia, Mochi, Spreading Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, damp soil in floodplains, along washes and streambeds, disturbed areas and damp soils, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 63 (081206), 85 (Boerhavia  erecta subsp. & var. intermedia - 081206), 94*

 

Boerhavia spicata J.D. Choisy: Creeping Spiderling, Mochi (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, flats, roadsides and along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77*

 

Boerhavia wrightii A. Gray: Creeping Stickstem, Fourwing Spiderling, Large-bracted Boerhaavia, Largebract Spiderling, Mochi, Spiderling, Wright Spiderling (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Mirabilis bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa) 

 

Mirabilis bigelovii var. bigelovii (see Mirabilis laevis var. villosa)

 

Mirabilis laevis (G. Bentham) M.C. Curran var. villosa (A. Kellogg) R.W. Spellenberg (Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray, Mirabilis bigelovii A. Gray var. bigelovii): Bigelow Four O’clock, Desert Wishbone Bush, Wishbone-bush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains and rocky mountainsides, canyons, hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, among boulders and rocks, flats, along washes and arroyos, stream beds and rocky and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Mirabilis pumila (P.C. Standley) P.C. Standley (Oxybaphus pumilus (P.C. Standley) P.C. Standley): Dwarf Four O’Clock, Little Four-o’clock (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, dry slopes, roadsides, creek and river banks and riparian areas, occurring from 3,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the forest ecological formation and wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 63 (081206), 85 (081206), 94*

 

Mirabilis tenuiloba S. Watson: Longlobe Four O’Clock, Long Lobed Four O’Clock (terrestrial perennial subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyons bottoms, occurring from around 1,500 to 1,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 63 (081206), 85 (081206), 94*

 

Oxybaphus pumilus (see Mirabilis pumila) 

 

 

Family Oleaceae: The Olive Family

 

Menodora scabra A. Gray (Menodora scoparia G. Engelmann ex A. Gray): Rough Desert Olive, Rough Menodora, Twinberry, Twinfruit, Yellow Menodora (terrestrial perennial deciduous forb/herb or subshrub (6 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring from 1,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Rough Menodora is an important browse plant for wildlife. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48, 63 (062706), 77, 86, 94*

 

Menodora scoparia (see Menodora scabra) 

 

 

Family Onagraceae: The Evening-primrose Family

 

Camissonia arenaria (A. Nelson) J.E. Raven (Oenothera cardiophylla (J. Torrey) J.E. Raven var. splendens P.A. Munz & G. Johnston): Fortuna Range Suncup (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, talus slopes, rocky slopes, ledges, rock crevices and along washes, occurring from 500 to 3,300 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Camissonia boothii (D. Douglas) J.E. Raven subsp. condensata (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven (Oenothera decorticans (W.J. Hooker & G.W. Arnott) E.L. Greene (var. condensata P.A. Munz is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona)): Booth Evening-primrose, Booth Suncop, Shredding Suncup, Woody Bottle-washer (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from desert hills, flats, valleys, open deserts, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Oenothera californica (T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) E.L. Greene, Eulobus californicus T. Nuttall ex J. Torrey & A. Gray, Oenothera leptocarpa E.L. Greene): California Suncup, Mustard Camissonia, Mustard Evening-primrose (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, plains, flats and along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 63 (080706), 77, 94*

 

Camissonia chamaenerioides (A. Gray) J.E. Raven (Oenothera chamaeneriodes A. Gray): Desert Evening Primrose, Longcapsule Suncup, Long-capsuled Primrose, Long-fruit Suncup, Willow-herb Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. peeblesii (P.A. Munz) J.E. Raven (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. peeblesii P.A. Munz): Peebles’ Browneyes (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, rocky hillsides, desertscrubs, flats, along washes, riparian areas, sandy soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia claviformis (J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont) J.E. Raven subsp. rubescens (J.E. Raven) J.E. Raven (Oenothera clavaeformis J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. rubescens J.E. Raven): Brown-eyed Primrose, Browneyes, Clavate-fruited Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from bajadas, dunes, lava flows, desert valleys and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 1,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 48 (gen.)*

 

Camissonia refracta (S. Watson) J.E. Raven (Oenothera refracta S. Watson): Narrowleaf Suncup, Narrow-leaved Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, gravelly hills, bajadas, gravelly wash, riparian areas and bouldery, gravelly and sandy loam soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Eulobus californicus (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann (Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. glabra P.A. Munz, Gaura parviflora D. Douglas ex J.G. Lehmann var. lachnocarpa C.A. Weatherby): Butterfly Weed, Downy Gaura, Lizard Tail, Lizardtail Gaura, Small-flowered Gaura, Tall Gaura, Velvet Leaf Gaura, Velvet Leaved Gaura, Velvetweed, Velvety Gaura, Willow Gaura (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, flats, roadsides, along sandy washes, low-lying areas, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 6,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 94, 101*

 

Gaura parviflora var. glabra (see Gaura parviflora)

 

Gaura parviflora var. lachnocarpa (see Gaura parviflora)

 

Oenothera arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.L. Wagner (Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. arizonica (P.A. Munz) W.E. Klein, Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. arizonica P.A. Munz): Arizona Primrose, California Evening-primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb (2 to 12 inches in height with stems 4 to 40 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky ridges, sandy flats, desertscrub, dunes, washes, sandy river bottoms, disturbed areas and sandy soils, occurring from 1,700 to 1,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Oenothera californica (see Camissonia californica) 

 

Oenothera californica subsp. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)   

 

Oenothera cardiophylla var. splendens (see Camissonia arenaria)

 

Oenothera chamaeneriodes (see Camissonia chamaenerioides) 

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. peeblesii (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. peeblesii)

 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. rubescens (see Camissonia claviformis subsp. rubescens)

 

Oenothera decorticans var. condensata (see Camissonia boothii subsp. condensata)

 

Oenothera deltoides var. arizonica (see Oenothera arizonica)

 

Oenothera deltoides var. cineracea (see Oenothera deltoides subsp. deltoides) 

 

Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont: Birdcage Evening-primrose, Devils’ Lantern, Dune Primrose, White Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2 to 18 inches in height with stems reclining from 4 to 40 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, sandy hills, sand hummocks, sand dunes, roadsides, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont subsp. deltoides (Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. cineracea (W.L. Jepson) P.A. Munz, Oenothera deltoides J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont var. typica P.A. Munz): Birdcage Evening-primrose, Devils’ Lantern, Dune Primrose, White Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (2 to 18 inches in height with stems reclining from 4 to 40 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, sandy hills, sand hummocks, sand dunes, roadsides, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 86 (sp.)*

 

Oenothera deltoides var. typica (see Oenothera deltoides subsp. deltoides) 

 

Oenothera leptocarpa (Camissonia californica)

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray var. caulescens (see Oenothera primiveris subsp. primiveris) 

 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray subsp. primiveris (Oenothera primiveris A. Gray var. caulescens P.A. Munz): Bottle Evening Primrose, Desert Evening-primrose, Large Yellow Desert Primrose, Sundrop, Yellow Desert Evening-primrose, Yellow Desert Primrose (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky mountainsides, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas and rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes and sandy soils occurring below 5,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28 (sp.), 31 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Oenothera refracta (see Camissonia refracta)   

 

 

Family Orobanchaceae: The Broom-rape Family

 

Orobanche cooperi (A. Gray) A.A. Heller: Broom Rape, Burro Weed Strangler, Cancer-root, Desert Broomrape, Flor de Tierra, Louisiana Broomrape (terrestrial annual (root parasitic) forb/herb (4 to 15 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, sand dunes, flats, sandy washes, riparian areas, disturbed areas and sandy and sandy clay soils, occurring from 200 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28,, 31 46, 63 (082406), 77, 85 (090806), 94*

 

 

Family Papaveraceae: The Poppy Family

 

Argemone gracilenta E.L. Greene: Cardo, Crested Pricklepoppy, Crested Prickly Poppy, Prickly Poppy, Sonoran Pricklypoppy (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert flats, roadsides, along arroyos and washes, disturbed areas and rocky and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 900 to 3,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 68 (gen.), 77, 80, 94*

 

Argemone intermedia (see Argemone polyanthemos)

 

Argemone platyceras (Argemone polyanthemos)

 

Argemone polyanthemos (F.K. Fedde) G.B. Ownby (Argemone intermedia auct. non R. Sweet [misapplied], Argemone platyceras auct. non J.H. Link & C.F. Otto [misapplied]): Annual Pricklepoppy, Bluestem Pricklepoppy, Bluestem Prickly Poppy, Crested Pricklypoppy, Pricklypoppy, Thistle Poppy, White Prickly Poppy (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (to 3 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, plains, roadsides, waste places, disturbed areas and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18, 46, 48, 63 (080706), 68, 80, 86, 94, 101*

 

Eschscholzia glyptosperma E.L. Greene: Desert Goldenpoppy, Desert Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from talus slopes, gravelly slopes, benches, dunes, flats, gravelly washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 94*

 

Eschscholzia minutiflora S. Watson: Little Gold Poppy, Pygmy Goldenpoppy, Pygmy Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, among rocks, sandy flats, gravelly and sandy washes, riverbeds, floodplains and sandy soils, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 94*

 

 

Family Pedaliaceae (Martyniaceae): The Sesame Family

 

Proboscidea althaeifolia (G. Bentham) J. Decaisne (Proboscidea arenaria (G. Engelmann) J. Decaisne): Cuernitos, Desert Devil’s-claw, Desert Unicorn-plant, Devil’s Claw, Devil’s-horn, Elephant Tusks, Gato, Guernito, Red Devil’s Claw, Roundbrack Devil’s Claw, Sand Devil’s Claw, Torito, Una de Gato (terrestrial long lived annual or perennial forb/herb (to 12 inches in height and 3 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides, sandy washes and sandy soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Proboscidea arenaria (see Proboscidea althaeifolia)

 

 

Family Plantaginaceae: The Plantain Family

 

Plantago fastigiata (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago insularis (see Plantago ovata)

 

Plantago insularis var. fastigiata (see Plantago ovata) 

 

Plantago ovata P. Forsskal (Plantago fastigiata J. Morris, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood, Plantago insularis A. Eastwood var. fastigiata (J. Morris) W.L. Jepson): Blond Psyllium, Desert Indianwheat, Fleaseed, Fleawort, Indian Wheat, Psyllium (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly and sandy bajadas, plains and gravelly flats, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 77, 94*

 

Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin (Plantago patagonica N.J. von Jacquin var. gnaphaloides (T. Nuttall) A. Gray, Plantago purshii J.J. Roemer & J.A. Schultes): Bristle Bract Plantain, Hierba del Pastor (Hispanic), Indian Wheat, Pastora, Pursh Indian Wheat, Pursh Plantain, Woolly Plantain (terrestrial annual forb/herb (3 to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, washes, streambeds, disturbed areas and damp and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 46, 28, 30, 31, 48 (gen..), 58, 63 (080806), 77, 94, 101*

 

Plantago patagonica var. gnaphaloides (see Plantago patagonica)

 

Plantago purshii (see Plantago patagonica)

 

 

Family Polemoniaceae: The Phlox Family

 

Eriastrum diffusum (A. Gray) F. Mason: Blue Star, Miniature Starflower, Miniature Woollystar, Miniature Wool Star, Starflower, Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4½ inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 5,500 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Eriastrum eremicum (W.L. Jepson) F. Mason: Desert Eriastrum, Desert Woolstar, Desert Woollystar (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, mesas, sandy ridges, knolls, hillsides, slopes, dry plains, sandy flats, sandy washes, along creeks, gravelly and moist sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 46, 94*

 

Gilia bigelovii (see Linanthus bigelovii) 

 

Gilia latifolia S. Watson: Broad-leaf Gilia, Broad-leaf Gily-flower, Broad-leaved Gilia, Hollyleaf Gilia (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 20 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rock outcrops, slopes, roadsides, washes and desert pavement and sandy soils, occurring below 2,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46*

 

Gilia scopulorum M.E. Jones: Rock Gilia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from desert mountains, canyons, talus slopes, rocky, gravelly and sandy slopes, flats and sandy soils, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 94*

 

Gilia sinuata D. Douglas ex G. Bentham: Bare-base Gilia, Cinder Gilia, Gilia, Gily-flower, Rosy Gilia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, along washes and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 46, 94*

 

Gilia stellata A.A. Heller: Star Gilia, Star Gily-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky mountainsides, canyons, rocky and sandy slopes, hills, gravelly hillsides, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, rocky and gravelly roadsides, along washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 400 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Langloisia setosissima (J. Torrey & A. Gray ex J. Torrey) E.L. Greene subsp. setosissima: Bristly Langloisia, Great Basin Langloisia, Moth Langloisia (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, rocky hillsides, bajadas, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement and rocky gravelly, sandy and clay loam soils and disturbed areas, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E.L. Greene (Gilia bigelovii A. Gray): Bigelow Gilia, Bigelow’s Linanthus (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from dry mesas, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Polygonaceae: The Buckwheat Family

 

Chorizanthe brevicornu J. Torrey (var. brevicornu is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Brittle Spineflower, Short-horn Spine-flower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring below 3,100 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 63 (080806), 77, 94*

 

Chorizanthe corrugata (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Corrugated Spiny-herb, Wrinkled Chorizanthe, Wrinkled Spineflower (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the reange of this species it has been reported from mesas, bajadas, hills, lava flows, sandy flats, dunes, roadsides, sandy washes and desert pavement, rocky, gravelly and sandy and silt loam soils, occurring below 1,700 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Chorizanthe rigida (J. Torrey) J. Torrey & A. Gray: Devil’s Spineflower, Devil’s Spiny-herb, Rigid Spineflower, Rigid Spiny Herb, Turk’s Rug (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 4 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly and sandy bajadas and gravelly flats, occurring below 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Eriogonum clutei (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey (var. deflexum is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona; Eriogonum clutei P.A. Rydberg, Eriogonum deflexum J. Torrey var. turbinatum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal): Flatcrown Buckwheat, Flatcrowned Wild Buckwheat, Flat-topped Buckwheat, Skeleton Weed, Skeleton Weed Eriogonum (terrestrial annual forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places, disturbed areas and rocky soils, occurring below 4,400 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 68, 77, 94*

 

Eriogonum deflexum var. turbinatum (see Eriogonum deflexum var. deflexum) 

 

Eriogonum fasciculatum G. Bentham: Bladderstem, California Buckwheat, Desert Trumpet, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat-brush, Indian Pipe-weed, Maderista (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been reported to be slightly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen. & sp.), 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 94*

 

Eriogonum fasciculatum G. Bentham var. polifolium (G. Bentham) J. Torrey & A. Gray (Eriogonum polifolium G. Bentham): Bladderstem, California Buckwheat, Desert Trumpet, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat, Flat-top Buckwheat-brush, Indian Pipe-weed, Maderista (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hillsides, flats and along washes, occurring from 1,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers have been reported to be slightly fragrant. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen. & sp.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806)*

 

Eriogonum inflatum J. Torrey & J.C. Fremont var. inflatum: Bladder Stem, Desert Trumpet, Indian Pipe-weed (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb (8 to 40 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and sandy slopes, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Eriogonum polifolium (see Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium) 

 

Eriogonum pringlei (see Eriogonum wrightii var. pringlei) 

 

Eriogonum thomasii J. Torrey: Thomas Buckwheat, Thomas’ Buckwheat, Thomas Wild Buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, hillsides, bajadas, sandy flats, arroyos, along sandy washes, floodplains, disturbed areas and rocky, gravelly, sandy and silt soils, occurring below 3,300 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Eriogonum thurberi J. Torrey: Thurber’s Buckwheat, Thurber Eriogonum, Thurber Wild Buckwheat (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, hillsides, plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, along sandy washes and sandy and sandy loam soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Eriogonum trichopes J. Torrey (var. trichopes is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Little Desert Buckwheat, Little Deserttrumpet, Little Trumpet, Yellow Trumpet (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, hills, gravelly bajadas, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16 (sp.), 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 94*

 

Eriogonum wrightii J. Torrey ex G Bentham: Bastardsage, Wright Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat Brush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky and gravelly slopes, hills, valleys, rocky banks of washes and alluvial fans, occurring from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant is an important browse plant for deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Eriogonum wrightii J. Torrey ex G Bentham var. nodosum (J.K. Small) J.L. Reveal: Bastardsage, Bastardsage, Wright Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat Brush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (6 inches 3 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons and canyon bottoms, hills, rocky hillsides, ridge tops, rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky outcrops, rock crevices, among boulders, springs, rocky banks of washes and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,400 to 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant is an important browse plant for deer. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 46 (sp.), 48 (gen.), 63 (090906), 85 (090906)*

 

Eriogonum wrightii J. Torrey ex G Bentham var. pringlei (T. Coulter & E.M. Fisher) J.L. Reveal (Eriogonum pringlei T. Coulter & E.M. Fisher): Pringle’s Bastardsage, Shrubby Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat, Wright Buckwheat Brush (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (24 to 28 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides, canyons, rocky hills, rocky slopes and among rocks, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 48 (gen.)*

 

Nemacaulis denudata T. Nuttall (var. gracillis G.J. Goodman & L.D. Benson is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Cottonheads, Woollyheads (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from sandy flats, sand dunes, sand hummocks and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 1,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 8, 31, 85, 94*

 

Polygonum argyrocoleon E.G. von Steudel ex Kunz: Persian Knotweed, Silversheath, Silversheath Knotweed (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, draws, sand bars, riparian areas, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Weed. *5, 6, 31, 46, 68, 80, 94, 101*

 

 

Family Portulacaceae: The Purselane Family

 

Portulaca halimoides C. Linnaeus (Portulaca parvula A. Gray): Dwarf Purslane, Silkcotton Purslane, Sinkerleaf Purselane (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, plains, flats, valleys, roadsides, washes, floodplains, disturbed areas and sandy and rocky loam soils, occurring below 9,200 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 31, 46*

 

Portulaca parvula (see Portulaca halimoides) 

 

 

Family Ranunculaceae: The Buttercup Family

 

Clematis drummondii J. Torrey & A. Gray: Barbas de Chivato, Drummond’s Clematis, Old Man’s Beard, Texas-virgin Bower, Texas Virgin’s Bower, Virgin’s Bower (terrestrial perennial deciduous vine, subshrub or woody climber (10 to 40 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, open ground and along washes and streams, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 80 (gen.), 94*

 

Delphinium amabile (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium amabile subsp. apachense (see Delphinium parishii var. parishii) 

 

Delphinium parishii A. Gray var. parishii (Delphinium amabile I. Tidestrom): Ocean-blue Larkspur, Paleface Delphinium, Paleface Larkspur, Parish Desert Larkspur, Parish’s Larkspur (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (2 to 4 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, desert mesas, plateaus, canyons and canyon bottoms, foothills, rocky outcrops, rocky knolls, rocky slopes, talus slopes, among rocks, sandy flats, sandy desert plains, along streams, washes, creeks and creek beds and rivers and rocky, riparian areas and gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly loam and rocky clay and gravelly clay loam soils, occurring from 1,200 to 6,300 feet in elevation in the forest, scrub, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 46, 63 (090206), 85 (090206)*

 

Delphinium scaposum E.L. Greene: Bare-stem Larkspur, Espuelita, Low Larkspur, Naked Delphinium, Tall Mountain Larkspur, Tcoro’si, Wild Delphinium (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 30 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, foothills, hillsides, rocky slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 2,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 58, 77, 80, 94*

 

 

Family Resedaceae: The Mignonette Family

 

Oligomeris linifolia (M.H. Vahl) J.F. Macbride: Desert Cambess, Linearleaf Cambess, Lineleaf Whitepuff, Oligomeris, Slender-leaf Cambess (terrestrial annual forb/herb (4 to 6 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hillsides, gravelly bajadas, lava flows, sand dunes, sandy plains, gravelly and sandy flats, sandy roadsides, seeps, springs, along streams and washes, playas, coastal plains, riparian areas, disturbed areas and dry and moist soils, desert pavement, sandy, sandy clay, sandy silty, silty clay and gravelly loam soils and saline soils, occurring below 3,700 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 63 (090306), 77, 85 (090306), 94*

 

 

Family Rhamnaceae: The Buckthorn Family

 

Colubrina californica I.M. Johnston: California Columbrina, California Snakebush, California Snakewood, Las Animas Columbrina, Las Animas Nakedwood, Snakewood (terrestrial perennial shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, along sandy washes, riparian areas and rocky, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 700 to 3,100 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 8, 13, 28, 46, 91, 94*

 

Condalia globosa I.M. Johnston (var. pubescens I.M. Johnston is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Bitter Condalia, Bitter Snakewood, Crucerilla (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub or small tree (7 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, sandy plains and along sandy washes and gravelly loam soils, occurring from 300 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are reported to be sweet-scented. *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 52 (sp.), 53, 91, 94*

 

Condalia lycioides var. canescens (see Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens)

 

Ziziphus obtusifolia (W.J. Hooker ex J. Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. canescens (A. Gray) M.C. Johnston (Condalia lycioides (A. Gray) A. Weberbauer var. canescens (A. Gray) W. Trelease): Abrojo, Bachata, Barbachatas, Clepe, Garrapata, Garumbullo, Gray-leaved Abrojo, Gray-thorn, Greythorn, Gumdrop Tree, Lotebush, Palo Blanco, Southwestern Condalia, White Crucillo (terrestrial perennial drought deciduous shrub or small tree (3 to 13 feet in height); within range of this species it has been reported from mesas, gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes and streambeds and bottomlands, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii), Band-tailed Pigeons (Columba fasciata), White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and other birds feed on the fruit. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Rubiaceae: The Madder Family

 

Galium stellatum A. Kellogg (var. eremicum (M.L. Hilend & J.T. Howell) F. Ehrendorfer is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Desert Bedstraw, Starry Bedstraw (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or  subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mountainsides, canyons, rock crevices, rocky hillsides, rocky slopes and gravelly loam soils, occurring below 6,700 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

 

Family Rutaceae: The Rue Family

 

Thamnosma montana J. Torrey & J.C. Frémont: Cordoncillo, Mohave Desertrue, Turpentinebroom (terrestrial perennial deciduous subshrub (12 inches to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rock outcrops, hills, rocky hillsides, rocky and gravelly slopes, plains, along washes, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 91, 94*

 

 

Family Salicaceae: The Willow Family

 

Populus arizonica (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii S. Watson subsp. fremontii (Populus arizonica C.S. Sargent Populus fremontii S. Watson var. arizonica (C.S. Sargent) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. macdougalii (J.N. Rose) W.L. Jepson, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. pubescens C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. thornberi C.S. Sargent, Populus fremontii S. Watson var. toumeyi C.S. Sargent): Alamo, Arizona Cottonwood, Frémont Cottonwood, Frémont Poplar, Meseta Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood (terrestrial perennial deciduous tree (50 to 100 feet in height and 30 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from along washes and streams, cienegas, bottomlands, water holes and wet and moist soils, occurring below 6,500 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Beavers cut the stems for their dams and feed on the bark. This plant may be useful as an ornamental when used as a specimen plant in a large area (requires an ever increasingly large amount of water with age) and as a revegetation plant for the areas immediately adjacent to the main channel of creeks, streams and rivers. Consider planting male trees if the “cotton” produced by female trees is objectionable. The leaves are colorful in autumn. *5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 52, 53, 58, 77, 94*

 

Populus fremontii var. arizonica (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii var. macdougalii (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii)

 

Populus fremontii var. pubescens (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

Populus fremontii var. thornberi (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii)

 

Populus fremontii var. toumeyi (see Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) 

 

 

Family Scrophulariaceae: The Figwort Family

 

Antirrhinum cyathiferum (see Pseudorontium cyathiferum)

 

Maurandella antirrhiniflora (F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow) W.H. Rothmaler (Maurandya antirrhiniflora F.W. von Humboldt & A.J. Bonpland ex C.L. von Willdenow): Blue Snapdragon Vine, Little Snapdragon Vine, Roving Sailor, Snapdragon Maurandya, Snapdragon Vine, Twining Snapdragon, Vine Blue Snapdragon, Violet Twining, Violet Twining Snapdragon (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or vine (7 to 8 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, rock walls, flats, along washes, streambeds, watercourses and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 86, 94*

 

Maurandya antirrhiniflora (see Maurandella antirrhiniflora) 

 

Penstemon gracilentus A. Gray: Slender Penstemon (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the reange of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 18 (gen.), 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 80 (gen.), 85 (no records - 080806), 94*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones: Arizona Penstemon, Desert Penstemon, Mohave Beardtongue, Nevada Penstemon, Rosey Desert Beardtongue (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky hills and hillsides, rocky slopes, ,bedrock outcrops, among rocks, ravines, roadsides, along washes, creeks and rivers, riparian areas, disturbed areas and moist and dry soils, cinder, gravelly and sandy soils and gravelly clay soils, occurring from 300 to 8,000 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 18, 28, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080806), 80 (gen.), 85 (081206), 94*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones var. pseudospectabilis (Penstemon pseudospectabilis M.E. Jones var. typicus K. Keck): Arizona Penstemon, Desert Beardtongue, Desert Penstemon, Mohave Beardtongue, Nevada Penstemon, Rosey Desert Beardtongue (terrestrial perennial forb/herb, subshrub or shrub (2 to 4 feet in height and 2 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, hillsides, among boulders, bajadas, roadsides, riparian areas and gravelly sandy soils, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) have been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 18 (sp.), 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (070806), 80 (gen.), 85 (081206)*

 

Penstemon pseudospectabilis var. typicus (see Penstemon pseudospectabilis var. pseudospectabilis) 

 

Pseudorontium cyathiferum (G. Bentham) W.H. Rothmaler (Antirrhinum cyathiferum G. Bentham): Desert Snapdragon, Dog’s-mouth, Frog Snapdragon (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, stony talus slopes, rocky hills, hillsides, rocky slopes, bajadas, plains, flats, dunes, arroyos, washes and rocky and sandy soils, occurring below 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Veronica peregrina C. Linnaeus (subsp. xalapensis (K.S. Kunth in Humbolt, Bonpland and Kunth) F.W. Pennell is the subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Hairy Purslane Speedwell, Jalapa Speedwell, Necklace Speedwell, Necklace Weed, Neckweed, Purselane Speedwell (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 12 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, seeps, along streams and washes, around tanks and lakes and wet and damp soils, occurring below 9,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 18 (gen.), 31, 46, 58, 77, 94, 101*

 

 

Family Simaroubaceae: The Quassia-wood Family

 

Castela emoryi (A. Gray) R.V. Moran & R.S. Felger (Holacantha emoryi A. Gray): Cascara Amarga, Castela, Chaparro Amargosa, Corona de Cristo (Spanish), Crucifixion Thorn, Emory Crucifixion Thorn, Holacantha, Rosario (terrestrial perennial deciduous (leafless) shrub or tree (6 to 12 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, slopes, bajadas, alluvial desert plains, flats, sand dunes, along rocky and gravelly desert washes alluvial bottomlands, floodplains and gravelly, sandy, clay and silty soils, occurring from 400 to 2,400 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, it is heavily armed with thorns. *5, 6, 8, 13, 28, 31, 46, 48, 53, 91, 94*

 

Holacantha emoryi (see Castela emoryi) 

 

 

Family Simmondsiaceae: The Jojoba Family

 

Simmondsia chinensis (J.H. Link) C.K. Schneider (Simmondsia californica T. Nuttall): California Jojoba, Coffee Berry, Coffee Bush, Deernut, Goat Nut, Goatnut, Gray Box Bush, Jojoba, Pignut, Quinine Plant, Sheepnut, Wild Hazel (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 10 feet in height and 6 or more feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes, rocky and gravelly hillsides, bajadas, alluvial fans and along washes and runnels, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Jojoba is an  important browse plant for wildlife including deer and Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) This plant is useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 16, 18, 26, 28, 46, 48, 58, 77, 94*

 

Simmondsia californica (see Simmondsia chinensis) 

 

 

Family Solanaceae: The Potato Family

 

Chamaesaracha coronopus (M.F. Dunal) A. Gray: Green False Nightshade, Greenleaf Five Eyes, Small Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (6 to 10 inches in height and 18 inches in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry plains, gravelly flats, roadsides, disturbed areas and damp or dry soils, occurring from 2,500 to 7,500 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 28, 31, 46, 68, 94*

 

Datura discolor G. Bernham: Desert Thorn-apple, Poisonous Nightshade, Small Datura, Thorn Apple, Tolache, Toloache (terrestrial annual forb/herb (12 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from gravelly slopes, sandy flats, roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,600 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 31, 46, 68, 77, 94*

 

Datura metaloides (see Datura wrightii) 

 

Datura wrightii E.A. Regel (Datura metaloides auct. non M.F. Dunal): Giant Jimson, Indian Apple, Jimson Weed, Moon Lily, Sacred Datura, Sacred Thorn-apple, Thornapple, Tolache, Tolguacha, Western Jimson (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (2 to 5 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, plains, sandy roadsides, arroyos, along ditches, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring from 1,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). This plant is poisonous. *5, 6, 28, 46, 58, 77, 80, 86, 94*

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Cacaculo, Manzanita, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 18, 28, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. andersonii: Anderson Desert Thorn, Anderson Lycium, Anderson Thornbush, Barchata, Cacaculo, Desert Wolfberry, Manzanita, Narrowleaf Wolfberry, Salicieso, Tomatillo, Water Jacket, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, rocky slopes, foothills, flats, roadsides and along washes, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) The Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) has been observed visiting the flowers. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13, 18 (sp.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46 (sp.)*

 

Lycium berlandieri M.F. Dunal var. longistylum C.L. Hitchcock: Bachata, Berlandier Lycium, Berlandier’s Wolfberry, Huichutilla, Salicieso, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 8 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, rocky foothills and alluvial plains, occurring from 2,000 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Costa’s Hummingbird (Calypte costae) has been observed visiting the flowers; useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 10, 13 (sp.), 18 (gen.), 28 (sp.), 31, 46, 77, 94*

 

Lycium californicum T. Nuttall ex A. Gray: California Desert-thorn (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (1½ to 3 feet in height and 1½ to 6 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, coastal slopes and saline soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 46, 94*

 

Lycium fremontii A. Gray: Frémont’s Desert-thorn, Frémont Lycium, Frémont Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (2 to 10 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, bajadas and alluvial plains, occurring below 3,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18, 28, 31 (recorded as Lycium fremontii var. fremontii), 46, 48, 63 (080906), 77, 94*

 

Lycium macrodon A. Gray: Desert Thorn, Desert Wolfberry, Lycium, Thornbush, Wolfberry (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from alluvial outwash plains and alkaline soils, occurring from 500 to 2,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 28, 31 (recorded as Lycium macrodon var. macrodon), 46, 63 (080906), 77, 94*

 

Lycium parishii A. Gray: Parish’s Desert-thorn, Parish Thornberry, Parish Wolfberry, Salicieso (terrestrial perennial deciduous shrub (3 to 10 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, canyons, rocky hills, foothills, slopes, alluvial fans, sandy plains, valleys, along sandy washes and arroyos, flood plains and rocky soils, occurring below 3,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) This plant may be useful as an ornamental, the flowers are lavender and the fruit is red *5, 6, 13, 18 (gen.), 31 (recorded as Lycium parishii var. parishii), 46, 63 (090206), 85 (var.  parishii was also recorded - 080206), 94*

 

Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray: Cleveland’s Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Tobaco del Coyote (terrestrial annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, rocky volcanic mounds, bajadas, flats, dunes, roadsides, gravelly and sandy washes, lake margins and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 85, 94*

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti: Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche (a Punch), Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (Little Tobacco) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 46, 58, 63 (080906), 68, 77, 80, 86, 94*

 

Nicotiana obtusifolia F.K. Mertens & H.G. Galeotti var. obtusifolia (Nicotiana trigonophylla M.F. Dunal): Coyote Tobacco, Desert Tobacco, Punche (a Punch), Tabaquillo, Tabaquillo de Coyote, Tobaquillo (Little Tobacco) (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3½ feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, rocky slopes, flats, roadsides, along washes, streambeds, waste places, disturbed areas and dry, gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The flowers reportedly utilized by hummingbirds when other nectar-rich sources are not available. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 63 (080906), 68, 77, 80, 86*

 

Nicotiana trigonophylla (see Nicotiana obtusifolia var. obtusifolia) 

 

Physalis acutifolia (J. Miers) N.Y. Sandwith (Physalis wrightii A. Gray): Groundcherry, Irrigation Groundcherry, Sharpleaf Groundcherry, Tomatillo, Wright Groundcherry (terrestrial annual forb/herb (1 to 6 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky slopes, roadsides, disturbed areas and moist soils, occurring below 4,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 94, 101*

 

Physalis crassifolia G. Bentham: Desert Ground Cherry, Thick-leaved Ground Cherry, Tomate de Culebra, Tomatillo del Desierto, Yellow Nightshade Groundcherry (terrestrial annual or perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, dry rocky slopes, foothills, gravelly flats and along washes, occurring from 1,800 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 80 (gen.), 94*

 

Physalis lobata (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Physalis lobata var. albiflora (see Quincula lobata) 

 

Physalis wrightii (see Physalis acutifolia) 

 

Quincula lobata (J. Torrey) C.S. Rafinesque (Physalis lobata J. Torrey, Physalis lobata J. Torrey var. albiflora U.T. Waterfall): Chinese Lantern, Purple Quincula, Purple Groundcherry (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (6 to 16 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, desert plains, gravelly and sandy flats, roadsides and washes, occurring from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 77, 80 (gen. - Physalis), 86, 94*

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium A.J. Cavanilles: Bullnettle, Desert Nightshade, Silver Horsenettle, Silverleaf Nightshade, Trompillo, White Horsenettle (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (1 to 3 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from plains, flats, roadsides, sandy washes, cienegas, ditch banks, bottomlands, waste places, disturbed areas and moist and sandy soils, occurring below 5,500 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). The green fruit have been reported as being poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 18 (gen.), 28, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 94, 97, 101*

 

 

Family Sterculiaceae: The Cacao Family

 

Ayenia insulicola C.L. Cristóbal [Ayenia pusilla auct. non C. Linnaeus (misapplied)]: Compact Ayenia, Dwarf Ayenia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub (to 18 inches in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from dry rocky slopes, flats and rocky and gravelly soils, occurring from 2,000 to 4,500 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 13, 15, 31, 46, 58*

 

Ayenia pusilla (see note in Ayenia insulicola) 

 

 

Family Tamaricaceae: The Tamarix Family

 

Tamarix aphylla (C. Linnaeus) W.H. Karsten: Athel, Athel Tamarisk, Salt Cedar, Tamarisk, Tamarix (terrestrial perennial deciduous (appears evergreen) shrub or tree (30 to 50 feet in height and 25 to 50 or more feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from flats, floodplains, irrigation ditches and alkaline bottomlands, in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. *5, 6, 13, 18, 26, 46, 52, 53, 94*

 

Tamarix ramosissima C.F. von Ledebour: Atarfe, Pino Salado, Salado, Saltcedar, Talaya, Tamarisco, Tamarisk, Tamarix, Tamariz, Taray (terrestrial perennial shrub or tree (5 to 20 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from rivers, creeks, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, marshy areas, lakes, reservoirs and tanks, occurring from 2,100 to 3,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant, this plant poses a significant threat to native habitat. *5, 6, 13, 22, 31, 58, 77, 91, 94, 101*

 

 

Family Ulmaceae: The Elm Family

 

Celtis ehrenbergiana  (J.F. Klotzsch) F.M. Liebmann (Celtis pallida J. Torrey): Acebuche, Bainoro, Capul, Desert Hackberry, Garabato, Garambullo, Granjeno, Huasteco, Palo de Aguila, Rompecapa, Shiny Hackberry, Spiny Hackberry (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub or tree (3 to 18 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky and gravelly slopes, bajadas, flats, along washes and streambeds, occurring from 1,500 to 4,700 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Desert Hackberry is a larval food plant for the American Snout (Libytheana carinenta) and Empress Leilia (Asterocampa leilia), provides a nesting site for the White-wing Dove (Zenaida asiatica) and cover for many birds. The fruit are eaten by many birds and small desert mammals. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 26, 31 (recorded as Celtis pallida var. pallida), 28, 46, 48, 58, 91, 94*

 

Celtis pallida (see Celtis ehrenbergiana) 

 

 

Family Urticaceae: The Nettle Family

 

Parietaria floridana T. Nuttall: Desert Pellitory, Florida Pellitory, Pellitory (terrestrial winter annual forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, rocky canyons, bajadas, tinajas, rocky slopes, desert plains, along washes, watercourses, stock tanks and wet and moist and gravelly soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 63 (080906), 85 (080906)*

 

Parietaria hespera B.D. Hinton (var. hespera is the variety reported as occurring in Arizona): Rillita Pellitory (terrestrial perennial forb/herb; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons and canyon bottoms, rocky slopes, rocky outcrops, recesses beneath boulders and rocks, gravelly and sandy washes and riparian woodlands, occurring from 800 to 4,800 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 15, 16, 58, 94*

 

 

Family Verbenaceae: The Verbena Family

 

Aloysia wrightii (A. Gray) A.A. Heller ex L. Abrams (Lippia wrightii A. Gray ex J. Torrey): Altamisa, Beebrush, Oreganillo, Vara Dulce, Wright Aloysia, Wright’s Beebrush, Wright Lippia (terrestrial perennial deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub (3 to 6½ feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyons, dry rocky and gravelly slopes and along washes, occurring from 1,500 to 6,000 feet in elevation in the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 18, 31, 46, 58, 77, 91*

 

Glandularia gooddingii (J.I, Briquet) O.T. Solbrig (Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet, Verbena gooddingii J.I. Briquet var. nepetifolia I. Tidestrom): Desert Verbena, Goodding Glandularia, Goodding Verbena, Goodding Vervain, Goodding Mock Vervain, Southwestern Mock Vervain, Southwestern Verbena, Southwestern Vervain, Verbena (terrestrial perennial forb/herb (1 to 2 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, dry rocky slopes, roadsides and along streambeds and washes, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 77, 94*

 

Lippia wrightii (see Aloysia wrightii)

 

Tetraclea coulteri A. Gray: Coulter Tetraclea, Coulter’s Wrinklefruit (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from slopes, gravelly flats, along washes and disturbed areas, occurring below 4,500 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 16, 31, 46, 58, 77, 94*

 

Verbena bracteata A.J. Cavanilles ex M. Lagasca y Segura & J.D. Rodriquez: Bigbract Verbena, Bigbract Vervain, Bracted Vervain, Carpet Vervain, Largebracted Vervain, Prostrate Vervain (terrestrial annual, biennial or perennial forb/herb (6 to 18 inches in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, canyon bottoms, desert plains, clay flats, valley floors, roadsides, washes, dry creeks, river bottoms, flood plains, margins of dirt charcos and stock tanks, cienegas and marshes, ponds and lakes, waste places, disturbed areas and wet and moist soils, sandy soils and rocky clay, sandy loam and silty soils, occurring from 1,000 to 8,800 feet in elevation in the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 63 (080906), 58, 85 (080906), 94, 101*

 

Verbena gooddingii (see Glandularia gooddingii)

 

Verbena halei J.K. Small (Verbena officinalis C. Linnaeus subsp. halei (J.K. Small) E.A. Barber): Slender Verbena, Texas Verbena, Texas Vervain (terrestrial perennial forb/her or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountainsides, roadsides, draws, river banks, playas, disturbed areas and sandy and silty soils, occurring below 5,400 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 48 (gen.), 94*

 

Verbena officianalis C. Linnaeus subsp. halei (see Verbena halei) 

 

 

Family Viscaceae (Loranthaceae): The Christmas Mistletoe Family

 

Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall (Phoradendron californicum T. Nuttall var. distans W. Trelease): American Mistletoe, Desert Mistletoe, Mesquite American Mistletoe, Mesquite Mistletoe, Toji, Western Dwarf Mistletoe (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (to 2 feet in diameter); partial parasite commonly found on Acacia spp., Condalia spp., Larrea spp., Olneya spp., Parkinsonia spp., Prosopis spp., and Ziziphus spp., occurring below 4,300 feet in elevation in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations)  The Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) feed on the berries and disperse the seeds to other host plants and Verdins nest in the stems. The fragrant flowers attract insects. This plant is reported to be poisonous. *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 77, 80, 97*

 

Phoradendron californicum var. distans (see Phoradendron californicum) 

 

 

Family Zygophyllaceae: The Creosote-bush Family

 

Fagonia californica subsp. glutinosa (see Fagonia pachyacantha) 

 

Fagonia californica subsp. laevis (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia californica subsp. longipes (see Fagonia laevis)  

 

Fagonia laevis P.C. Standley (Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. laevis (P.C. Standley) I.L. Wiggins, Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. longipes (P.C. Standley) R.S. Felger, Fagonia longipes P.C. Standley): California Fagonbush, Smooth-stemmed Fagonia (terrestrial perennial subshrub or shrub (8 inches to 2 feet in height); within the range of this species it has been reported from canyons, mesas, rocky hills, dry rocky slopes, flats, washes and desert pavement, occurring below 2,800 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 13, 28, 31, 46, 77, 86 (sp. - Fagonia californica), 94*

 

Fagonia longipes (see Fagonia laevis) 

 

Fagonia pachyacantha P.A. Rydberg (Fagonia californica G. Bentham subsp. glutinosa A.M. Vail): Sticky Fagonbush, Sticky Fagonia (terrestrial perennial forb/herb or subshrub; within the range of this species it has been reported from mountains, mesas, foothills, rocky hills, ridges, rocky and sandy slopes, bajadas, rocky flats, dunes, sandy arroyos, washes, floodplains and basaltic pavements and rocky soils, occurring below 2,600 feet in elevation in the desertscrub ecological formation) *5, 6, 31, 46, 94*

 

Kallstroemia californica (S. Watson) A.M. Vail: California Caltrop, Little Summer Poppy, Mal de Ojo (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 inches to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas, plains, gravelly flats, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Kallstroemia grandiflora J. Torrey ex A Gray: Arizona Caltrop, Arizona Poppy, Arizona Summer Poppy, Baiborin, Caltrop, Desert Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Orange Caltrop, Summer Poppy (terrestrial annual forb/herb (8 to 12 inches in height and to 3 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, canyons, rocky and gravelly slopes, gravelly bajadas, open plains, rocky and gravelly flats, roadsides, along washes, bottom lands and gravelly and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *5, 6, 16, 28, 31, 46, 48, 58, 68, 77, 80 (gen.), 86, 94*

 

Larrea divaricata subsp. tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (see Larrea tridentata var. tridentata) 

 

Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville var. tridentata (Larrea divaricata A.J. Cavanilles subsp. tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) R.S. Felger, Larrea tridentata (M. Sessé y Lacasta & J.M. Mociño ex A.P. de Candolle) F.V. Coville): Chaparral, Coville Creosotebush, Creosote Bush, Gobernadora, Greasewood, Guamis, Hediondilla (terrestrial perennial evergreen shrub (3 to 12 feet in height and about the same in width); within the range of this species it has been reported from mesas, foothills, dry rocky slopes, dry plains, gravelly flats and heavy and sandy soils, occurring below 5,000 feet in elevation in the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) Creosote bush is the characteristic plant of the southwestern deserts with its distribution very closely delineating the desert regions. When planting Creosote Bush consider planting a small Desert Night-blooming Cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. transmontanus) at the base of the plant. The branches will provide support and the roots will protect the tuber of the cereus from hungry Javelina. This plant may be useful as an ornamental. *5, 6, 13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 31, 46, 63 (083106), 48, 80, 91, 94, 101*

 

Tribulus terrestris C. Linnaeus: Abojo de Flor Amarilla, Bullhead, Burnut, Cadillo, Caltrop, Goathead, Ground Bur-nut, Mexican Sandbur, Puncture Vine, Puncturevine, Tackweed, Texas Sandbur, Toboso, Torito, Torrito (terrestrial annual forb/herb (to 2 inches in height and 6 inches to 8 feet in length); within the range of this species it has been reported from roadsides, along washes, waste places and disturbed areas, occurring below 7,000 feet in elevation in the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Plant. This plant has properties known to cause poisoning in livestock (Schmutz, Freeman & Reed 1968). *5, 6, 15, 16, 28, 31, 46, 58, 68, 77, 80, 86, 101*

 

 

 

 

LISTING OF ANIMALS

 

STRICTLY ENFORCED LAWS PROTECT MANY OF ARIZONA’S NATIVE  ANIMALS FROM

COLLECTION AND FROM BEING DISTURBED OR KILLED

 

* numbers appearing between the asterisks relate to footnotes and sources of information*

 

 

 

Kingdom Animalia: The Animal Kingdom

Subkingdom Metazoa: The Multicellular Animals

 

Section Protostomia: The Protosomes

Phylum Mollusca: The Mollusks

 

 

 

CLASS GASTROPODA: The SNAILS and Their ALLIES

 

 

Family Hydrobiidae: The Spring Snail and Allies Family

 

Tryonia quitobaquitae (R. Hershler & J.J. Landye) (5): Quitobaquito Tryonia, Quitobaquito Tryonia Snail (within the range of this species it has been reported from springs, occurring from 1,000 to 1,200 feet in elevation in wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14, 94 (ETCS 1994)*

 

 

 

Section Deuterostomia: The Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata: The Chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata: The Vertebrates

 

 

 

CLASS AMPHIBIA: The AMPHIBIANS

 

 

Family Bufonidae: The Toad Family

 

Bufo alvarius C.F. Girard in S.F. Baird (5): Colorado River Toad, Sonoran Desert Toad (feeds on beetles, grasshoppers, lizards, mice, snails, spiders and other toads; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding corresponds to spring and summer rains when they congregate at temporary pools and other bodies of water; within the range of this species it has been reported from near springs, streams, reservoirs, and pools in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Skin secretions are toxic to dogs and other animals and the mouthing a Colorado River Toad may cause temporary paralysis or death. *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 106 (052506), 94*

 

Bufo cognatus (T. Say): Great Plains Toad (feeds on algae (larvae), arachnids, insects, mites (juveniles) and snails; takes shelter by burrowing into soil; breeding takes place in streams, irrigation ditches, temporary pools, and fields under irrigation; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 106 (052506), 94*

 

Bufo punctatus S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard: Red-spotted Toad (feeds on algae (larvae), arachnids, carrion (larvae), cyanobacteria (larvae), organic detritus (larvae), insects; takes shelter in underground burrows and rock crevices; breeding takes place in springs, reservoirs, and temporary pools associated with intermittent streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from rocky areas in arroyos, canyons, flats, floodplains and oases near water in the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 106 (052506), 94*

 

Bufo retiformis Smith & Sanders: Pima Green Toad, Sonora Green Toad, Sonoran Green Toad (feeds on arthropods; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding takes place at rain-formed ponds, pools, sumps and wash bottoms with adjacent grass and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94*

 

Bufo woodhousii C.F. Girard subsp. australis (Shannon & Lowe) (spelling Bufo woodhousei used by many authors): Southern Woodhouse’s Toad, Southwestern Woodhouse’s Toad, Woodhouse’s Toad (information provided for species and may not apply to all subspecies: feeds on arachnids, centipedes, crustaceans, decapods and insects; takes shelter under surface objects and by burrowing into the soil; breeding takes place in still or slow-flowing waters in streams, lakes, freshwater pools and marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37 (sp.) , 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87, 106 (052506), 94 (thought to occur on the refuge)*

 

 

Family Hylidae: The Treefrog and Allies Family

 

Hyla arenicolor E.D. Cope: Canyon Treefrog (feeds on algae (larvae), centipedes, insects and spiders; takes shelter in rock crevices; breeding takes place in streams and rocky pools and with the eggs being deposited in water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94*

 

Pternohyla fodiens G.A. Boulenger: Burrowing Casque-head Frog, Burrowing Treefrog, Lowland Burrowing Treefrog, Northern Burrowing Treefrog, Northern Casque-headed Frog,  (feeds on arthropods; takes shelter in burrows or by burrowing underground;  breeding takes place in temporary pools; within the range of this species it has been reported from scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge)*

 

 

Family Pelobatidae: The Spadefoot Toad Family

 

Scaphiopus couchi S.F. Baird: Couch’s Spadefoot (feeds on amphibians (larvae), ants, arachnids, beetles, carrion (larvae), centipedes, crickets, cyanobacteria (larvae), organic detritus (larvae), millipedes, plant matter, tadpoles and termites; takes shelter in underground burrows; breeding takes place in temporary ponds, rain pools, irrigation ditches, reservoirs, and slow moving streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94*

 

Scaphiopus hammondi (see Spea multiplicata) 

 

Scaphiopus multiplicatus (see Spea multiplicata)

 

Spea multiplicata E.D. Cope (Scaphiopus hammondi Degenhardt, Scaphiopus multiplicatus E.D. Cope: New Mexico Spadefoot, Western Spadefoot (feeds on larval amphibia (larvae), arachnids, carrion (larvae), centipedes, cyanobacteria (larvae), organic detritus (larvae), gastropods, insects, and mollusks; takes shelter in underground burrows and cracks (juveniles); breeding takes place in temporary ponds and rain pools; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge)*

 

 

 

CLASS AVES: The BIRDS

 

 

Family Accipitridae: The Eagle, Hawk, Kite and Allies Family

 

Accipiter cooperii (L.C. Bonaparte) (5): Cooper’s Hawk, Galvilan Palomero (Hispanic), Galvilan Pollero (Hispanic) (feeds on small birds and mammals; nest is a platform of sticks located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Accipiter striatus L.J. Vieillot: Galvilan Pajerero (Hispanic), Sharp-shinned Hawk; Wishag (feeds on birds and small mammals; nest is a platform of twigs located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aquila chrysaetos (C. Linnaeus): Aguila Real (Hispanic), American War Bird, Bird of Jupiter, Black Eagle, Brown Eagle, Calumet Bird, Calumet Eagle, Golden Eagle, Gray Eagle, Jackrabbit Eagle, King of Birds, Mountain Eagle, Ring-tailed Eagle, Royal Eagle, War Bird, White-tailed Eagle (feeds on birds, rabbits and larger rodents; nest is a bulky mass of sticks located on cliffs, ledges or in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Buteo jamaicensis (J.F. Gmelin): Buzzard, Buzzard Hawk, Chicken Hawk, Eastern Redtail, Gavilan Cola Roja (Hispanic), Hen Hawk, Mouse Hawk, Red Hawk, Redtail, Red-tailed Buzzard, Red-tailed Hawk, Western Redtail (feeds on birds, lizards and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs and in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. calurus, fuertesi and harlani - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73,  93, 94, 106 (071706)*

 

Buteo regalis (G.R. Gray): Ferruginous Hawk, Ferruginous Rough-legged Hawk (feeds on prairie dogs, ground squirrels and other rodents, birds, crickets and locusts; nest is a platform of sticks located in bushes and trees, or on cliffs, ground, hillsides, ledges and riverbanks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Buteo swainsoni C.L. Bonaparte: Gavilan Chapulinero (Hispanic), Swainson’s Hawk (feeds on grasshoppers, locusts and rodents; nest is a platform of sticks located on cliffs or ground, or in bushes, tall cacti, trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Circus cyaneus (C. Linnaeus): Gavilan Norteno (Hispanic), Hen Harrier, Marsh Hawk, Northern Harrier (feeds on birds, mice and other small mammals; nest is made of grasses, reeds and stalks located on the ground in grasses or marsh; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Elanus leucurus (L.J. Vieillot): Black-winged Kite, Black-shouldered Kite, White Hawk, White-tailed Kite (feeds on large insects, mice and reptiles; nest is made of twigs lined with roots and grasses located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pandion haliaetus (C. Linnaeus): Fish Eagle, Fish Hawk, Marsh Hawk, Osprey (feeds on fish; nest is a massive platform of sticks located in tall cacti, trees, cliff ledges, rock pinnacles or the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodlands, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Parabuteo unicinctus C.J. Temminck: Aguililla Cinchada (Hispanic), Aguililla Roja (Hispanic), Bay-winged Hawk, Harris Hawk, Harris’s Hawk (feeds on rodents, rabbits and birds; nest is a platform of sticks located in mesquites, small trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Alaudidae: The Lark Family

 

Eremophila alpestris (C. Linnaeus): Alondra Cuermuda (Hispanic), Horned Lark, Shore Lark (feeds on insects, seeds and spiders; nests are made of grasses located on the ground in depressions and scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Alcidinidae: The Kingfisher Family

 

Ceryle alcyon (C. Linnaeus) (Megaceryle alcyon (C. Linnaeus)): Belted Kingfisher, Halcyon, Lazy Bird, Martin Pescador (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, birds, crustaceans, small fishes, insects, lizards and mammals; eggs are laid at the end of burrows located on the banks of creeks, rivers, lakes and ponds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Megaceryle alcyon (see Ceryle alcyon)

 

 

Family Anatidae: The Duck, Goose and Swan Family

 

Anas acuta C. Linnaeus: Northern Pintail, Northern Pintail Duck, Pato Golondrino (Hispanic), Pintail, Sprig (feeds on aquatic plants and insects; nests are down-lined hollows located in marshes and on prairies; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas americana J.F. Gmelin (“Mareca” americana J.F. Gmelin): American Wigeon, American Wigeon Duck, Baldpate, Pato Chalcuan (Hispanic), Widgeon (feeds on aquatics plants, crustaceans, grasses, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are lined with down located on the ground in depressions and hollows in grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas clypeata C. Linnaeus (Spatula clypeata C. Linnaeus): Northern Shoveler, Northern Shoveler Duck, Pato Cucharon (Hispanic), Shoveler, Spoonbill (feeds on bulrushes, crustaceans, decapods, gastropods, insects, grasses, mollusks, sedges and zooplankton; nests are hollows lined with down located on the ground in grasses, sedges and under bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas crecca C. Linnaeus: Cerceta de Alas Verdes (Hispanic), Common Teal, Green-winged Teal, Green-winged Teal Duck, Teal (feeds on aquatic plants, arthropods, grasses, insects and mollusks; nests are down and grass lined hollows located in marshes and under shrubs or small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas cyanoptera L.J. Vieillot: Cerceta Cafe (Hispanic), Cinnamon Teal, Cinnamon Teal Duck (feeds on aquatic plants, grasses, insects and mollusks; nests are down lined hollows located in bulrushes, grasses and reeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas platyrhynchos C. Linnaeus: Common Mallard, Common Wild Duck, Curly-tail, Domestic Duck, English Duck, French Duck, Gray Duck, Gray Mallard, Greenhead, Mallard, Mallard Duck, Mexican Duck, Mottled Duck, Pato de Collar (Hispanic), Stock Duck, Wild Duck (feeds on acorns, aquatic plants and earthworms; nests are down-lined hollows located in grass and reeds and under shrubs, saplings and deadfalls, rarely in crotches in trees and abandoned crow, hawk and magpie nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anas strepera C. Linnaeus: Gadwall, Gadwall Duck, Pato Pinto (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, crustaceans, gastropods, grasses and other plants, insects and mollusks; nests are lined with down located on the ground in depressions and hollows in grass and under shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aythya affinis (T.C. Eyton): “Bluebill”, Lesser Scaup, Lesse Scaup Duck, Pato Boludo Chico (Hispanic), Western Scaup (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, decapods, gastropods, insects, pondweed, mollusks; nests are depressions lined with down and grasses located on the ground in grasses and tall vegetation; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aythya americana (T.C. Eyton): Redhead, Redhead Duck (feeds on algae (muskgrass), gastropods, grasses, mollusks, pondweed seeds and tubers and sedges; nests are baskets made of reeds and lined with down located in marshes in bulrushes, reeds and tules; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Branta canadensis (C. Linnaeus): Cackling Goose, Canada Goose, Ganzo Canadensis (Hispanic), Greater Canada, “Hutchins’ Goose” (feeds on grasses; nests are plant masses located on islets, lakeshores, in marshes, river bottoms with oxbows and sloughs and in large abandoned platform nests located on cliffs and in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55 (gen.), 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Bucephala albeola (C. Linnaeus): Bufflehead, Bufflehead Duck, Pato Chillon Chico (Hispanic) (feeds on aquatic plants, crustaceans, fishes, gastropods, insects and larvae, mollusks and plants; nests are located in tree cavities; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (090906)*

 

Bucephala clangula (C. Linnaeus): American Goldeneye, Common Goldeneye, Common Goldeneye Duck, “Whistler” (feeds on crustaceans, decapods, fishes, gastropods, insects, pondweed and sedges; nests are lined with down located in snags, rotted out stumps and woodpecker nesting holes and cavities in large trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formation within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. americana (C.L. Bonaparte) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (090906)*

 

Chen caerulescens (C. Linnaeus) subsp. hyperborea (P. Simon von Pallas): Blue Goose, Common Snow Goose, Common Wavey, Ganso Nevado (Hispanic), Greater Snow Goose, Lesser Snow Goose, Little Wavey, Mexican Goose, Snow Goose, Wavey, White Goose (feeds on plant roots, shoots and tubers of bulrushes, grasses and sedges; nests are made in depressions, lined with down and located on tundra; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 94, 106 (sp. - 0514-2606)*

 

Mareca americana (see Anas americana)

 

Mergus merganser C. Linnaeus: Common Merganser, Common Merganser Duck, Goosander (European), Mergo Comun (Hispanic), “Sawbill” (feeds on arthropods, young birds, small fishes, frogs, insects, leeches, mollusks, mussels, salamanders, shrimps, snails and worms; nests are down lined located in tree cavities and well concealed hollows on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formation within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. americanus (J. Cassin) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (subspp. - 090906)*

 

Mergus serrator C. Linnaeus: Mergo Pecho Rojo (Hispanic), Red-breasted Merganser, Red-breasted Merganser Duck (feeds on crustaceans, decapods, fishes, frogs and insects; nests are hollows lined with down located in burrows and among brush, rocks and tree roots; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. serrator (C. Linnaeus) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (090906)*

 

Oxyura jamaicensis (J.F. Gmelin): Pato Tepalcate (Hispanic), Ruddy Duck (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, gastropods, insects, aquatic plant roots and seeds, pondweed and sedges; nests are baskets made of woven grass located attached to reeds over water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsup. rubida (Wilson) - 081206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (090906)*

 

Spatula clypeata (see Anas clypeata)

 

 

Family Apodidae: The Swift Family

 

Aeronautes saxatalis (S.W. Woodhouse): White-throated Swift, Vencejo Montanes (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of saliva cemented twigs located in caves and crevices in mountain and sea cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Chaetura vauxi (J.K. Townsend): Vaux’s Swift (feeds on insects; nest is a bracket made of small sticks cemented together with saliva and attached to the inside of the hollows of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Vaux’s Swift is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Ardeidae: The Bittern, Egret and Heron Family

 

Ardea alba C. Linnaeus (Casmerodius albus (C. Linnaeus): American Egret, Common Egret, Garza Grande (Hispanic), Great Egret, Great White Egret, “Great White Heron”, Kotuku (New Zealand), White Heron (feeds on fishes, frogs, insects and snakes; nests are bulky platforms made of stems and sticks located in trees, dead brush and tule marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (subsp. egretta (J.F. Gmelin) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (subspp. - 091006)*

 

Ardea herodias C. Linnaeus: Garza (Hispanic), Garza Ceniza (Hispanic), Great Blue Heron, Great White Heron (white morph of the Great Blue Heron), Treganza’s Heron, Wurdemann’s Heron (intermediate morph of the Great Blue Heron which has a white head) (feeds on amphibians, small birds, crayfish, decapods, fishes, frogs, insects, mice, mollusks, reptiles, rodents, spiders and turtles; nest is a bulky platform made up of sticks located on cliffs, islets, rocky islands, swamps and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) If disturbed, adults may abandon nests and roosting sites and quit feeding nestlings.*14 (subspp. herodius and tregansai (Court) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

Bubulcus ibis (C. Linnaeus) (this species is sometimes placed in the genus Egretta): Cattle Egret, Garza Garrapatera (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, birds, fishes, insects and insect larvae, mammals and reptiles; nests are platforms made of sticks located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodlands, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC. *14 (subsp. ibis (C. Linnaeus) - 082106), 20, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

Butorides striatus (see Butorides virescens) 

 

Butorides virescens (C. Linnaeus) (Butorides striatus C. Linnaeus): Garza Espalda Verde (Hispanic), Green-backed Heron, Green Heron, Little Heron, Mangrove Heron Striated Heron (feeds on annelid worms, crayfish, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, frogs, gastropods, insects, mice, mollusks, reptiles and spiders; nest is a flimsy platform made up of grasses and sticks located in clumps of grass, shrubs, thickets or in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subspp. anthonyi (Mearns) and virescens (C. Linneaus) - 081306), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

Casmerodius albus (see Ardea alba) 

 

Egretta thula (G.I. Molina) (Leucophoyx thula (G.I. Molina): Garza Nevado (Hispanic), Brewster’s Egret, Snowy Egret, Snowy Heron (feeds on smaller amphibians, annelid worms, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, gastropods, insects, mammals and reptiles; shallow nests are platforms made of dead bullrushes and sticks and lined with fine twigs located in tules, mash grasses shrubs or trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (subsp. brewsteri (Thayer & Bangs) - 082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

Leucophoyx thula (see Egretta thula) 

 

Nycticorax nycticorax (C. Linnaeus): Black-crowned Night-heron, Garza Copete Negro (Hispanic), Night Heron (Europe) (feeds on annelid worms, the young of other water birds crustaceans, decapods, small fishes, frogs, insects, small mammals, mollusks and reptiles; nests are loose platforms made of canes, stalks and sticks and lined with marsh grasses or twigs located on the ground in marshes in thickets and tules and in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) The Black-crowned Night-heron is sensitive to human disturbance. *14 (subsp. hoacti (J.F. Gmelin) - 082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

 

Family Bombycillidae: The Waxwing Family

 

Bombycilla cedrorum L.J. Vieillot: Cedar Waxwing, Chinito Bolera (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, insects and seeds; nest is a bulk cup of grass, moss and twigs woven onto the horizontal branches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Caprimulgidae: The Nighthawk, Nightjar and Allies Family

 

Chordeiles acutipennis (J. Hermann): Aquador Tapacamino Chico (Hispanic), Lesser Nighthawk, Nehpod (Tohono O’Odham), Texas Nighthawk (feeds on insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on open ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Phalaenoptilus nuttalli (J.J. Audubon): Aquador (Hispanic), Common Poorwill, Kohlo’Ogam (Tohono O’Odham), Nuttall’s Poor-will, Poor-will (feeds on nocturnal insects; no nest, the eggs are laid on bare ground, gravel or rock; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

 

Family Cardinalidae: The Bunting, Cardinal and Grosbeak Family

 

Cardinalis cardinalis (C. Linneaus) (Richmondena cardinalis (C. Linneaus)): Cardenal (Hispanic), Cardenal Rojo (Hispanic), Northern Cardinal, Sipuk (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups of shredded bark and twigs located in a low shrubs or thickets; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Cardinalis sinuatus C.L. Bonaparte (Pyrrhuloxia sinuata C.L. Bonaparte): Bichpod (Tohono O’odham), Cardenal Gris, Cardinal Torito (Hispanic), Desert Cardinal, Pyrrhuloxia (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are neat cups located in thorny bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Guiraca caerulea (see Passerina caerulea)

 

Passerina amoena (T. Say): Jaspeado (Hispanic), Lazuli Bunting (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are loose cups made of grasses and leaves located in low bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerina caerulea (C. Linnaeus) (Guiraca caerulea (C. Linnaeus)): Blue Grosbeak, Pico Gordo Azul (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses, rootlets and snakeskin located in a bushes or low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Passerina cyanea (C. Linneaus): Indigo Bunting (feeds on berries, buds, small fruits, insects and seeds; nests are woven cups made of grass and weeds located in the crotch of bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerina versicolor (C.L. Bonaparte): Beautiful Bunting, Varied Bunting (feeds on insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grass located in shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pheucticus melanocephalus (W. Swainson): Black-headed Grosbeak, Rocky Mountain Grosbeak, Tigrillo (Hispanic) (feeds on small fruits, insects and seeds nests are frail saucers made of plant stems and twigs located in bushes and tree forks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata (see Cardinalis sinuatus)

 

Richmondena cardinalis (see Cardinalis cardinalis)

 

 

Family Cathartidae: The New World Vulture Family

 

Cathartes aura (C. Linnaeus): Nuwi (Tohono O’odham), Turkey Vulture, Zopilote (Hispanic) (feeds on carrion; no nests, eggs are laid in crevices in rocks, on cliffs, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. septentrionalis and teter - 071706), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Coragyps atratus (J.M. Bechstein): American Black Vulture, Black Vulture (feed on carrion, new born calves and lambs and young herons and ducks; no nests, eggs are laid in caves, crevices in rock, on the ground in thickets and in tree hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Charadriidae: The Lapwing and Plover Family

 

Charadrius vociferus (C. Linnaeus): Chiwi-Chuhch (Tohono O’odham), Killdeer, Tildio (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, insects, marine invertebrates and worms; eggs are laid in a scrape on bare ground in fields and shores; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. vociferous - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071806)*

 

 

Family Ciconiidae: The Stork Family

 

Mycteria americana C. Linnaeus: “Wood Ibis”, Wood Stork (feeds on fishes, frogs, invertebrates and snakes; nests are bulky and made of sticks located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072206)*

 

 

Family Columbidae: The Dove and Pigeon Family

 

Columba fasciata (T. Say): Band-tailed Pigeon, Blue Pigeon, Blue Rock, Paloma Pellotera (Hispanic), White-collard Pigeon (feeds on acorns, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are flat stick platforms located on branches and twigs of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Columbigallina passerina (see Columbina passerina)

 

Columbina inca (R.P. Lesson) (Scardafella inca (R.P. Lesson)): Gugu (Tohono O’odham), Inca Dove, Tortola (Hispanic), Tortolita Comun (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; saucer shaped nests are made of mixed vegetation and located in shrubs and low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94 (hypothetical), 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Columbina passerina (C. Linnaeus) (Columbigallina passerina (C. Linnaeus)): Common Ground-dove, Ground Dove, Torcacita (Hispanic) (feeds on seeds; nests are made flimsy saucers of twigs located low to the ground in cacti, shrubs, trees and vines or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Scardafella inca (see Columbina inca)

 

Zenaida asiatica (C. Linnaeus): Mexican Dove, Okokoi (Tohono O’odham), Paloma ala Blancha (Hispanic), Paloma de alas Blanchas, Sonora Dove, White-wing, White-winged Dove, White-wing Pigeon (feeds on berries, fruit, gastropods, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are flimsy stick platforms located in thickets and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. asiatica, grandis (Saunders), mearnsi (R. Ridgway) and monticola (Saunders) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071806)*

 

Zenaida macroura (C. Linnaeus) (Zenaidura macroura (C. Linnaeus)): Hohhi (Tohono O’odham), Huilota (Hispanic), Paloma Triste (Hispanic), Mourning Dove, Turtle Dove, Wild Dove (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose platforms made of forbs, grasses, leaves, rootlets, sticks and twigs located in cacti, shrubs, trees and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. carolinensis (C. Linnaeus) and marginella (S.W. Woodhouse)- 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071806)*         

 

Zenaidura macroura (see Zenaida macroura)

 

 

Family Corvidae: The Crow, Jay, Magpie and Raven Family

 

Aphelocoma californica (N.A. Vigors) (Aphelocoma coerulescens subsp. californica Schmitt): California Jay, Pajaro Azul (Hispanic), Santa Cruz Jay, Scrub Jay, Western Scrub-jay (feeds on acorns, berries, insects, nuts and seeds; nests are bowls made of grass, rootlets and twigs located in shrubs and trees; through the burying of acorns they play an important role in the regeneration of oak woodlands lost to drought and fire; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Aphelocoma coerulescens subsp. californica (see Aphelocoma californica)

 

Corvus corax C. Linnaeus: American Raven, Common Raven, Hawani (Tohono O’odham), Cuervo Comun (Hispanic), Cuervo Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on small animals and birds, berries, carrion, insects and seeds; nests are made of bones, sticks and wool located on cliffs, saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Cyanocitta stelleri (J.F. Gmelin): Azulejo Copeton (Hispanic), Long-crested Jay, Mountain Jay, Pine Jay, Steller’s Jay (feeds on acorns, berries, insects, nuts and seeds; nests are bowls made of pine needles and twigs and lined with feathers, fibers, moss or rootlets located in conifers; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus A.P. zu Wied-Neuwied: Blue Crow, Pajaro Pinonero (Hispanic), Pinyon Jay (feeds on arachnids, bird eggs and fledglings, insects, reptiles, seeds and worms; nests are bowls made of grasses, leaves, rootlets, sticks and twigs located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Nucifraga columbiana (A. Wilson): Clark’s Crow, Clark’s Nutcracker (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, bird eggs and fledglings, carrion, insects, small mammals and seeds; nests are bowls made of bark, leaves and sticks and line with grasses located on tree branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Cuculidae: The Ani, Cuckoo and Roadrunner Family

 

Geococcyx californianus (R.P. Lesson): Correcaminos Norteno (Hispanic), Greater Roadrunner, Paisano (Hispanic), Roadrunner, Tadai (feeds on the young of ground nesting birds, insects, lizards, scorpions and snakes; nests are course shallow cups of sticks located in cacti, mesquite trees and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Emberizidae: The Junco, Longspur, Sparrow and Towhee Family

 

Aimophila cassinii (S.W. Woodhouse): Cassin’s Sparrow, Gorrion Cassin (feeds on fruit, insects and seeds; nests are deep cups made of grasses located on the ground and at the bases of bushes and cacti; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Ammodramus savannarum (J.F. Gmelin): Gorrion Chapulinero (Hispanic), Grasshopper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located on the ground in grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Amphispiza belli (J. Cassin): Sage Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of fur, grasses and sagebrush located in shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Amphispiza bilineata (J. Cassin): Ba’ I-Chukulim (Tohono O’odham), Black-throated Sparrow, Desert Sparrow, Gorrion Garganta Negra (Hispanic), Zacatonaro Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses located in cacti and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. deserticola (R. Ridgway) and opuntia (Burleigh & Lowery) - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Calamospiza melanocorys L.H. Stejneger: Lark Bunting (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made of grasses and plant down located in tussocks of grass on the ground and in scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Calcarius ornatus (J.K. Townsend): Arnoldo de Collar (Hispanic), Chestnut-collard Longspur (nests are made of grasses and lined with feathers, fine grass, hair and rootlets located on the ground in depressions, hollows and scrapes in grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Chlorura chlorura (see Pipilo chlorurus)

 

Chondestes grammacus (T. Say): Gorrion Alondra (Hispanic), Lark Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and lined with fine fibers and hairs located on the ground and in small bushes and vines; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Junco hyemalis (C. Linnaeus): “Cassiar” Junco, Dark-eyed Junco, Gorrion Ojas Negros (Hispanic), Gray-headed Junco, Grey-headed Junco, Oregon Junco, Slate-colored Junco, White-winged Junco (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made up of shreds of bark, grasses, mosses, rootlets and twigs lined with hairs located on the ground in protected areas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Melospiza lincolnii (J.J. Audubon): Gorrion Lincoln (Hispanic), Lincoln’s Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in bogs and muskegs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerculus sandwichensis (J.F. Gmelin): Belding’s Sparrow, Chihuahua Savanna Sparrow, Gorrion Zanjero (Hispanic), Large-billed Savannah Sparrow, Large-billed Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow (feeds on gastropods, insects, seeds and spiders; nests are made of grasses located on the ground in depressions, hollows and scrapes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Passerella iliaca (B. Merrem): Ferruginous Finch, Fox-colored Sparrow, Fox Sparrow, Fox-tail, Foxy Finch and Gorrion de la Zorra (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and lined with feathers located low in bushes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pipilo chlorurus (J.J. Audubon) (Chlorura chlorura (J.J. Audubon)): Green-tailed Towhee, Toqui Cola Verde (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are made of shredded bark and grasses located under brush and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (see Pipilo maculatus)

 

Pipilo fuscus W. Swainson: Bichput (Tohono O’odham), Brown Towhee, Canyon Towhee, Hichput; Toqui Pinto (Hispanic), Vieja (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are large deep cups of grasses and rootlets located in bushes and low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pipilo maculatus W. Swainson (Pipilo erythrophthalmus (C. Linnaeus)): Bullfinch, Bush-bird, Chewink, Eastern Towhee, Ground Robin, Joree, Low-ground-Stephen, Marsh Robin, Mountain Towhee, Nevada Towhee, Rufous-sided Towhee, Spotted Towhee, Spurred Towhee, Swamp Robin, Turkey Sparrow, White-eyed Towhee (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are loose cups made up of shredded bark and leaves located low in dense bushes on or close to the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Pooecetes gramineus (J.F. Gmelin): Vesper Sparrow (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects, seeds and small fruit; nests are grass lined cups located on the ground in grass and low vegetation; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Spizella atrogularis (J.L. Cabanis): Black-chinned Sparrow, Gorrion (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are compact, neat, grass lined cups located in low bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Spizella breweri (J. Cassin): Brewer’s Sparrow, Gorrion Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in low conifers, sagebrush or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. breweri and taverneri - 071806), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071806)*

 

Spizella passerina (J.M. Bechstein): Chipping Sparrow, “Hairbird” (feeds on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses and rootlets and lined with hair located in bushes, trees and  vines or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Chipping Sparrow is a predators of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm.  *14 (subsp. arizonae - 071806), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071806)*

 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (J.R. Forster): Gambel’s Sparrow, Gorrion Copete Blanco (Hispanic), Gorrion Corona Blanca (Hispanic), Intermediate Sparrow, Nuttall’s Sparrow, Tomtol (Tohono O’odham), White-crown, White-crowned Sparrow (members of this family feed on berries, buds, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of grasses located in bushes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Falconidae: The Caracara and Falcon Family

 

Caracara cheriway (see Caracara plancus subsp. audubonii)

 

Caracara plancus (J.F. Miller) subsp. audubonii (J. Cassin) (Caracara cheriway (Jacquin)): Audubon’s Caracara, Caracara, Common Caracara, Crested Caracara, Mexican Buzzard, “Mexican Eagle”, Northern Caracara (feeds on carrion and small vertebrates; nests are bowls made of reeds and sticks located on the ground and in saguaro cacti, trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Falco columbarius (C. Linnaeus): Merlin, Pigeon Hawk (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests in cavities, cliff ledges, niches, tree tops and on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Falco mexicanus H. Schlegel: Halcon Cafe' (Hispanic), Prairie Falcon (feeds on birds, insects and rodents; nests are made on sticks located on cliff niches or on the bare ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Falco peregrinus M. Tunstall subsp. anatum (C.L. Boneparte): American Peregrine Falcon, Duck Hawk, Halcon Peregino (Hispanic), Peregrine Falcon (feeds on bats, birds, insects and rodents; nests are made in potholes and scrapes or on sticks located on cliff ledges; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20 (sp.), 35, 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (sp. - 0514-2606)*

 

Falco sparverius C. Linnaeus: Cernicalo Americano (Hispanic), American Kestrel, Desert Sparrow Hawk, Sisiki (Tohono O’odham), Sparrow Hawk (feeds on amphibians, birds, insects, reptiles, rodents and small birds; eggs are laid in holes in saguaros and trees and on cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Fregatidae: The Frigatebird Family

 

Fregata magnificens G.M. Mathews: Magnificent Frigatebird, “Man-O’War” (feeds on young birds, crustaceans, fishes, jellyfishes and squids; nests are platforms made of sticks and twigs located on low bushes or in the crotches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the desertscrub and other adjacent ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Fringillidae: The Cardueline and Fringilline Finch Family

 

Carduelis lawrencei J. Cassin (Spinus lawrencei J. Cassin): Lawrence’s Goldfinch (feeds on berries, buds, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are small, neat, tightly woven cups located in bushes and small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071906), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Carduelis pinus (A. Wilson) (Spinus pinus (A. Wilson)): Pine Finch, Pine Siskin, Pinonero Rayado (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and seeds; nests are neat cups made of grasses and twigs located on horizontal branches of trees usually conifers; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Pine Siskin is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14 (subsp. pinus - 071906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Carduelis psaltria (T. Say) (Spinus psaltria (T. Say)): Arkansas Goldfinch, Arkansas Green-back, “Dark-backed” Goldfinch, Green-backed Goldfinch, Lesser Goldfinch, Tarweed Canary (feeds on tree buds,  insects and seeds; nests are small cups made of bark, cocoons, cotton, feathers, grasses, lichens, moss, plant stems, rootlets, thistle, twigs, spider webbing and wool located in bushes, shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. hesperophilus (Oberholser) and psaltria - 071906), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Carduelis tristis (C. Linnaeus) (Spinus tristis (C. Linnaeus)): American Goldfinch, Common Goldfinch, Eastern Goldfinch, Pale Goldfinch, Wild Canary (feeds on tree buds, insects, maple sap and seeds; nests are compact, felted cups made of bark shreds, feathers, grasses, hair, leaves, plant down and fibers, rootlets, spider webbing and wool located in large composites (Asteraceae) and the branch forks of bushes, shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. pallidus (Mearns) - 071906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Carpodacus cassinii S.F. Baird: Cassin’s Finch, Cassin’s Purple Finch (feeds on berries, buds, fruits, insects and seeds; nests are cups and saucers made of bark, feathers, forbs, grasses, hair, leaves, lichens, rootlets and sticks and lined with fine bark and hairs located on the branches of conifer trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Cassin’s Finch is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14 (071906), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Carpodacus mexicanus (P.L. Müller): “Hollywood Finch”, House Finch, “Linnet”, Pinzon Mexicano (Hispanic) (feeds on buds, berries, fruit, insects and seeds; nests are tightly woven, compact cups made of debris, feathers, grasses, hair, lichens, plant tufts, sticks and twigs located in cavities and in bushes, cacti, shrubs, trees and vines, sometime uses abandoned nests of other birds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. frontalis (T. Say) - 071906), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Spinus lawrencei (see Carduelis lawrencei)

 

Spinus pinus (see Carduelis pinus)

 

Spinus psaltria (see Carduelis psaltria)

 

Spinus tristis (see Carduelis tristis)

 

 

Family Hirundinidae: The Martin and Swallow Family

 

Hirundo rustica C. Linnaeus: Barn Swallow, Golondrina (Hispanic), Swallow (feeds on insects; nests are cups made of mud lined with feathers located on cliff ledges and man-made structures; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Iridoprocne bicolor (see Tachycineta bicolor)

 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota L.J. Vieillot: Cliff Swallow, Golondrina Risquera (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are gourd-shaped mud jugs lined with feathers and grasses located on cliff faces; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Progne subis (C. Linnaeus): Martin Azul (Hispanic), Purple Martin, Western Purple Martin (feeds on insects; nests made of feathers, grasses, leaves, mud and stalks located in holes in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Riparia riparia (C. Linnaeus): Bank Swallow, Golondrina Riberena (Hispanic), Sand Martin (feeds on insects; nests are made of feathers, forbs, grasses and rootlets located in the end of burrows dug into soft, steep soil banks near ponds and streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from the wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subsp. riparia (C. Linnaeus)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (see Stelgidopteryx serripennis)

 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis (J.J. Audubon) (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (L.J. Vieillot)): Golondrina Alas Errada (Hispanic), Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Rough-winged Swallow (feeds on insects; nests located in holes in banks, caves and crevices in rock; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Tachycineta bicolor (L.J. Vieillot) (Iridoprocne bicolor (L.J. Vieillot)): Golondrina Invernal (Hispanic), Tree Swallow (feeds on insects; nests are feather-lined cups located in holes in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Tachycineta thalassina (W. Swainson): Golondrina Verde (Hispanic), Violet-green Swallow (feeds on insects; nests are cups made of grasses lined with feathers located in holes in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Icteridae: The Blackbird, Oriole and Allies Family

 

Agelaius phoeniceus (C. Linnaeus): Red-wing, Red-winged Blackbird, S-Wegi Shashani (Tohono O’odham), Tordo de Alas Rojas (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are a woven grass cup attached to bushes, grasses, marsh reeds and tules; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Cassidix mexicanus (see Quiscalus mexicanus)

 

Euphagus carolinus (P.L. Müller): Rusty Blackbird, Tordo Morhoso (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, crustaceans, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are bulky cups made of grasses, leaves, mosses and sticks located above water in bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (0082106 - subsp. carolinus (P.L. Miller)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Euphagus cyanocephalus (J.G. Wagler): Brewer’s Blackbird, Tordo Brewer (Hispanic) (feeds on fruits, insects, seeds, small aquatic life; nests are bulky grass-lined cups made up of grasses and twigs, plastered with mud located on the ground or in low shrubs or trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Icterus bullockii (W. Swainson): Bullock’s Oriole, Calandria Nortina (Hispanic), Northern Oriole (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are woven basket hanging from the end of branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Icterus cucullatus W. Swainson: Calandria (Hispanic), Calandria Copetona (Hispanic), Hooded Oriole, S-Oam Shashani (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are a long, hanging basket or woven pouch located under palm fronds, shrubs and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Icterus parisorum C.L. Bonaparte: Calandria Matraquera (Hispanic), Scott’s Oriole (feeds on fruits, insects and nectar; nests are hanging pouches made of grasses and leaves located in dried yucca fronds and small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Molothrus aeneus (J.G. Wagler) (Tangavius aeneus (J.G.Wagler)): Bronzed Cowbird, Red-eyed Cowbird, Tordo Ojos Rojos (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; parasitic, eggs are laid in the nests of orioles and other birds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Molothrus ater (P. Boddaert): Brown-headed Cowbird, Common Cowbird, Dwarf Cowbird, Nevada Cowbird, Tordo (Hispanic), Tordo Copete Café (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; parasitic, eggs are laid in the nests or other birds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Quiscalus mexicanus (J.F. Gmelin) (Cassidix mexicanus (J.F. Gmelin)): Boat-tailed Grackle, Chanate Cola Grande (Hispanic), “Crow”, “Cuervo” (Hispanic), Great-tailed Grackle, “Jackdaw”, Zanate  (Hispanic) (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of sticks, grasses, mud and sticks lined with grasses located in trees, bushes and marsh reeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Sturnella neglecta J.J. Audubon: Alondra Llanera (Hispanic), Western Meadowlark (feeds on small aquatic animals, small fruit, insects and seeds; nests are partially domed saucers made of grasses located in grassy tussocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Tangavius aeneus (see Molothrus aeneus)

 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (C.L. Bonaparte): Tordo Cabeza Amarilla (Hispanic), Yellow-headed Blackbird (feeds on small aquatic life, insects, small fruit, waste grain and seeds; nests are woven cups made of grasses and sedges located above water on cattails, reeds and tules in marshy areas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Laniidae: The Shrike Family

 

Lanius ludovicianus C. Linnaeus: “Butcher Bird”, Loggerhead Shrike, Verdugo (Hispanic), White-rumped Shrike (feeds on small birds, large insects, lizards and small mammals; nests are made of feathers, rootlets and twigs located in bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Laridae: The Gull, Skimmer, Skua and Tern Family

 

Chlidonias niger (C. Linnaeus): Black Tern (feeds on amphibians, decapods, fishes, insects; nests are platforms made of cattail, forbs and grasses located on the ground or floating in marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations located within the forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Larus delawarensis G. Ord: Gaviota Pico de Collar (Hispanic), Ring-billed Gull (feeds on annelid worms, carrion, fishes, insects and rodents; nests are made of grasses and stalks located on islets; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Mimidae: The Catbird, Mockingbird and Thrasher Family

 

Mimus polyglottos (C. Linnaeus): Cenzontle (Hispanic), Cenzontle Norteno (Hispanic), Mockingbird, Northern Mockingbird, Shug (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on arachnids, berries, crustaceans, fruits, gastropods, insects, mollusks, reptiles and seeds; nests are bulky cups made of grasses, hair, leaves, mosses, plant stems, rootlets, sticks, twigs and wool and lined with fine plant material and rootlets located near ground in bushes, chollas, shrubs, thickets, dense trees and vines; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. leucopterus (N.A. Vigors) - 072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072206)*

 

Oreoscoptes montanus (J.K. Townsend): Mirlo de las Chias (Hispanic), Sage Thrasher (feeds on berries, fruits and insects; nests are bulky cups made of strips of bark, grasses and twigs located in bushes or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Toxostoma bendirei (E. Coues): Bendire’s Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Bendire (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, fruits and insects; nests are cups and stick nests lined with down, feathers, grasses, leaves, rootlets and other fine, soft material located in cholla cacti, paloverdes and thorny bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Toxostoma crissale (T.C. Henry) (Toxostoma dorsale (T.C. Henry)): Crissal Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Cristal (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, fruits and insects; nests are cups made of twigs located in desert shrubs and mesquites; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Toxostoma curvirostre (W. Swainson): Palmer’s Thrasher, Cuitlacoche Comun (Hispanic), Cuitlacoche Pico Curvo (Hispanic), Curve-billed Thrasher, Kudwik (Tohono O’odham), Palmer’s Thrasher (feeds on arachnids, berries, crustaceans, diplopods, fruits, gastropods, insects, mollusks and seeds; nests are woven cups made of bark, grasses, hair, rootlets, sticks and twigs located in bushes, cholla cacti and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. celsum (Moore) - 072006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072006)*

 

Toxostoma dorsale (see Toxostoma crissale)

 

Toxostoma lecontei (G.N. Lawrence): Le Conte’s Thrasher (feeds on insects; nests are bulky bowls made of course grasses and twigs lined with feathers and fine plant material located in cholla cacti and thorny bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Motacillidae: The Pipit and Wagtail Family

 

Anthus rubescens (M. Tunstall) (Anthus spinoletta (C. Linnaeus)): Alondra Americana (Hispanic), American Pipit, Puff-bellied Pipit, Water Pipit (feeds on crustaceans, grubs, insects, small mollusks, seeds and spiders; nests are grassy cups located on the ground under shelter; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

Anthus spinoletta (see Anthus rubescens)

 

Anthus spragueii (J.J. Audubon): Alondra Sprague (Hispanic), Missouri Skylark, Prairie Skylark, Sprgaue’s Pipit, Titlark (feeds on insects, seeds and spiders; nests are cups made of grass located on the ground in a hollow; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0514-2606)*

 

 

Family Odontophoridae: The Quail Family

 

Callipepla gambelii W. Gambel subsp. gambelii (Lophortyx gambelii W. Gambel): Arizona Quail, Cordoniz de Gambel (Hispanic), Codorniz (Hispanic) Chiquiri (Hispanic), Desert Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Kikaichu (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on insects, plant material and seeds; eggs are laid in a scrape or grass lined nests located on the ground under prickly-pear cacti; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (071906), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Lophortyx gambelii (see Callipepla gambelii var. gambelii)

 

 

Family Parulidae: The Wood Warbler Family

 

Dendroica coronata (C. Linnaeus): Audubon Warbler, “Myrtle” Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Verdin Cola Amarilla (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped and made of shredded bark, feathers and twigs located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Dendroica nigrescens (J.K. Townsend): Black-throated Gray Warbler, Verdin Gris Garganta Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are neat, tightly-woven plant fiber cups located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Dendroica occidentalis (J.K. Townsend): Hermit Warbler, Verdin Ermitano (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped shaped and made up of bark, pine needles and rootlets located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Dendroica petechia (C. Linnaeus): Yellow Warbler, Verdin Amarillo (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are felted cups of plant fibers located in the forks of shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Dendroica striata (J.R. Forster): Blackpoll Warbler, Verdin Cabezza Negra (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids and insects; nests are cups made of mosses and twigs lined with feathers located in or under spruce trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Dendroica townsendi (J.K. Townsend): Townsend’s Warbler, Verdin Townsend (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are shallow and cup-shaped located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Geothlypis trichas (C. Linnaeus): Common Yellowthroat, “Yellow-throat”, Garganta Amarilla Conun (Hispanic) (feeds on insects, seeds and spiders; nests are woven plant material cups made of bark, forbs, grasses, hair and leaves and lined with grasses and hair located on or near the ground under bushes in marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subspp. campicola (Behl & Aldrich), chryseola (Van Rossem) and occidentalis (Brewster)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Icteria virens (C. Linnaeus): Long-tailed Chat, Yellow-breasted Chat (feeds on arachnids, berries, crustaceans, insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped made up of bark, stems of forbs, grasses, leaves, rootlets and twigs located in briars, bushes, shrubs thickets and small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subsp. auricollis (F. Deppe)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Oporornis tolmiei (J.K. Townsend): MacGillivray’s Warbler, Verdin MacGillivray (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cupped-shaped and made of grasses located in briars, low brush and weeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Setophaga ruticilla (C. Linnaeus): American Redstart, Common Redstart, Fire-tail, Redstart Flycatcher, Yellow Tailed Warbler  (feeds on berries, insects and spiders; nests are neat cups made of bark shreds, grasses, hair, leaf stalks, lichens, plant down, rootlets, spider silk and twigs located in upright forks of shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vermivora celata (T. Say): Lutescent Warbler, Lutescent Warbler, Orange-crowned Warbler, Verdin Copete Naranja (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of grasses, rootlets and other plant fibers located in a low shrub or on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vermivora luciae J.G. Cooper: Lucy’s Warbler, Verdin Lucy (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped and located in trees, under loose bark or in a hole; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vermivora ruficapilla (A. Wilson): Calaveras Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Verdin Nashville (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cup-shaped made up of grasses, leaves, rootlets and soft vegetation located in the ground, near the ground or on the ground under a tussock, usually on a steep slope; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Wilsonia pusilla (A. Wilson): Pileolated Warbler, Wilson’s Warbler, Verdin Wilson (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cups made of bark, grasses, deer and horse hair, leaves, mosses and plant fibers and stems located on the ground or near to the ground in shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Wilson’s Warbler is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14 (subspp. chryseola (R. Ridgway), pileolata (P.S. von Pallas) and pusilla - 072006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072006)*

 

 

Family Passeriidae: The Old World Sparrow Family

 

Passer domesticus (C. Linnaeus): English Sparrow (United States), Gorrion Casero (Hispanic), Gorrion Ingles (Hispanic), House Sparrow, O’Odopiwa (Tohono O’odham), Phillip Sparrow, Zacatero (Hispanic) (feeds on fruit, garbage, grain, insects and insect larvae and seeds; nests are bulky masses of debris, feathers, forbs, grasses, straw and twigs located in cavities, crannies, ivy, niches, rocks and suspended from trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC Invasive Species, partially responsible for the near extinction of Bluebirds in the United States. The House Sparrow is an agricultural pest feeding on grains. The House Sparrow prefers agricultural and urban areas close to human habitation. *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

 

Family Pelecanidae: The Pelican Family

 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos J.F. Gmelin: American White Pelican, Pelicano Blanco (Hispanic), White Pelican (feeds on crayfish, crustaceans, fish and salamanders; nest are mounds made of debris, sand, sticks, stones and flattened vegetation located on the ground or bulrushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within or adjacent to forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Pelecanus occidentalis (C. Linnaeus) var. californicus (R. Ridgway): Brown Pelican, Pelicano Café (Hispanic) (feeds on fish; nests may be scrapes on the ground or bulky and constructed of sticks lined with green plant material located on the ground on islands or in low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within or adjacent to the desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (082106 - subsp. carolinensis (J.F. Gmelin)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94 (hypothetical), 106 (0527-2806)* 

 

 

Family Picidae: The Woodpecker and Wryneck Family

 

Centurus uropygialus (see Melanerpes uropygialis)

 

Colaptes auratus (C. Linnaeus) (Colaptes cafer (J.F. Gmelin)): Carpintero Norteno (Hispanic), Common Flicker, Northern Flicker, Red-shafted Flicker, “Yellow-shafted” Flicker (feeds on berries, fruit and insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in posts, saguaros, stumps and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Colaptes cafer (see Colaptes auratus)

 

Colaptes chrysoides (A. Malherbe): Carpintero Collarejo Cesertico (Hispanic), Common Flicker, Gilded Flicker, Kudat (Tohono O’odham), Mearn’s Gilded Flicker (feeds on acorns, fruits, insects, seeds and spiders; nests are made in hollowed out holes in posts, saguaros, stumps and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (072006), 55, 69, 93, 94, 106 (072006)*

 

Dendrocopus scalaris (see Picoides scalaris)

 

Melanerpes uropygialis (S.F. Baird) (Centurus uropygialus (S.F. Baird)): Carpintero del Desierto (Hispanic), Carpintero Gila (Hispanic), Gila Woodpecker, Hikiwigi (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on berries, fruit, honey and wood boring insects; nests are made in hollowed out holes in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Picoides scalaris (J.G. Wagler) (Dendrocopus scalaris (J.G. Wagler)): Cactus Woodpecker, Carpintero Listado (Hispanic), Chehegam (Tohono O’odham), Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Pajaro Carpintero (Hispanic) (feeds on wood boring insects and fruit; nests are made in hollowed out holes in agaves, cacti, posts and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Sphyrapicus nuchalis S.F. Baird: Carpintero Rojo (Hispanic), Red-naped Sapsucker (feeds on wood boring insects and sap; nests are made in hollowed out holes in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Sphyrapicus varius subsp. nuchalis (see Sphyrapicus nuchalis)

 

 

Family Podicipedidae: The Grebe Family

 

Podiceps caspicus (see Podiceps nigricollis)

 

Podiceps nigricollis (C.L. Brehm) (Podiceps caspicus (C.L. Hablizl)): Black-necked Grebe, Eared Grebe, Zambullidor Orejudo (Hispanic) (feeds on crustaceans, decapods, insects and fishes; nests are made in a depression lined with algae located on floating platforms of aquatic plants anchored to reeds in lakes, ponds and sloughs; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subsp. californicus (Heerman)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94,, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Podilymbus podiceps (C. Linnaeus): Devil-diver, Dive-dapper, Grebe, Hell-diver, Pied-billed Grebe, Water Witch, Zambullidor Pico Pinto (Hispanic) (feeds on amphibians, crayfish, decapods, eels, fishes and aquatic insects; nests are located on floating rafts made of aquatic vegetation and marsh plants anchored to reeds in marshy lakes and ponds; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. podiceps (C. Linnaeus) - 072106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072106)*

 

 

Family Ptilogonatidae: The Silky Flycatcher Family

 

Phainopepla nitens (W. Swainson): Capulinero (Hispanic), Capulinero Negro (Hispanic), Phainopepla (feeds on berries, elderberries, fruits, grapes, insects and mistletoe berries; nests are shallow cups on the forks of limbs of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. lepida (Van Tyne) - 072006), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072006)*

 

 

Family Rallidae: The Coot, Gallinule and Rail Family

 

Fulica americana J.F. Gmelin: American Coot, Coot, Gallareta Americana (Hispanic), Mud Hen, Rice Hen (feeds on algae, fishes, gastropods, grasses, insects, mollusks, aquatic plants, pond scum and seeds; nests are shallow reed baskets made of forbs, grasses and other marsh vegetation located among tall reeds and sedges and on rafts of reeds in marshes; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (subsp. americana (J.F. Gmelin) - 082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (091006)*

 

Porzana carolina (C. Linnaeus): Carolina Crake (Europe), Carolina Rail, Sora (Hispanic), Sora Crake, Sora Rail (feeds on arachnids, crustaceans, duckweed, fishes, insects, mollusks, aquatic plants and seeds; nests are cups made of woven grasses, rushes, sedges and stalks located on water in marshes or on the ground in clumps of grass; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Rallus limicola (L.J. Vieillot): Gallereta (Hispanic), Virginia Rail (feeds on arachnids, berries, crustaceans, earthworms, small fishes, frogs, insects, mollusks, aquatic plants, seeds, slugs, snails and small snakes; platform nests are saucers made of woven cattails, grasses, reeds, rushes and sedges lined with fine materials attached to aquatic plants located in marshes and other fresh bodies of water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (subsp. limicola (L.J. Vieillot) - 072406), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072406)*

 

 

Family Recurvirostridae: The Avocet and Stilt Family

 

Himantopus mexicanus (C. Linnaeus): Black-necked Stilt, Black-winged Stilt, Stilt Sandpiper (feeds on aquatic insects and larvae, amphibians, crustaceans, decapods, fishes, insects, mollusks, worms; nests are made of debris, pebbles and sticks located in grasses, hollows and hummocks in marshes or mud flats; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Recurvirostra americana (J.F. Gmelin): American Avocet, Avoceta Picocurvo (Hispanic) (feeds on crustaceans, insects and mollusks; nests are lined with down, forbs and grasses located in depressions and shallow hollows on the ground or platforms made of grasses sometimes located on ponds; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Regulidae: The Kinglet Family

 

Regulus calendula (C. Linnaeus): Reyezuelo Copete Rubio (Hispanic), Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Reyzuelo (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, berries, fruits, insects, tree sap and seeds; nests are spherical and made of lichens and moss located under the tips of branches in conifer trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Regulus satrapa (M.H. Lichtenstein): Golden-crowned Kinglet, Reyezuelo Copete de Oro (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, fruits, insects, tree sap and seeds; nests are high walled and spherical made of bark, hair, lichens, mosses and rootlets lined with feathers and mosses suspended from the tips of branches and twigs in conifer trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Golden-crowned Kinglet is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Remizidae: The Verdin Family

 

Auriparus flaviceps (C.J. Sundevall): Baloncillo (Hispanic), Gisop (Tohono O’odham), Verdin (feeds on berries, insects, insect eggs and larvae and seeds; nests are spheres of thorny twigs lined with grasses and feathers located in bushes, chollas, shrubs, trees and the stems of the Desert Mistletoe; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. ornatus (G.N. Lawrence) - 072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072206)*

 

 

Family Scolopacidae: The Curlew, Sandpiper and Allies Family

 

Actitis macularia (C. Linnaeus): Alzacolita (Hispanic), Spotted Sandpiper (feeds on crustaceans, fishes, insects, mollusks and worms; nests are depressions or scrapes lined with bark, grasses, stones and twigs located in grass or gravel under bushes and near shores; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calidris bairdii E. Coues (Erolia bairdii E. Coues): Baird’s Sandpiper (members of the Scolopacidae feed on berries, crustacean, insects, mollusks, seeds and worms; nests in depressions and scrapes on dry tundra; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calidris mauri J.L. Cabanis (Ereunetes mauri J.L. Cabanis): Chicihicuilote (Hispanic), Western Sandpiper (feeds on crustaceans, insects and insect larvae, mollusks and worms; nests are laid in a depression on the ground on tundra; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calidris melanotos L.J. Vieillot (Erolia melanotos L.J. Vieillot): Pectoral Sandpiper (feeds on insects; nests are scrapes and grassy hollows located on the tundra; seen in Arizona during winter migration; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calidris minutilla L.J. Vieillot (Erolia minutilla L.J. Vieillot): Chichicuilote Chico (Hispanic), Least Sandpiper (feeds on arachnids, insects and mollusks; nests are depressions lined with grass and hollows made in moss located bogs and marshes in the tundra; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Capella gallinago (see Gallinago gallinago)

 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus J.F. Gmelin: Willet, Zarapico (Hispanic) (feeds on crustaceans, insects and insect larvae, marine worms, mollusks and plant material; nests are cups made of grasses located in depressions among grasses; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subsp. inornatus (Brewster)), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Ereunetes mauri (see Calidris mauri)

 

Erolia bairdii (see Calidris bairdii)

 

Erolia melanotos (see Calidris melanotos)

 

Erolia minutilla (see Calidris minutilla)

 

Gallinago gallinago C. Linnaeus (Capella gallinago C. Linnaeus): Common Snipe, English Snipe, Jacksnipe, Snipe, Wilson’s Snipe (feeds on arachnids, crustaceans, earthworms, insects, mollusks and plant material; nests are cups, hollows and scrapes lined with grasses located on the ground in clumps of vegetation in mashes, wet meadows and muskegs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. delicata (G. Ord) - 072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072206)*

 

Limnodromus scolopaceus (T. Say): Agachona Picofargo (Hispanic), Long-billed Dowitcher (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, insects and mollusks; nests are depressions and scrapes located on the ground in tundra marshes and muskegs; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations in the tundra, forest and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Numenius americanus J.M. Bechstein: Agachon Picolargo (Hispanic), Long-billed Curlew (feeds on amphibians, annelid worms, berries, bird eggs and nestlings, crustaceans, decapods, flatworms, insects and mollusks; nests are depressions lined with grass, forbs and dried cattle excrement located on slopes, grassy hollows and open ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Phalaropus tricolor (L.J. Vieillot) (Steganopus tricolor (L.J. Vieillot)): Chorlillo Nadador (Hispanic), Wilson’s Phalarope (feeds on crustaceans, insects and seeds; nests are made of grasses located in depressions on the ground in meadows near water; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Steganopus tricolor (see Phalaropus tricolor)

 

Totanus melanoleucus (see Tringa melanoleuca)

 

Tringa melanoleuca (J.F. Gmelin) (Totanus melanoleucus (J.F. Gmelin)): Greater Yellowlegs, Tinguis Grande (Hispanic) (feeds on annelid worms, crustaceans, fishes and insects; nests are made in depressions in the ground and muskeg hollows; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations in the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Tringa solitaria (A. Wilson): Chicihicuilote Solitario (Hispanic), Solitary Sandpiper (feeds on amphibians, annelid worms, arachnids, crustaceans and insects and insect larvae; utilizes abandoned birds nests located in trees in muskegs and near streams; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (082106 - subspp. cinnamomea (Brewster) and solitaria), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Sittidae: The Nuthatch Family

 

Sitta canadensis C. Linnaeus: Red-breasted Nuthatch, Saltapalo Peco-rojo (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, insects and seeds; nests are lined with bark, feathers, grasses, moss and wood chips located in holes in dead conifer trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations. important predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Strigidae: The Typical Owl Family

 

Asio flammeus (E. Pontoppidan): Short-eared Owl, Tecolote Orejas Chica (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and small rodents; nests are grass lined hollows located on the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Asio otus (C. Linnaeus): Long-eared Owl, Tecolote Orejon (Hispanic) (feeds on rodents and other small mammals; nests are made up of sticks, bark, grasses, hair, feathers and down (often using old nests of crows, hawks, magpies and ravens) located in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Athene cunicularia (G.I. Molina) (Speotyto cunicularia (G.I. Molina)): Lechuza Llanera (Hispanic), Billy Owl, Burrowing Owl, Ground Owl, Long-legged Owl, North American Burrowing Owl, Prairie Dog Owl, Prairie Owl, Western Burrowing Owl (feeds on small birds, frogs, large insects, lizards, small mammals, scorpions and snakes; nests are grass lined and located at the end of a rodent burrow in open ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Bubo virginianus (J.F. Gmelin): Buho (Hispanic), “Cat Owl”, Great Horned Owl, Horned Owl, Tecolote Cornudo (Hispanic), Tecolote Cuernudo (Hispanic) (feeds on frogs, small birds, crayfish, decapods, fishes, insects, lizards and small mammals; eggs are laid in the deserted nests of other birds and sometimes lining the nest with feathers located on the ground or in crevices, potholes, trees and on bluffs and cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. occidentalis (Stone) and pallescens (Stone) - 072106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072106)*

 

Glaucidium brasilianum (J.F. Gmelin) (subsp. cactorum (V. Rossem) is the only subspecies occurring in Arizona): Cactus Ferruginous Pigmy-owl (feeds on amphibians, small birds, earthworms, frogs, insects, reptiles and small rodents; nests are located in cavities and abandoned woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994),, 106 (sp. -  0527-2806)*

 

Micrathene whitneyi (W. Cooper): Elf Owl, Kuhkwul (Tohono O’odham), Tecolote Enano (Hispanic), Tecolotito (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests in old woodpecker holes in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Otus asio (C. Linnaeus): Common Screech-owl, Eastern Screech-owl, Mexican Screech-owl, Saguaro Screech-owl, Screech Owl, Tecolotito Chillon (Hispanic), Western Screech-owl (feeds on insects and rodents; nests in tree cavities and woodpecker holes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Speotyto cunicularia (see Athene cunicularia)

 

 

Family Sturnidae: The Myna and Starling Family

 

Sturnus vulgaris C. Linnaeus: Common Starling, European Starling, Starling (feeds on amphibians, arachnids, berries, crustaceans, decapods, grubs, insects, mollusks, seeds and worms; nests are made of bark, down, feathers, grass, hair, leaves, lichen, moss, rootlets and sticks; located in abandoned bird nests, cavities in cliffs and  trees, depressions, posts, rocks, shrubs, trees and underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) EXOTIC, starlings can damage crops, cause substantial loss to feeding operations for cattle, and compete with native birds for nesting sites and food. *14 (081006), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (081006)*

 

 

Family Sylviidae: The Gnatcatcher and Old World Warbler Family

 

Polioptila caerulea (C. Linnaeus): Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Pisita Gris (Hispanic), Western Gnatcatcher (feeds on insects; nests are small cups made up of lichens, plant down and spider webs located on limbs of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Polioptila melanura (G.N. Lawrence): Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, Perlita del Desierto (Hispanic), Pisita Cola Negra (Hispanic), Plumbeous Gnatcatcher, Schuk Mookam Gisop (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are felted cups in forks of low shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. melanura (G.N. Lawrence) - 072106), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072106)*

 

 

Family Thraupidae: The Tanager Family

 

Piranga ludoviciana (A. Wilson): Louisiana Tanager, Piranga Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Western Tanager (feeds on berries, insects and small fruits; nests are shallow saucers of shredded bark, grasses, rootlets and weed stalks located on the branches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*     

 

Piranga rubra (C. Linnaeus): Cooper’s Tanager, Piranga Avispera (Hispanic), Summer Tanager (feeds on berries, insects and small fruits; nests are shallow cups made of shredded bark and grasses located on tree branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Trochilidae: The Hummingbird Family

 

Archilochus alexandri (J. Bourcier and M.E. Mulsant): Black-chinned Hummingbird, Chuparosa (Hispanic), Colibri Barba Negra (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny cups of lichens and plant wool woven together with spider webs located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *10, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calypte anna (R.P. Lesson): Anna’s Hummingbird, Chuparosa Anna (Hispanic), Colibri Cabeza Roja (Hispanic), Wipismal (Tohono O’odham) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny woven cups made of lichens and small twigs located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *10, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Calypte costae (J. Bourcier): Chuparosa Costa (Hispanic), Costa’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tiny leaf-thatched and lichen woven cups located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *10, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Selasphorus rufus (J.F. Gmelin): Rufous Hummingbird, Wipismal (Tohono O’odham), Zumbador Rufo (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are lichen-covered cups located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *10, 14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Selasphorus sasin (R.P. Lesson): Allen’s Hummingbird (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are tightly woven lichen cups located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *10, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106*

 

Stellula calliope (J. Gould): Calliope Hummingbird, Chuparosa Calliope (Hispanic) (feeds on small insects and nectar; nests are lichen and moss cups located in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *10, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Troglodytidae: The Wren Family

 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus N.F. de Lafresnaye: Cactus Wren, Hokkad (Tohono O’odham), Matraca del Desierto (Hispanic), Saltapared del Disierto (Hispanic) (feeds on fruits, insects and spiders; nests are spheroid masses made of grasses and straw and lined with feathers and hair located in cacti, yuccas and thorny bushes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. couesi (Sharpe) - 072106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072106)*

 

Catherpes mexicanus (W. Swainson): Canyon Wren, Saltapared Risquero (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are shallow cups made of feathers, grasses, leaves, moss, plant down, spider webbing and twigs and lined with fur or hair located on buildings, caves, cliffs, crevices and on bare rocks and talus; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. conspersus (R. Ridgway) - 072106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072106)*

 

Salpinctes obsoletus (T. Say): Rock Wren, Saltapared Rocosa (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are cups made of bark, grasses, moss, rootlets and weeds lined with feathers, hairs and wool located in rock crannies; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Thryomanes bewickii (J.J. Audubon): Baird’s Wren, Bewick’s Wren, Saltapared Tapetatero (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of twigs and located in crannies, crevices and holes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Troglodytes aedon (L.J. Vieillot): House Wren, Parkman’s Wren, Saltapared Cucacrachero (Hispanic) (feeds on insects and spiders; nests are made of twigs and located in holes in trees and in other birds nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Turdidiae: The Bluebird, Solitaire and Thrush Family

 

Catharus guttatus (P.S. von Pallas) (Hylocichla guttata (P.S. von Pallas)): Cuictlacoche Ermitano (Hispanic), Hermit Thrush (feeds on berries, wild fruit, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are cups made of leaves, moss, rootlets and twigs located on or near to the ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Catharus ustulatus (T. Nuttall) (Hylocichla ustulata (T. Nuttall)): Alma’s Thrush, Cuitlacoche Swainson (Hispanic), Olive-backed Thrush, Russet-backed Thrush, Swainson’s Thrush, Swamp Robin (feeds on berries, fruits, grubs and other insects, seeds, spiders and worms; nest are cups made of ferns, grasses, leaves, moss, rootlets, sedges and twigs and lined with lichens and dead leaves located in coniferous or deciduous shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) The Swainson’s Thrush is a predator of the Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Western Spruce Budworm. *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Hylocichla guttata (see Catharus guttatus)

 

Hylocichla ustulata (see Catharus ustulatus) 

 

Myadestes townsendi (J.J. Audubon): Jilguero (Hispanic), Townsend’s Solitaire (feeds on berries, insects and seeds; nests are cups made of bark, grasses, leaves, pine needles and sticks and lined with rootlets located on the ground in holes, on banks, cliffs, stumps, among roots and on talus slopes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Sialia currucoides (J.M. Bechstein): Mountain Bluebird, Ventura de Montana (Hispanic) (feeds on berries, fruits, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are made of grasses and lined with bark chips or feathers located in holes in tree stubs, trees or in cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Sialia mexicana W. Swainson: Chestunt-backed Bluebird, Mexican Bluebird, Ventura Azul (Hispanic), Western Bluebird (feeds on berries, fruits, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders, and worms; nests are made of grass in holes in tress stubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Turdus migratorius C. Linnaeus: American Robin, Primavera (Hispanic), Robin (feeds on berries, fruits, grubs, insects, seeds, snails, spiders and worms; nests are bowls lined with grasses, roots, small twigs and walled with mud located in the forks or on branches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Tyrannidae: The Tyrant Flycatcher Family

 

Contopus cooperi (W. Swainson) (Nuttallornis borealis (W. Swainson)): Mosquerito Olfvo (Hispanic), Olive-sided Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are shallow saucers made of roots, stalks and twigs located in forks of the horizontal branches of conifers; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Contopus sordidulus (P.L. Sclater): Western Wood Pewee (feeds on flying insects; nests are tightly built grass or lichen-covered cups located on the horizontal branches of a trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Empidonax difficilis S.F. Baird: Pacific-slope Flycatcher, Mosquerito Pacifico (Hispanic), Western Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are cups made of rootlets and twigs lined with bark and moss located on ledges or in cut banks and tree trunks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Empidonax hammondii (J. Xantus de Vesey): Hammond’s Flycatcher, Mosquerito de Hammond (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are neat cups made up of woven plant fibers saddled on conifer branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Empidonax minimus (S.F. Baird): Least Flycatcher, Mosquerito Chico (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, elderberries, insects and pokeberries; nests are neatly woven cups made of feathers, plant fibers and grasses located in upright forks of small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Empidonax oberholseri A.R. Phillips: Dusky Flycatcher, Mosquerito Obscuro (Hispanic), Wright’s Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are neat cups made up of fibers, grasses and twigs located in the forks of branches of bushes, saplings and small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Empidonax traillii (Phillips) subsp. extimus (Phillips): Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, Traill’s Flycatcher (the species feeds on berries, insects and seeds; nests are compact cups made of shredded bark, cattail tufts, feathers, plant fibers and grasses and lined with fine grasses, feathers and other fine silky plant material located low in shrubs in forked braches; within the range of this species it has been reported from the wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (082106), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (sp. -  0527-2806)*

 

Empidonax wrightii (S.F. Baird): Gray Flycatcher, Mosquerito Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are woven grass cups located in junipers, pinyon pine, sagebrush and small trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Myiarchus cinerascens (G.N. Lawrence): Ash-throated Flycatcher, Copeton Cinezo (Hispanic), Papamoscas Cenizo (Hispanic) (feeds on flying insects; nests are made of materials including snake skins located in knotholes and woodpecker holes in posts, trees and yuccas; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94*

 

Myiarchus tyrannulus (S. Müller): Arizona Crested Flycatcher, Brown-crested Flycatcher, Mexican Crested Flycatcher, Mexican Flycatcher, Mosquerito Café (Hispanic), Papamoscas Tirano (Hispanic), Weid’s Crested Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; feather and hair lined nests are located in holes in posts, saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Nuttallornis borealis (see Contopus cooperi)

 

Pyrocephalus rubinus (P. Boddaert): Cardenalito (Hispanic), Vermilion Flycatcher (feeds on flying insects; nests are flat saucers made of feathers, fibers, spider webbing and twigs lined with animal or plant hair and lichen located on the horizontal crotches and forks of branches of conifers; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. flammeus (Van Rossem) and mexicanus (P.L. Sclater) - 072206), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (072206)*

 

Sayornis nigricans (W. Swainson): Black Phoebe, Gihsupi (Tohono O’odham), Papamoscas Negro (Hispanic) (feeds on arachnids, insects and fishes; nests are thick cups made of bark, feathers, plant fibers, forbs, grasses, hair, moss, mud and rootlets lined with soft material including feathers and hair located in caves, on ledges, in the exposed roots of trees close to water and plastered to cliff faces; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106 - subsp. semiatra (N.A. Vigors)), 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Sayornis saya (C.L. Bonaparte): Papamoscas Boyero (Hispanic), Say’s Phoebe (feeds on flying insects and berries; nests are cups or brackets of grasses, moss, mud and wool located on ledges or rock walls; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Tyrannus melancholicus (L.J. Vieillot): Couch’s Kingbird, Lichtenstein’s Kingbird, Olive-backed Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird, West Mexican Kingbird (feeds on berries and insects; nests are flimsy cups or saucers made of forbs, grasses, rootlets and twigs lined with plant fibers located on horizontal branches; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (071906)*

 

Tyrannus verticalis T. Say: Arkansas Kingbird, Madrugador Avispero (Hispanic), Western Kingbird (feeds on flying insects; nests are bulky, neatly-lined saucers made up of grasses, twigs and wool lined with matted hair located in bushes and on horizontal branches of trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Tytonidae: The Barn Owl Family

 

Tyto alba (J.A. Scopoli): Barn Owl; Common Barn Owl, Lechuza (Hispanic) (feeds on frogs, insects and small mammals; nests are on litter of disgorged fur pellets or bare surface located in hollow trees or other cavities; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

Family Vireonidae: The Vireo Family

 

Vireo bellii (J.J. Audubon) (subsp. arizonae R. Ridgway is the only subspecies occurring in Arizona): Arizona Bell’s Vireo, Arizona Vireo, Bell’s Vireo, Vireo Aceitunado (Hispanic) (feeds on insects, mollusks, snails and spiders; nests are pensile cups made of downy plant fibers, insect silk, grasses, spider webbing, sticks and wool suspended from branches of dense bushes, shrubs and low trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14 (082106), 20 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 69 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 93 (sp.), 94 (sp.), 106 (sp. -  0527-2806)*

 

Vireo flavifrons (L.J. Vieillot): Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo Garganta Amarilla (Hispanic) (feeds on insects, mollusks, snails and spiders; nests are cups made of grasses, lichens and mosses lined with spider-web silk located in forked branches in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from wetland ecological formations within the forest, woodland, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (082106), 20, 55, 69, 73, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vireo gilvus (L.J. Vieillot): Vireo Gorgojaedor (Hispanic), Warbling Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are tiny basket-like cups hanging from forked branches in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vireo plumbeus E. Coues (Vireo solitarius A. Wilson): Plumbeous Vireo, Solitary Vireo (feeds on insects; nests are neat baskets made from long fibers and grasses lined with soft material camouflaged with bark chips, catkins, leaves and lichen hanging from forked branches in bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 20, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

Vireo solitarius (see Vireo plumbeus)

 

Vireo vicinior E. Coues: Gray Vireo, Vireo Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on insects; nests are cups made of bark strips, cocoons, grasses, plant fibers and spider webs hanging from forked branches in bushes and shrubs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 55, 69, 73, 93, 94, 106 (0527-2806)*

 

 

 

CLASS MAMMALIA: The MAMMALS

 

 

Family Antilocapridae: The Pronghorn Family

 

Antilocapra americana G. Ord subsp. sonoriensis (Goldman) (5): “Antelope” Pronghorn, Sonoran Pronghorn, Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope (feeds on cacti including chain-fruit cholla, forbs, grasses, ocotillo and sagebrush; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052806), 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (052806)*

 

 

Family Bovidae: The Cow, Sheep and Allies Family

 

Ovis canadensis G. Shaw subsp. mexicana C.H. Merriam: Berrego Cimarron (Hispanic), Berrego Cimarron del Desierto (Hispanic), Bighorn, Bighorn Sheep, Desert Bighorn, Desert Bighorn Sheep, Mountain Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep  (the species feeds on agave, brittle bush, bursage, bush muhly, cacti, catclaw, cholla, coffeeberry, desert fluffgrass, desert ironwood, desert thorn, fairy duster, filaree, galleta, grama, jojoba, mesquite, mallow, Nevada joint fir, plantain, prickly-pear, ratany, ricegrass, saguaro, saltbush, threeawn and turpentine broom; young are dropped in small scraped out depressions located in protected places on inaccessible peaks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - no records 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (072306)*

 

 

Family Canidae: The Dog and Allies Family

 

Canis latrans T. Say subsp. mearnsi: Coyote (feeds on amphibians, berries, birds, carrion, fruits, gophers, insects, mice, rabbits, reptiles and squirrels; the young are born in dens that may be dug in the ground or located in caves; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.) , 73 (sp.) , 85 (sp. 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (J.C. von Schreber): Common Gray Fox, Gray Fox, Zorra Gris (Hispanic) (feeds on birds, desert cottontails, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, hackberry fruits, insects, juniper berries, kangaroo rats, lizards, manzanita berries, prickly-pear seed, snakes, white-footed mice and wood rats; whelping usually takes place in burrows dug into the ground or in dens in rocks and cliffs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65, 73, 85 (052906), 94, 100, 106 (052906)*

 

Vulpes macrotis C.H. Merriam subsp. macrostis: Kit Fox, Zorra del Desierto (Hispanic) (the species feeds on berries, birds, cottontail rabbits, crickets, grasses, grasshoppers, ground squirrels, jack rabbits, lizards, mice and rats; the young are born in dens in underground burrows that have been excavated in soft soils; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.) 65 (sp.) , 73 (sp.) , 85 (sp. - no records 052906), 94, 106 (052906)*

 

Vulpes velox (see note in Vulpes macrotis) 

 

 

Family Cervidae:  The Deer and Allies Family

 

Odocoileus hemionus (C.S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz) subsp. crooki (Mearns): Black-tailed Deer, Burro, Desert Mule Deer, Mule Deer, Venado Pardo (Hispanic) (the species feeds on acorns, beans, branches, fruits, leaves or needles, nuts, seeds and/or twigs of aspen, barberry, bitterbrush, blackberry, buckbrush, buckwheat, calliandra, ceanothus, catclaw, cedar, cliffrose, dogwood, Douglas fir, huckleberry, joint fir, jojoba, juniper, mountain mahogany, mountainlover, oak, pinyon, ponderosa pine, poplar, sagebrush, saltbush, serviceberry, thimbleberry, white fir, wild cherry, willow and yew, and grasses lupines, mistletoe, moss, mushrooms, salal, sedges and spurge; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Odocoileus virginianus E.A. von Zimmermann subsp. couesi (E. Coues & Yarrow): Arizona Whitetail, Coues’ Deer, Coues’ White-tailed Deer, Desert Whitetail, Fantail, Sonora White-tailed Deer, Sonoran Fantail, Venado Cola Blanca (Hispanic), Virginia Deer, Whitetail, White-tailed Deer (the species feeds on fungi, grass and acorns, branches, buds, cones, fruits, leaves, mast, needles and /or twigs of alder, barberry, buckbrush, calliandra, catclaw acacia, Emory and scrub oaks and other evergreen oaks, hackberry, hemlock, holly-leaf buckthorn, juniper, mesquite, mountainlover, Oregon-grape, pinyon, ratany, sagebrush, skunkbush, spiderwort, spruce, willow, yellow-leaf silktassel; young are generally dropped along ridges and hillsides; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. 052906), 94 (expected to occur on the Refuge, but there are no verified sightings), 100, 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

 

Family Felidae: The Cat Family

 

Felis concolor (C. Linnaeus) (Puma concolor (C. Linnaeus)): American Lion, Brown Tiger, California Lion, Catamount, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, Deer Tiger, El Leon (Hispanic), Florida Panther, Ghost Cat, Indian Devil, King Cat, Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mexican Lion, Mountain Lion, Mountain Screamer, Painter American Lion, Painted Cat, Painter, Panther; Puma, Silver Lion, Sneak Cat, Sucuarana (Brazil), Yuma Mountain Lion (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bear, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupines, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer; cubs are born in dens located in protected areas such as caves, crevices, rock shelters and thickets; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 55, 65, 73, 85 (052906), 94, 100, 106 (052906)*

 

Felis concolor (C. Linnaeus) (Puma concolor (C. Linnaeus)) subsp. brownii: California Lion, Catamount, Catamount Cat (a mountain Red Tiger), Cougar, El Leon (Hispanic), Leon de Montana (Hispanic), Mountain Lion, Painter American Lion, Panther; Puma, Yuma Mountain Lion (feeds on beaver, desert bighorn sheep, birds, black bear, cottontail rabbits, jackrabbits, javelina, mule deer, porcupines, pronghorn antelope, skunks, small mammals and white-tailed deer; cubs are born in dens located in protected areas such as caves, crevices, rock shelters and thickets; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 sp. 052906), 94 (ETCS 1994), 100  (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Felis rufus (see Lynx rufus)

 

Lynx rufus (J.C. von Schreber) (Felis rufus (J.C. von Schreber)) subsp. baileyi: Bobcat, Gato Montes (Hispanic), Wildcat (the species feeds on bighorn sheep, ground nesting birds, carrion, cottontail rabbits, deer, jack rabbits, lizards, porcupines, rodents, small mammals and snakes; young are born in dens located in rocky caves, hollow logs and recesses; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *55 (sp.), 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100, 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Puma concolor (see Felis concolor)

 

 

Family Geomyidae: The Pocket Gopher Family

 

Thomomys bottae (J.F. Eydoux & P. Gervais) subsp. growlerensis: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher (the species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers; young are born in nests in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Thomomys bottae (J.F. Eydoux & P. Gervais) subsp. phasma: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher (the species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers; young are born in nests in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Thomomys bottae (J.F. Eydoux & P. Gervais) subsp. pusillus: Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Southwestern Pocket Gopher, Tuza de Botta (Hispanic), Valley Pocket Gopher (the species feeds on bulbs, grasses, herbaceous plants, roots and tubers; young are born in nests in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

 

Family Heteromyidae: The Kangaroo Rat and Pocket Mouse Family

 

Chaetodipus baileyi C.H. Merriam subsp. baileyi (Perognathus baileyi C.H. Merriam): Bailey’s Pocket Mouse, Raton de Bailey (Hispanic) (the species feeds on vegetation, and fruits and seeds of cacti, grasses and other herbs; nests are located underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65 (gen.), 73, 85 (052906), 94, 100*

 

Chaetodipus intermedius C.H. Merriam subsp. phasma: Raton de Rocas de Bosla (Hispanic), Rock Pocket Mouse (the species feeds on seeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.) , 73 (sp.), 94, 100 (sp.)*

 

Chaetodipus penicillatus S.W. Woodhouse subsp. pricei: Desert Pocket Mouse, Raton de Desierto (Hispanic), Sonoran Desert Pocket Mouse (the species feeds on seeds of creosote bush, grass, greythorn, herbs and mesquite; the nest is made in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 94, 100 (sp.)*

 

Dipodomys deserti Stephens subsp. arizonae: Desert Kangaroo Rat (the species feeds on green plant material and seeds; nests are made of grasses and plant material located in chambers in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.)*

 

Dipodomys merriami Mearns subsp. merriami: Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat (the species feeds on vegetation and seeds of creosote bush, grama grass, mesquite, ocotillo and purselane; nests are made in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100*

 

Perognathus amplus Osgood subsp. amplus: Yavapai Arizona Pocket Mouse (the species feeds on green plants, insects and seeds; nests are located in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94 (ETCS 1994), 100 (sp.)*

 

Perognathus amplus Osgood subsp. taylori: Arizona Pocket Mouse (the species feeds on green plants, insects and seeds; nests are located in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.)*

 

Perognathus baileyi (see Chaetodipus baileyi subsp. baileyi)

 

Perognathus intermedius (see Chaetodipus intermedius)

 

Perognathus longimembris (E. Coues): Little Pocket Mouse (feeds on greens and seeds; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65 (gen.), 73, 85 (052906), 94 (expected to occur on the Refuge but there are no verified sightings), 100*

 

Perognathus penicillatus (see Chaetodipus penicillatus)

 

 

Family Leporidae: The Hare and Rabbit Family

 

Lepus alleni (Mearns) subsp. alleni: Antelope Jack Rabbit (the species feeds on cacti, Catclaw Acacia, grasses, herbs and the bark, buds and leaves of mesquite; young are born in a nest that is usually located above ground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp.-052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Lepus californicus (J.E. Gray) subsp. eremicus: Black-tailed Jack Rabbit, “Jackass Rabbit” (the species feeds on grass, mesquite leaves and prickly-pear cacti; young are born in nests located either above or below ground in forms that have been lined with breast hair, after birth the young are moved to separate nests and cared for individually by the female; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

Sylvilagus audubonii (S.F. Baird) subsp. arizonae: Desert Cottontail (the species feeds on green plants, cacti, bark and twigs; young are born into nests lined with forbs, grasses and the females fur which are located on the ground and in brush piles, piles of rocks and burrows abandoned by other animals; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 052906), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 052906)*

 

 

Family Mephitidae: The Skunk Family

 

Spilogale gracilis (C. Linnaeus) subsp. leucoparia: Spotted Skunk, Western Spotted Skunk, Zorillo Pinto (Hispanic) (the species feeds on arachnids, berries, birds and bird eggs, carrion, fruits, insects, small mammals, scorpions and seeds; dens are made in rock crevices and hollow logs; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

 

Spilogale putorius (see Spilogale gracilis)

 

 

Family Molossidae: The Free-tailed Bat Family

 

Eumops perotis (H. Schinz) subsp. californicus: Bonnet Bat, Greater Western Bonneted Bat, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Mastiff Bat, Murcielago Mastiff (Hispanic), Western Mastiff Bat (feeds on crickets, long-horned grasshoppers, moths and other small insects; roosts in crevices and shallow caves in cliffs and rock walls at lower elevations; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73, 85 (no records 053006), 92 (sp.), 94 (ETCS 1994), 100 (sp.), 106 (fam. - 053006)*

 

Eumops underwoodi (Goodwin) (subsp. sonoriensis is the only subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona): Underwood’s Bonneted Bat, Underwood’s Mastiff Bat (feeds on insects; roosts in cliffs, rock crevices and tree cavities; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 85 (no records 053006), 92 (sp.), 94 (expected to occur on the Refuge but there are no verified sightings), 94 (ETCS 1994), 100 (sp.), 106 (fam. - 053006)*

 

Nyctinomops femorosaccus (C.H. Merriam) (Nyctinomops femorosacca (C.H. Merriam), Tadarida femorosacca (Miller): Pocketed Free-tailed Bat, Murcielago Cola en Bolsa (Hispanic) (feeds on ants, leafhoppers, moths, wasps and other insects; roosts in rocky crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 94, 100, 106 (fam. - 053006)*

 

Nyctinomops macrotis (J.E. Gray) (Tadarida macrotis (J.E. Gray)), Tadarida molossa (Pallas)): Big Free-tailed Bat, Murcielago Cola Libre (Hispanic), Murcielago Cola Suelta Mayor (Spanish) (feeds on insects; roosts in rocky cliffs, crevices, fissures, caves and holes in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations ecological formations) *8, 14, 42 (053006), 55, 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 94, 100, 106 (fam. - 053006)*

 

Tadarida brasiliensis (I.G. Saint-Hilaire) subsp mexicana (Saussure): Brazilian Free-tailed Bat, Guano Bat, Mexican Free-tail Bat, Mexican Free-tailed Bat, Murcielago Braziliano (Hispanic) (the species feeds on ants, beetles, leafhoppers, moths and other small insects; roosts in caverns, caves and rock crevices and fissures in cliffs, and buildings, mines and under bridges; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 65, 73 (sp.), 85 (053006), 92 (sp.), 94 (expected to occur on the Refuge but there are no verified sightings), 100 (sp.), 106 (053006)*

 

Tadarida femorosacca (see Nyctinomops femorosacca)

 

Tadarida macrotis (see Nyctinomops macrotis)

 

Tadarida molossa (see Nyctinomops macrotis)

 

 

Family Muridae: The Mouse and Rat Family

 

Neotoma albigula Hartley subsp. meansi: Packrat, White-throated Packrat, Trade Rat, White-throated Wood Rat (the species feeds on cacti, forbs, fruits, juniper, leaves, mesquite beans, seeds and yucca; nests are built under mesquite, cholla and prickly-pear cacti, or in rocky crevices using sticks, pieces of cholla and prickly-pear cacti, and rubbish, sometimes with underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.) , 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

Neotoma devia (see Neotoma lepida subsp. devia) 

 

Neotoma lepida Thomas subsp. auripila: Desert Wood Rat (feeds on acorns, bark, beans, berries, cactus pulp, fruits, grasses, insects, pinyon nuts, green plant material, seeds and yucca pods; nests are made of grasses and dried plant stems located in underground burrows located in rocky ridges, rock outcrops, crevices in cliffs, thickets of cacti and yucca with the entrance covered with of spiny cactus joints, debris and sticks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053006)*

 

Onychomys torridus (E. Coues) subsp. torridus: Raton Chapulinero del Sur (Hispanic), Scorpion Mouse, Southern Grasshopper Mouse (the species feeds on arthropods, beetles, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, other species of mice, scorpions, seeds and small vertebrates; nests are located in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. 053006), 94, 100 sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

 

Peromyscus crinitus (C.H. Merriam) subsp. disparalis: Canyon Mouse, Raton Canonero (Hispanic) (the species feeds on flowers, mycorrhizal fungi, insects, leaves and seeds; nests are balls made of bark, forbs and grasses located under banks, on the ground and in holes in the ground sometime using abandoned woodrat dens, under rocks and in stumps and dead or dying trees, within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73, 85 (sp. 053006), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

 

Peromyscus eremicus (S.F. Baird) subsp. eremicus: Cactus Mouse, Raton de Cactaceas (Hispanic) (the species feeds on flowers, small fruits, insects, green plant material and seeds; nests are made within the abandoned burrows of other animals, clumps of cacti and among rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

 

Peromyscus eremicus (S.F. Baird) subsp. papagensis: Cactus Mouse, Pinacate Cactus Mouse, Raton de Cactaceas (Hispanic) (the species feeds on flowers, small fruits, insects, green plant material and seeds; nests are made within the abandoned burrows of other animals, clumps of cacti and among rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (gen.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053006), 94, 94 (ETCS 1994), 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053006)*

 

 

Family Mustelidae: The Weasel and Allies Family

 

Taxidea taxus (J.C. von Schreber) subsp. berlandieri: American Badger, Badger, Badger Tejon (Hispanic) (the species feeds on ground dwelling birds and eggs, carrion, insects, rodents and snakes; young are born in dens in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73, 85 (sp. - 053006), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053006)*

 

 

Family Phyllostomidae: The Leaf-nosed Bat Family

 

Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae (Martinez & Villa-R.) (Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure), Leptonycteris sanborni (Saussure)): Big Long-nosed Bat, Lesser Long-nosed Bat, Little Long-nosed Bat, Long-nosed Bat, Longnose Bat, Mexican Long-nosed Bat, Murcielago de Sanborn (Hispanic), Sanborn’s Long-nosed Bat, Sanborn’s Southern Long-nosed Bat, Southern Long-nosed Bat (feeds on nectar and pollen from Agave, Organ Pipe Cactus and Saguaro, the pulp of Organ Pipe Cactus and Saguaro fruit and insects; within the range of this species it has been reported from old buildings, caves, rock crevices and abandoned mine tunnels in the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 35, 55, 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 92, 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994), 100 (sp.), 106 (053006)*

 

Leptonycteris nivalis (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Leptonycteris sanborni (see Leptonycteris curasoae subsp. yerbabuenae)

 

Macrotus californicus S.F. Baird: California Leaf-nosed Bat, Leaf-nosed Bat, Leafnose Bat, Waterhouse’s Leaf-nosed Bat (feeds on beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, cicadas, crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, moths and other insects; within the range of this species it has been reported from caves and abandoned mine tunnels in the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 73, 85 (no records - 053006), 92, 94,  94 (ETCS 1994), 100, 106 (053006)*

 

 

Family Procyonidae: The Raccoon and Allies Family

 

Bassariscus astutus (M.H. Lichenstein) subsp. yumanensis: Band-tailed Cat, Cacomistle, Civet Cat, Coon CatGato Minero (Hispanic), Miner’s Cat, Ringtail, Ring-tailed Cat (the species feeds on berries, birds, cactus fruits and other plants, carrion, crickets, eggs, grasshoppers, insects, lizards, small mammals, snakes and spiders; nests are made of grass located in dens in underground burrows, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, cavities in logs, stumps and trees and man-made structures; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053105), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053106)*

 

 

Family Sciuridae: The Squirrel and Allies Family

 

Ammospermophilus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman) (Citellus harrisii (J.J. Audubon & Bachman)): Harris’ Antelope Squirrel, Yuma Antelope Squirrel (feeds on fruits, insects, plants and seeds; dens are located in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65, 73, 85 (053106), 94, 100, 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Citellus harrisii (see Ammospermophilus harrisii)

 

Citellus tereticaudus (see Spermophilus tereticaudus)

 

Citellus variegatus (see Spermophilus variegatus)

 

Spermophilus tereticaudus S.F. Baird subsp. neglectus: Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (the species feeds on buds of burroweed and mesquite, cacti, green vegetation, insects, seeds of creosote bush, mesquite, flowers of ocotillo, paloverde, plantain, and saltbush, observed visiting road kill and taking quail chicks; nests are made of plant fibers and stems and located in dens in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.) , 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Spermophilus variegatus (Erxleben) subsp. grammurus: Ardilla Coluda (Hispanic), Rock Squirrel (the species feeds on acorns, berries, small birds, chicks and eggs, carrion, insects, fruits, small mammals, nuts and seeds burrows; nests are made of leaves, pine needles and plant fibers and located in dens in underground burrows between boulders,  rock crevices and talus; within the range of this species it has been reported from the tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 65 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

 

Family Tayassuidae: The Javelina Family

 

Peccari tajacu (C. Linnaeus) (Tayassu tajacu (C. Linnaeus)): Collared Peccary, Jabalina (Hispanic), Javelina, “Musk Hog”, Peccary (feeds on agaves, amphibians, berries, bulbs, fungi, grasses, insects, mesquite beans, nuts, succulent plants, prickly-pear and other cacti, reptiles, rodents, roots, sotol, tubers and worms; they bed down during the day in thick brush and prickly-pear thickets; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 65, 73, 94, 100, 106 (053106)*

 

Tayassu tajacu (see Peccari tajacu)

 

 

Family Vespertilionidae: The Plain-nosed Bat Family

 

Antrozous pallidus (J.L. Le Conte) subsp. pallidus: Murcielago Pallid (Hispanic), Pallid Bat (the species feeds on flightless arthropods on the ground, insects, lizards and nectar; roosts under bridges, buildings, in caves, crevices in cliffs, rocky outcrops, under slabs of rocks, hollow trees and tunnels; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 92 (sp.), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. -053106)*

 

Corynorhinus townsendii (see Plecotus townsendii)

 

Eptesicus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois) subsp. pallidus (Young): Big Brown Bat, Murcielago Cafe’ Grande (Hispanic) (the species feeds on insects; roosts under bridges, in buildings, caves, crevices in cliff faces, mines, holes in saguaros and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (053106), 92 (sp.), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 053106)*

 

Lasionycteris noctivagans (J.L. Le Conte): Murcielago Plateado (Hispanic), Silver-haired Bat (feeds on caddis flies, flies, moths and other insects; uncommon tree dwelling bat found under bark, in bird nests, dead trees, fissures in rock ledges, tree hollows, and woodpecker holes; within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 73, 85 (053106), 92, 94, 100, 106 (fam. - 053106)*

 

Lasiurus cinereus (Palisot de Beauvois): Hoary Bat, Murcielago (Hispanic) (feeds primarily on moths; roosts in dense foliage in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 73, 85 (053106), 92, 94, 100, 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Myotis californicus (J.J. Audubon & Bachman) subsp. stephensi: California Myotis, California Myotis Bat, Murcielago de California (Hispanic) (the species feeds on arachnids and insects; roosts in crevices and cracks in cliffs and canyon walls, caves, mine shafts and man made shelters; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Myotis velifer (J.A. Allen) subsp. brevis (Vaughan): Cave Bat, Cave Myotis, Cave Myotis Bat, Mexican Brown Bat, Murcielago de Cueva (Hispanic), Southwestern Cave Bat, Southwestern Cave Myotis (the species feeds on small moths and other small insects; roosts in crevices, holes and pockets in caves and bridges, buildings, abandoned mine shafts and tunnels; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 94 (ETCS 1994) 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Pipistrellus hesperus (H. Allen) subsp. hesperus: Canyon Bat, Flittermouse, Murcielago del Poniente (Hispanic), Western Pipistrelle, Western Pipistrelle Bat (the species feeds on insects; roosts in buildings, crevices in canyon walls, caves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, under rocks and mine shafts; within the range of this species it has been reported from forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 85 (sp. - 053106), 94, 100 (sp.), 106 (gen. - 053106)*

 

Plecotus townsendii (Cooper) (subsp. pallescens is the only subspecies reported as occurring in Arizona; Corynorhinus townsendii subsp. pallescens (Frost)): Lump-nosed Bat, Mule-eared Bat, Murcielago de Townsend (Hispanic), Pale Townsend’s Big-eared Bat, Western Big-eared Bat, Western Long-eared Bat, Western Lump-nosed Bat (the species feeds on small moths and other small insects; roosts on open ceilings; within the range of this species it has been reported from tundra, forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 73, 85 (053106), 92, 94, 100*

 

 

 

CLASS REPTILIA: The REPTILES

 

 

Family Boidae: The Boa Family

 

Charina trivirgata subsp. gracia (see Lichanura trivirgata subsp. gracia)

 

Lichanura trivirgata (E.D. Cope) subsp. gracia (Miller & G.L. Stebbins) (Charina trivirgata (Kluge) subsp. gracia (Klauber)) (5): Desert Boa, Desert Rosy Boa, Mexican Rosy Boa, Rosy Boa, (feeds on birds, lizards and small mammals; takes shelter in rock crevices and underground; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060106)*

 

 

Family Colubridae: The Colubrid Family

 

Arizona elegans (R. Kennicott in C.F. Baird): Glossy Snake, Kansas Glossy Snake, Painted Desert Glossy Sanke, Texas Glossy Snake (feeds on lizards, small mammals and snakes; takes shelter in burrows, by burrowing into loose sand and soil and under rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060206)*

 

Chionactis occipitalis (E. Hallowell): Western Shovelnose Snake, Western Shovel-nosed Snake (feeds on centipedes, insects including buried moth pupae, scorpions and spiders; takes shelter in burrows and by burrowing into loose sand; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) Arizona’s native rearfanged species of Colubrid snakes are not considered to be dangerous to man.  *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Hypsiglena torquata (A.C. Gunther): Night Snake, Mesa Verde Night Snake, Spotted Night Snake, Texas Night Snake (feeds on bats, birds and bird eggs, insects, lizards and lizard eggs, small mammals, salamanders, small snakes, toads, tree frogs and worms; takes shelter in underground burrows, rock crevices, under rocks and under surface litter; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A mildly venomous snake. Arizona’s native rearfanged species of Colubrid snakes are not considered to be dangerous to man. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Lampropeltis getula subsp. californiae (H.M. de Blainville): Common Kingsnake, California Kingsnake (the species feeds on birds and bird eggs, frogs, lizards, small mammals and snakes and snake eggs; takes shelter in underground burrows and rocky crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Masticophis bilineatus (G. Jan) (subsp. lineolatus is the subspecies recognized as occurring in Arizona): Ajo Mountain Whipsnake, Sonora Whipsnake, Sonoran Whipsnake (feeds on birds and lizards; takes shelter on the ground, in underground burrows and in shrubs and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subspp. bilineatus and lineolatus - 072306), 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. with listing of spp. - 072306)*

 

Masticophis flagellum (Shaw) (Masticophis flagellum subsp. cingulum: Sonora Coachwhip; Masticophis flagellum subsp. lineatulus: Whipsnake; Masticophis flagellum subsp. piceus (Cope): Red Coachwhip, Red Racer (red phase), and Western Black Racer (black phase); Masticophis flagellum subsp. ruddocki: San Joaquin Whipsnake; Masticophis flagellum subsp. testaceus (Say): Western Coachwhip): Black Racer, Coachwhip, Lined Coachwhip, Red Coachwhip, Red Racer, San Joaquin Whipsnake, Sonoran Coachwhip, Western Black Racer, Western Coachwhip, Whipsnake (feeds on birds and eggs, carrion, crickets, grasshoppers, lizards and lizard eggs, mice, young rabbits, rats, snakes and turtles; takes shelter in rodent burrows, under rocks and in woodrat nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formations) *14, 37 (subsp. piceus), 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060206)*

 

Phyllorhynchus browni (L.H. Stejneger): Maricopa Leafnose Snake, Pima Leafnose Snake, Saddled Leafnose Snake, Saddled Leaf-nosed Snake (takes shelter by burrowing into sand and loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 37, 55, 73, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Phyllorhynchus decurtatus (E.D. Cope): Spotted Leafnose Snake, Spotted Leaf-nosed Snake (feeds on small lizards and lizard eggs; takes shelter by burrowing into sand and loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Pituophis cantifer (H.M. de Blainville) (Pituophis melanoleucus (F.M. Daudin)): Bull Snake, Gopher Snake, Pine Snake, Sonoran Gopher Snake (feeds on small birds and bird eggs, lizards and small mammals; takes shelter in underground burrows and under logs and rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060206)*

 

Pituophis melanoleucus (see Pituophis cantifer)

 

Rhinocheilus lecontei (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Long-nosed Snake, Texas Longnose Snake, Western Longnose Snake (feeds on insects, lizards and lizard eggs, rodents and small snakes; takes shelter in burrows, by burrowing into sand or soil, under rocks and in rock crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060206)*

 

Salvadora hexalepis (E.D. Cope) subsp. deserticola (Schmidt): Big Bend Patchnose Snake, Big Bend Patch-nosed Snake, Western Patch-nosed Snake (feeds on small mammals, lizards, small snakes and reptile eggss; takes shelter in underground burrows and bushes and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland and desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 37 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87, 94, 106 (fam. - 060206)*

 

Trimorphodon biscutatus (A.M. Dumeril, G. Bibron & A.H. Dumeril) (Trimorphodon lyrophanes (Cope)): Lyre Snake, Sonora Lyre Snake, Sonoran Lyre Snake, Southwestern Lyre Snake, Texas Lyre Snake (feeds on bats, lizards and rodents; takes shelter in underground burrows, rock crevices and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A mildly venomous snake. Arizona’s native rearfanged species of Colubrid snakes are not considered to be dangerous to man. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060206)*

 

Trimorphodon lyrophanes (see Trimorphodon biscutatus)

 

 

Family Crotaphytidae: The Collard and Leopard Lizard Family

 

Crotaphytus collaris (T. Say): Chihuahuan Collard Lizard, Collard Lizard, Common Collard Lizard, Eastern Collard Lizard, Western Collard Lizard, Yellowheaded Collared Lizard (feeds on arachnids, gastropods, insects and small reptiles; takes shelter under rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Gambelia wislizeni (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Leopard Lizard, Longnose Loepard Lizard, Long-nosed Lizard (feeds on beetles, cicadas, crickets, grasshoppers, lizards, small mammals, plant material including berries, blossoms, soft leaves and seeds, spiders and termites; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

 

Family Elapidae: The Cobra and Coral Snake Family

 

DO NOT DELAY:

If bitten by a coral snake take the victim immediately to a medical facility.

 

First aid measures are of little value. You should withhold food, drink or medication. *97*

If bitten contact the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

Micruroides euryxanthus (R. Kennicott): Arizona Coral Snake, Coral Snake, Western Coral Snake (feeds on lizards and small snakes including blindsnakes; takes shelter in underground burrows, by burrowing into loose sand and soil and in rock crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and desertscrub ecological formations) A venomous snake with a highly toxic and very dangerous venom. This snake should never be handled. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

 

Family Gekkonidae: The Gecko Family

 

Coleonyx variegatus (S.F. Baird) subsp. bogerti (Klauber): Banded Gecko, Tucson Banded Gecko, Western Banded Gecko (feeds on insects and spiders; takes shelter in rodent burrows, under rocks and under plant debris; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

 

Family Helodermatidae: The Beaded Lizard Family

 

If bitten, remove the lizard as soon as possible, irrigate the wound with plenty of water, immobilize

the affected limb at heart level, call 1-800-222-1222 for additional information and/or consider transport to a medical facility, any teeth left in the wound must be removed by a medical professional, ensure that tetanus immunization is up to date, and watch patient for signs and symptoms of infection. *97*

If bitten contact the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

Heloderma suspectum (E.D. Cope): Gila Monster (feeds on bird eggs, invertebrates, lizards, small mammals, snakes and reptile eggs; takes shelter in burrows and crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A venomous lizard. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

 

Family Iguanidae: The Iguana and AlliesFamily

 

Dipsosaurus dorsalis (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Crested Lizard, Desert Iguana (feeds on buds, carrion, flowers and leaves of creosote bushes and insects; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (072306), 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Sauromalus ater (A.H. Durmeril) (Sauromalus obesus (S.F. Baird)): Arizona Chuckwalla, Chuckwalla, Common Chuckwalla, Glen Canyon Chuckwalla, Western Chuckwalla (feeds on brittlebush, flowers and leaves of annual and perennial herbs and insects; takes shelter crevices in massive rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (060306)*

 

Sauromalus obesus (see Sauromalus ater)

 

 

Family Leptotyphlopidae: The Blind Snake Family

 

Leptotyphlops humilis (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Blind Snake, Trans-pecos Blind Snake, Western Blind Snake, Western Worm Snake (feeds on insects, mostly on ants and termites; takes shelter under debris and rocks, in rock crevices and underground burrows, by burrowing into sand and soil and among shrub and tree roots; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge), 106 (060306)*

 

 

Family Phrynosomatidae: The Horned Lizard Family

 

Callisaurus draconoides (H.M. de Blainville): Arizona Zebratail Lizard, Zebra-tailed Lizard (feeds on insects, lizards, plant material and spiders; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. ventralis - 072306), 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. with spp. listing - 072306)*

 

Phrynosoma mcallii (E. Hallowell) (spelling Phrynosoma m’calli also observed): Flat-tail Horned Lizard, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (feeds on ants and other insects; takes shelter by burrowing themselves in loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge), 106 (060306)*

 

Phrynosoma platyrhinos (C.F. Girard): Desert Horned Lizard, Southern Desert Horned Lizard (feeds on ants; takes shelter by burrowing themselves in loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 73, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Phrynosoma platyrhinos (C.F. Girard) subsp. goodei: Goode’s Desert Horned Lizard, Southern Desert Horned Lizard (the species feeds on ants; takes shelter by burrowing themselves in loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87 (sp.), 106 (sp. - 060306)*

 

Phrynosoma solare (Gray): Regal Horned Lizard (feeds on harvester ants, beetles and other insects; takes shelter by burrowing themselves in loose soil; within the range of this species it has been reported from the grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

Sceloporus clarkii (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Clark’s Spiny Lizard, Sonora Spiny Lizard, Sonoran Spiny Lizard, Spiny Lizard (feeds on insects and plant material including buds, flowers and leaves; takes shelter in underground burrows and on rocks and trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14 (subsp. clarkii - 072306), 37, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge), 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

Sceloporus magister (E. Hallowell): Desert Spiny Lizard, Orangehead Spiny Lizard, Twin-spotted Spiny Lizard, Yellowback Spiny Lizard (feeds on ants, beetles and other insects, lizards, and plant materials including berries, buds, flowers and leaves; takes shelter in rodent burrows, crevices, under logs, under rocks, on trees, in clumps of vegetation and in woodrat nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Uma notata (E.D. Cope): Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, Cowles Fringe-toed Lizard, Fringe-toed Lizard (feeds on buds, insects and leaves; takes shelter in underground burrows or by burrowing themselves into loose sand; within the range of this species it has been reported from desertscrub ecological formation) *14, 37, 55, 73, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

Uma notata (E.D. Cope) subsp. rufopunctata (Uma rufopunctata (E.D. Cope)): Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, Cowles Fringe-toed Lizard, Sonoran Fringe-toed Lizard, Yuma Desert Fringe-toed Lizard, Yuman Desert Fringe-toed Lizard (the species feeds on buds, insects and leaves; takes shelter in underground burrows or by burrowing themselves into loose sand; within the range of this species it has been reported from desertscrub ecological formation) *8, 14, 37 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87 (sp.), 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

Urosaurus graciosus (E. Hallowell): Brush Lizard, Long-tailed Brush Lizard (feeds on insects, plant material and spiders; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Urosaurus ornatus (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Big Bend Tree Lizard, Canyon Tree Lizard, Lined Tree Lizard, Northern Tree Lizard, Tree Lizard (feeds on insects and spiders; takes shelter in rock crevices, under slabs of rock and in trees; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Uta stansburiana (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Colorado Side-blotched Lizard, Desert Side-blotched Lizard, Northern Side-blotched Lizard, Side-blotched Lizard (feeds on ants, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, lizards, mites, scorpions, sowbugs, spiders, termites and ticks; takes shelter in underground burrows, under rocks, bury themselves in soil and in low vegetation; reported from rocky areas and sandy washes; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, scrub, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

 

Family Teiidae: The Whiptail and Allies Family

 

Aspidoscelis burti (Burger) (Cnemidophorus burti (Taylor): Canyon Spotted Whiptail, Giant Spotted Whiptail, Redback Whiptail, Sonora Whiptail (feeds on insects, scorpions and spiders; takes shelter in underground burrows, piles of debris and under rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 55, 73, 87, 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (gen. 060306)*

 

Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus (Burger) (Cnemidophorus burti subsp. xanthonotus): Redback Whiptail, Red-backed Whiptail (the species feeds on insects, scorpions and spiders; takes shelter in underground burrows, piles of debris and under rocks; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14 (sp.), 55 (sp.), 73 (sp.), 87, 94, 106 (gen. 060306)*

 

Aspidoscelis sonorae (C.H. Lowe & Wright) (Cnemidophorus sonorae (Lowe & Wright)): Sonoran Spotted Whiptail (feeds on centipedes, insects, other lizards, scorpions, spiders and termites; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 87, 94, 106 (gen. 060306)*

 

Aspidoscelis tigris (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard) (Cnemidophorus tigris (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Arizona Desert Whiptail, Eastern Marbled Whiptail, Marbled Whiptail, Northern Whiptail, Southern Whiptail, Western Marbled Whiptail, Western Whiptail (feeds on insects, lizards, scorpions and spiders; takes shelter in bushes and underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Cnemidophorus burti (see Aspidoscelis burti) 

 

Cnemidophorus burti subsp. xanthonotus (see Aspidoscelis burti subsp. xanthonotus) 

 

Cnemidophorus sonorae (see Aspidoscelis sonorae)

 

Cnemidophorus tigris (see Aspidoscelis tigris)

 

 

Family Testudinidae: The Land Tortoise Family

 

Gopherus agassizi (J.G. Cooper) - Sonoran Population (also spelled Gopherus agassizii): Desert Tortoise, Sonoran Desert Tortoise (feeds on cacti, forbs, grasses, Slender Janusia and other plants and plant materials; takes shelter in underground burrows, caliche caves located along washes and crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) *8, 14, 37, 55, 73, 87, 94, 94 (ES 1998), 94 (ETCS 1994), 106 (060306)*

 

 

Family Viperidae: The Pit Viper Family

 

If bitten by a rattlesnake remain calm, remove all jewelry (including watches), immobilize extremity,

keep at level below the heart, decrease total body activity, and transport to medical facility. Do not apply ice to the bitten area, do not use an incision of any kind, do not use a tourniquet, do not administer drugs or alcohol, and do not use electric shock treatment (Tucson Herpetological Society. 1995.

 Living with Rattlesnakes. Tucson, Arizona, 8751-1531. BISON-M).

If bitten contact the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center: 1-800-222-1222.

http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison

 

Crotalus atrox (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (feeds on birds, bird’s eggs and young birds, frogs, gophers, lizards, mice, prairie dogs, rabbits, rats, squirrels and toads; takes shelter in underground burrows, crevices in arroyo walls, rock outcrops, thickets and woodrat nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A venomous and dangerous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Crotalus cerastes (E. Hallowell): Horned Rattlesnake, Sidewinder Rattlesnake, Sidewinder (feeds on small birds, lizards, rodents and scorpions (juveniles); takes shelter in burrows, beneath shrubs and by burrowing in sand; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) A venomous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Crotalus mitchelli (E.D. Cope): Speckled Rattlesnake (feeds on small birds, lizards and small mammals; takes shelter in underground burrows and rock crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland and desertscrub ecological formations) A venomous and dangerous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

Crotalus molossus (S.F. Baird & C.F. Girard): Blacktail Rattlesnake, Black-tailed Rattlesnake (feeds on amphibians, bird eggs, small mammals and reptiles; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest, woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A venomous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 106 (060306)*

 

Crotalus scutulatus (R. Kennicott): Mojave Rattlesnake (feeds on reptiles, kangaroo rats and other rodents; takes shelter in underground burrows, litter and rat nests; within the range of this species it has been reported from the forest woodland, scrub, grassland, desertscrub and wetland ecological formations) A venomous and extremely dangerous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (060306)*

 

Crotalus tigris (R. Kennicott): Tiger Rattlesnake (feeds on mice, rats, woodrats and other small mammals; takes shelter in underground burrows; within the range of this species it has been reported from the desertscrub ecological formation) A venomous snake. *14, 37, 54, 55, 73, 87, 94, 106 (gen. - 060306)*

 

 

Family Xantusiidae: The Night Lizard Family

 

Xantusia vigilis (S.F. Baird) (Xantusia vigilis (S.F. Baird) subsp. arizonae (Klauber), Xantusia arizonae (Klauber)): Arizona Night Lizard, Desert Night Lizard (feeds on insects and spiders; takes shelter under bark, plant debris and logs and in rock crevices; within the range of this species it has been reported from the woodland, scrub and desertscrub ecological formations) *8, 14, 55, 73, 87, 94 (thought to occur on the refuge), 106 (060306)*

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

I would like to thank Matthew B. Johnson for his review of several of the listings, his input into the layout, his numerous trips into the field to assist in the identification of species and above all for his continued support for this project. I would also like to thank Philip D. Jenkins, Assistant Curator, and the Botanists of the University of Arizona Herbarium for years of assistance with plant identifications. I would also like to thank Neva Connolly, Julia Fonseca and Bill Singleton with the Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District for being willing and able to present the listings in the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan website.

 

 

 

 

Species Distribution Listings

FOOTNOTES and REFERENCES

 

(1) General Mapping:

 

Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer. 2002. DeLorme.

www.delorme.com

 

National Geographic Arizona Seamless USGS Topographic Maps. Maps created with TOPO! R C 2002 National Geographic.

                                Ajo, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

Kino Peak, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

                                Quitobaquito Springs, Arizona - 15 Minute Topographic Series 1963

               

Tucson Metropolitan Street Atlas 2005 Edition. Wide World of Maps, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

www.maps4u.com

 

(2) Physiographic Province Mapping:

 

Walker, Henry P. and Don Bufkin. 1979. Historical Atlas of Arizona, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Page 4A and Map.

 

(3) Soils Mapping:

 

Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

Richardson, M.L. and M.L. Miller. March 1974. United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the Pima County Natural Resource Conservation District, Report and Interpretations for the General Soil Map of Pima County, Arizona and General Soil Map Pima County Arizona. Arizona General Soil Map, July 1975, United States Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service and the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, compiled by J.E. Jay, Y.H. Havens, D.M. Hendricks, D.F. Post and C.W. Guernsey.

 

(4) Biotic Communities Mapping and Definitions

 

Ecological formations used in the listings follow those presented in the mapping for the Biotic Communities of the Southwest.

 

Brown, David E. 1982. Biotic Communities of the American Southwest – United States and Mexico, Desert Plants, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, Published by the University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. Revised June 1983. Biotic Communities of the Southwest, August 1980, General Technical Report RM-78, United Stated Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

 

Brown, David E., Charles H. Lowe and Charles P. Pase. June 1980. A Digitized Systematic Classification for Ecosystems with an Illustrated Summary of the Natural Vegetation of North America, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-73

 

 (5) Nomenclature:

 

for Plants:

 

Generally follows that presented by The Biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (BONAP) with A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Full Index 1998.

http://www.bonap.org/

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm